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Sample records for burster lmxb xb

  1. Experimental signatures of gravitational wave bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubath, Florian; Foffa, Stefano; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Maggiore, Michele; Sturani, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational wave bursters are sources which emit repeatedly bursts of gravitational waves, and have been recently suggested as potentially interesting candidates for gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Mechanisms that could give rise to a GW burster can be found for instance in highly magnetized neutron stars (the 'magnetars' which explain the phenomenon of soft gamma repeaters), in accreting neutron stars and in hybrid stars with a quark core. We point out that these sources have very distinctive experimental signatures. In particular, as already observed in the γ-ray bursts from soft gamma repeaters, the energy spectrum of the events is a power-law, dN∼E -γ dE with γ≅1.6, and they have a distribution of waiting times (the times between one outburst and the next) significantly different from the distribution of uncorrelated events. We discuss possible detection strategies that could be used to search for these events in existing gravitational wave detectors

  2. Infrared and X-ray bursts from the rapid burster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Chitre, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on sudden bursts from the cosmic X-ray sources are reported. The processes occuring from the rise in luminosity of an x-ray source to its collapse are described. Records of the x-ray burst from the globular cluster NGC 6624 and the 'Rapid Burster' are shown. The Infra-red bursts from the Rapid Burster are also explained. (A.K.)

  3. Search for infrared counterparts of gamma-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.; Cline, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The result of two searches for infrared counterparts of Gamma-ray Bursters (GRB's) is reported. The first search was made using data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and covered 23 positions. The second search was made with the Kitt Peak 1.5 m telescope and covered 3 positions. In neither of these two searches was any infrared candidate detected

  4. Recent activity of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Brandt, Søren Kristian; Markwardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Observations taken as part of the INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program (see ATel #1385) on 2008, February 23 13:32-17:13 (UT) showed bursting activity from the X-ray transient, the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). During one of the 1800-sec pointings when the source was in the field- of-view o...

  5. Identification of a Likely Radio Counterpart to the Rapid Burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher B.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Fox, Derek W.; Guerriero, Robert A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Fender, Robert; van Paradijs, Jan

    2000-04-01

    We have identified a likely radio counterpart to the low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1730-335 (the Rapid Burster). The counterpart has shown 8.4 GHz radio on/off behavior correlated with the X-ray on/off behavior as observed by the RXTE/ASM during six VLA observations. The probability of an unrelated, randomly varying background source duplicating this behavior is 1%-3% depending on the correlation timescale. The location of the radio source is R.A. 17h33m24.61s, decl. -33 deg23'19.8" (J2000), +/-0.1". We do not detect 8.4 GHz radio emission coincident with type II (accretion-driven) X-ray bursts. The ratio of radio to X-ray emission during such bursts is constrained to be below the ratio observed during X-ray-persistent emission at the 2.9 σ level. Synchrotron bubble models of the radio emission can provide a reasonable fit to the full data set, collected over several outbursts, assuming that the radio evolution is the same from outburst to outburst but given the physical constraints the emission is more likely to be due to ~1 hr radio flares such as have been observed from the X-ray binary GRS 1915+105.

  6. A simple satellite system to locate gamma-ray bursters using scintillating fiber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, A.; Fratnik, F.

    1993-07-01

    We present a study on the feasibility of using a system of small, light, long-lived and simple satellites in order to locate gamma-ray bursters. Each small satellite possesses only electronics to discriminate gamma-rays out of the large background of cosmic rays and to time the arrival of the front of a gamma-ray burst. The arrival of a γ-ray strikes a plane made out of scintillating fibers. A layered structure of thin lead foils and scintillating fibers is used to obtain a low trigger threshold of approximately 20 MeV. To locate the burster applying triangulation methods, we use the time of arrival of the front of the gamma-ray burst and the position of the satellites at that very moment. We review an elementary version of the triangulation method to study the angular error in the determination of the burster position. We show that for almost all non-pathological distances among satellites we can determine the angular location of the source to better than one arc min. This precision allows us to find the visible counterpart of the burster, if it exists. These simple satellites can be made modular in order to customize their sizes or weights in order to use spare space available during major launches. We also propose a block diagram for the satellite architecture as well as a simple and strong detector using scintillating fiber technology. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  7. MAXI/GSC detection of a hard-to-soft transition of NS-LMXB GS 1826-238

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahira, S.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Morii, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Kimura, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Negoro, H.; Nakajima, M.; Fukushima, K.; Onodera, T.; Suzuki, K.; Fujita, M.; Namba, T.; Honda, F.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Ohtsuki, H.; Tsunemi, H.; Uchida, D.; Ueda, Y.; Shidatsu, M.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Kawagoe, A.; Tsuboi, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Morooka, Y.; Yamaoka, K.

    2014-06-01

    We report on a hard-to-soft spectral transition of an X-ray burster GS 1826-238 detected with MAXI/GSC. This source had been consistently observed in the hard state for more than 25 years since the discovery in 1988 (Tanaka 1989, Barret et al. ...

  8. A group of outbursts with exponential decays in the Rapid Burster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 492, č. 1 (2008), s. 135-143 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2167 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA PRODEX INTEGRAL 90108; ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project no. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : neutron stars * X-rays binaries * Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335) Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2008

  9. HARD X-RAY TAIL DISCOVERED IN THE CLOCKED BURSTER GS 1826–238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P., E-mail: jrodi@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) neutron star (NS) GS 1826–238 was discovered by Ginga in 1988 September. Due to the presence of quasi-periodicity in the type I X-ray burst rate, the source has been a frequent target of X-ray observations for almost 30 years. Though the bursts were too soft to be detected by INTEGRAL/SPI, the persistent emission from GS 1826–238 was detected over 150 keV during the ∼10 years of observations. Spectral analysis found a significant high-energy excess above a Comptonization model that is well fit by a power law, indicating an additional spectral component. Most previously reported spectra with hard tails in LMXB NS have had an electron temperature of a few keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼50 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 2–3. GS 1826–238 was found to have a markedly different spectrum with kT{sub e} ∼ 20 keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼150 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 1.8, more similar to black hole X-ray binaries. We report on our search for long-term spectral variability over the 25–370 keV energy range and on a comparison of the GS 1826–238 average spectrum to the spectra of other LMXB NSs with hard tails.

  10. Search for gravitational redshifted absorption lines in LMXB Serpens X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Hiroki; Done, Chris; Paerels, Frits; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin

    2018-04-01

    The equation of state for ultradense matter can be tested from observations of the ratio of mass to radius of neutron stars. This could be measured precisely from the redshift of a narrow line produced on the surface. X-rays bursts have been intensively searched for such features, but so far without detection. Here instead we search for redshifted lines in the persistent emission, where the accretion flow dominates over the surface emission. We discuss the requirements for narrow lines to be produced, and show that narrow absorption lines from highly ionized iron can potentially be observable in accreting low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs; low B field) that have either low spin or low inclination so that Doppler broadening is small. This selects Serpens X-1 as the only potential candidate persistent LMXB due to its low inclination. Including surface models in the broad-band accretion flow model predicts that the absorption line from He-like iron at 6.7 keV should be redshifted to ˜5.1-5.7 keV (10-15 km for 1.4 M⊙) and have an equivalent width of 0.8-8 eV for surface temperatures of 7-10 × 106 K. We use the high-resolution Chandra grating data to give a firm upper limit of 2-3 eV for an absorption line at ˜5 keV. We discuss possible reasons for this lack of detection (the surface temperature and the geometry of the boundary layer etc.). Future instruments with better sensitivity are required in order to explore the existence of such features.

  11. LMXB AND IMXB EVOLUTION: I. THE BINARY RADIO PULSAR PSR J1614-2230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jinrong; Rappaport, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Nelson, L.; Paxton, B.; Todorov, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have computed an extensive grid of binary evolution tracks to represent low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs and IMXBs). The grid includes 42,000 models which cover 60 initial donor masses over the range of 1-4 M sun and, for each of these, 700 initial orbital periods over the range of 10-250 hr. These results can be applied to understanding LMXBs and IMXBs: those that evolve analogously to cataclysmic variables, that form ultracompact binaries with P orb in the range of 6-50 minutes, and that lead to wide orbits with giant donors. We also investigate the relic binary recycled radio pulsars into which these systems evolve. To evolve the donor stars in this study, we utilized a newly developed stellar evolution code called 'MESA' that was designed, among other things, to be able to handle very low mass and degenerate donors. This first application of the results is aimed at an understanding of the newly discovered pulsar PSR J1614-2230 which has a 1.97 M sun neutron star, P orb = 8.7 days, and a companion star of 0.5 M sun . We show that (1) this system is a cousin to the LMXB Cyg X-2; (2) for neutron stars of canonical birth mass 1.4 M sun , the initial donor stars which produce the closest relatives to PSR J1614-2230 have a mass between 3.4 and 3.8 M sun ; (3) neutron stars as massive as 1.97 M sun are not easy to produce in spite of the initially high mass of the donor star, unless they were already born as relatively massive neutron stars; (4) to successfully produce a system like PSR J1614-2230 requires a minimum initial neutron-star mass of at least 1.6 ± 0.1 M sun , as well as initial donor masses and P orb of ∼4.25 ± 0.10 M sun and ∼49 ± 2 hr, respectively; and (5) the current companion star is largely composed of CO, but should have a surface H abundance of ∼10%-15%.

  12. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    An attempt is made to distill from observational and theoretical information on the galactic bulge X-ray sources in general, and on the X-ray burst sources in particular, those aspects which seem to have the greatest relevance to the understanding of these sources. Galactic bulge sources appear to be collapsed objects of roughly solar mass, in most cases neutron stars, which are accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions. Type I bursts seem to result from thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of some of these neutron stars, while the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster are almost certainly due to an instability in the accretion flow onto a neutron star. It is concluded that the studies cited offer a new and powerful observational handle on the fundamental properties of neutron stars and of the interacting binary systems in which they are often contained.

  13. Spike-adding in parabolic bursters: The role of folded-saddle canards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2016-09-01

    The present work develops a new approach to studying parabolic bursting, and also proposes a novel four-dimensional canonical and polynomial-based parabolic burster. In addition to this new polynomial system, we also consider the conductance-based model of the Aplysia R15 neuron known as the Plant model, and a reduction of this prototypical biophysical parabolic burster to three variables, including one phase variable, namely the Baer-Rinzel-Carillo (BRC) phase model. Revisiting these models from the perspective of slow-fast dynamics reveals that the number of spikes per burst may vary upon parameter changes, however the spike-adding process occurs in an explosive fashion that involves special solutions called canards. This spike-adding canard explosion phenomenon is analysed by using tools from geometric singular perturbation theory in tandem with numerical bifurcation techniques. We find that the bifurcation structure persists across all considered systems, that is, spikes within the burst are incremented via the crossing of an excitability threshold given by a particular type of canard orbit, namely the true canard of a folded-saddle singularity. However there can be a difference in the spike-adding transitions in parameter space from one case to another, according to whether the process is continuous or discontinuous, which depends upon the geometry of the folded-saddle canard. Using these findings, we construct a new polynomial approximation of the Plant model, which retains all the key elements for parabolic bursting, including the spike-adding transitions mediated by folded-saddle canards. Finally, we briefly investigate the presence of spike-adding via canards in planar phase models of parabolic bursting, namely the theta model by Ermentrout and Kopell.

  14. On the dosimetric impact of inhomogeneity management in the Acuros XB algorithm for breast treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    A new algorithm for photon dose calculation, Acuros XB, has been recently introduced in the Eclipse, Varian treatment planning system, allowing, similarly to the classic Monte Carlo methods, for accurate modelling of dose deposition in media. Aim of the present study was the assessment of its behaviour in clinical cases. Datasets from ten breast patients scanned under different breathing conditions (free breathing and deep inspiration) were used to calculate dose plans using the simple two tangential field setting, with Acuros XB (in its versions 10 and 11) and the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for a 6MV beam. Acuros XB calculations were performed as dose-to-medium distributions. This feature was investigated to appraise the capability of the algorithm to distinguish between different elemental compositions in the human body: lobular vs. adipose tissue in the breast, lower (deep inspiration condition) vs. higher (free breathing condition) densities in the lung. The analysis of the two breast structures presenting densities compatible with muscle and with adipose tissue showed an average difference in dose calculation between Acuros XB and AAA of 1.6%, with AAA predicting higher dose than Acuros XB, for the muscle tissue (the lobular breast); while the difference for adipose tissue was negligible. From histograms of the dose difference plans between AAA and Acuros XB (version 10), the dose of the lung portion inside the tangential fields presented an average difference of 0.5% in the free breathing conditions, increasing to 1.5% for the deep inspiration cases, with AAA predicting higher doses than Acuros XB. In lung tissue significant differences are found also between Acuros XB version 10 and 11 for lower density lung. Acuros XB, differently from AAA, is capable to distinguish between the different elemental compositions of the body, and suggests the possibility to further improve the accuracy of the dose plans computed for actual treatment of patients

  15. Effect of non-stationary accretion on spectral state transitions: An example of a persistent neutron star LMXB 4U1636–536

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Wen-Fei

    2018-03-01

    Observations of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries show that the luminosity of the hard-to-soft state transition is usually higher than that of the soft-to-hard state transition, indicating additional parameters other than mass accretion rate are required to interpret spectral state transitions. It has been found in some individual black hole or neutron star soft X-ray transients that the luminosity corresponding to the hard-to-soft state transition is positively correlated with the peak luminosity of the following soft state. In this work, we report the discovery of the same correlation in the single persistent neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1636–536 based on data from the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board RXTE, the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on board MAXI and the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. We also found such a positive correlation holds in this persistent neutron star LMXB in a luminosity range spanning about a factor of four. Our results indicate that non-stationary accretion also plays an important role in driving X-ray spectral state transitions in persistent accreting systems with small accretion flares, which is much less dramatic compared with the bright outbursts seen in many Galactic LMXB transients.

  16. The INTEGRAL long monitoring of persistent ultra compact X-ray bursters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.; Natalucci, L.; Sguera, V.

    2008-12-01

    Context: The combination of compact objects, short period variability and peculiar chemical composition of the ultra compact X-ray binaries make up a very interesting laboratory to study accretion processes and thermonuclear burning on the neutron star surface. Improved large optical telescopes and more sensitive X-ray satellites have increased the number of known ultra compact X-ray binaries allowing their study with unprecedented detail. Aims: We analyze the average properties common to all ultra compact bursters observed by INTEGRAL from 0.2 keV to 150 keV. Methods: We have performed a systematic analysis of the INTEGRAL public data and Key-Program proprietary observations of a sample of the ultra compact X-ray binaries. In order to study their average properties in a very broad energy band, we combined INTEGRAL with BeppoSAX and SWIFT data whenever possible. For sources not showing any significant flux variations along the INTEGRAL monitoring, we build the average spectrum by combining all available data; in the case of variable fluxes, we use simultaneous INTEGRAL and SWIFT observations when available. Otherwise we compared IBIS and PDS data to check the variability and combine BeppoSAX with INTEGRAL /IBIS data. Results: All spectra are well represented by a two component model consisting of a disk-blackbody and Comptonised emission. The majority of these compact sources spend most of the time in a canonical low/hard state, with a dominating Comptonised component and accretion rate dot {M} lower than 10-9 {M⊙}/yr, not depending on the model used to fit the data. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  17. Review of semileptonic $b$-hadron decays excluding the $| V_{ xb} |$ and $R$$(D^{(*)})$ measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A review of other semileptonic b -hadron decays that are not related to R ( D ( ∗ ) ) and | V xb | anomalies are presented. A couple of long-standing puzzles in B → D ∗∗ ` ν decays are revisited and potential issues and advantages of studying B 0 s and Λ 0 b semileptonic decays are discussed.

  18. SU-F-T-431: Dosimetric Validation of Acuros XB Algorithm for Photon Dose Calculation in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, L [Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Center, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Yadav, G; Kishore, V [Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jhansi, Uttar pradesh (India); Bhushan, M; Samuvel, K; Suhail, M [Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To validate the Acuros XB algorithm implemented in Eclipse Treatment planning system version 11 (Varian Medical System, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA) for photon dose calculation. Methods: Acuros XB is a Linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) solver that solves LBTE equation explicitly and gives result equivalent to Monte Carlo. 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinac-iX (2300CD) was used for dosimetric validation of Acuros XB. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and profiles (at dmax, 5, 10, 20 and 30 cm) measurements were performed in water for field size ranging from 2×2,4×4, 6×6, 10×10, 20×20, 30×30 and 40×40 cm{sup 2}. Acuros XB results were compared against measurements and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) algorithm. Results: Acuros XB result shows good agreement with measurements, and were comparable to AAA algorithm. Result for PDD and profiles shows less than one percent difference from measurements, and from calculated PDD and profiles by AAA algorithm for all field size. TPS calculated Gamma error histogram values, average gamma errors in PDD curves before dmax and after dmax were 0.28, 0.15 for Acuros XB and 0.24, 0.17 for AAA respectively, average gamma error in profile curves in central region, penumbra region and outside field region were 0.17, 0.21, 0.42 for Acuros XB and 0.10, 0.22, 0.35 for AAA respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetric validation of Acuros XB algorithms in water medium was satisfactory. Acuros XB algorithm has potential to perform photon dose calculation with high accuracy, which is more desirable for modern radiotherapy environment.

  19. Low Frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the High-eccentric LMXB Cir X-1: Extending the WK Correlation for Z Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Qingcui; Chen, Li [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Belloni, T. M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E, Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Qu, Jinlu, E-mail: buqc@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: tomaso.belloni@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: chenli@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn [Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Using archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ( RXTE ) data, we studied the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) in the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cir X-1 and examined their contribution to frequency–frequency correlations for Z sources. We also studied the orbital phase effects on the LFQPO properties and found them to be phase independent. Comparing LFQPO frequencies in different classes of LMXBs, we found that systems that show both Z and atoll states form a common track with atoll/BH sources in the so-called WK correlation, while persistent Z systems are offset by a factor of about two. We found that neither source luminosity nor mass accretion rate is related to the shift of persistent Z systems. We discuss the possibility of a misidentification of fundamental frequency for horizontal branch oscillations from persistent Z systems and interpreted the oscillations in terms of models based on relativistic precession.

  20. NNLO QCD corrections to the polarized top quark decay t (↑)→Xb+W+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, A.; Groote, S.; Körner, J. G.; Piclum, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    We compute the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD corrections to the decay t (↑)→Xb+W+ of a polarized top quark. The spin-momentum correlation in this quasi two-body decay is described by the polar angle distribution d Γ /d cos θP=Γ/2 (1 +PtαPcos θP) , where Pt is the polarization of the top quark and αP denotes the asymmetry parameter of the decay. For the latter we find αPNNLO=0.3792 ±0.0037 .

  1. Overexpression of Rice Auxilin-Like Protein, XB21, Induces Necrotic Lesions, up-Regulates Endocytosis-Related Genes, and Confers Enhanced Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Jin; Wei, Tong; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-12-01

    The rice immune receptor XA21 confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). To elucidate the mechanism of XA21-mediated immunity, we previously performed a yeast two-hybrid screening for XA21 interactors and identified XA21 binding protein 21 (XB21). Here, we report that XB21 is an auxilin-like protein predicted to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We demonstrate an XA21/XB21 in vivo interaction using co-immunoprecipitation in rice. Overexpression of XB21 in rice variety Kitaake and a Kitaake transgenic line expressing XA21 confers a necrotic lesion phenotype and enhances resistance to Xoo. RNA sequencing reveals that XB21 overexpression results in the differential expression of 8735 genes (4939 genes up- and 3846 genes down-regulated) (≥2-folds, FDR ≤0.01). The up-regulated genes include those predicted to be involved in 'cell death' and 'vesicle-mediated transport'. These results indicate that XB21 plays a role in the plant immune response and in regulation of cell death. The up-regulation of genes controlling 'vesicle-mediated transport' in XB21 overexpression lines is consistent with a functional role for XB21 as an auxilin.

  2. Force Tests of the Boeing XB-47 Full-Scale Empennage in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunton, Lynn W.

    1947-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of the Boeing XB-47 full-scale empennage was conducted to provide, prior to flight tests, data required on the effectiveness of the elevator and rudder. The XB-47 airplane is a jet-propelled medium bomber having wing and tail surfaces swept back 35 degrees. The investigation included tests of the effectiveness of the elevator with normal straight sides, with a buldged trailing edge, and with a modified hinge-line gap and tests of the effectiveness of the rudder with a normal straight-sided tab and with a bulged tab.

  3. Measured Sonic Boom Signatures Above and Below the XB-70 Airplane Flying at Mach 1.5 and 37,000 Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Henderson, Herbert R.; Tinetti, Ana F.

    2011-01-01

    During the 1966-67 Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) National Sonic Boom Evaluation Program, a series of in-flight flow-field measurements were made above and below the USAF XB-70 using an instrumented NASA F-104 aircraft with a specially designed nose probe. These were accomplished in the three XB-70 flights at about Mach 1.5 at about 37,000 ft. and gross weights of about 350,000 lbs. Six supersonic passes with the F-104 probe aircraft were made through the XB-70 shock flow-field; one above and five below the XB-70. Separation distances ranged from about 3000 ft. above and 7000 ft. to the side of the XB-70 and about 2000 ft. and 5000 ft. below the XB-70. Complex near-field "sawtooth-type" signatures were observed in all cases. At ground level, the XB-70 shock waves had not coalesced into the two-shock classical sonic boom N-wave signature, but contained three shocks. Included in this report is a description of the generating and probe airplanes, the in-flight and ground pressure measuring instrumentation, the flight test procedure and aircraft positioning, surface and upper air weather observations, and the six in-flight pressure signatures from the three flights.

  4. Plasma heating due to X-B mode conversion in a cylindrical ECR plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.K.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2004-07-01

    Extra Ordinary (X) mode conversion to Bernstein wave near Upper Hybrid Resonance (UHR) layer plays an important role in plasma heating through cyclotron resonance. Wave generation at UHR and parametric decay at high power has been observed during Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating experiments in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. A small linear system with ECR and UHR layer within the system has been used to conduct experiments on X-B conversion and parametric decay process as a function of system parameters. Direct probing in situ is conducted and plasma heating is evidenced by soft x-ray emission measurement. Experiments are performed with hydrogen plasma produced with 160-800 W microwave power at 2.45 GHz of operating frequency at 10{sup -3} mbar pressure. The axial magnetic field required for ECR is such that the resonant surface (B = 875 G) is situated at the geometrical axis of the plasma system. Experimental results will be presented in the paper. (authors)

  5. Collinear factorization for deep inelastic scattering structure functions at large Bjorken xB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accardi, Alberto; Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2008-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/07/090 We examine the uncertainty of perturbative QCD factorization for hadron structure functions in deep inelastic scattering at a large value of the Bjorken variable xB. We analyze the target mass correction to the structure functions by using the collinear factorization approach in the momentum space. We express the long distance physics of structure functions and the leading target mass corrections in terms of parton distribution functions with the standard operator definition. We compare our result with existing work on the target mass correction. We also discuss the impact of a final-state jet function on the extraction of parton distributions at large fractional momentum x.

  6. A soft X-ray spectral episode for the Clocked Burster, GS 1826-24 as measured by Swift and NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, J.; Galloway, D.K.; in ’t Zand, J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on NuSTAR and Swift observations of a soft state of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary GS 1826–24, commonly known as the "clocked" burster. The transition to the soft state was recorded in 2014 June through an increase of the 2–20 keV source intensity measured by MAXI, simultaneous ...

  7. Effects of Interstellar Dust Scattering on the X-ray Eclipses of the LMXB AX J1745.6-2901 in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chichuan; Ponti, Gabriele; Haberl, Frank; Smith, Randall; Valencic, Lynne

    2018-04-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 is an eclipsing low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the Galactic Centre (GC). It shows significant X-ray excess emission during the eclipse phase, and its eclipse light curve shows an asymmetric shape. We use archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations to study the origin of these peculiar X-ray eclipsing phenomena. We find that the shape of the observed X-ray eclipse light curves depends on both photon energy and the shape of the source extraction region, and also shows differences between the two instruments. By performing detailed simulations for the time-dependent X-ray dust scattering halo, as well as directly modelling the observed eclipse and non-eclipse halo profiles of AX J1745.6-2901, we obtained solid evidence that its peculiar eclipse phenomena are indeed caused by the X-ray dust scattering in multiple foreground dust layers along the line-of-sight (LOS). The apparent dependence on the instruments is caused by different instrumental point-spread-functions. Our results can be used to assess the influence of dust scattering in other eclipsing X-ray sources, and raise the importance of considering the timing effects of dust scattering halo when studying the variability of other X-ray sources in the GC, such as Sgr A⋆. Moreover, our study of halo eclipse reinforces the existence of a dust layer local to AX J1745.6-2901 as reported by Jin et al. (2017), as well as identifying another dust layer within a few hundred parsecs to Earth, containing up to several tens of percent LOS dust, which is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds in the Solar neighbourhood. The remaining LOS dust is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds located in the Galactic disk in-between.

  8. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: examination of biochemical effects involved in the proliferation and differentiation of XB cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, J.C.; Poland, A.

    1984-01-01

    XB, a cell line derived form a mouse teratoma, differentiates into stratified squamous epithelium when incubated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). To examine the mediators of this response the effects produced by TCDD and those elicited by other compounds which stimulated epidermal proliferation and/or differentiation in mice were compared, XB/3T3 cultures keratinize when incubated with cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or TCDD , but not 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Incubation of XB cells with TCDD for 48 hours produces an increase in thymidine incorporation, a response which is neither as large nor as rapid as that produced by cholera toxin, TPA, or EGF. Although both cholera toxin and TCDD stimulate differentiation and thymidine incorporation in XB/3T3 cultures, cholera toxin increases cAMP 30-fold in these cells, while TCDD does not affect cAMP accumulation. Inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, which block epidermal proliferative responses to TPA in vivo, do not prevent the differentiation of XB cells in response to TCDD. In XB/3T3 cultures, TPA stimulates arachidonic acid release at all times tested (1,6, and 24 hours) and increases the incorporation of 32 P/sub i/ into total phospholipids and phosphatidyl-choline after 3 hours. In contrast, D affects neither arachidonic acid release nor the turnover of phosphatidylinositol, or phosphatidylcholine at any of the times tested. Although biochemical effects which have been suggested as part of the mechanism of TCDD and produced by other epidermal proliferative compounds in XB cells were examined, no mediator of the TCDD-produced differentiation of XB/3T3 cultures was observed

  9. Measurement of the inelastic branch of the $^{14}$O(α,p)$^{17}$F reaction Implications for explosive burning in novae and x-ray bursters

    CERN Document Server

    He, J J; Davinson, T; Aliotta, M; Büscher, J; Clement, E; Delahaye, P; Hass, M; Jenkins, D G; Kumar, V; Murphy, A St J; Neyskens, P; Raabe, R; Robinson, A P; Voulot, D; van der Walle, J; Warr, N; Wenander, F

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the inelastic component of the key astrophysical resonance in the 14O(α,p)17F reaction for burning and breakout from hot carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycles is reported. The inelastic component is found to be comparable to the ground-state branch and will enhance the 14O(α,p)17F reaction rate. The current results for the reaction rate confirm that the 14O(α,p)17F reaction is unlikely to contribute substantially to burning and breakout from the CNO cycles under novae conditions. The reaction can, however, contribute strongly to the breakout from the hot CNO cycles under the more extreme conditions found in x-ray bursters.

  10. Induction of truncated form of tenascin-X (XB-S) through dissociation of HDAC1 from SP-1/HDAC1 complex in response to hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Akari; Endo, Toshiya; Abiko, Shun; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: XB-S is an amino-terminal truncated protein of tenascin-X (TNX) in humans. The levels of the XB-S transcript, but not those of TNX transcripts, were increased upon hypoxia. We identified a critical hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) localized to a GT-rich element positioned from - 1410 to - 1368 in the XB-S promoter. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we found that the HRE forms a DNA-protein complex with Sp1 and that GG positioned in - 1379 and - 1378 is essential for the binding of the nuclear complex. Transfection experiments in SL2 cells, an Sp1-deficient model system, with an Sp1 expression vector demonstrated that the region from - 1380 to - 1371, an HRE, is sufficient for efficient activation of the XB-S promoter upon hypoxia. The EMSA and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that Sp1 together with the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) binds to the HRE of the XB-S promoter under normoxia and that hypoxia causes dissociation of HDAC1 from the Sp1/HDAC1 complex. The HRE promoter activity was induced in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, even under normoxia. Our results indicate that the hypoxia-induced activation of the XB-S promoter is regulated through dissociation of HDAC1 from an Sp1-binding HRE site

  11. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zifoyda, Jackson M.; Challens, Cameron H.C.; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when transitioning

  12. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when transitioning from AAA to AXB, no significant change to existing prescription protocols is expected. As most of the clinical experience is dose-to-water based and calibration protocols and clinical trials are

  13. Accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation for small fields with reference to RapidArc stereotactic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy against measurements of two photon dose calculation algorithms (Acuros XB and the Anisotropic Analytical algorithm AAA) for small fields usable in stereotactic treatments with particular focus on RapidArc. Methods: Acuros XB and AAA were configured for stereotactic use. Baseline accuracy was assessed on small jaw-collimated open fields for different values for the spot sizes parameter in the beam data: 0.0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mm. Data were calculated with a grid of 1 x 1 mm 2 . Investigated fields were: 3 x 3, 2 x 2, 1 x 1, and 0.8 x 0.8 cm 2 with a 6 MV photon beam generated from a Clinac2100iX (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Profiles, PDD, and output factors were measured in water with a PTW diamond detector (detector size: 4 mm 2 , thickness 0.4 mm) and compared to calculations. Four RapidArc test plans were optimized, calculated and delivered with jaw settings J3 x 3, J2 x 2, and J1 x 1 cm 2 , the last was optimized twice to generate high (H) and low (L) modulation patterns. Each plan consisted of one partial arc (gantry 110 deg. to 250 deg.), and collimator 45 deg. Dose to isocenter was measured in a PTW Octavius phantom and compared to calculations. 2D measurements were performed by means of portal dosimetry with the GLAaS method developed at authors' institute. Analysis was performed with gamma pass-fail test with 3% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement thresholds. Results: Open square fields: penumbrae from open field profiles were in good agreement with diamond measurements for 1 mm spot size setting for Acuros XB, and between 0.5 and 1 mm for AAA. Maximum MU difference between calculations and measurements was 1.7% for Acuros XB (0.2% for fields greater than 1 x 1 cm 2 ) with 0.5 or 1 mm spot size. Agreement for AAA was within 0.7% (2.8%) for 0.5 (1 mm) spot size. RapidArc plans: doses were evaluated in a 4 mm diameter structure at isocenter and computed values differed from measurements by 0.0, -0.2, 5.5, and -3.4% for

  14. Accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation for small fields with reference to RapidArc stereotactic treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, CH-6500 Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy against measurements of two photon dose calculation algorithms (Acuros XB and the Anisotropic Analytical algorithm AAA) for small fields usable in stereotactic treatments with particular focus on RapidArc. Methods: Acuros XB and AAA were configured for stereotactic use. Baseline accuracy was assessed on small jaw-collimated open fields for different values for the spot sizes parameter in the beam data: 0.0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mm. Data were calculated with a grid of 1 x 1 mm{sup 2}. Investigated fields were: 3 x 3, 2 x 2, 1 x 1, and 0.8 x 0.8 cm{sup 2} with a 6 MV photon beam generated from a Clinac2100iX (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Profiles, PDD, and output factors were measured in water with a PTW diamond detector (detector size: 4 mm{sup 2}, thickness 0.4 mm) and compared to calculations. Four RapidArc test plans were optimized, calculated and delivered with jaw settings J3 x 3, J2 x 2, and J1 x 1 cm{sup 2}, the last was optimized twice to generate high (H) and low (L) modulation patterns. Each plan consisted of one partial arc (gantry 110 deg. to 250 deg.), and collimator 45 deg. Dose to isocenter was measured in a PTW Octavius phantom and compared to calculations. 2D measurements were performed by means of portal dosimetry with the GLAaS method developed at authors' institute. Analysis was performed with gamma pass-fail test with 3% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement thresholds. Results: Open square fields: penumbrae from open field profiles were in good agreement with diamond measurements for 1 mm spot size setting for Acuros XB, and between 0.5 and 1 mm for AAA. Maximum MU difference between calculations and measurements was 1.7% for Acuros XB (0.2% for fields greater than 1 x 1 cm{sup 2}) with 0.5 or 1 mm spot size. Agreement for AAA was within 0.7% (2.8%) for 0.5 (1 mm) spot size. RapidArc plans: doses were evaluated in a 4 mm diameter structure at isocenter and computed values differed from measurements by 0.0, -0

  15. Updating the orbital ephemeris of the dipping source XB 1254-690 and the distance to the source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Angelo F.; Iaria, Rosario; Di Salvo, Tiziana; Matranga, Marco; Burderi, Luciano; Pintore, Fabio; Riggio, Alessandro; Sanna, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    XB 1254-690 is a dipping low mass X-ray binary system hosting a neutron star and showing type I X-ray bursts. We aim at obtaining a more accurate orbital ephemeris and at constraining the orbital period derivative of the system for the first time. In addition, we want to better constrain the distance to the source in order to locate the system in a well defined evolutive scenario. We apply, for the first time, an orbital timing technique to XB 1254-690, using the arrival times of the dips present in the light curves that have been collected during 26 yr of X-ray pointed observations acquired from different space missions. We estimate the dip arrival times using a statistical method that weights the count-rate inside the dip with respect to the level of persistent emission outside the dip. We fit the obtained delays as a function of the orbital cycles both with a linear and a quadratic function. We infer the orbital ephemeris of XB 1254-690, improving the accuracy of the orbital period with respect to previous estimates. We infer a mass of M 2 = 0.42 ± 0.04 M ʘ for the donor star, in agreement with estimations already present in literature, assuming that the star is in thermal equilibrium while it transfers part of its mass via the inner Lagrangian point, and assuming a neutron star mass of 1.4 M ʘ. Using these assumptions, we also constrain the distance to the source, finding a value of 7.6 ± 0.8 kpc. Finally, we discuss the evolution of the system, suggesting that it is compatible with a conservative mass transfer driven by magnetic braking.

  16. Moessbauer spectroscopy on amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/B20 after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Miglierini, M.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 80-x/B 20 glassy alloys (x = 40, 50, 60, and 70) irradiated with fast neutrons in a fluence range of 10 14 to 10 19 cm -2 were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. There were some significant changes in the Moessbauer spectrum parameters of the 10 19 cm -2 irradiated samples except Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 . This corresponds to a change in the direction of the easy axis of magnetization. The measurements show that the resistance of the Fe-Ni-B system against neutron irradiation improves with increasing Ni content up to a certain point

  17. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Higashimura, Kyoji; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ± 3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm(2) field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ± 3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124-358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42-94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5-9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. In the phantom evaluations, AXB and XVMC agreed better with

  18. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm 2 field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the phantom

  19. Dosimetric impact of Acuros XB deterministic radiation transport algorithm for heterogeneous dose calculation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tao; Followill, David; Repchak, Roman; Molineu, Andrea; Howell, Rebecca; Salehpour, Mohammad; Mikell, Justin; Mourtada, Firas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The novel deterministic radiation transport algorithm, Acuros XB (AXB), has shown great potential for accurate heterogeneous dose calculation. However, the clinical impact between AXB and other currently used algorithms still needs to be elucidated for translation between these algorithms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AXB for heterogeneous dose calculation in lung cancer for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: The thorax phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) was used for this study. IMRT and VMAT plans were created for the phantom in the Eclipse 11.0 treatment planning system. Each plan was delivered to the phantom three times using a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator to ensure reproducibility. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 film were placed inside the phantom to measure delivered doses. The measurements were compared with dose calculations from AXB 11.0.21 and the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) 11.0.21. Two dose reporting modes of AXB, dose-to-medium in medium (D m,m ) and dose-to-water in medium (D w,m ), were studied. Point doses, dose profiles, and gamma analysis were used to quantify the agreement between measurements and calculations from both AXB and AAA. The computation times for AAA and AXB were also evaluated. Results: For the RPC lung phantom, AAA and AXB dose predictions were found in good agreement to TLD and film measurements for both IMRT and VMAT plans. TLD dose predictions were within 0.4%–4.4% to AXB doses (both D m,m and D w,m ); and within 2.5%–6.4% to AAA doses, respectively. For the film comparisons, the gamma indexes (±3%/3 mm criteria) were 94%, 97%, and 98% for AAA, AXB Dm,m , and AXB Dw,m , respectively. The differences between AXB and AAA in dose–volume histogram mean doses were within 2% in the planning target volume, lung, heart, and within 5% in the spinal cord. However

  20. T -odd correlations in polarized top quark decays in the sequential decay t (↑)→Xb+W+(→ℓ++νℓ) and in the quasi-three-body decay t (↑)→ Xb+ℓ++νℓ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Groote, S.; Körner, J. G.

    2018-05-01

    We identify the T -odd structure functions that appear in the description of polarized top quark decays in the sequential decay t (↑)→Xb+W+(→ℓ++νℓ) (two structure functions) and the quasi-three-body decay t (↑)→X b+ℓ++νℓ (one structure function). A convenient measure of the magnitude of the T -odd structure functions is the contribution of the imaginary part Im gR of the right-chiral tensor coupling gR to the T -odd structure functions which we work out. Contrary to the case of QCD, the NLO electroweak corrections to polarized top quark decays admit absorptive one-loop vertex contributions. We analytically calculate the imaginary parts of the relevant four electroweak one-loop triangle vertex diagrams and determine their contributions to the T -odd helicity structure functions that appear in the description of polarized top quark decays.

  1. A comparison of two dose calculation algorithms-anisotropic analytical algorithm and Acuros XB-for radiation therapy planning of canine intranasal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koichi; Pethel, Timothy D

    2017-07-01

    Although anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) are both radiation dose calculation algorithms that take into account the heterogeneity within the radiation field, Acuros XB is inherently more accurate. The purpose of this retrospective method comparison study was to compare them and evaluate the dose discrepancy within the planning target volume (PTV). Radiation therapy (RT) plans of 11 dogs with intranasal tumors treated by radiation therapy at the University of Georgia were evaluated. All dogs were planned for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using nine coplanar X-ray beams that were equally spaced, then dose calculated with anisotropic analytical algorithm. The same plan with the same monitor units was then recalculated using Acuros XB for comparisons. Each dog's planning target volume was separated into air, bone, and tissue and evaluated. The mean dose to the planning target volume estimated by Acuros XB was 1.3% lower. It was 1.4% higher for air, 3.7% lower for bone, and 0.9% lower for tissue. The volume of planning target volume covered by the prescribed dose decreased by 21% when Acuros XB was used due to increased dose heterogeneity within the planning target volume. Anisotropic analytical algorithm relatively underestimates the dose heterogeneity and relatively overestimates the dose to the bone and tissue within the planning target volume for the radiation therapy planning of canine intranasal tumors. This can be clinically significant especially if the tumor cells are present within the bone, because it may result in relative underdosing of the tumor. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. The {P,Q,k+1}-Reflexive Solution to System of Matrix Equations AX=C, XB=D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zhou Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Let P∈Cm×m and Q∈Cn×n be Hermitian and {k+1}-potent matrices; that is, Pk+1=P=P⁎ and Qk+1=Q=Q⁎, where ·⁎ stands for the conjugate transpose of a matrix. A matrix X∈Cm×n is called {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive (antireflexive if PXQ=X (PXQ=-X. In this paper, the system of matrix equations AX=C and XB=D subject to {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive and antireflexive constraints is studied by converting into two simpler cases: k=1 and k=2. We give the solvability conditions and the general solution to this system; in addition, the least squares solution is derived; finally, the associated optimal approximation problem for a given matrix is considered.

  3. The low-lying quartet electronic states of group 14 diatomic borides XB (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Marcelo A. P.; de Oliveira, Marcos H.; Fernandes, Gabriel F. S.; Da Motta Neto, Joaquim D.; Ferrão, Luiz F. A.; Machado, Francisco B. C.

    2018-04-01

    The present work focuses in the characterization of the low-lying quartet electronic and spin-orbit states of diatomic borides XB, in which X is an element of group 14 (C, Si, Ge, Sn, PB). The wavefunction was obtained at the CASSCF/MRCI level with a quintuple-ζ quality basis set. Scalar relativistic effects were also taken into account. A systematic and comparative analysis of the spectroscopic properties for the title molecular series was carried out, showing that the (1)4Π→X4Σ- transition band is expected to be measurable by emission spectroscopy to the GeB, SnB and PbB molecules, as already observed for the lighter CB and SiB species.

  4. SU-E-T-516: Dosimetric Validation of AcurosXB Algorithm in Comparison with AAA & CCC Algorithms for VMAT Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, M; Subramanian, V Sai; Arun, G; Thirumalaiswamy, S; Ramalingam, K; Kumar, S Ashok; Jagadeesh, K

    2012-06-01

    To dosimetrically validate AcurosXB algorithm for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) in comparison with standard clinical Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm(AAA) and Collapsed Cone Convolution(CCC) dose calculation algorithms. AcurosXB dose calculation algorithm is available with Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (V10). It uses grid-based Boltzmann equation solver to predict dose precisely in lesser time. This study was made to realize algorithms ability to predict dose accurately as its delivery for which five clinical cases each of Brain, Head&Neck, Thoracic, Pelvic and SBRT were taken. Verification plans were created on multicube phantom with iMatrixx-2D detector array and then dose prediction was done with AcurosXB, AAA & CCC (COMPASS System) algorithm and the same were delivered onto CLINAC-iX treatment machine. Delivered dose was captured in iMatrixx plane for all 25 plans. Measured dose was taken as reference to quantify the agreement between AcurosXB calculation algorithm against previously validated AAA and CCC algorithm. Gamma evaluation was performed with clinical criteria distance-to-agreement 3&2mm and dose difference 3&2% in omnipro-I'MRT software. Plans were evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient, quantitative area gamma and average gamma. Study shows good agreement between mean correlation 0.9979±0.0012, 0.9984±0.0009 & 0.9979±0.0011 for AAA, CCC & Acuros respectively. Mean area gamma for criteria 3mm/3% was found to be 98.80±1.04, 98.14±2.31, 98.08±2.01 and 2mm/2% was found to be 93.94±3.83, 87.17±10.54 & 92.36±5.46 for AAA, CCC & Acuros respectively. Mean average gamma for 3mm/3% was 0.26±0.07, 0.42±0.08, 0.28±0.09 and 2mm/2% was found to be 0.39±0.10, 0.64±0.11, 0.42±0.13 for AAA, CCC & Acuros respectively. This study demonstrated that the AcurosXB algorithm had a good agreement with the AAA & CCC in terms of dose prediction. In conclusion AcurosXB algorithm provides a valid, accurate and speedy alternative to AAA

  5. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the 19B-2, 19B-8 and 19XB-1 Jet- Propulsion Engines. 4; Analysis of Compressor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Robert O.; Kuenzig, John K.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the performance and operational characteristics of the 19B-2, 19B-8, and 19XS-1 turbojet engines. One objective was to determine the effect of altitude, flight Mach number, and tail-pipe-nozzle area on the performance characteristics of the six-stage and ten-stage axial-flow compressors of the 19B-8 and 19XB-1 engines, respectively, The data were obtained over a range of simulated altitudes and flight Mach numbers. At each simulated flight condition the engine was run over its full operable range of speeds. Performance characteristics of the 19B-8 and 19XB-1 compressors for the range of operation obtainable in the turboJet-engine installation are presented. Compressor characteristics are presented as functions of air flow corrected to sea-level conditions, compressor Mach number, and compressor load coefficient. For the range of compressor operation investigated, changes in Reynolds number had no measurable effect on the relations among compressor Mach number, corrected air flow, compressor load coefficient, compressor pressure ratio, and compressor efficiency. The operating lines for the 19B-8 compressor lay on the low-air-flow side of the region of maximum compressor efficiency; the 19B-8 compressor operated at higher average pressure coefficients per stage and produced a lower over-all pressure ratio than did the 19XB-1 compressor.

  6. Enhanced stability of magic clusters: A case study of icosahedric Al12X, X=B, Al, Ga, C, Si, Ge, Ti, As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, X.G.; Kumar, V.

    1992-10-01

    We present results of the electronic structure and stability of some 40 valence electron icosahedric Al 12 X (X=B, Al, Ga, C, Si, Ge, Ti and As) clusters within the local spin density functional theory. It is shown that the stability of Al 13 cluster can be substantially enhanced by proper doping. For neutral clusters, substitution of C at the center of the icosahedron leads to the largest gain in energy. However, Al 12 B - is the most bounded in this family. These results are in agreement with the recent experiments which also find Al 12 B - to be highly abundant. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Xylan degradation by the human gut Bacteroides xylanisolvens XB1A(T) involves two distinct gene clusters that are linked at the transcriptional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despres, Jordane; Forano, Evelyne; Lepercq, Pascale; Comtet-Marre, Sophie; Jubelin, Gregory; Chambon, Christophe; Yeoman, Carl J; Berg Miller, Margaret E; Fields, Christopher J; Martens, Eric; Terrapon, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; White, Bryan A; Mosoni, Pascale

    2016-05-04

    Plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides and especially xylans constitute an important part of human diet. Xylans are not degraded by human digestive enzymes in the upper digestive tract and therefore reach the colon where they are subjected to extensive degradation by some members of the symbiotic microbiota. Xylanolytic bacteria are the first degraders of these complex polysaccharides and they release breakdown products that can have beneficial effects on human health. In order to understand better how these bacteria metabolize xylans in the colon, this study was undertaken to investigate xylan breakdown by the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides xylanisolvens XB1A(T). Transcriptomic analyses of B. xylanisolvens XB1A(T) grown on insoluble oat-spelt xylan (OSX) at mid- and late-log phases highlighted genes in a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL), hereafter called PUL 43, and genes in a fragmentary remnant of another PUL, hereafter referred to as rPUL 70, which were highly overexpressed on OSX relative to glucose. Proteomic analyses supported the up-regulation of several genes belonging to PUL 43 and showed the important over-production of a CBM4-containing GH10 endo-xylanase. We also show that PUL 43 is organized in two operons and that the knockout of the PUL 43 sensor/regulator HTCS gene blocked the growth of the mutant on insoluble OSX and soluble wheat arabinoxylan (WAX). The mutation not only repressed gene expression in the PUL 43 operons but also repressed gene expression in rPUL 70. This study shows that xylan degradation by B. xylanisolvens XB1A(T) is orchestrated by one PUL and one PUL remnant that are linked at the transcriptional level. Coupled to studies on other xylanolytic Bacteroides species, our data emphasize the importance of one peculiar CBM4-containing GH10 endo-xylanase in xylan breakdown and that this modular enzyme may be used as a functional marker of xylan degradation in the human gut. Our results also suggest that B. xylanisolvens

  8. Superconducting properties of Zn and Al double-doped Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    (XRD), ac susceptibility, magnetization and resistivity. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c, and the T-c decreases with increasing dopant content. A systematical comparison with Al doped- and Li, Al double doped MgB2 of structure, superconducting transition......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.8) were prepared by solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature (T-c) and transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction...

  9. SU-E-T-122: Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) Vs. Acuros XB (AXB) in Stereotactic Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynampati, D; Scripes, P Godoy; Kuo, H; Yaparpalvi, R; Tome, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric differences between superposition beam model (AAA) and determinant photon transport solver (AXB) in lung SBRT and Cranial SRS dose computations. Methods: Ten Cranial SRS and ten Lung SBRT plans using Varian, AAA -11.0 were re-planned using Acuros -XB-11.0 with fixed MU. 6MV photon Beam model with HD120-MLC used for dose calculations. Four non-coplanar conformal arcs used to deliver 21Gy or 18Gy to SRS targets (0.4 to 6.2cc). 54Gy (3Fractions) or 50Gy (5Fractions) was planned for SBRT targets (7.3 to 13.9cc) using two VAMT non-coplanar arcs. Plan comparison parameters were dose to 1% PTV volume (D1), dose to 99% PTV volume( D99), Target mean (Dmean), Conformity index (ratio of prescription isodose volume to PTV), Homogeneity Index [ (D2%-D98%)/Dmean] and R50 (ratio of 50% of prescription isodose volume to PTV). OAR parameters were Brain volume receiving 12Gy dose (V12Gy) and maximum dose (D0.03) to Brainstem for SRS. For lung SBRT, maximum dose to Heart and Cord, Mean lung dose (MLD) and volume of lung receiving 20Gy (V20Gy) were computed. PTV parameters compared by percentage difference between AXB and AAA parameters. OAR parameters and HI compared by absolute difference between two calculations. For analysis, paired t-test performed over the parameters. Results: Compared to AAA, AXB SRS plans have on average 3.2% lower D99, 6.5% lower CI and 3cc less Brain-V12. However, AXB SBRT plans have higher D1, R50 and Dmean by 3.15%, 1.63% and 2.5%. For SRS and SBRT, AXB plans have average HI 2 % and 4.4% higher than AAA plans. In both techniques, all other parameters vary within 1% or 1Gy. In both sets only two parameters have P>0.05. Conclusion: Even though t-test results signify difference between AXB and AAA plans, dose differences in dose estimations by both algorithms are clinically insignificant

  10. Structure and superconductivity of double-doped Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffract......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X......-ray diffraction (XRD), ac-susceptibility and resistance in varied magnetic fields. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c. The superconducting transition temperature (T-c) decreases with double doping, but the T-c is systematically higher than that of the single Al......-doped samples. It is suggested that the hole band filling has little effect on T-c at high doping level, while the disorder induced by doping plays an important role in suppressing T-c. A systematic comparison with Al-doped MgB2 of the structure, superconducting transition and irreversibility field is made. (C...

  11. Evaluation of the dose calculation accuracy for small fields defined by jaw or MLC for AAA and Acuros XB algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Lobefalo, Francesca; Reggiori, Giacomo; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Scorsetti, Marta; Cozzi, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Small field measurements are challenging, due to the physical characteristics coming from the lack of charged particle equilibrium, the partial occlusion of the finite radiation source, and to the detector response. These characteristics can be modeled in the dose calculations in the treatment planning systems. Aim of the present work is to evaluate the MU calculation accuracy for small fields, defined by jaw or MLC, for anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB algorithms, relative to output measurements on the beam central axis. Single point output factor measurement was acquired with a PTW microDiamond detector for 6 MV, 6 and 10 MV unflattened beams generated by a Varian TrueBeam STx equipped with high definition-MLC. Fields defined by jaw or MLC apertures were set; jaw-defined: 0.6 × 0.6, 0.8 × 0.8, 1 × 1, 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, and 10 × 10 cm 2 ; MLC-defined: 0.5 × 0.5 cm 2 to the maximum field defined by the jaw, with 0.5 cm stepping, and jaws set to: 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, and 10 × 10 cm 2 . MU calculation was obtained with 1 mm grid in a virtual water phantom for the same fields, for AAA and Acuros algorithms implemented in the Varian eclipse treatment planning system (version 13.6). Configuration parameters as the effective spot size (ESS) and the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) were varied to find the best parameter setting. Differences between calculated and measured doses were analyzed. Agreement better than 0.5% was found for field sizes equal to or larger than 2 × 2 cm 2 for both algorithms. A dose overestimation was present for smaller jaw-defined fields, with the best agreement, averaged over all the energies, of 1.6% and 4.6% for a 1 × 1 cm 2 field calculated by AAA and Acuros, respectively, for a configuration with ESS = 1 mm for both X and Y directions for AAA, and ESS = 1.5 and 0 mm for X and Y directions for Acuros. Conversely, a calculated dose underestimation was found for small MLC-defined fields, with the

  12. SU-F-SPS-01: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms of Eclipse Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Trubeam 2.0 Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codel, G; Serin, E; Pacaci, P; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Doyuran, M; Kucukmorkoc, E; Kucuk, N; Altinok, A; Canoglu, D; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the comparison of dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries Methods: Small open fields of Truebeam 2.0 unit (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 fields) were used for this study. The fields were incident on homogeneous phantom and in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtaine dusing Trubeam 2.0 for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF, 15 MV energies by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement betweent wo algorithms and measurement. For Acuros XB, minimum gamma analysis passin grates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.3% and 98.1% for homogeneousand inhomogeneous fields in thecase of lung and bone respectively. For AAA, minimum gamma analysis passingrates were 99.1% and 96.5% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for all used energies and field sizes.In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculations algorithms. Over all, when compared to measurement, theAcuros XB had beter agreement than AAA. Conclusion: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the TPS is an improvemen tover theexisting AAA algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  13. SU-F-SPS-01: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms of Eclipse Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Trubeam 2.0 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codel, G; Serin, E; Pacaci, P; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Doyuran, M; Kucukmorkoc, E; Kucuk, N; Altinok, A; Canoglu, D; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, the comparison of dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries Methods: Small open fields of Truebeam 2.0 unit (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 fields) were used for this study. The fields were incident on homogeneous phantom and in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtaine dusing Trubeam 2.0 for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF, 15 MV energies by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement betweent wo algorithms and measurement. For Acuros XB, minimum gamma analysis passin grates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.3% and 98.1% for homogeneousand inhomogeneous fields in thecase of lung and bone respectively. For AAA, minimum gamma analysis passingrates were 99.1% and 96.5% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for all used energies and field sizes.In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculations algorithms. Over all, when compared to measurement, theAcuros XB had beter agreement than AAA. Conclusion: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the TPS is an improvemen tover theexisting AAA algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  14. Structure, elastic stiffness, and hardness of Os 1- xRu xB 2 solid solution transition-metal diborides

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Hermet, Patrick; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Structure, elastic stiffness, and hardness of Os 1- xRu xB 2 solid solution transition-metal diborides

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-31

    On the basis of recent experiments, the solid solution transition-metal diborides were proposed to be new ultra-incompressible hard materials. We investigate using density functional theory based methods the structural and mechanical properties, electronic structure, and hardness of Os 1-xRu xB 2 solid solutions. A difference in chemical bonding occurs between OsB 2 and RuB 2 diborides, leading to significantly different elastic properties: a large bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Os-rich diborides and relatively small bulk, shear moduli, and hardness for Ru-rich diborides. The electronic structure and bonding characterization are also analyzed as a function of Ru-dopant concentration in the OsB 2 lattice. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. SU-E-T-101: Determination and Comparison of Correction Factors Obtained for TLDs in Small Field Lung Heterogenous Phantom Using Acuros XB and EGSnrc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, R; Lee, J; Harianto, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and compare the correction factors obtained for TLDs in 2 × 2cm 2 small field in lung heterogenous phantom using Acuros XB (AXB) and EGSnrc. Methods: This study will simulate the correction factors due to the perturbation of TLD-100 chips (Harshaw/Thermoscientific, 3 × 3 × 0.9mm 3 , 2.64g/cm 3 ) in small field lung medium for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). A physical lung phantom was simulated by a 14cm thick composite cork phantom (0.27g/cm 3 , HU:-743 ± 11) sandwiched between 4cm thick Plastic Water (CIRS,Norfolk). Composite cork has been shown to be a good lung substitute material for dosimetric studies. 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with field size 2 × 2cm 2 was simulated. Depth dose profiles were obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system Acuros XB (AXB) and independently from DOSxyznrc, EGSnrc. Correction factors was calculated by the ratio of unperturbed to perturbed dose. Since AXB has limitations in simulating actual material compositions, EGSnrc will also simulate the AXB-based material composition for comparison to the actual lung phantom. Results: TLD-100, with its finite size and relatively high density, causes significant perturbation in 2 × 2cm 2 small field in a low lung density phantom. Correction factors calculated by both EGSnrc and AXB was found to be as low as 0.9. It is expected that the correction factor obtained by EGSnrc wlll be more accurate as it is able to simulate the actual phantom material compositions. AXB have a limited material library, therefore it only approximates the composition of TLD, Composite cork and Plastic water, contributing to uncertainties in TLD correction factors. Conclusion: It is expected that the correction factors obtained by EGSnrc will be more accurate. Studies will be done to investigate the correction factors for higher energies where perturbation may be more pronounced

  17. Local skin friction coefficients and boundary layer profiles obtained in flight from the XB-70-1 airplane at Mach numbers up to 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. F.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    Boundary-layer and local friction data for Mach numbers up to 2.5 and Reynolds numbers up to 3.6 x 10 to the 8th power were obtained in flight at three locations on the XB-70-1 airplane: the lower forward fuselage centerline (nose), the upper rear fuselage centerline, and the upper surface of the right wing. Local skin friction coefficients were derived at each location by using (1) a skin friction force balance, (2) a Preston probe, and (3) an adaptation of Clauser's method which derives skin friction from the rake velocity profile. These three techniques provided consistent results that agreed well with the von Karman-Schoenherr relationship for flow conditions that are quasi-two-dimensional. At the lower angles of attack, the nose-boom and flow-direction vanes are believed to have caused the momentum thickness at the nose to be larger than at the higher angles of attack. The boundary-layer data and local skin friction coefficients are tabulated. The wind-tunnel-model surface-pressure distribution ahead of the three locations and the flight surface-pressure distribution ahead of the wing location are included.

  18. Competing anisotropies on 3d sub-lattice of YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Rocco, D. L.; Reis, M. S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Costa Soares, T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); IF Sudeste MG Campus de Juiz de Fora-Núcleo de Física, 36080-001 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Caldeira, L. [IF Sudeste MG Campus de Juiz de Fora-Núcleo de Física, 36080-001 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Coelho, A. A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-Unicamp, Caixa postal 6165, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-14

    The magnetic anisotropy of 3d sub-lattices has an important rule on the overall magnetic properties of hard magnets. Intermetallics alloys with boron (R-Co/Ni-B, for instance) belong to those hard magnets family and are useful objects to help to understand the magnetic behavior of 3d sub-lattice, specially when the rare earth ions R do not have magnetic nature, like YCo{sub 4}B ferromagnetic material. Interestingly, YNi{sub 4}B is a paramagnetic material and Ni ions do not contribute to the magnetic anisotropy. We focused therefore our attention to YNi{sub 4–x}Co{sub x}B series, with x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The magnetic anisotropy of these compounds is deeper described using statistical and preferential models of Co occupation among the possible Wyckoff positions into the CeCo{sub 4}B type hexagonal structure. We found that the preferential model is the most suitable to explain the magnetization experimental data.

  19. Search for the Xb and other hidden-beauty states in the π+π−ϒ(1S channel at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This Letter presents a search for a hidden-beauty counterpart of the X(3872 in the mass ranges of 10.05–10.31 GeV and 10.40–11.00 GeV, in the channel Xb→π+π−ϒ(1S(→μ+μ−, using 16.2 fb−1 of s=8 TeV pp collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. No evidence for new narrow states is found, and upper limits are set on the product of the Xb cross section and branching fraction, relative to those of the ϒ(2S, at the 95% confidence level using the CLS approach. These limits range from 0.8% to 4.0%, depending on mass. For masses above 10.1 GeV, the expected upper limits from this analysis are the most restrictive to date. Searches for production of the ϒ(13DJ, ϒ(10860, and ϒ(11020 states also reveal no significant signals.

  20. Quantum mechanically guided design of Co43Fe20Ta5.5X31.5 (X=B, Si, P, S) metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, C; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Bednarcik, J; Keckes, J

    2012-01-01

    A systematic ab initio molecular dynamics study was carried out to identify valence electron concentration and size induced changes on structure, elastic and magnetic properties for Co 43 Fe 20 Ta 5.5 X 31.5 (X=B, Si, P, S). Short range order, charge transfer and the bonding nature are analyzed by means of density of states, Bader decomposition and pair distribution function analysis. A clear trend of a decrease in density and bulk modulus as well as a weaker cohesion was observed as the valence electron concentration is increased by replacing B with Si and further with P and S. These changes may be understood based on increased interatomic distances, variations in coordination numbers and the electronic structure changes; as the valence electron concentration of X is increased the X bonding becomes more ionic, which disrupts the overall metallic interactions, leading to lower cohesion and stiffness. The highest magnetic moments for the transition metals are identified for X=S, despite the fact that the presence of X generally reduces the magnetic moment of Co. Furthermore, this study reveals an extended diagonal relationship between B and P within these amorphous alloys. Based on quantum mechanical data we identify composition induced changes in short range order, charge transfer and bonding nature and link them to density, elasticity and magnetism. The interplay between transition metal d band filling and s-d hybridization was identified to be a key materials design criterion. (paper)

  1. SU-F-T-449: Dosimetric Comparison of Acuros XB, Adaptive Convolve in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, R [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: There have been several publications focusing on dose calculation in lung for a new dose calculation algorithm of Acuros XB (AXB). AXB could contribute to dose calculation for high-density media for bone and dental prosthesis rather than in lung. We compared the dosimetric performance of AXB, Adaptive Convolve (AC) in head and neck IMRT plans. Methods: In a phantom study, the difference in depth profile between AXB and AC was evaluated using Kodak EDR2 film sandwiched with tough water phantoms. 6 MV x-ray using the TrueBeam was irradiated. In a patient study, 20 head and neck IMRT plans had been clinically approved in Pinnacle3 and were transferred to Eclipse. Dose distribution was recalculated using AXB in Eclipse while maintaining AC-calculated monitor units and MLC sequence planned in Pinnacle. Subsequently, both the dose-volumetric data obtained using the two different calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results in the phantom evaluation for the shallow area ahead of the build-up region shows over-dose for AXB and under-dose for AC, respectively. In the patient plans, AXB shows more hot spots especially around the high-density media than AC in terms of PTV (Max difference: 4.0%) and OAR (Max. difference: 1.9%). Compared to AC, there were larger dose deviations in steep dose gradient region and higher skin-dose. Conclusion: In head and neck IMRT plans, AXB and AC show different dosimetric performance for the regions inside the target volume around high-density media, steep dose gradient regions and skin-surface. There are limitations in skin-dose and complex anatomic condition using even inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom Thus, there is the potential for an increase of hot-spot in AXB, and an underestimation of dose in substance boundaries and skin regions in AC.

  2. SU-F-T-449: Dosimetric Comparison of Acuros XB, Adaptive Convolve in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, R; Tachibana, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There have been several publications focusing on dose calculation in lung for a new dose calculation algorithm of Acuros XB (AXB). AXB could contribute to dose calculation for high-density media for bone and dental prosthesis rather than in lung. We compared the dosimetric performance of AXB, Adaptive Convolve (AC) in head and neck IMRT plans. Methods: In a phantom study, the difference in depth profile between AXB and AC was evaluated using Kodak EDR2 film sandwiched with tough water phantoms. 6 MV x-ray using the TrueBeam was irradiated. In a patient study, 20 head and neck IMRT plans had been clinically approved in Pinnacle3 and were transferred to Eclipse. Dose distribution was recalculated using AXB in Eclipse while maintaining AC-calculated monitor units and MLC sequence planned in Pinnacle. Subsequently, both the dose-volumetric data obtained using the two different calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results in the phantom evaluation for the shallow area ahead of the build-up region shows over-dose for AXB and under-dose for AC, respectively. In the patient plans, AXB shows more hot spots especially around the high-density media than AC in terms of PTV (Max difference: 4.0%) and OAR (Max. difference: 1.9%). Compared to AC, there were larger dose deviations in steep dose gradient region and higher skin-dose. Conclusion: In head and neck IMRT plans, AXB and AC show different dosimetric performance for the regions inside the target volume around high-density media, steep dose gradient regions and skin-surface. There are limitations in skin-dose and complex anatomic condition using even inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom Thus, there is the potential for an increase of hot-spot in AXB, and an underestimation of dose in substance boundaries and skin regions in AC.

  3. SU-E-T-290: Dosimetric Accuracy of Acuros XB and Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Small Lung Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Amy S; Yang, Y; Bush, K; Fahimian, B; Hsu, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of dose calculation for lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) of small lesions critically depends on the proper modeling of the lateral scatter in heterogeneous media. In recent years, grid-based Boltzman solvers such as Acuros XB (AXB) have been introduced for enhanced modeling of radiation transport in heterogeneous media. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric impact of dose calculation between AXB and convolution-superposition algorithms such as analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) for small lesion sizes and different beam energies. Methods: Five lung SABR VMAT cases with GTV ranged from 0.8cm to 2.5cm in diameter were studied. For each case, doses were calculated by AAA, AXB (V11031) and Monte Carlo simulation (MC) with the same plan parameters for 10MV and 6MV. The dose calculation accuracy were evaluated by comparing DVHs and dose distributions with MC as the benchmark. The accuracy of calculated dose was also validated by EBT3 film measurement with a field size of 3cmx3cm in a thorax phantom. Results: For 10MV and GTV less than 1cm, dose calculated by AXB agrees well with MC compared to AAA. Dose difference calculated with AXB and AAA could be up to 30%. For GTV greater than 2cm, calculation results of AXB and AAA agree within 5% in GTV. For 6MV, the difference between calculated doses by AXB and AAA is less 10% for GTV less than 1cm. Based on film measurements, lung dose was overestimated 10% and 20% by AAA for 6MV and 10MV. Conclusion: Lateral scatter and transport is modeled more accurately by AXB than AAA in heterogeneous media, especially for small field size and high energy beams. The accuracy depends on the assigned material in calculation. If grid-based Boltzman solvers or MC are not available for calculation, lower energy beams should be used for treatment

  4. SU-E-T-339: Dosimetric Verification of Acuros XB Dose Calculation Algorithm On An Air Cavity for 6-MV Flattening Filter-Free Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S; Suh, T; Chung, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to verify the accuracy of Acuros XB (AXB) dose calculation algorithm on an air cavity for a single radiation field using 6-MV flattening filter-free (FFF) beam. Methods: A rectangular slab phantom containing an air cavity was made for this study. The CT images of the phantom for dose calculation were scanned with and without film at measurement depths (4.5, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 cm). The central axis doses (CADs) and the off-axis doses (OADs) were measured by film and calculated with Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) and AXB for field sizes ranging from 2 Χ 2 to 5 Χ 5 cm 2 of 6-MV FFF beams. Both algorithms were divided into AXB-w and AAA -w when included the film in phantom for dose calculation, and AXB-w/o and AAA-w/o in calculation without film. The calculated OADs for both algorithms were compared with the measured OADs and difference values were determined using root means squares error (RMSE) and gamma evaluation. Results: The percentage differences (%Diffs) between the measured and calculated CAD for AXB-w was most agreement than others. Compared to the %Diff with and without film, the %Diffs with film were decreased than without within both algorithms. The %Diffs for both algorithms were reduced with increasing field size and increased relative to the depth increment. RMSEs of CAD for AXB-w were within 10.32% for both inner-profile and penumbra, while the corresponding values of AAA-w appeared to 96.50%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the dose calculation with AXB within air cavity shows more accurate than with AAA compared to the measured dose. Furthermore, we found that the AXB-w was superior to AXB-w/o in this region when compared against the measurements

  5. Complex phase dynamics in coupled bursters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Malova, S Y

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of phase multistability in the synchronization of two coupled oscillatory systems typically arises when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components. Alternatively, phase multistability can be caused...... the number of spikes per train and the proximity of a neighboring equilibrium point can influence the formation of coexisting regimes....

  6. Dose-to-medium vs. dose-to-water: Dosimetric evaluation of dose reporting modes in Acuros XB for prostate, lung and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acuros XB (AXB dose calculation algorithm is available for external beam photon dose calculations in Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS. The AXB can report the absorbed dose in two modes: dose-to-water (Dw and dose-to-medium (Dm. The main purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results of the AXB_Dm with that of AXB_Dw on real patient treatment plans. Methods: Four groups of patients (prostate cancer, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT lung cancer, left breast cancer, and right breast cancer were selected for this study, and each group consisted of 5 cases. The treatment plans of all cases were generated in the Eclipse TPS. For each case, treatment plans were computed using AXB_Dw and AXB_Dm for identical beam arrangements. Dosimetric evaluation was done by comparing various dosimetric parameters in the AXB_Dw plans with that of AXB_Dm plans for the corresponding patient case. Results: For the prostate cancer, the mean planning target volume (PTV dose in the AXB_Dw plans was higher by up to 1.0%, but the mean PTV dose was within ±0.3% for the SBRT lung cancer. The analysis of organs at risk (OAR results in the prostate cancer showed that AXB_Dw plans consistently produced higher values for the bladder and femoral heads but not for the rectum. In the case of SBRT lung cancer, a clear trend was seen for the heart mean dose and spinal cord maximum dose, with AXB_Dw plans producing higher values than the AXB_Dm plans. However, the difference in the lung doses between the AXB_Dm and AXB_Dw plans did not always produce a clear trend, with difference ranged from -1.4% to 2.9%. For both the left and right breast cancer, the AXB_Dm plans produced higher maximum dose to the PTV for all cases. The evaluation of the maximum dose to the skin showed higher values in the AXB_Dm plans for all 5 left breast cancer cases, whereas only 2 cases had higher maximum dose to the skin in the AXB_Dm plans for the right breast cancer

  7. SU-F-T-628: An Evaluation of Grid Size in Eclipse AcurosXB Dose Calculation Algorithm for SBRT Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokharel, S [21st Century Oncology, Naples, FL (United States); Rana, S [McLaren Proton Therapy Center, Karmanos Cancer Institute at McLaren-Flint, Flint, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of grid size in Eclipse AcurosXB dose calculation algorithm for SBRT lung. Methods: Five cases of SBRT lung previously treated have been chosen for present study. Four of the plans were 5 fields conventional IMRT and one was Rapid Arc plan. All five cases have been calculated with five grid sizes (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3mm) available for AXB algorithm with same plan normalization. Dosimetric indices relevant to SBRT along with MUs and time have been recorded for different grid sizes. The maximum difference was calculated as a percentage of mean of all five values. All the plans were IMRT QAed with portal dosimetry. Results: The maximum difference of MUs was within 2%. The time increased was as high as 7 times from highest 3mm to lowest 1mm grid size. The largest difference of PTV minimum, maximum and mean dose were 7.7%, 1.5% and 1.6% respectively. The highest D2-Max difference was 6.1%. The highest difference in ipsilateral lung mean, V5Gy, V10Gy and V20Gy were 2.6%, 2.4%, 1.9% and 3.8% respectively. The maximum difference of heart, cord and esophagus dose were 6.5%, 7.8% and 4.02% respectively. The IMRT Gamma passing rate at 2%/2mm remains within 1.5% with at least 98% points passing with all grid sizes. Conclusion: This work indicates the lowest grid size of 1mm available in AXB is not necessarily required for accurate dose calculation. The IMRT passing rate was insignificant or not observed with the reduction of grid size less than 2mm. Although the maximum percentage difference of some of the dosimetric indices appear large, most of them are clinically insignificant in absolute dose values. So we conclude that 2mm grid size calculation is best compromise in light of dose calculation accuracy and time it takes to calculate dose.

  8. SU-F-T-600: Influence of Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms On Plan Quality Metrics and Normal Lung Doses in Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaparpalvi, R; Mynampati, D; Kuo, H; Garg, M; Tome, W; Kalnicki, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the influence of superposition-beam model (AAA) and determinant-photon transport-solver (Acuros XB) dose calculation algorithms on the treatment plan quality metrics and on normal lung dose in Lung SBRT. Methods: Treatment plans of 10 Lung SBRT patients were randomly selected. Patients were prescribed to a total dose of 50-54Gy in 3–5 fractions (10?5 or 18?3). Doses were optimized accomplished with 6-MV using 2-arcs (VMAT). Doses were calculated using AAA algorithm with heterogeneity correction. For each plan, plan quality metrics in the categories- coverage, homogeneity, conformity and gradient were quantified. Repeat dosimetry for these AAA treatment plans was performed using AXB algorithm with heterogeneity correction for same beam and MU parameters. Plan quality metrics were again evaluated and compared with AAA plan metrics. For normal lung dose, V_2_0 and V_5 to (Total lung- GTV) were evaluated. Results: The results are summarized in Supplemental Table 1. PTV volume was mean 11.4 (±3.3) cm"3. Comparing RTOG 0813 protocol criteria for conformality, AXB plans yielded on average, similar PITV ratio (individual PITV ratio differences varied from −9 to +15%), reduced target coverage (−1.6%) and increased R50% (+2.6%). Comparing normal lung doses, the lung V_2_0 (+3.1%) and V_5 (+1.5%) were slightly higher for AXB plans compared to AAA plans. High-dose spillage ((V105%PD - PTV)/ PTV) was slightly lower for AXB plans but the % low dose spillage (D2cm) was similar between the two calculation algorithms. Conclusion: AAA algorithm overestimates lung target dose. Routinely adapting to AXB for dose calculations in Lung SBRT planning may improve dose calculation accuracy, as AXB based calculations have been shown to be closer to Monte Carlo based dose predictions in accuracy and with relatively faster computational time. For clinical practice, revisiting dose-fractionation in Lung SBRT to correct for dose overestimates attributable to algorithm

  9. SU-F-T-600: Influence of Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms On Plan Quality Metrics and Normal Lung Doses in Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaparpalvi, R; Mynampati, D; Kuo, H; Garg, M; Tome, W; Kalnicki, S [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study the influence of superposition-beam model (AAA) and determinant-photon transport-solver (Acuros XB) dose calculation algorithms on the treatment plan quality metrics and on normal lung dose in Lung SBRT. Methods: Treatment plans of 10 Lung SBRT patients were randomly selected. Patients were prescribed to a total dose of 50-54Gy in 3–5 fractions (10?5 or 18?3). Doses were optimized accomplished with 6-MV using 2-arcs (VMAT). Doses were calculated using AAA algorithm with heterogeneity correction. For each plan, plan quality metrics in the categories- coverage, homogeneity, conformity and gradient were quantified. Repeat dosimetry for these AAA treatment plans was performed using AXB algorithm with heterogeneity correction for same beam and MU parameters. Plan quality metrics were again evaluated and compared with AAA plan metrics. For normal lung dose, V{sub 20} and V{sub 5} to (Total lung- GTV) were evaluated. Results: The results are summarized in Supplemental Table 1. PTV volume was mean 11.4 (±3.3) cm{sup 3}. Comparing RTOG 0813 protocol criteria for conformality, AXB plans yielded on average, similar PITV ratio (individual PITV ratio differences varied from −9 to +15%), reduced target coverage (−1.6%) and increased R50% (+2.6%). Comparing normal lung doses, the lung V{sub 20} (+3.1%) and V{sub 5} (+1.5%) were slightly higher for AXB plans compared to AAA plans. High-dose spillage ((V105%PD - PTV)/ PTV) was slightly lower for AXB plans but the % low dose spillage (D2cm) was similar between the two calculation algorithms. Conclusion: AAA algorithm overestimates lung target dose. Routinely adapting to AXB for dose calculations in Lung SBRT planning may improve dose calculation accuracy, as AXB based calculations have been shown to be closer to Monte Carlo based dose predictions in accuracy and with relatively faster computational time. For clinical practice, revisiting dose-fractionation in Lung SBRT to correct for dose overestimates

  10. Dosimetric accuracy and clinical quality of Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation algorithm for stereotactic and conventional lung volumetric modulated arc therapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, Petra S; Hol, Sandra; Essers, Marion

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to assess the dosimetric accuracy and clinical quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for stereotactic (stage I) and conventional (stage III) lung cancer treatments planned with Eclipse version 10.0 Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm. The dosimetric impact of using AAA instead of AXB, and grid size 2.5 mm instead of 1.0 mm for VMAT treatment plans was evaluated. The clinical plan quality of AXB VMAT was assessed using 45 stage I and 73 stage III patients, and was compared with published results, planned with VMAT and hybrid-VMAT techniques. The dosimetric impact on near-minimum PTV dose (D 98% ) using AAA instead of AXB was large (underdose up to 12.3%) for stage I and very small (underdose up to 0.8%) for stage III lung treatments. There were no significant differences for dose volume histogram (DVH) values between grid sizes. The calculation time was significantly higher for AXB grid size 1.0 than 2.5 mm (p < 0.01). The clinical quality of the VMAT plans was at least comparable with clinical qualities given in literature of lung treatment plans with VMAT and hybrid-VMAT techniques. The average mean lung dose (MLD), lung V 20Gy and V 5Gy in this study were respectively 3.6 Gy, 4.1% and 15.7% for 45 stage I patients and 12.4 Gy, 19.3% and 46.6% for 73 stage III lung patients. The average contra-lateral lung dose V 5Gy-cont was 35.6% for stage III patients. For stereotactic and conventional lung treatments, VMAT calculated with AXB grid size 2.5 mm resulted in accurate dose calculations. No hybrid technique was needed to obtain the dose constraints. AXB is recommended instead of AAA for avoiding serious overestimation of the minimum target doses compared to the actual delivered dose

  11. Experimental validation of deterministic Acuros XB algorithm for IMRT and VMAT dose calculations with the Radiological Physics Center's head and neck phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Tao; Mourtada, Firas; Kisling, Kelly; Mikell, Justin; Followill, David; Howell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to verify the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), a grid-based Boltzmann solver, in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) head and neck (H and N) phantom was used for all calculations and measurements in this study. Clinically equivalent IMRT and VMAT plans were created on the RPC H and N phantom in the Eclipse treatment planning system (version 10.0) by using RPC dose prescription specifications. The dose distributions were calculated with two different algorithms, AXB 11.0.03 and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) 10.0.24. Two dose report modes of AXB were recorded: dose-to-medium in medium (D m,m ) and dose-to-water in medium (D w,m ). Each treatment plan was delivered to the RPC phantom three times for reproducibility by using a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator. Absolute point dose and planar dose were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and GafChromic registered EBT2 film, respectively. Profile comparison and 2D gamma analysis were used to quantify the agreement between the film measurements and the calculated dose distributions from both AXB and AAA. The computation times for AAA and AXB were also evaluated. Results: Good agreement was observed between measured doses and those calculated with AAA or AXB. Both AAA and AXB calculated doses within 5% of TLD measurements in both the IMRT and VMAT plans. Results of AXB Dm,m (0.1% to 3.6%) were slightly better than AAA (0.2% to 4.6%) or AXB Dw,m (0.3% to 5.1%). The gamma analysis for both AAA and AXB met the RPC 7%/4 mm criteria (over 90% passed), whereas AXB Dm,m met 5%/3 mm criteria in most cases. AAA was 2 to 3 times faster than AXB for IMRT, whereas AXB was 4-6 times faster than AAA for VMAT. Conclusions: AXB was found to be satisfactorily accurate when compared to measurements in the RPC H and N phantom. Compared with AAA, AXB results were equal

  12. Experimental verification of the Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation adjacent to heterogeneous media for IMRT and RapidArc of nasopharygeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Monica W K; Leung, Lucullus H T; So, Ronald W K; Yu, Peter K N

    2013-03-01

    To compare the doses calculated by the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) with experimentally measured data adjacent to and within heterogeneous medium using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc(®) (RA) volumetric arc therapy plans for nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPC). Two-dimensional dose distribution immediately adjacent to both air and bone inserts of a rectangular tissue equivalent phantom irradiated using IMRT and RA plans for NPC cases were measured with GafChromic(®) EBT3 films. Doses near and within the nasopharygeal (NP) region of an anthropomorphic phantom containing heterogeneous medium were also measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and EBT3 films. The measured data were then compared with the data calculated by AAA and AXB. For AXB, dose calculations were performed using both dose-to-medium (AXB_Dm) and dose-to-water (AXB_Dw) options. Furthermore, target dose differences between AAA and AXB were analyzed for the corresponding real patients. The comparison of real patient plans was performed by stratifying the targets into components of different densities, including tissue, bone, and air. For the verification of planar dose distribution adjacent to air and bone using the rectangular phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the ± 3%/3mm criteria were 98.7%, 99.5%, and 97.7% on the axial plane for AAA, AXB_Dm, and AXB_Dw, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans, while they were 97.6%, 98.2%, and 97.7%, respectively, on the coronal plane. For the verification of planar dose distribution within the NP region of the anthropomorphic phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the ± 3%/3mm criteria were 95.1%, 91.3%, and 99.0% for AAA, AXB_Dm, and AXB_Dw, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans. Within the NP region where air and bone were present, the film measurements represented the dose close to unit density water

  13. Experimental verification of the Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation adjacent to heterogeneous media for IMRT and RapidArc of nasopharygeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Monica W. K.; Leung, Lucullus H. T.; So, Ronald W. K.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the doses calculated by the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) with experimentally measured data adjacent to and within heterogeneous medium using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc ® (RA) volumetric arc therapy plans for nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Two-dimensional dose distribution immediately adjacent to both air and bone inserts of a rectangular tissue equivalent phantom irradiated using IMRT and RA plans for NPC cases were measured with GafChromic ® EBT3 films. Doses near and within the nasopharygeal (NP) region of an anthropomorphic phantom containing heterogeneous medium were also measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and EBT3 films. The measured data were then compared with the data calculated by AAA and AXB. For AXB, dose calculations were performed using both dose-to-medium (AXB Dm ) and dose-to-water (AXB Dw ) options. Furthermore, target dose differences between AAA and AXB were analyzed for the corresponding real patients. The comparison of real patient plans was performed by stratifying the targets into components of different densities, including tissue, bone, and air. Results: For the verification of planar dose distribution adjacent to air and bone using the rectangular phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the ± 3%/3mm criteria were 98.7%, 99.5%, and 97.7% on the axial plane for AAA, AXB Dm , and AXB Dw , respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans, while they were 97.6%, 98.2%, and 97.7%, respectively, on the coronal plane. For the verification of planar dose distribution within the NP region of the anthropomorphic phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the ± 3%/3mm criteria were 95.1%, 91.3%, and 99.0% for AAA, AXB Dm , and AXB Dw , respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans. Within the NP region where air and bone were present, the film measurements represented the

  14. DSC, Raman and impedance spectroscopy studies on the xB2O3 - (90 - x)TeO2 - 10TiO2 (where x = 0 to 50 mol%) glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Suresh; Rani, D. Esther Kalpana; Upender, G.; Pavani, P. Gayathri

    2013-03-01

    Titanium boro tellurite glasses in the xB2O3 -(90- x) TeO2 - 10TiO2 (where x = 0 to 50 mol%) system were prepared by using the conventional melt-quenching technique. Glass transition temperatures were measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and found to be in the range of 300-370 °C. The Raman spectra showed a cleavage of the continuous TeO4 (tbp) network by breaking of the Te-O-Te linkages. The relative transition of TeO4 - groups to TeO3 - groups is accompanied by a change in the oxygen coordination of the boron from 3 to 4 (BO3 - to BO4 -). The impedance plots Z″( ω) versus Z'( ω) for all the glass samples were recorded and found to exhibit a single circle. The AC conductivity of all glass samples was studied in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from room temperature (RT) to 375 °C. The AC conductivity decreased by about one order in magnitude with increasing B2O3 content. The conductivity was found to be on the order of 10-4.5 to 10-6 (Ωcm)-1 at 375 °C and 1 MHz for 10 mol% and 50 mol% B2O3 contents, respectively. The relaxation behavior in these glass samples is discussed based on the complex modulus and impedance data.

  15. SU-E-T-800: Verification of Acurose XB Dose Calculation Algorithm at Air Cavity-Tissue Interface Using Film Measurement for Small Fields of 6-MV Flattening Filter-Free Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S; Suh, T; Chung, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the dose accuracy of Acuros XB (AXB) dose calculation algorithm at air-tissue interface using inhomogeneous phantom for 6-MV flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. Methods: An inhomogeneous phantom included air cavity was manufactured for verifying dose accuracy at the air-tissue interface. The phantom was composed with 1 and 3 cm thickness of air cavity. To evaluate the central axis doses (CAD) and dose profiles of the interface, the dose calculations were performed for 3 × 3 and 4 × 4 cm 2 fields of 6 MV FFF beams with AAA and AXB in Eclipse treatment plainning system. Measurements in this region were performed with Gafchromic film. The root mean square errors (RMSE) were analyzed with calculated and measured dose profile. Dose profiles were divided into inner-dose profile (>80%) and penumbra (20% to 80%) region for evaluating RMSE. To quantify the distribution difference, gamma evaluation was used and determined the agreement with 3%/3mm criteria. Results: The percentage differences (%Diffs) between measured and calculated CAD in the interface, AXB shows more agreement than AAA. The %Diffs were increased with increasing the thickness of air cavity size and it is similar for both algorithms. In RMSEs of inner-profile, AXB was more accurate than AAA. The difference was up to 6 times due to overestimation by AAA. RMSEs of penumbra appeared to high difference for increasing the measurement depth. Gamma agreement also presented that the passing rates decreased in penumbra. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the dose calculation with AXB shows more accurate than with AAA for the air-tissue interface. The 2D dose distributions with AXB for both inner-profile and penumbra showed better agreement than with AAA relative to variation of the measurement depths and air cavity sizes

  16. Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure investigation and magnetism of the complex metal-rich boride series Crx(Rh1-yRuy)7-xB3 (x=0.88-1; y=0-1) with Th7Fe3-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misse, Patrick R. N.; Mbarki, Mohammed; Fokwa, Boniface P. T.

    2012-08-01

    Powder samples and single crystals of the new complex boride series Crx(Rh1-yRuy)7-xB3 (x=0.88-1; y=0-1) have been synthesized by arc-melting the elements under purified argon atmosphere on a water-cooled copper crucible. The products, which have metallic luster, were structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction as well as EDX measurements. Within the whole solid solution range the hexagonal Th7Fe3 structure type (space group P63mc, no. 186, Z=2) was identified. Single-crystal structure refinement results indicate the presence of chromium at two sites (6c and 2b) of the available three metal Wyckoff sites, with a pronounced preference for the 6c site. An unexpected Rh/Ru site preference was found in the Ru-rich region only, leading to two different magnetic behaviors in the solid solution: The Rh-rich region shows a temperature-independent (Pauli) paramagnetism whereas an additional temperature-dependent paramagnetic component is found in the Ru-rich region.

  18. The puzzling orbital period evolution of the LMXB AX J1745.6-2901

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, G.; De, K.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Stella, L.; Nandra, K.

    2017-10-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves through mergers of binary black holes raises the question of how such compact systems form, renewing issues related to the orbital evolution of binary systems. Eclipsing X-ray binaries are excellent tools to constrain the orbital period evolution and how the system loses angular momentum. I will present an X-ray eclipse timing analysis (spanning an interval of more than 20 yr) of one of such objects, AX J1745.6-2901. Its orbital period is decreasing at a rate Pdotorb=-4.03+-0.32 e-11 s s-1, at least one order of magnitude larger than expected from conservative mass transfer and angular momentum losses due to gravitational waves and magnetic braking, and it might result from either non-conservative mass transfer or magnetic activity changing the quadrupole moment of the companion star. I will also show that imprinted on the long-term evolution of the orbit, there are highly significant eclipse leads delays of 10-30 s, characterized by a clear state dependence in which, on average, eclipses occur earlier during the hard state. Finally, I will discuss whether accretion disc winds might have an impact onto the orbital evolution.

  19. 77 FR 70147 - Fish and Wildlife Service 0648-XB088

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Library, Room 121, Stanford, CA 94305. 2. Palo Alto Main Library, 1213 Newell Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303... term ``take'' means to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to... or degradation that actually kills or injures listed wildlife by significantly impairing essential...

  20. Diatomic substitutionals in superconducting Nb(1-x)B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, H.H.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lillo, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using first-principles, density functional theory calculations, we have shown that the increase in superconducting critical temperature to above 9 K experimentally observed for B-rich, off-stoichiometry NbB 2 material is associated with the formation of B-dimers on Nb sites rather than with the formation of Nb vacancies, as previously proposed. Our calculations show that certain of these B-dimer configurations have lower binding energies than do the vacancy structures. This result is pressure independent in the range between 0 and 10 GPa, and above. Further, the dimer-containing materials have a higher electronic density of states at the Fermi level than do the vacancy structures. Finally, the presence of B-dimers results in the splitting off of phonon normal modes. These last two factors are relevant to the improved superconducting properties

  1. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; Joss, P.C.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1981-01-01

    In this article we shall discuss the observed X-ray, optical, infrared and radio properties of the galactic bulge sources, with an emphasis on those that produce type I X-ray bursts. There is persuasive evidence that these burst sources and many other galactic bulge sources are neutron stars in low-mass, close-binary stellar systems. (orig./WL)

  2. Numerical simulation of the magnetospheric gate model for X-ray bursters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S. G.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one dimensional hydrodynamic computer code was used to investigate the evolution of a gas cloud impacting the surface of a 20 km, 1 Msub solar neutron star. This gas is initially at rest with respect to the surface of the neutron star, extends to 185 km above the surface, and is optically thick. The infall results in a burst which lasts about 0.1 seconds and reached a peak luminosity and effective temperature of 240,000 Lsub solar and 9 million; respectively. The burst was followed by a phase of oscillations with a period 0.2 seconds.

  3. Canards in a minimal piecewise-linear square-wave burster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, M.; Krupa, M. [Inria Sophia-Antipolis Méditerranée Research Centre, MathNeuro Project-Team 2004 route des Lucioles BP 93, 06902 Valbonne Cedex (France); Fernández-García, S., E-mail: soledad@us.es [Departamento EDAN, University of Seville, Facultad de Matemáticas C/ Tarfia, s/n., 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    We construct a piecewise-linear (PWL) approximation of the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuron model that is minimal, in the sense that the vector field has the least number of linearity zones, in order to reproduce all the dynamics present in the original HR model with classical parameter values. This includes square-wave bursting and also special trajectories called canards, which possess long repelling segments and organise the transitions between stable bursting patterns with n and n + 1 spikes, also referred to as spike-adding canard explosions. We propose a first approximation of the smooth HR model, using a continuous PWL system, and show that its fast subsystem cannot possess a homoclinic bifurcation, which is necessary to obtain proper square-wave bursting. We then relax the assumption of continuity of the vector field across all zones, and we show that we can obtain a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem. We use the recently developed canard theory for PWL systems in order to reproduce the spike-adding canard explosion feature of the HR model as studied, e.g., in Desroches et al., Chaos 23(4), 046106 (2013).

  4. Numerical simulation of the magnetospheric gate model for the x-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code was used to investigate the evolution of a gas cloud impacting the surface of a 20 km, 1 Msub solar neutron star. This gas is initially at rest with respect to the surface of the neutron star, extends to 185 km above the surface, and is optically thick. The infall results in a burst which lasts about 0.1 seconds and reaches a peak luminosity and effective temperature of 2.4 x 10 5 Lsub solar and 9 x 10 6 ; respectively. The burst was followed by a phase of oscillations with a period 0.2 seconds

  5. Swift follow-up of the newly discovered burster millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following the discovery of the new hard X-ray transient IGR J17511-3057 by INTEGRAL (Atel #2196) and its classification as a millisecond pulsar by RXTE (Atel #2197), a Swift ToO was performed. Swift/XRT observed IGR J17511-3057 on 2009-09-13 at 19:53:31 for a total exposure time of 4 ks. The first...

  6. The new X-ray transient Swift J174805.3-244637 in Terzan 5 is a neutron star LMXB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano, D.; Wijnands, R.; Heinke, C.O.; Sivakoff, G.R.; Pooley, D.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the ongoing monitoring Swift observations of the X-ray transient Swift J174805.3-244637 (ATEL #4249, #4242) in the globular cluster Terzan 5. During an observation taken on July 17th, 2012, we detect a Type-I X-ray burst in a ~950 seconds long observation which started at 20:54:00 UT.

  7. Observation of variable pre-eclipse dips and disk winds in the eclipsing LMXB XTE J1710-281

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gayathri; Maitra, Chandreyee; Paul, Biswajit

    2018-04-01

    We report the first detection of highly ionized Fe species in the X-ray spectrum of the eclipsing and dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary XTE J1710-281. Using archival Chandra and Suzaku observations, we have carried out a spectro-timing analysis of the source during three different epochs. We compare the average orbital profile and obtain differences in pre-eclipse dip morphologies between different observation epochs. We observe an orbit to orbit evolution of the dips for the first time in this source in both the Chandra observations, reflecting changes in the structure of the accretion disc in timescales of hours. We further perform intensity resolved spectroscopy for both the Chandra and the Suzaku data to characterize the changes in the spectral parameters from the persistent to the dipping intervals. We find that the absorbers responsible for the dips, can be best described using a partially ionized partial covering absorber, with an ionization parameter, log(ξ) of ˜2. The photon index of the source remained at ˜2 during both the Chandra and the Suzaku observations. In the 0.6-9 keV Suzaku spectra, we detect a broad 0.72 keV Fe L-alpha emission line complex and two narrow absorption lines at ˜6.60 keV and ˜7.01 keV. The highly ionized Fe line signatures, being an indicator of accretion disc-winds, has been observed for the first time in XTE J1710-281.

  8. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of 1e1743.1-2843: indications of a neutron star LMXB nature of the compact object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Mori, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the persistent X-ray source 1E1743.1-2843, located in the Galactic Center region. The source was observed between 2012 September and October by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, providing almost simultaneous observations in the hard and soft X......-ray bands. The high X-ray luminosity points to the presence of an accreting compact object. We analyze the possibilities of this accreting compact object being either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole, and conclude that the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum from 0.3 to 40 keV fits a blackbody spectrum...

  9. XbD Video 3, The SEEing process of qualitative data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is the third video in the Experience-based Designing series. It presents a live classroom demonstration of a nine step qualitative data analysis process called SEEing: The process is useful for uncovering or discovering deeper layers of 'meaning' and meaning structures in an experience...

  10. Magnetic exchange coupling in amorphous Fe80-xDy xB20 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Ayadi, M.; Omri, M.; Lassri, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 80-x Dy x B 20 alloys have been prepared by melt spinning and their magnetic properties have been studied. The mean field theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization. The exchange interactions between Co-Co and Dy-Co atom pairs have been evaluated. High-field magnetization studies on samples with stoichiometry close to that of a compensated ferrimagnet show a magnetic behavior that is characteristic of a non-collinear magnetic structure of the Dy and Fe sublattices. The region of the canted moments can be described by a phase diagram in the H-T plane

  11. Dosimetric comparison of peripheral NSCLC SBRT using Acuros XB and AAA calculation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chloe C H; Ang, Khong Wei; Soh, Roger C X; Tin, Kah Ming; Yap, Jerome H H; Lee, James C L; Bragg, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    There is a concern for dose calculation in highly heterogenous environments such as the thorax region. This study compares the quality of treatment plans of peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using 2 calculation algorithms, namely, Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros External Beam (AXB), for 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) data from 20 anonymized patients were studied using Varian Eclipse planning system, AXB, and AAA version 10.0.28. A 3DCRT plan and a VMAT plan were generated using AAA and AXB with constant plan parameters for each patient. The prescription and dose constraints were benchmarked against Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0915 protocol. Planning parameters of the plan were compared statistically using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results showed that 3DCRT and VMAT plans have a lower target coverage up to 8% when calculated using AXB as compared with AAA. The conformity index (CI) for AXB plans was 4.7% lower than AAA plans, but was closer to unity, which indicated better target conformity. AXB produced plans with global maximum doses which were, on average, 2% hotter than AAA plans. Both 3DCRT and VMAT plans were able to achieve D95%. VMAT plans were shown to be more conformal (CI = 1.01) and were at least 3.2% and 1.5% lower in terms of PTV maximum and mean dose, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for doses received by organs at risk (OARs) regardless of calculation algorithms and treatment techniques. In general, the difference in tissue modeling for AXB and AAA algorithm is responsible for the dose distribution between the AXB and the AAA algorithms. The AXB VMAT plans could be used to benefit patients receiving peripheral NSCLC SBRT. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. XbD Video 2, Taxonomy of Experience (ToE) [Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is the second video in the Experience-based Designing series: It describes the Taxonomy of Experience, a structural way of looking at human experiences of almost any kind.This hierarchical model is useful to researchers and decision makers as a general method or tool for guiding the collection......, processing and categorisation of field data about an everyday experience. Researchers using this model often referred to the process as 'doing a ToE'...

  13. RKKY interaction between Ce ions in CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Ce ions in (Ce x La 1-x )B 6 have a Γ 8 ground multiplet, which is fourfold degenerate and has orbital and spin content. The interaction between Ce ions is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) type, which competes with the Kondo screening. The conduction states of the compound are described by three approximately ellipsoidal pockets centered at the X points of the cubic lattice. The RKKY interaction is calculated considering the interference of the three pockets. The interaction strength strongly depends on the relative position of the ions, as well as on the relative orientation of the line joining two ions to the cubic crystalline field axis. The sixteen states of a pair of Ce ions are split by the RKKY interaction into a singlet, a triplet, and a twelvefold degenerate level. The ground state is always either a singlet or a triplet, depending on the sign of the interaction. Using the exact Bethe ansatz solution of a model for a pair of interacting impurities with Γ 8 ground multiplet, we calculate the occupation of the levels, the magnetic-field susceptibility, the specific-heat γ coefficient, and the Wilson ratio for the ground state as a function of the ratio of the RKKY coupling strength to the Kondo temperature along the main crystallographic directions. As a consequence of the RKKY splitting a pair of impurities always has a quadrupolar moment. The implication of the interactions on the quadrupolar order of CeB 6 is also discussed

  14. Measurement of the inelastic branch of the stellar 14O(α,p)17F reaction occurring in the explosive burning in Novae and X-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.J.; Woods, P.J.; Davinson, T.; Aliotta, M.; Buescler, J.; Clement, E.; Delahaye, P.; Hass, M.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kumar, V.; Murphy, A.St.J.; Neyskens, P.; Raabe, R.; Robinson, A.P.; Walle, J. van der; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.

    2010-01-01

    The inelastic component of the key astrophysical resonance (1 - , E x =6.15 MeV) in the 14 O(α,p) 17 F reaction has been studied by using the resonant scattering of 17 F+p. The experiment was done at REX-ISOLDE CERN with the Miniball setup. The thick target method in inverse kinematics was utilized in the present experiment where a 44.2 MeV 17 F beam bombarded a∼40μm thick (CH 2 ) n target. The inelastic scattering protons in coincidence with the de-excited 495 keV γ rays have been clearly seen and they are from the inelastic branch to the first excited state in 17 F following decay of the 1 - resonance in 18 Ne. Some preliminary results are reported.

  15. Acuros XB: Impact dosimetric heterogeneous geometric appliance low density AXB represents a step forward in terms of algorithms of calculation for the planning of treatments; Acuros XB: impacto dosimetrico de artefactos geometricos heterogeneos de baja densidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado Bruggeman, D.; Munoz Montplet, C.; Agramunt Chaler, S.; Bueno Vizcarra, M.; Duch Guillen, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    In some situations, the dose distributions which provides are significantly different from those obtained with other marketed algorithms, which entails new challenges for evaluation and optimization of the treatment. (Author)

  16. $X_{b}$ Search and Measurement of the $Y(1)$, $(2S)$ and $Y(3S)$ Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Claudia [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    There are two studies presented in this analysis. The rst one is the measurement of the Υ(1S), Υ(2S) and Υ(3S) polarization in two orthogonal frames: the helicity and the Collins-Soper frame. The second is the search for a possible bottom counterpart of the X(3872) which would show up as a narrow resonance in the Υ(1S)π+ π- nal state.

  17. Designing for 'meaningful' patient experience using Xperience-based designing (XbD): A new twist on a familiar approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxon, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    A major reform program has been instigated within the Danish Health system aimed at establishing Super-hospitals to replace smaller facilities (GE, 2013). This revolutionary change is expected to be achieved by reducing both the number and duration of patient stays in hospitals. Realising this goal...... to practitioners who value the patient experience as an important aspect of designing-4-health in terms of products, services and systems...

  18. Field-induced non-collinear magnetic structures in amorphous Co80-xDy xB20 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annouar, F.; Roky, K.; Lassri, H.; Elmoussaoui, A.; Driouch, L.; Ayadi, M.; Omri, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous Co 80-x Dy x B 20 alloys have been prepared by melt spinning technique and their magnetic properties have been studied. The mean field theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization. High-field magnetization studies performed at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 38 T have revealed, for samples with stoichiometry close to that of a compensated ferrimagnet, a magnetic behavior that is characteristic of a non-collinear magnetic structure of the Dy and Co sublattices. From the non-collinear regime the exchange interactions between the Co and Dy magnetic sublattices and the magnetic anisotropy constants have been evaluated

  19. An estimate of higher twist at small xB and low Q2 based upon a saturation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Peters, K.

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the influence of higher twist corrections to deep inelastic structure functions in the low-Q 2 and small-x HERA region. We review the general features of the lowest-order QCD diagrams which contribute to twist-4 at small-x, in particular the sign structure of longitudinal and transverse structure functions which offers the possibility of strong cancellations in F 2 . For a numerical analysis we perform a twist analysis of the saturation model which has been very successful both in describing the structure function and the DIS diffractive cross section at HERA. As the main conclusion, twist 4 corrections are not small in F L or F T but in F 2 = F L + F T they almost cancel. We point out that F L analysis needs a large twist-4 correction. We also indicate the region of validity of the twist expansion. (orig.)

  20. Inpatients’ opinions on a hospital in Portugal [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/xb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina C Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the relationship between the opinions of inpatients and the degree to which hospitals are improving in performance over time. The aim of this study was to determine the personal assessment level of inpatients or their representatives regarding aspects of health care in an internal medicine ward. Methods: We carried out a questionnaire in September 2011 with 284 discharged patients and patient representatives, focusing on their opinions about the department, health professionals and amenities, with response options ranging from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good. The relationships between domains from the questionnaire and socio-demographic factors were examined using a t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The response rate was 78%. The patients showed a slightly higher mean score (m for factors in the medical care domain than did the patient representatives (m = 4.51 vs. m = 4.27; p = 0.014. The mean score of all the items in all domains was 4.24; this allowed us to determine the difference from the overall mean (DIFM for medical care (DIFM = 0.18; p = 0.000, foods (DIFM = –0.31; p = 0.000, diagnostic tests (DIFM = –0.15; p = 0.036 and transport (DIFM = –0.41; p = 0.000. Respondents with a medium or higher educational level gave lower scores to the domains food (m = 3.74; p = 0.004, diagnostic tests (m = 3.72; p = 0.04 and transport (m = 3.62; p = 0.025 than those with lower educational levels. The domains facilities (m = 2.4; p = 0.04 and diagnostic tests (m = 3.63; p = 0.009 were given lower scores by those aged <50 years compared with older respondents. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the evaluation of the responders will allow the hospital management to make improvements in the quality of care.

  1. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ Co-doped zinc boro-tellurite glasses for 1.5 xB5m broadband optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthanthirakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    A new series of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Zinc boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (40-x-y)B2O3+ 25TeO2+20ZnO+15BaO+xYb2O3+yEr2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3; y =1 in wt %) were prepared by melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behavior were studied through UV-Vis-NIR absorption and NIR luminescence measurements. The bonding parameters (β ¯ and δ) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) have been calculated from the band positions of the absorption spectra. A broad near-infrared emission band at 1540 nm with a full width at half maximum around 80 nm was observed from the NIR luminescence spectra by monitoring an excitation at 980 nm. The absorption cross-section and emission cross-section for the4I13/2→4I15/2 transition of the Er3+ ions were also determined using McCumber theory and the results were discussed and reported.

  2. Lattice distortion and spontaneous Γ5g ferro-quadrupole moment in phase IV of CexLa1-xB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Yuichi; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Goto, Terutaka; Suzuki, Osamu; Nakamura, Shintaro; Kunii, Satoru

    2005-01-01

    We have performed low-temperature thermal expansion measurements to investigate lattice effect of the phase IV in Ce x La 1-x B 6 , for x=0.75 and 0.70. In phase IV of both compounds, lattice length along the [111] direction shrinks notably, on the other hand length along the [001] direction expands. These results provide evidence that the spontaneous Γ 5g ferro-quadrupole moment yz >= zx >= xy > 0 is relevant in phase IV because the trigonal lattice distortion is described by the symmetry strain yz >= zx >= xy > 0 simultaneously

  3. Effect of Tm substitution on the magnetic properties and local magnetic anisotropy of amorphous Fe80-xTm xB20 ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayouty, E.H.; Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Randrianantoandro, N.; Greneche, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out magnetic and Moessbauer studies of amorphous Fe 80-x Tm x B 20 alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 16). With an increasing Tm content, both the Curie temperature T C and the magnetic moment of Fe atom μ Fe decrease. We have extracted the value of exchange constant A from T C and that of the local magnetic anisotropy constant K L from the coercivity. Moessbauer studies were performed in a transmission geometry and also using the conversion electron spectroscopy. Both Moessbauer spectrometry techniques show that the average hyperfine field decreases linearly with the addition of rare-earth

  4. Some physical properties of (Bi2O3)x(BaO)0.5-x(B2O3)0.5 glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Ladislav; Tichá, H.; Herzigová, L.; Ožďanová, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 126, 1-2 (2011), s. 289-294 ISSN 0254-0584 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : oxide glasses * Raman spectroscopy * optical properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2011

  5. Some structural and optical properties of (Bi2O3)x(ZnO)60-x(B2O3)40 glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, H.; Kincl, Miloslav; Tichý, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 138, 2-3 (2013), s. 633-639 ISSN 0254-0584 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : glasses * Raman spectroscopy and scattering * Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.129, year: 2013

  6. 2.05 xB5m emission properties and energy transfer mechanism of germanate glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongrong; Wang, Meng; Tian, Ying; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Junjie

    2011-03-01

    A new GeO2-Ga2O3-Na2O-BaO-La2O3 germanate glass doped with Ho2O3, Tm2O3, and Er2O3 has been investigated for application as a laser material at the 2 μm region. The spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanisms of Ho3+ sensitized by Tm3+ and Er3+ are analyzed. Based on the measurement of absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiation emission probability, branching ratio, and lifetime of Ho3+ are calculated to evaluate the spectroscopic properties. The maximum value of emission cross section of Ho3+ around 2.05 μm is 8.003×10-21 cm2, which indicates that the germanate glass may provide high gain as a good medium in high-power level laser system. It is also found that the 2.05 μm emission of Ho3+:5I7→5I8 can be greatly enhanced by adding the proper amount of Er2O3 and Tm2O3 under excitation at 808 nm. With the large energy transfer coefficient, the high efficient energy transfer process among Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions is proven.

  7. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  8. Structural investigation and optical properties of xMnO2-25Li2O-5Na2O-15Bi2O3-(55-x)B2O3 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa; Jali, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the new mixed system of glass compositions Lithium sodium bismuth borate glasses doped with transition metal oxide. The technique used to prepare a sample is by melt quenching. The XRD profile pattern confirmed the amorphous phase of the present glass system. The network structure is based on BO3, BO4 units and BiO6 octahedral units. No boroxyl rings observed in the glass structure. The addition of MnO2 in small amount does not account for major structural changes. Optical band gap lies in the range 1.89 to 0.96 eV. Density, molar volume, oxygen packing density, Tg, direct optical band gap and refractive index show anomalous behavior.

  9. The application of GxA8xB9nther Tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter in interventional treatment for acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Liang; Xu Ke; Shen Jing; Li Haiwei; Tong Jiajie; Zhang Xitong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the therapeutic efficacy and manipulation skill of Gunther Tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter in interventional treatment for acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity. Methods: From September 2007 to April 2008, a total of 36 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity were treated in our hospital. The time of the onset of disease ranged from 1 day to 12 days. The precipitation causes included prolonged lying in bed due to surgery or bone fracture (n = 18) and postpartum (n = 5), while no obvious precipitation causes could be found in 13 patients. Pulmonary embolism was coexisted in 12 cases. Clinically, the affected limb was swelling and painful, the skin was cyan-purple or pale in color with higher skin temperature. The circumferential length of the affected thigh was 3-10 cm longer than that of normal side. Patients with coexisted pulmonary embolism had the clinical presentation of dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis, etc. Gunther Tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter was implanted via femoral venous access or via right internal jugular venous access, which was followed by intravenous transcatheter thrombolysis. Vascular ultrasonography and angiography were performed 45-75 days after the treatment to confirm that there was no fresh or free thrombus in the veins of lower limb or in the pulmonary arteries. When it was confirmed, Gunther Tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter was taken out via right internal jugular venous access, which was followed by inferior venacavography. After the procedure anticoagulation and antibiotic medication were employed for 3-5 days. A follow-up for 4-10 months was made. Results: A total of 36 Gunther Tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filters were successfully implanted by one procedure, the average time cost for the filter delivery was 1.5 minutes (0.5-5 minutes). During the delivery procedure, the amplitude of elastic displacement of filter was less than 2 mm. One filter was implanted with a tilt of 25 degrees, and no newly-developed clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism appeared after filter implant. In twelve patients Gunther Tulip filters were successfully retrieved by single manipulation in 45-75 days after filter delivery, and the retrieval procedure took the mean time of 4.4 minutes (2-15 minutes). Inferior venacavography confirmed that no vascular perforation or rupture occurred. In the remaining 24 patients the filters were kept in inferior vena cava and no clinical symptoms related to pulmonary embolism or inferior vena cava occlusion were observed during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Gunther Tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter has many advantages in clinical use. The filter can be accurately placed to the scheduled position, it is very powerful in capturing the thrombus, it can be hold in the inferior vena cava for long time (long time window for thrombolysis therapy) before it is planed to be retrieved, and its retrieval success is very high. Moreover, with high technical successful rate the implantation of Gunther Tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter is very safe and effective for the interventional treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity. (authors)

  10. A novel boron-rich quaternary scandium borocarbosilicide Sc3.67-xB41.4-y-zC0.67+zSi0.33-w

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takaho; Yamamoto, Akiji; Sato, Akira

    2004-01-01

    A novel quaternary scandium borocarbosilicide Sc 3.67-x B 41.4-y-z C 0.67+z Si 0.33-w was found. Single crystallites were obtained as an intergrowth phase in the float-zoned single crystal of Sc 0.83-x B 10.0-y C 0.17+y Si 0.083-z that has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Single crystal structure analysis revealed that the compound has a hexagonal structure with lattice constants a = b = 1.43055(8) nm and c = 2.37477(13) nm and space group P6-barm2 (No. 187). The crystal composition calculated from the structure analysis for the crystal with x = 0.52, y = 1.42, z = 1.17, and w = 0.02 was ScB 12.3 C 0.58 Si 0.10 and that agreed rather well with the composition of ScB 11.5 C 0.61 Si 0.04 measured by EPMA. In the crystal structure that is a new structure type of boron-rich borides, there are 79 structurally independent atomic sites, 69 boron and/or carbon sites, two silicon sites and eight scandium sites. Boron and carbon form seven structurally independent B 12 icosahedra, one B 9 polyhedron, one B 10 polyhedron, one irregularly shaped B 16 polyhedron in which only 10.7 boron atoms are available because of partial occupancies and 10 bridging sites. All polyhedron units and bridging site atoms interconnect each other forming a three-dimensional boron framework structure. Sc atoms reside in the open spaces in the boron framework structure

  11. Evidence for two spin-glass transitions with magnetoelastic and magnetoelectric couplings in the multiferroic (B i1 -xB ax) (F e1 -xT ix ) O3 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaushik, S. D.; Siruguri, V.; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2018-03-01

    For disordered Heisenberg systems with small single ion anisotropy (D ), two spin-glass (SG) transitions below the long-range ordered (LRO) phase transition temperature (Tc) have been predicted theoretically for compositions close to the percolation threshold. Experimental verification of these predictions is still controversial for conventional spin glasses. We show that multiferroic spin-glass systems can provide a unique platform for verifying these theoretical predictions via a study of change in magnetoelastic and magnetoelectric couplings, obtained from an analysis of diffraction data, at the spin-glass transition temperatures (TSG). Results of macroscopic (dc M (H , T ), M(t ), ac susceptibility [χ (ω, T )], and specific heat (Cp)) and microscopic (x-ray and neutron scattering) measurements are presented on disordered BiFe O3 , a canonical Heisenberg system with small single ion anisotropy, which reveal appearance of two spin-glass phases, SG1 and SG2, in coexistence with the LRO phase below the Almeida-Thouless (A-T) and Gabey-Toulouse (G-T) lines. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the integrated intensity of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) peak shows dips with respect to the Brillouin function behavior around the SG1 and SG2 transition temperatures. The temperature dependence of the unit cell volume departs from the Debye-Grüneisen behavior below the SG1 transition and the magnitude of departure increases significantly with decreasing temperature up to the electromagnon driven transition temperature below which a small change of slope occurs followed by another similar change of slope at the SG2 transition temperature. The ferroelectric polarization also changes significantly at the two spin-glass transition temperatures. These results, obtained using microscopic techniques, clearly demonstrate that the SG1 and SG2 transitions occur on the same magnetic sublattice and are intrinsic to the system. We also construct a phase diagram showing all the magnetic phases in the BF-x BT system. While our results on the two spin-glass transitions support the theoretical predictions, they also raise several open questions, which need to be addressed by revisiting the existing theories of spin-glass transitions after taking into account the effect of magnetoelastic and magnetoelectric couplings as well as electromagnons.

  12. Studies on formation of unconfined detonable vapor cloud using explosive means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparao, A; Rao, C R; Tewari, S P

    2013-06-15

    Certain organic liquid fuels like hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon oxides, when dispersed in air in the form of small droplets, mix with surrounding atmosphere forming vapor cloud (aerosol) and acquire explosive properties. This paper describes the studies on establishment of conditions for dispersion of fuels in air using explosive means resulting in formation of detonable aerosols of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide. Burster charges based on different explosives were evaluated for the capability to disperse the fuels without causing ignition. Parameters like design of canister, burster tube, burster charge type, etc. have been studied based on dispersion experiments. The detonability of the aerosol formed by the optimized burster charge system was also tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bursting oscillations, bifurcation and synchronization in neuronal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Haixia [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang Qingyun, E-mail: drwangqy@gmail.com [Department of Dynamics and Control, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu Qishao [Department of Dynamics and Control, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We investigate bursting oscillations and related bifurcation in the modified Morris-Lecar neuron. > Two types of fast-slow bursters are analyzed in detail. > We show the properties of some crucial bifurcation points. > Synchronization transition and the neural excitability are explored in the coupled bursters. - Abstract: This paper investigates bursting oscillations and related bifurcation in the modified Morris-Lecar neuron. It is shown that for some appropriate parameters, the modified Morris-Lecar neuron can exhibit two types of fast-slow bursters, that is 'circle/fold cycle' bursting and 'subHopf/homoclinic' bursting with class 1 and class 2 neural excitability, which have different neuro-computational properties. By means of the analysis of fast-slow dynamics and phase plane, we explore bifurcation mechanisms associated with the two types of bursters. Furthermore, the properties of some crucial bifurcation points, which can determine the type of the burster, are studied by the stability and bifurcation theory. In addition, we investigate the influence of the coupling strength on synchronization transition and the neural excitability in two electrically coupled bursters with the same bursting type. More interestingly, the multi-time-scale synchronization transition phenomenon is found as the coupling strength varies.

  14. Experimental investigation of halogen-bond hard-soft acid-base complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Asia Marie S; Jessop, Morly J; Decato, Daniel A; Massena, Casey J; Nascimento, Vinicius R; Berryman, Orion B

    2017-04-01

    The halogen bond (XB) is a topical noncovalent interaction of rapidly increasing importance. The XB employs a `soft' donor atom in comparison to the `hard' proton of the hydrogen bond (HB). This difference has led to the hypothesis that XBs can form more favorable interactions with `soft' bases than HBs. While computational studies have supported this suggestion, solution and solid-state data are lacking. Here, XB soft-soft complementarity is investigated with a bidentate receptor that shows similar associations with neutral carbonyls and heavy chalcogen analogs. The solution speciation and XB soft-soft complementarity is supported by four crystal structures containing neutral and anionic soft Lewis bases.

  15. TIMING OBSERVATIONS OF PSR J1023+0038 DURING A LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaodand, Amruta; Archibald, Anne M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Bassa, Cees; Deller, Adam T. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bogdanov, Slavko [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); D’Angelo, Caroline R.; Patruno, Alessandro [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-20

    Transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) switch, on roughly multi-year timescales, between rotation-powered radio millisecond pulsar (RMSP) and accretion-powered low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) states. The tMSPs have raised several questions related to the nature of accretion flow in their LMXB state and the mechanism that causes the state switch. The discovery of coherent X-ray pulsations from PSR J1023+0038 (while in the LMXB state) provides us with the first opportunity to perform timing observations and to compare the neutron star’s spin variation during this state to the measured spin-down in the RMSP state. Whereas the X-ray pulsations in the LMXB state likely indicate that some material is accreting onto the neutron star’s magnetic polar caps, radio continuum observations indicate the presence of an outflow. The fraction of the inflowing material being ejected is not clear, but it may be much larger than that reaching the neutron star’s surface. Timing observations can measure the total torque on the neutron star. We have phase-connected nine XMM-Newton observations of PSR J1023+0038 over the last 2.5 years of the LMXB state to establish a precise measurement of spin evolution. We find that the average spin-down rate as an LMXB is 26.8 ± 0.4% faster than the rate (−2.39 × 10{sup −15} Hz s{sup −1}) determined during the RMSP state. This shows that negative angular momentum contributions (dipolar magnetic braking, and outflow) exceed positive ones (accreted material), and suggests that the pulsar wind continues to operate at a largely unmodified level. We discuss implications of this tight observational constraint in the context of possible accretion models.

  16. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS AND BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION MODELING OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARY PSR J1023+0038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Jin, Ruolan [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Hui, C. Y., E-mail: lilirayhk@gmail.com, E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: takata@hku.hk [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-20

    We report the first hard X-ray (3-79 keV) observations of the millisecond pulsar (MSP) binary PSR J1023+0038 using NuSTAR. This system has been shown transiting between a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) state and a rotation-powered MSP state. The NuSTAR observations were taken in both LMXB state and rotation-powered state. The source is clearly seen in both states up to ∼79 keV. During the LMXB state, the 3-79 keV flux is about a factor of 10 higher than in the rotation-powered state. The hard X-rays show clear orbital modulation during the X-ray faint rotation-powered state but the X-ray orbital period is not detected in the X-ray bright LMXB state. In addition, the X-ray spectrum changes from a flat power-law spectrum during the rotation-powered state to a steeper power-law spectrum in the LMXB state. We suggest that the hard X-rays are due to the intrabinary shock from the interaction between the pulsar wind and the injected material from the low-mass companion star. During the rotation-powered MSP state, the X-ray orbital modulation is due to Doppler boosting of the shocked pulsar wind. At the LMXB state, the evaporating matter of the accretion disk due to the gamma-ray irradiation from the pulsar stops almost all the pulsar wind, resulting in the disappearance of the X-ray orbital modulation.

  17. M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER STRUCTURES AND THE PRESENCE OF X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agar, J. R. R.; Barmby, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Andromeda galaxy, M31, has several times the number of globular clusters found in the Milky Way. It contains a correspondingly larger number of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) associated with globular clusters, and as such can be used to investigate the cluster properties that lead to X-ray binary formation. The best tracer of the spatial structure of M31 globulars is the high-resolution imaging available from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and we have used HST data to derive structural parameters for 29 LMXB-hosting M31 globular clusters. These measurements are combined with structural parameters from the literature for a total of 41 (of 50 known) LMXB clusters and a comparison sample of 65 non-LMXB clusters. Structural parameters measured in blue bandpasses are found to be slightly different (smaller core radii and higher concentrations) than those measured in red bandpasses; this difference is enhanced in LMXB clusters and could be related to stellar population differences. Clusters with LMXBs show higher collision rates for their mass compared to clusters without LMXBs, and collision rates estimated at the core radius show larger offsets than rates estimated at the half-light radius. These results are consistent with the dynamical formation scenario for LMXBs. A logistic regression analysis finds that, as expected, the probability of a cluster hosting an LMXB increases with increasing collision rate and proximity to the galaxy center. The same analysis finds that probability of a cluster hosting an LMXB decreases with increasing cluster mass at a fixed collision rate, although we caution that this could be due to sample selection effects. Metallicity is found to be a less important predictor of LMXB probability than collision rate, mass, or distance, even though LMXB clusters have a higher metallicity on average. This may be due to the interaction of location and metallicity: a sample of M31 LMXBs with a greater range in galactocentric distance would

  18. Theory of optical flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of optical flashes created by x- and γ-ray burst heating of stars in binaries is reviewed. Calculations of spectra due to steady-state x-ray reprocessing and estimates of the fundamental time scales for the non-steady case are discussed. The results are applied to the extant optical data from x-ray and γ-ray bursters. Finally, I review predictions of flashes from γ-ray bursters detectable by a state of the art all-sky optical monitor

  19. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the essential aspects of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenon, with emphasis on the more recent results. GRBs are introduced by their time histories, which provide some evidence for a compact object origin. The energy spectra of bursts are presented and they are seen to demonstrate practically unambiguously that the origin of some GRBs involves neutron stars. Counterpart searches are reviewed briefly and the statistical properties of bursters treated. This paper presents a review of the three known repeating bursters (the Soft Gamma Repeaters). Extragalactic and galactic models are discussed and future prospects are assessed

  20. Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Discovery of the first of the slow X-ray pulsars , GX 1+4 (1970). • Discovery of the size and shape of the hard X-ray emitting region of the Crab Nebula (1974... pulsars (1968), gamma-ray bursters (1970), and X-ray bursters (1973). For each of these classes of objects, the initial discovery was made by non-optical...ray galaxies typified by NGC5506 (1977) • Discovery of the first "X-ray QSO," MR2251-178 (1977). Development of a highly efficient ground-based, solid

  1. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    298). 1. Introduction MXB 1658-298 is a transient Low-Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) system which was discovered in 1976 by observations made with SAS-3 (Lewin et al. 1976). It has an orbital period of ∼7.1 h and the light curve shows an eclipse ...

  2. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Relativistic iron Kα spectral emission line from the inner disc of a neutron star Low-Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) was first detected in 2007. This discovery opened up new ways to probe strong gravity and dense matter. The past decade has seen detections of such a line from many neutron star LMXBs, and confirmation of this ...

  3. The Peculiar Evolutionary History of IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Ali Alpar, M.; van der Klis, M.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) IGR J17480-2446 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 harbors an 11 Hz accreting pulsar. This is the first object discovered in a globular cluster with a pulsar spinning at such low rate. The accreting pulsar is anomalous because its characteristics are very different

  4. Spectral states evolution of 4U 1728-34 observed by INTEGRAL and RXTE: non-thermal component detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Mendez, M.; Ubertini, P.

    We report results of a one-year monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) source (atoll type) 4U 1728-34 with INTEGRAL and RXTE. Three time intervals were covered by INTEGRAL, during which the source showed strong spectral evolution. We studied the broad-band X-ray spectra in detail by fitting

  5. SU-E-T-67: Clinical Implementation and Evaluation of the Acuros Dose Calculation Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C; Combine, T; Dickens, K; Wynn, R; Pavord, D; Huq, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the current study is to present a detailed description of the implementation of the Acuros XB Dose Calculation Algorithm, and subsequently evaluate its clinical impacts by comparing it with AAA algorithm. Methods: The source models for both Acuros XB and AAA were configured by importing the same measured beam data into Eclipse treatment planning system. Both algorithms were evaluated by comparing calculated dose with measured dose on a homogeneous water phantom for field sizes ranging from 6cm × 6cm to 40cm × 40cm. Central axis and off-axis points with different depths were chosen for the comparison. Similarly, wedge fields with wedge angles from 15 to 60 degree were used. In addition, variable field sizes for a heterogeneous phantom were used to evaluate the Acuros algorithm. Finally, both Acuros and AAA were tested on VMAT patient plans for various sites. Does distributions and calculation time were compared. Results: On average, computation time is reduced by at least 50% by Acuros XB compared with AAA on single fields and VMAT plans. When used for open 6MV photon beams on homogeneous water phantom, both Acuros XB and AAA calculated doses were within 1% of measurement. For 23 MV photon beams, the calculated doses were within 1.5% of measured doses for Acuros XB and 2% for AAA. When heterogeneous phantom was used, Acuros XB also improved on accuracy. Conclusion: Compared with AAA, Acuros XB can improve accuracy while significantly reduce computation time for VMAT plans

  6. FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN HIERARCHICAL TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoz, Smadar; Stephan, Alexander P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Geller, Aaron; Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: snaoz@astro.ucla.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The formation of black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) poses a theoretical challenge, as low-mass companions are not expected to survive the common-envelope scenario with the BH progenitor. Here we propose a formation mechanism that skips the common-envelope scenario and relies on triple-body dynamics. We study the evolution of hierarchical triples following the secular dynamical evolution up to the octupole-level of approximation, including general relativity, tidal effects, and post-main-sequence evolution such as mass loss, changes to stellar radii, and supernovae. During the dynamical evolution of the triple system the “eccentric Kozai-Lidov” mechanism can cause large eccentricity excitations in the LMXB progenitor, resulting in three main BH-LMXB formation channels. Here we define BH-LMXB candidates as systems where the inner BH-companion star crosses its Roche limit. In the “eccentric” channel (∼81% of the LMXBs in our simulations) the donor star crosses its Roche limit during an extreme eccentricity excitation while still on a wide orbit. Second, we find a “giant” LMXB channel (∼11%), where a system undergoes only moderate eccentricity excitations but the donor star fills its Roche-lobe after evolving toward the giant branch. Third, we identify a “classical” channel (∼8%), where tidal forces and magnetic braking shrink and circularize the orbit to short periods, triggering mass-transfer. Finally, for the giant channel we predict an eccentric (∼0.3–0.6) preferably inclined (∼40°, ∼140°) tertiary, typically on a wide enough orbit (∼10{sup 4} au) to potentially become unbound later in the triple evolution. While this initial study considers only one representative system and neglects BH natal kicks, we expect our scenario to apply across a broad region of parameter space for triple-star systems.

  7. Radiation-induced coloration of xylenol blue/film containing hexachloroethane for food irradiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, Y.S.; Beshir, W.B.; Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Ramy Amer Fahim; El-Anadouli, B.E.

    2016-01-01

    Polyvinyl butyral films mixed with xylenol blue (XB) indicator and hexachloroethane (HCE) were prepared for possible application in food irradiation. Upon γ-irradiation the films undergo visual color change from yellow (XB, pH 8) to red (XB, pH 2.8) by H + formation in the presence of HCE. The dosimetric characteristics of films containing different dye and HCE concentrations were investigated spectrophotometrically at λ max 555 nm. Radiation sensitivity is enhanced with HCE and, accordingly red color intensity. The prepared films can be applicable in dose range 0.25-10 kGy with uncertainty of dose reaching 4.45 % at 1σ. (author)

  8. The INTEGRAL view of intermediate long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a degenerated helium white dwarf. Of special interest are bursters showing events with very different durations, thus allowing us to study transitions between different nuclear burning regimes. Depending on the actual accretion rate, either the burning of a large amount of H is triggered by an He flash...

  9. What can NuSTAR do for X-ray bursts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Tomsick, John; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2012-01-01

    burning are ejected in the burst expansion wind. We have investigated the possibility of observing with NuSTAR some X-ray bursters selected for their high burst rate and trend to exhibit so-called superexpansion bursts. Our main ambition is to detect the photoionization edges associated with the ejected...

  10. The dance of the double stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theokas, A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns pairs of stars orbiting one another. The evolutionary path model for close binary stars, involving a mass transfer of gases between the stars, is described. The life history of a single star; cataclysmic variables; the algol paradox, matter and lagranges' point; x-ray binaries and bursters; and pulsars; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  11. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170,...

  12. Exposure to ionizing radiation induced persistent gene expression changes in mouse mammary gland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Six to eight week old female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy of whole body xce xb3 radiation and mammary glands were surgically removed 2-month after radiation....

  13. X(3872) and the search for its bottomonium counterpart at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, Konstantin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    X(3872) history and theoretical status overview. ATLAS study of the ψ(2S) and X(3872) production. Search for X(3872) bottomonium counterpart by ATLAS. Search for Xb at CMS. Determination of X(3872) quantum numbers at LHCb.

  14. 77 FR 16539 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB098 Gulf of...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Council to convene a public... allocation and the application of social indicators to [[Page 16540

  15. Alternativas para favorecer la polinización y producción de semilla del híbrido h-311 de maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Espinosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternativas para favorecer la polinización y producción de semilla del híbrido H-311 de maíz. En la producción de semilla de híbridos de maíz es fundamental la coincidencia en floración de los progenitores y la disposición de los estigmas con respecto a las panojas que emiten polen. El híbrido de maíz H-311, se recomienda en México para siembras de riego, en alturas de 1200 a 1800 msnm. El orden de cruza inicial fue: (B16XB17 X (B32XB33; sin embargo, se cambio al orden inverso, es decir, (B32XB33 X (B16XB17, debido a mayor productividad y semilla de buena calidad física. La cruza simple (B16XB17 es enana (braquítico, al no haber suficiente viento en la época de polinización, se dificulta el cruzamiento y se requiere levantar el polen con mochilas de motor, la cruza simple B16XB17, rinde de 4,5 a 5,5 t/ha de semilla contra 6,0 a 7,5 t/ha de la cruza simple B32XB33; La cruza simple B16XB17, responde con alargamiento del porte por la influencia del tratamientos, con ácido giberélico (Activol, 20, 40 y 60 ppm, dos dosis de Cloruro de Mepiquat (PIX, 1 y 2 lt/ha, así como tres niveles de fertilización (400-70-30, 150-70-30 y 150- 300-30. En rendimiento hubo un efecto positivo por el manejo de ambos progenitores con diferentes fertilizaciones así como aplicación de fitohormonas, al aplicar ácido giberélico (20 ppm, el rendimiento se incrementó en 250,3% y 211,8% para las cruzas simples B32XB33 y B16XB17 respectivamente. La altura de planta de B16XB17 fue ligeramente afectada (106,0% con ácido giberélico, 40 ppm

  16. Generalized module extension Banach algebras: Derivations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let A and X be Banach algebras and let X be an algebraic Banach A-module. Then the ℓ-1direct sum A x X equipped with the multiplication (a; x)(b; y) = (ab; ay + xb + xy) (a; b ∈ A; x; y ∈ X) is a Banach algebra, denoted by A ⋈ X, which will be called "a generalized module extension Banach algebra". Module extension ...

  17. Experimental studies of VpxB electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, T.; Onihashi, H.; Otsuka, K.; Nishida, Y.; Yugami, N.

    1989-01-01

    In order to demonstrate a new electron linear accelerator an electron beam is accelerated either in the conventional linear accelerator scheme or in the V p xB scheme in a same machine and higher energy gain of about 18 % is observed in the V p xB scheme as is expected from the designed values. The experimental results are compared with the numerical simulation to show reasonable agreement. (author)

  18. Search for a new bottomonium state decaying to Υ(1S)π+π- in pp collisions at s=8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2013-11-01

    The results of a search for the bottomonium counterpart, denoted as $X_b$, of the exotic charmonium state X(3872) is presented. The analysis is based on a sample of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 inverse femtobarns. The search looks for the exclusive decay channel $X_b \\to \\Upsilon(1S) \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ followed by $\\Upsilon(1S) \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. No evidence for an $X_b$ signal is observed. Upper limits are set at the 95% confidence level on the ratio of the inclusive production cross sections times the branching fractions to $\\Upsilon(1S) \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ of the $X_b$ and the $\\Upsilon$(2S). The upper limits on the ratio are in the range 0.9-5.4% for $X_b$ masses between 10 and 11 GeV. These are the first upper limits on the production of a possible $X_b$ at a hadron collider.

  19. Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in fringing reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Christopher H.; Roelvink, Dano; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (Rmax and R2%) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (SIG and SSS) and shoreline setup (), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict Rmax and R2%.

  20. Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts: A New Probe of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Observations of thermonuclear (also called Type 1) X-ray bursts from neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have revealed large amplitude, high coherence X-ray brightness oscillations with frequencies in the 300 - 600 Hz range. Substantial spectral and timing evidence point to rotational modulation of the X-ray burst flux as the cause of these oscillations, and it is likely that they reveal the spin frequencies of neutron stars in LMXB from which they are detected. Here we review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and describe how they can be used to constrain the masses and radii of neutron stars as well as the physics of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars.

  1. Globular cluster neutron stars and the determination of the dense matter equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien

    2016-09-01

    Combining measurements of the mass and radius of multiple neutron stars (NSs) represents the most promising way to determine the equation of state of dense NS matter. NSs in quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries (qLMXB) located in globular clusters have placed useful constraints on the equation of state. The statistical approaches combining measurements from multiple NSs can be further improved by the addition of more NS observations. We propose here to obtain a high signal to noise spectrum of the qLMXB in M30, the only low-absorption globular cluster qLMXBs that does not have deep X-ray observations, and which requires Chandra unmatched angular resolution. The 300 ks proposed observation will permit measurement of the NS radius with 12-15% uncertainties.

  2. Exploring anti-correlated radio/X-ray modes in transitional millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaodand, Amruta

    2017-09-01

    Recently, using coordinated VLA+Chandra observations, Bogdanov et al.(2017) have uncovered a stunning anti-correlation in the LMXB state of the tMSP PSR J1023+0038. They see that radio luminosity consistently peaks during the X-ray `low' luminosity modes. Also, we have found a promising candidate tMSP, 3FGL J1544-1125(J1544) (Bogdanov and Halpern 2015; currently only tMSP candidate apart from J1023 in a persistent LMXB state). Using VLA and simultaneous Swift observations we see that it lies on the proposed tMSP track in radio vs. X-ray luminosity (L_ R/L_X) diagram. This finding strengthens its classification as a tMSP and provides an excellent opportunity to a)determine universality of radio/X-ray brightness anti-correlatio and b)understand jet/outflow formation in tMSPs.

  3. The End of Accretion: The X-Ray Binary/Millisecond Pulsar Transition Object PSR J1023+0038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Millisecond radio pulsars (MSRPs), those spinning hundreds of times per second, have long been understood to be old pulsars that have been spun up by the accretion of matter from a companion in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase. Yet the details of this transformation, particularly the end of the accretion process and the birth of a radio pulsar, remain mysterious. I will describe the discovery and detailed study of the first object known to transition between MSRP and LMXB states, PSR J1023+0038. By dint of a multiwavelength campaign of observations in the RMSP state, we are able to measure all the key system parameters and show the existence of an X-ray shock close to the pulsar-facing side of the companion. Since the discovery of PSR J1023+0038, two more objects (XSS J12270-4859 and M28I) have been found to make the same transition, and the study of these transitioning objects has become an active field of research. Most interestingly, PSR J1023+0038 has transitioned back into an LMXB state, with an active accretion disk and a puzzling increase in gamma-ray flux. Our detailed picture of the system allows us to test models of accretion against the phenomena we observe in PSR J1023+0038, and in fact these observations challenge current models: in spite of the low luminosity of the system (and low inferred accretion rate) some material is penetrating the centrifugal barrier and falling on the neutron-star surface. Key evidence for explaining this puzzling behaviour will come when PSR J1023+0038 returns to an MSRP state and we are able to compare pulsar timing models from after the LMXB state with those we obtained in this work.

  4. Formation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries. II. Common Envelope Evolution of Primordial Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible

  5. Relationship between the pitch of modulation collimators and the determination accuracy of source positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    The celestial positions of X-ray bursters and gamma-ray burst sources can be accurately determined with rotating modulation collimators which possess wide fields of view and also high angular resolutions. Since the determination accuracy is dependent on the signal to noise ratio of incident photons, the distribution of signal power is analysed and the optimum pitch of the modulation collimator for a burst of a given size is discussed. (author)

  6. Nuclear astrophysics and nuclei far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Unstable nuclei play a critical role in a number of astrophysical scenarios and are important for our understanding of the origin of the elements. Among the most important scenarios are the r-process (Supernovae), Novae, X-ray bursters, and Superbursters. For these astrophysical events I review the open questions, recent developments in astronomy, and how nuclear physics, in particular experiments with radioactive beams, needs to contribute to find the answers. (orig.)

  7. Inelastic Branch of the Stellar Reaction $^{14}$O$(\\alpha,p)^{17}$F

    CERN Multimedia

    Hass, M; Van duppen, P L E

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the upgraded REX-ISOLDE beam energy to study the astrophysically important $^{14}$O($\\alpha$, p)$^{17}$F reaction in time reverse kinematics. In particular, we will use the highly efficient miniball + CD detection system to measure the previously undetermined inelastic proton branch of the 1$^-$ state at 6.15 MeV in $^{18}$Ne. This state dominates the reaction rate under X-ray burster conditions.

  8. INTEGRAL reports renewed activity from KS 1741-293

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, E.; Alfonso-Garzón, J.

    2010-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary and burster source KS 1741-293 has been detected during recent INTEGRAL Galactic bulge (see ATel #438) observations by the JEM-X instrument. On February 25, 2010, between UTC 13:04 and 14:08, KS 1741-293 was detected at a 3-10 keV flux of 9 +/- 4 mCrab, and an upper limi...

  9. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  10. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.

    2007-01-01

    V) black-hole candidate X-ray transient and three active weaker (less than or similar to 25 mCrab, 20-60 keV) neutron star X-ray transients. Most of the time a clear anti-correlation can be seen between the soft and hard X-ray emission in some of the X-ray bursters. Hard X-ray flares or outbursts in X...

  11. Modified gravity (MOG), the speed of gravitational radiation and the event GW170817/GRB170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. A.; Moffat, J. W.; Toth, V. T.

    2018-05-01

    Modified gravity (MOG) is a covariant, relativistic, alternative gravitational theory whose field equations are derived from an action that supplements the spacetime metric tensor with vector and scalar fields. Both gravitational (spin 2) and electromagnetic waves travel on null geodesics of the theory's one metric. MOG satisfies the weak equivalence principle and is consistent with observations of the neutron star merger and gamma ray burster event GW170817/GRB170817A.

  12. On exotic theories of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.; Toulouse-3 Univ., 31

    1989-01-01

    Some of the essential observational aspects of gamma ray bursts are reviewed. Although there is good evidence for a neutron star origin for perhaps 1 out of 4 bursters, the origin of the remaining 3 out of 4 is almost impossible to determine from the observations alone. The arguments in favor of a neutron star origin and in favor of an extragalactic origin are summarized. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of an analytic linear Boltzmann transport equation solver for high-density inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, S. A. M.; Ansbacher, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Acuros external beam (Acuros XB) is a novel dose calculation algorithm implemented through the ECLIPSE treatment planning system. The algorithm finds a deterministic solution to the linear Boltzmann transport equation, the same equation commonly solved stochastically by Monte Carlo methods. This work is an evaluation of Acuros XB, by comparison with Monte Carlo, for dose calculation applications involving high-density materials. Existing non-Monte Carlo clinical dose calculation algorithms, such as the analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA), do not accurately model dose perturbations due to increased electron scatter within high-density volumes. Methods: Acuros XB, AAA, and EGSnrc based Monte Carlo are used to calculate dose distributions from 18 MV and 6 MV photon beams delivered to a cubic water phantom containing a rectangular high density (4.0-8.0 g/cm{sup 3}) volume at its center. The algorithms are also used to recalculate a clinical prostate treatment plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, originally evaluated using AAA. These results are compared graphically and numerically using gamma-index analysis. Radio-chromic film measurements are presented to augment Monte Carlo and Acuros XB dose perturbation data. Results: Using a 2% and 1 mm gamma-analysis, between 91.3% and 96.8% of Acuros XB dose voxels containing greater than 50% the normalized dose were in agreement with Monte Carlo data for virtual phantoms involving 18 MV and 6 MV photons, stainless steel and titanium alloy implants and for on-axis and oblique field delivery. A similar gamma-analysis of AAA against Monte Carlo data showed between 80.8% and 87.3% agreement. Comparing Acuros XB and AAA evaluations of a clinical prostate patient plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, Acuros XB showed good overall agreement with Monte Carlo while AAA underestimated dose on the upstream medial surface of the prosthesis due to electron scatter from the high-density material. Film measurements

  14. Multiple Multidentate Halogen Bonding in Solution, in the Solid State, and in the (Calculated) Gas Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Stefan H; Schindler, Severin; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Keller, Sandro; Huber, Stefan M

    2015-09-21

    The binding properties of neutral halogen-bond donors (XB donors) bearing two multidentate Lewis acidic motifs toward halides were investigated. Employing polyfluorinated and polyiodinated terphenyl and quaterphenyl derivatives as anion receptors, we obtained X-ray crystallographic data of the adducts of three structurally related XB donors with tetraalkylammonium chloride, bromide, and iodide. The stability of these XB complexes in solution was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and the results were compared to X-ray analyses as well as to calculated binding patterns in the gas phase. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the gas-phase complexes indicated that the experimentally observed distortion of the XB donors during multiple multidentate binding can be reproduced in 1:1 complexes with halides, whereas adducts with two halides show a symmetric binding pattern in the gas phase that is markedly different from the solid state structures. Overall, this study demonstrates the limitations in the transferability of binding data between solid state, solution, and gas phase in the study of complex multidentate XB donors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Limits on the space density of gamma-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst spectra which extend to several MeV without significant steepening indicate that there is negligible degradation due to two-photon pair production. The inferred low rate of photon-photon reactions is used to give upper limits to the distances to the sources and to the intensity of the radiation from the sources. These limits are calculated under the assumptions that the bursters are neutron stars which emit uncollimated gamma rays. The principal results are that the space density of the gamma-ray burst sources exceeds approx.10 -6 pc -3 if the entire surface of the neutron star radiates and exceeds approx.10 -3 pc -3 if only a small cap or thin strip in the stellar surface radiates. In the former case the density of gamma-ray bursters is approx.1% of the inferred density of extinct pulsars, and in the latter case the mean mass density of burster sources is a few percent of the density of unidentified dark matter in the solar neighborhood. In both cases the X-ray intensity of the sources is far below the Rayleigh-Jeans limit, and the total flux is at most comparable to the Eddington limit. This implies that low-energy self-absorption near 10 keV is entirely negligible and that radiation-driven explosions are just barely possible

  16. X-band klystrons for Japan Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, H.; Odagiri, J.; Higo, T.; Yonezawa, H.; Yamaguchi, N.

    1992-01-01

    To achieve the acceleration gradient of 100 MeV/m necessary for the future linear collider in X-band, an RF power source which could produce more than 100 MW peak power with the pulse duration of 500 nsec is needed even with the factor 4 RF pulse compression system. As the first step for the development of the 100 MW class klystrons in X-band (11.424 GHz), a 30 MW class klystron named XB-50K was tested several times since 1990. XB-50K was tested up to the peak power of 18 MW with the pulse duration of 100 ns. A new 100 MW class klystron named XB-72K was designed and fabricated. Some test results of this klystron are reported. (Author) 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in some heavy metal oxide borate glasses at 662 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, A.; Bhatti, S.S.; Singh, K.J.; Thind, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficient (μ) and mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of glasses in three systems: xPbO(1-x)B 2 O 3 , 0.25PbO.xCdO(0.75-x)B 2 O 3 and xBi 2 O 3 (1-x)B 2 O 3 were measured at 662 keV. Appreciable variations were noted in the attenuation coefficients due to changes in the chemical composition of glasses. In addition to this, absorption cross-sections per atom were also calculated. A comparison of shielding properties of these glasses with standar d shielding materials like lead, lead glass and concrete has proven that these glasses have a potential application as transparent radiation shielding. (orig.)

  18. Axial and Radial Forces of Cross-Bridges Depend on Lattice Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. David; Regnier, Michael; Daniel, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all mechanochemical models of the cross-bridge treat myosin as a simple linear spring arranged parallel to the contractile filaments. These single-spring models cannot account for the radial force that muscle generates (orthogonal to the long axis of the myofilaments) or the effects of changes in filament lattice spacing. We describe a more complex myosin cross-bridge model that uses multiple springs to replicate myosin's force-generating power stroke and account for the effects of lattice spacing and radial force. The four springs which comprise this model (the 4sXB) correspond to the mechanically relevant portions of myosin's structure. As occurs in vivo, the 4sXB's state-transition kinetics and force-production dynamics vary with lattice spacing. Additionally, we describe a simpler two-spring cross-bridge (2sXB) model which produces results similar to those of the 4sXB model. Unlike the 4sXB model, the 2sXB model requires no iterative techniques, making it more computationally efficient. The rate at which both multi-spring cross-bridges bind and generate force decreases as lattice spacing grows. The axial force generated by each cross-bridge as it undergoes a power stroke increases as lattice spacing grows. The radial force that a cross-bridge produces as it undergoes a power stroke varies from expansive to compressive as lattice spacing increases. Importantly, these results mirror those for intact, contracting muscle force production. PMID:21152002

  19. Proceedings of the Army Numerical Analysis Conference (11th) Held at Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa., on 13-14 February 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile , January 13 - 18, 1969. 2. English, G. W., and Adams, P. F., "Experiments on Laterally... Chile , January 13 - 18, 1969. 4. Wakabayashi, M., "Frames Under Strong Impulsive, Wind or Seismic Loading", Proceedings of the International...while 501 / f(Vzb) = A.. ,. » _i/.. \\i i .. rv»i* e’(x ) + u.[g’(x ) - g’ixj] + vb[h’(xa) - h’(xb)] + V’^ + vIh ’(xb) (uaWV V Lhl

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    21 sept. 2017 ... XA avait aux deux yeux, une AV à 8/10 et XB, une AV de 3/10 améliorée au trou sténopéïque à 7/10 en faveur d'une amétropie. XA présentait un ptosis bilatéral qui remontait à l'âge de 2 ans avec une action du releveur de la paupière supérieure (RPS) à 7 mm et XB, un ptosis bilatéral remontant à l'âge de ...

  1. Clinical implementation and evaluation of the Acuros dose calculation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chenyu; Combine, Anthony G; Bednarz, Greg; Lalonde, Ronald J; Hu, Bin; Dickens, Kathy; Wynn, Raymond; Pavord, Daniel C; Saiful Huq, M

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to validate the Acuros XB dose calculation algorithm for a Varian Clinac iX linac in our clinics, and subsequently compare it with the wildely used AAA algorithm. The source models for both Acuros XB and AAA were configured by importing the same measured beam data into Eclipse treatment planning system. Both algorithms were validated by comparing calculated dose with measured dose on a homogeneous water phantom for field sizes ranging from 6 cm × 6 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Central axis and off-axis points with different depths were chosen for the comparison. In addition, the accuracy of Acuros was evaluated for wedge fields with wedge angles from 15 to 60°. Similarly, variable field sizes for an inhomogeneous phantom were chosen to validate the Acuros algorithm. In addition, doses calculated by Acuros and AAA at the center of lung equivalent tissue from three different VMAT plans were compared to the ion chamber measured doses in QUASAR phantom, and the calculated dose distributions by the two algorithms and their differences on patients were compared. Computation time on VMAT plans was also evaluated for Acuros and AAA. Differences between dose-to-water (calculated by AAA and Acuros XB) and dose-to-medium (calculated by Acuros XB) on patient plans were compared and evaluated. For open 6 MV photon beams on the homogeneous water phantom, both Acuros XB and AAA calculations were within 1% of measurements. For 23 MV photon beams, the calculated doses were within 1.5% of measured doses for Acuros XB and 2% for AAA. Testing on the inhomogeneous phantom demonstrated that AAA overestimated doses by up to 8.96% at a point close to lung/solid water interface, while Acuros XB reduced that to 1.64%. The test on QUASAR phantom showed that Acuros achieved better agreement in lung equivalent tissue while AAA underestimated dose for all VMAT plans by up to 2.7%. Acuros XB computation time was about three times faster than AAA for VMAT plans, and

  2. Are Gravitational Waves Spinning Down PSR J1023+0038?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, B; Patruno, A

    2017-10-20

    The pulsar J1023+0038 rotates with a frequency ν≈592  Hz and has been observed to transition between a radio state, during which it is visible as a millisecond radio pulsar, and a low-mass x-ray binary (LMXB) state, during which accretion powered x-ray pulsations are visible. Timing during the two phases reveals that during the LMXB phase the neutron star is spinning down at a rate of ν[over ˙]≈-3×10^{-15}  Hz/s, which is approximately 27% faster than the rate measured during the radio phase, ν[over ˙]≈-2.4×10^{-15}  Hz/s, and is at odds with the predictions of accretion models. We suggest that the increase in spin-down rate is compatible with gravitational wave emission, particularly with the creation of a "mountain" during the accretion phase. We show that asymmetries in pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crust can lead to a large enough mass quadrupole to explain the observed spin-down rate, which thus far has no other self-consistent explanation. We also suggest two observational tests of this scenario, involving radio timing at the onset of the next millisecond radio pulsar phase, when the mountain should dissipate, and accurate timing during the next LMXB phase to track the increase in torque as the mountain builds up. Another possibility is that an unstable r mode with an amplitude α≈5×10^{-8} may be present in the system.

  3. The X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Berkeley, M.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Kalogera, V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (approximately equals 2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L(sub x) approximately greater than (5-10) × 10(exp 37) erg s(exp -1)) per unit K-band luminosity (L(sub K); a proxy for stellar mass) than the "old" early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (approximately equals 8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of 2-3 excess of L(sub X)/L(sub K) for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  4. Spectral-Timing Analysis of Kilohetrz Quasi-Periodic Osciallations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackett, Edward; Troyer, Jon; Peille, Philippe; Barret, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations or kHz QPOs are intensity variations that occur in the X-ray band observed in neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems. In such systems, matter is transferred from a secondary low-mass star to a neutron star via the process of accretion. kHz QPOs occur on the timescale of the inner accretion flow and may carry signatures of the physics of strong gravity (c2 ~ GM/R) and possibly clues to constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS). Both the timing behavior of kHz QPOs and the time-averaged spectra of these systems have been studied extensively. No model derived from these techniques has been able to illuminate the origin of kHz QPOs. Spectral-timing is an analysis technique that can be used to derive information about the nature of physical processes occurring within the accretion flow on the timescale of the kHz QPO. To date, kHz QPOs of (4) neutron star LMXB systems have been studied with spectral-timing techniques. We present a comprehensive study of spectral-timing products of kHz QPOs from systems where data is available in the RXTE archive to demonstrate the promise of this technique to gain insights regarding the origin of kHz QPOs. Using data averaged over the entire RXTE archive, we show correlated time-lags as a function of QPO frequency and energy, as well as energy-dependent covariance spectra for the various LMXB systems where spectral-timing analysis is possible. We find similar trends in all average spectral-timing products for the objects studied. This suggests a common origin of kHz QPOs.

  5. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-Ray Emission Through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 MS Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Mineo, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Eurfrasio, R. T.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lou, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z (is) approx. 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the approx. 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame (is) less than 1 keV emission at z (is) less than 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z (is) approx. 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with stellar mass and SFR, respectively. We find L2 -10 keV(LMXB)/stellar mass alpha (1+z)(sub 2-3) and L2 -10 keV(HMXB)/SFR alpha (1+z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non—negative minimum biased estimator performs better under strong collinearity. Key words/phrases: Jackknife estimators, mean square error, non negative minimum biased estimator, naive estimator, pseudo-values. INTRODUCTION. Consider the linear regression model M {y,XB,031n}, where y is a random vector.

  7. WHEN THE DISTURBANCES ARE SPATIALLY CORRELATED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    correlation, spatial error process. INTRODUCTION. Consider the linear regression model for spatial correlation y=XB +u, u=Ce, (1) where y is a Txl observable random vector, X is a Txk matrix of known constants with full column rank k, B is a k xl vector of unknown parameters,. :2 is a Txl random vector with expectation zero ...

  8. 78 FR 78955 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0060] Application for Final... AP088412XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United...

  9. 78 FR 2672 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0101] Application for Final..., AP078595XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United...

  10. Nonlinear Feedback Control of the Rotary Inverted Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Feedback linearization has advantages over linearized control because of the ability to operate over a wider range of motion than the small...1sin 2 sin 2 sin 02 2 sin( )1 sin 2 2 xb J x J x x m Ll x x x D x gm l xJ x b f f x

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04005-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available G898233 ) pastbac066xb17.b1.ab1 Res147 1 Pasteuria penetran... 48 0.86 1 ( CG897330 ) pastbac049xe11.b1.ab1 Res147 1 Pasteuria... penetran... 48 0.86 1 ( CG896500 ) pastbac026xc21.b1.ab1 Res147 1 Pasteuria

  12. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. WJ He, SC Li, LL Ye, H Liu, QW Wang, WD Han, XB Fu, ZL Chen. Abstract. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro, including cardiomyocytes. Successful applications of ...

  13. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Density functional theory study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    paritosh

    Department of Chemistry, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, 788 011, India. Email: paritos_au@yahoo.co.in. Table of Contents. Table S1: BSSE correction of energy (eV) including of DFT derived RhnX (n=1-7 and X=B,. Al or Ga) clusters. …Page 2. Figure S2: Dipole moment and magnetic moments of doped clusters…

  14. 77 FR 24669 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... collection in the U.S. recreational yellowfin tuna fishery and the relationship to international yellowfin...-XB162 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public conference call. SUMMARY: In order to better inform the...

  15. Sedative and mechanical hypoalgesic effects of butorphanol in xylazine-premedicated donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, I; Castillo-Alcala, F

    2015-05-01

    Combinations of α2 -adrenoceptor and opioid agonists are commonly used in equids, but little scientific information is available on donkeys. To compare the sedative and hypoalgesic effects of xylazine alone or in combination with different dosages of butorphanol in donkeys. Placebo-controlled, operator-blinded, randomised, crossover, Latin square study. Six donkeys received intravenous normal saline and normal saline (NS-NS); xylazine (0.5 mg/kg bwt) and normal saline (X-NS); xylazine and 10 μg/kg bwt butorphanol (X-B10); xylazine and 20 μg/kg bwt butorphanol (X-B20); xylazine and 30 μg/kg bwt butorphanol (X-B30); and xylazine and 40 μg/kg bwt butorphanol (X-B40). Sedation scores (SS), head height above ground (HHAG) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) were assessed before and for 120 min after treatment. Areas under the curve (AUC) values for 0-30, 30-60 and 60-120 min were computed for SS, HHAG and MNT. As appropriate, differences between treatments were analysed using the Friedman test followed by Dunn's test and a repeated measures one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test; significance was set at Pdonkeys undergoing certain clinical procedures. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri A. Achari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant.

  17. 77 FR 23662 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB170 Mid-Atlantic... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Social and Economic Sub-Committee of the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific...

  18. 77 FR 19164 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

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    2012-03-30

    ... RIN 0648-XB121 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery..., United States Virgin Islands (USVI) St. Thomas, USVI, San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), Ponce, PR, and Mayaguez... INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Fairclough or Randy Blankinship at 727-824-5399. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Atlantic...

  19. 77 FR 13097 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 15661, 10027, and 15685

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB053 Endangered... take green (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles for scientific research... permit to take green and hawksbill sea turtles had been submitted by the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  20. 77 FR 13096 - Endangered Species; File No. 16598

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB054 Endangered... turtles for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must be received on or... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and...

  1. 77 FR 40588 - Endangered Species; File No. 16598

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB054 Endangered... (Caretta caretta), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles..., and Kemp's ridley sea turtles had been submitted by the above-named organization. The requested permit...

  2. 77 FR 15997 - Endangered Species; File No. 15672

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB083 Endangered... permit to take leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) for purposes of scientific research... request for a scientific research permit to take leatherback sea turtles had been submitted by the above...

  3. 77 FR 45571 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... [Docket No. 120425024-1024-01] RIN 0648-XB089 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in Hawaii and Notice of Status Review AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... 90-day finding on a petition to identify the Hawaiian population of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas...

  4. 77 FR 10724 - Endangered Species; File No. 16253

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB027 Endangered... (Caretta caretta) sea turtles for scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are... take loggerhead, green, Kemp's ridley, olive ridley, leatherback, and hawksbill sea turtles had been...

  5. Study of the effective inverse photon efficiency using optical emission spectroscopy combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwei; Li, Cong; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The hydrocarbon impurities formation is inevitable due to wall erosion in a long pulse high performance scenario with carbon-based plasma facing materials in fusion devices. The standard procedure to determine the chemical erosion yield in situ is by means of inverse photon efficiency D/XB. In this work, the conversion factor between CH4 flux and photon flux of CH A → X transition (effective inverse photon efficiency PE-1) was measured directly using a cascaded arc plasma simulator with argon/methane. This study shows that the measured PE-1 is different from the calculated D/XB. We compared the photon flux measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calculated by electron impact excitation of CH(X) which was diagnosed by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). It seems that charge exchange and dissociative recombination processes are the main channels of CH(A) production and removal which lead to the inconsistency of PE -1 and D/XB at lower temperature. Meanwhile, the fraction of excited CH(A) produced by dissociative recombination processes was investigated, and we found it increased with Te in the range from 4% to 13% at Te definition instead of D/XB since the electron impact excitation is not the only channel of CH(A) production. These results have an effect on evaluating the yield of chemical erosion in divertor of fusion device.

  6. A new intelligent approach for air traffic control using gravitational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, poor management of this congestion may lead to a lot of flight delays, increase of operational errors by air traffic control personnel ... the PLT [8–11], and decreasing the duration of scheduling. [12, 13]. Hansen [3], Hu ...... [14] Hu X-B and Paolo E D 2009 An efficient genetic algorithm with uniform crossover for air ...

  7. 77 FR 57559 - Endangered Species; File No. 13330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section 2... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB144 Endangered...

  8. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Xiong F., Liu H.-Y., Duan X.-B. and Chen D.-Q. 2014 Identification and ... threatened freshwater fish, Botia superciliaris. J. Genet. 93, e5-e7. Online only: ..... in fo rm atio n content. Journal of Genetics Vol. 93, Online Resources e6 ...

  10. Assistance tool commissioner of new algorithms of systems planning of therapy with ionizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinado, D.; Ricos, B.; Alonso, S.; Chinillach, N.; Bellido, P.; Tortosa, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Commissioner of a new scheduling algorithm is associated with a high number of hours of work and measures. In order to optimize the development of the Commissioner for the AAA algorithms and Acuros XB within planning Eclipse (V.10) system marketed by Varian and have developed a tool in Microsoft Excel format where the different tests have been included to perform. (Author)

  11. Assistance tool commissioner of new algorithms of systems planning of therapy with ionizing; Herramienta de asistencia en el comisionado de nuevos algoritmos de sistemas de planificacion de terapia con radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinado, D.; Ricos, B.; Alonso, S.; Chinillach, N.; Bellido, P.; Tortosa, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Commissioner of a new scheduling algorithm is associated with a high number of hours of work and measures. In order to optimize the development of the Commissioner for the AAA algorithms and Acuros XB within planning Eclipse (V.10) system marketed by Varian and have developed a tool in Microsoft Excel format where the different tests have been included to perform. (Author)

  12. Muusika tuppa või õue / Harri Slip, Glen Pilvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slip, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Juhtmevabad kõlarid: Bose SoundLink Colour, Creative Roar 2, Denon Envaya Mini, JBL Charge 3, Klipsch Groove, Onkyo T3 Philips BT6600, Pioneer XW-BTSP70, Samsung Level Box Pro, Sony SRS-XB3, Ultimate Ears Boom 2. Etalon: Sony SRS-HG1

  13. Economic Viability of the Use of Local Pseudo-Oils for Drilling Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Applications” Journal of Petroleum and Gas. Engineering, Vol. 6(4) ... productive, onshore horizontal wells in India. (Sawyer et al. ... fewer effects on benthic communities than the early generation oil ... Home-Cooking Oil (XB1000). Drilling fluids ..... mining and microbial mineral recovery and environmental.

  14. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XB116 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2011 Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate...

  15. 78 FR 42935 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16992

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... permit has been issued to Paul Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of... captivity at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, Hawaii. Researchers will conduct hearing... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine...

  16. 77 FR 12010 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... NMFS to study and document the health and biology of wild marine mammals as well as those marine... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB040 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  17. 78 FR 21112 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16992 and 14535

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... hereby given that (1) Paul Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P... (Pseudorca crassidens) maintained in captivity at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, HI... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine...

  18. 77 FR 19146 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XB122 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... first seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  19. 77 FR 12213 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Amendment 80...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XB044 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery by... shallow-water species fishery by Amendment 80 vessels in the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200...

  20. Evolution towards and beyond accretion-induced collapse of massive white dwarfs and formation of millisecond pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Tauris, Thomas M.; Sanyal, Debashis; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Langer, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are generally believed to be old neutron stars (NSs), formed via type Ib/c core-collapse supernovae (SNe), which have been spun up to high rotation rates via accretion from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). In an alternative formation channel, NSs are produced via the accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of a massive white dwarf (WD) in a close binary. Here we investigate binary evolution leading to AIC and examine if NSs formed in this way can subsequ...

  1. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unkno...... behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity....

  2. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  3. Beasts in Lambda-CDM zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    Recent astronomical discoveries of supermassive black holes (quasars), gamma-bursters, super-novae, and dust at high redshifts, z = (5-10), are reviewed. Such a dense population of the early universe is at odds with the conventional mechanisms of its possible origin. Similar data from the contemporary universe, which are also in conflict with natural expectations, are considered too. Two possible mechanisms are suggested, at least one of which can potentially solve all these problems. As a by-product of the last model, an abundant cosmological antimatter may be created.

  4. X-Ray Spectral Diagnostics of Gamma-Ray Burst Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerels; Kuulkers; Heise; Liedahl

    2000-05-20

    Recently, detection of discrete features in the X-ray afterglow spectra of GRB 970508 and GRB 970828 was reported. The most natural interpretation of these features is that they are redshifted Fe K emission complexes. The identification of the line emission mechanism has drastic implications for the inferred mass of radiating material and hence the nature of the burst site. X-ray spectroscopy provides a direct observational constraint on these properties of gamma-ray bursters. We briefly discuss how these constraints arise in the context of an application to the spectrum of GRB 970508.

  5. Exploding superstars understanding supernovae and gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Mazure, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The exceptional cosmic history and the fabulous destinies of exploding stars – supernovae and gamma-ray bursters – are highly fertile areas of research and are also very special tools to further our understanding of the universe. In this book, cosmologists Dr Alain Mazure and Dr Stéphane Basa throw light on the assemblage of facts, hypotheses and cosmological conclusions and show how these ‘beacons’ illuminate their immediate surroundings and allow us to study the vast cosmos, like searchlights revealing the matter comprising our universe.

  6. Half-life determination of T{sub z} = -1 and T{sub z} = -(1)/(2) proton-rich nuclei and the β decay of {sup 58}Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, L.; Oktem, Y.; Cakirli, R.B.; Ganioglu, E.; Susoy, G. [Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Orrigo, S.E.A.; Montaner-Piza, A.; Rubio, B. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Fujita, Y. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Gelletly, W. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom); Blank, B.; Ascher, P.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grevy, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite de Bordeaux, Gradignan (France); Adachi, T.; Fujita, H.; Tamii, A. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Algora, A. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Inst. of Nuclear Research of the Hung. Acad. of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); France, G. de; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Marques, F.M. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Caen, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, IN2P3/CNRS, Caen (France); Molina, F. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Perrot, L. [IPN Orsay, Orsay (France); Raabe, R. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Srivastava, P.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roorkee (India)

    2017-06-15

    We have measured the β-decay half-lives of 16 neutron-deficient nuclei with T{sub z} = -1/2 and -1, ranging from chromium to germanium. They were produced in an experiment carried out at GANIL and optimized for the production of {sup 58}Zn, for which in addition we present the decay scheme and absolute Fermi and Gamow-Teller transition strengths. Since all of these nuclei lie on the rp-process pathway, the T{sub 1/2} values are important ingredients for the rp-process reaction flow calculations and for models of X-ray bursters. (orig.)

  7. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  8. Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of GRB 000301C: CCD imaging and near-ultraviolet MAMA spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the c-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R similar or equal to 21.50 +/- 0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy...... Telescope images appear to lie on the stellar field of a host galaxy, and as the large H I column density measured here and in later ground-based observations is unlikely on a random line of sight, we believe we are probably seeing absorption from H I in the host galaxy. In any case, this represents...

  9. Very low luminosity stars with very large amplitude flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    CCD frames of CZ Cnc, KY Cep, the gamma-ray burster optical transient, and NSV 12006 are analyzed. Also studied are 549 archival photographic plates of the CZ Cnc field. These observations are compared with the data of Lovas (1976). Flare events on CZ Cnc are examined. Based on the data it is noted that CZ Cnc is a main-sequence star, has a magnitude of 16.1, a distance of 100 pc, occasional large-amplitude flares, and frequent flares with amplitudes greater than 4 mag. 36 refs

  10. Brany Liouville inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nikolaos; Nanopoulos, Dimitri; Sakharov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    We present a specific model for cosmological inflation driven by the Liouville field in a non-critical supersymmetric string framework, in which the departure from criticality is due to open strings stretched between two moving Type-II 5-branes. We use WMAP and other data on fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background to fix the parameters of the model, such as the relative separation and velocity of the 5-branes, respecting also the constraints imposed by data on light propagation from distant gamma-ray bursters. The model also suggests a small, relaxing component in the present vacuum energy that may accommodate the breaking of supersymmetry

  11. PROPERTIES OF THE 24 DAY MODULATION IN GX 13+1 FROM NEAR-INFRARED AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Pearlman, Aaron B.; Buxton, Michelle; Levine, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    A 24 day period for the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 was previously proposed on the basis of seven years of RXTE All-Sky Monitor (ASM) observations and it was suggested that this was the orbital period of the system. This would make it one of the longest known orbital periods for a Galactic LMXB powered by Roche lobe overflow. We present here the results of (1) K-band photometry obtained with the SMARTS Consortium CTIO 1.3 m telescope on 68 nights over a 10 month interval; (2) continued monitoring with the RXTE ASM, analyzed using a semi-weighted power spectrum instead of the data filtering technique previously used; and (3) Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray observations. Modulation near 24 days is seen in both the K band and additional statistically independent ASM X-ray observations. However, the modulation in the ASM is not strictly periodic. The periodicity is also not detected in the Swift BAT observations, but modulation at the same relative level as seen with the ASM cannot be ruled out. If the 24 day period is the orbital period of system, this implies that the X-ray modulation is caused by structure that is not fixed in location. A possible mechanism for the X-ray modulation is the dipping behavior recently reported from XMM-Newton observations.

  12. Discovery of new dipper stars with K2: a window into the inner disc region of T Tauri stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Christina; Hodgkin, Simon; Kennedy, Grant

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, a new class of young stellar object (YSO) has been defined, referred to as dippers, where large transient drops in flux are observed. These dips are too large to be attributed to stellar variability, last from hours to days and can reduce the flux of a star by 10-50 per cent. This variability has been attributed to occultations by warps or accretion columns near the inner edge of circumstellar discs. Here, we present 95 dippers in the Upper Scorpius association and ρ Ophiuchus cloud complex found in K2 Campaign 2 data using supervised machine learning with a random forest classifier. We also present 30 YSOs that exhibit brightening events on the order of days, known as bursters. Not all dippers and bursters are known members, but all exhibit infrared excesses and are consistent with belonging to either of the two young star-forming regions. We find 21.0 ± 5.5 per cent of stars with discs are dippers for both regions combined. Our entire dipper sample consists only of late-type (KM) stars, but we show that biases limit dipper discovery for earlier spectral types. Using the dipper properties as a proxy, we find that the temperature at the inner disc edge is consistent with interferometric results for similar and earlier type stars.

  13. The Terzan 2 Cluster Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The dramatic change in x-ray emission from the Terzan 2 cluster is shown in this series of 2.5-minute exposures taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory immediately before, during, and after the burst. Total exposure (20 minutes) of the object, including the outburst, is shown in the fourth photograph. These images represent the first observation of an x-ray burst in progress. The actual burst lasted 50 seconds. Among the rarest, and most bizarre, phenomena observed by x-ray astronomers are the so-called cosmic bursters (x-ray sources that suddenly and dramatically increase in intensity then subside). These sudden bursts of intense x-ray radiation apparently come from compact objects with a diameter smaller than 30 miles (48 kilometers). Yet, despite their minuscule size, a typical x-ray burster can release more x-ray energy in a single brief burst than our Sun does in an entire week. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO was designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. A flavor dependent gauge symmetry, predictive radiative seesaw and LHCb anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a predictive radiative seesaw model at one-loop level with a flavor dependent gauge symmetry U(1xB3−xe−μ+τ and Majorana fermion dark matter. For the neutrino mass matrix, we obtain an A1 type texture (with two zeros that provides us several predictions such as the normal ordering for the neutrino masses. We analyze the constraints from lepton flavor violations, relic density of dark matter, and collider physics for the new U(1xB3−xe−μ+τ gauge boson. Within the allowed region, the LHCb anomalies in B→K⁎μ+μ− and B→Kℓ+ℓ− with ℓ=e or μ can be resolved, and such Z′ could be also observed at the LHC.

  15. Methods of etching a substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmo, J J; Gambino, R J; Harper, J M.E.

    1979-05-16

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail.

  16. Methods of etching a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Harper, J.M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of etching a substrate. The substrate is located opposite a target electrode in a vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target electrode is bombarded with energetic particles of atomic dimensions. The target electrode is an intermetallic composition (compound, alloy or finely divided homogeneous mixture) of two metals A and B such that upon bombardment the electrode emits negative ions of metal B which have sufficient energy to produce etching of the substrate. Many target materials are exemplified. Typically the metal A has an electronegativity XA and metal B has an electronegativity XB such that Xb - Xa is greater than about 2.55 electron volts, with the exception of combinations of metals having a fractional ionicity Q less than about 0.314. The source of the energetic particles may be an ionised gas in the vacuum chamber. The apparatus and its mode of operation are described in detail. (U.K.)

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Belosi, M. F.; Cozzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were −8%± 16%, −3%± 15%, −16%± 18%, and −9%± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and −10%± 14%, −5%± 12%, −19%± 17%, and −13%± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: −0.1%± 0.3%, 0.0%± 0.4%, −0.3%± 0.3%, and −0.1%± 0.3% for AAA and −0.2%± 0.4%, −0.1%± 0.4%, −0.5%± 0.5%, and −0.3%± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave

  18. Re4As6S3, a thio-spinel-related cluster system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besnard, Celine; Svensson, Christer; Ståhl, Kenny

    2003-01-01

    . The rhenium atoms form tetrahedral clusters linked via tetrahedral arsenic clusters to produce an NaCl-type arrangement. The oxidation state of rhenium is IV and the number of electrons shared by the rhenium atoms in the cluster is 12. The structure is based on an ordered defect thio-spinel A((1-x))B(2)X(4......) where the B-type atoms form tetrahedral clusters....

  19. Development and Production of Array Barrier Detectors at SCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Benny, Y.; Berkowicz, E.; Cohen, Y.; Dobromislin, R.; Fraenkel, R.; Gershon, G.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Ilan, E.; Karni, Y.; Klin, O.; Kodriano, Y.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nevo, I.; Nitzani, M.; Pivnik, I.; Rappaport, N.; Rosenberg, O.; Shtrichman, I.; Shkedy, L.; Snapi, N.; Talmor, R.; Tessler, R.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2017-09-01

    XB n or XB p barrier detectors exhibit diffusion-limited dark currents comparable with mercury cadmium telluride Rule-07 and high quantum efficiencies. In 2011, SemiConductor Devices (SCD) introduced "HOT Pelican D", a 640 × 512/15- μm pitch InAsSb/AlSbAs XB n mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detector with a 4.2- μm cut-off and an operating temperature of ˜150 K. Its low power (˜3 W), high pixel operability (>99.5%) and long mean time to failure make HOT Pelican D a highly reliable integrated detector-cooler product with a low size, weight and power. More recently, "HOT Hercules" was launched with a 1280 × 1024/15- μm format and similar advantages. A 3-megapixel, 10- μm pitch version ("HOT Blackbird") is currently completing development. For long-wave infrared applications, SCD's 640 × 512/15- μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" XB p type II superlattice (T2SL) detector has a ˜9.3- μm cut-off wavelength. The detector contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, and is fabricated into focal plane array (FPA) detectors using standard production processes including hybridization to a digital silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), glue underfill and substrate thinning. The ROIC has been designed so that the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector family. The Pelican-D LW FPA has a quantum efficiency of ˜50%, and operates at 77 K with a pixel operability of >99% and noise equivalent temperature difference of 13 mK at 30 Hz and F/2.7.

  20. Efficient Scores, Variance Decompositions and Monte Carlo Swindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-28

    to ;r Then a version .of Pythagoras ’ theorem gives the variance decomposition (6.1) varT var S var o(T-S) P P0 0 0 One way to see this is to note...complete sufficient statistics for (B, a) , and that the standard- ized residuals a(y - XB) 6 are ancillary. Basu’s sufficiency- ancillarity theorem

  1. Calculations of Shipboard Heat Exchangers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-18

    40 C. Absolute, either real, pxessuze: Pa F6 ( where P6 - atmospheric, or tarcmetric, pressure, am Hg; p - overpressure (reading mancmeter), ikm Hal. A...21,oA 44 wxv BOX. CT. I *OyllTKU. .2lObin 0.0703 Acca (32) ()I *ynl’/XB. ite0Ms 0.068o 4(?ii. anm I *0yHlt/Ku. itoil. 51 .712 .1A PT. CT. DOC

  2. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Mg composites containing nano-B4C hybridized micro-Ti particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, S.; Sabat, R.K.; Jayalakshmi, S.; Suwas, S.; Gupta, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of extruded Mg composites containing micro-Ti particulates hybridized with varying contents of nano-B 4 C are investigated, and compared with Mg-5.6Ti. Microstructural characterization showed the presence of uniformly distributed micro-Ti particles embedded with nano-B 4 C particulates that resulted in significant grain refinement. Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses of Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM hybrid composites showed that the addition of hybridized particle resulted in relatively more recrystallized grains, realignment of basal planes and extension of weak basal fibre texture when compared to Mg-5.6Ti. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicated improved strength with ductility retention in Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM hybrid composites. When compared to Mg-5.6Ti, the superior strength properties of the Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM hybrid composites are attributed to the presence of nano-reinforcements, the uniform distribution of the hybridized particles, better interfacial bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and the matrix grain refinement achieved by nano-B 4 C addition. The ductility enhancement obtained in hybrid composites can be attributed to the fibre texture spread and favourable basal plane orientation achieved due to nano B 4 C addition. - Highlights: • Micro-Ti particulates are hybridized with varying weight fractions of nano-B 4 C. • The hybrid mixture was used as hybrid reinforcements in magnesium. • Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM are compared with Mg-5.6Ti. • Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis conducted to study the microtexture evolution

  3. Surface electromyographic evaluation of jaw muscles in children with unilateral crossbite and lateral shift in the early mixed dentition. Sexual dimorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenguas, Leticia; Alarcón, José-Antonio; Venancio, Filipa; Kassem, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the activity of jaw muscles at rest and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC) in children with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB) and functional lateral shift in the early mixed dentition and to evaluate sex differences. Material and Methods: The sample included 30 children (15 males, 15 females) aged 6 to 10 years old, with UPXB and functional mandibular lateral shift (≥1.5 mm) in the early mixed dentition. sEMG activity coming from the muscle areas (anterior temporalis [AT], posterior temporalis [PT], masseter [MA] and suprahyoid [SH]) were obtained from both the crossbite (XB) and noncrossbite (NONXB) sides at mandibular rest position. sEMG acti-vity of the bilateral AT and MA muscles sides was obtained during MVC. Asymmetry and activity indexes were calculated for each muscle area at rest and during MVC; the MA/TA ratio during MVC was also determined. Results: At rest, no differences were found between sexes for any muscle areas or asymmetry and activity indexes. No differences were found between XB and NONXB sides. During MVC, however, significant sex differences were found in AT and MA activity, with higher sEMG values in males than in females, on both XB and NONXB sides. Asymmetry indexes, activity indexes and MA/AT ratios did not show significant differences between the sexes. Activity was symmetric both in males and in females. Conclusions: At rest, no sex differences were found, but during MVC males showed higher activity than did females in both XB and NONXB AT and MA muscle areas. Muscular activity was symmetrical at rest and during MVC in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of UPXB and lateral shift in the early mixed dentition. Key words:Unilateral crossbite, mandibular shift, jaw muscles, sEMG, early mixed dentition. PMID:22926468

  4. End modes in arrays of modulated Su–Schrieffer–Heeger chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... is not an edge mode. For no other combination of XA,. XB and φ investigated in this work, could one obtain such a spectrum. Wavefunction of all the edge modes is similar to that obtained in a chain with all NNN terms modulated. To study the effect of the presence of other chains and to find if such states are ...

  5. Evolution of gluon TMDs from small to moderate x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Andrey [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Recently we obtained an evolution equation of gluon TMDs, which addresses a problem of unification of different kinematic regimes. It describes evolution in the whole range of Bjorken $x_B$ and the whole range of transverse momentum $k_\\perp$. In this notes I study different limits of this evolution equation and show how it yields several well-known and some previously unknown results.

  6. Thermophysical Properties of Ammonium-Based Bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide Ionic Liquids: Volumetric and Transport Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machanová, Karolina; Boisset, A.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Anouti, M.; Bendová, Magdalena; Jacquemin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 8 (2012), s. 2227-2235 ISSN 0021-9568. [European Conference on Thermophysical Properties /19./. Thessaloniki, 28.08.2011-01.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P141; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB021009 Grant - others:Égide PHC(FR) 22000XB Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * density * transport properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2012

  7. Structure-Energy Relationships of Halogen Bonds in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholfield, Matthew R; Ford, Melissa Coates; Carlsson, Anna-Carin C; Butta, Hawera; Mehl, Ryan A; Ho, P Shing

    2017-06-06

    The structures and stabilities of proteins are defined by a series of weak noncovalent electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bond (HB) interactions. In this study, we have designed and engineered halogen bonds (XBs) site-specifically to study their structure-energy relationship in a model protein, T4 lysozyme. The evidence for XBs is the displacement of the aromatic side chain toward an oxygen acceptor, at distances that are equal to or less than the sums of their respective van der Waals radii, when the hydroxyl substituent of the wild-type tyrosine is replaced by a halogen. In addition, thermal melting studies show that the iodine XB rescues the stabilization energy from an otherwise destabilizing substitution (at an equivalent noninteracting site), indicating that the interaction is also present in solution. Quantum chemical calculations show that the XB complements an HB at this site and that solvent structure must also be considered in trying to design molecular interactions such as XBs into biological systems. A bromine substitution also shows displacement of the side chain, but the distances and geometries do not indicate formation of an XB. Thus, we have dissected the contributions from various noncovalent interactions of halogens introduced into proteins, to drive the application of XBs, particularly in biomolecular design.

  8. Improved magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Pr-Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by Hf addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingzheng; Lei, Weikai; Zeng, Qingwen; Quan, Qichen; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Renhui; Hu, Xianjun; He, Lunke; Qi, Zhiqi; Ju, Zhihua; Zhong, Minglong; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-05-01

    Nd2Fe14B-type permanent magnets have been widely applied in various fields such as wind power, voice coil motors, and medical instruments. The large temperature dependence of coercivity, however, limits their further applications. We have systematically investigated the magnetic properties, thermal stabilities and coercivity mechanisms of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx (x=0, 0.5) nanocrystalline magnets fabricated by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The results indicate that the influence of Hf addition is significant on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of the (PrNd)2Fe14B-type sintered magnets. It is shown that the sample with x = 0.5 at 300 K has much higher coercivity and remanent magnetization than those counterparts without Hf. The temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets are improved significantly from -0.23 %/K, -0.57 %/K for the sample at x = 0 to -0.17 %/K, -0.49 %/K for the sample at x = 0.5 in the temperature range of 300-400 K. Furthermore, it is found out that the domain wall pinning mechanism is more likely responsible for enhancing the coercivity of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets.

  9. Exotic quarkonium states in CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Using large data samples of di-muon events, CMS can perform detailed measurements and searches for new states in the field of exotic quarkonium. We present our results on the production of prompt and non-prompt $\\rm X(3872)$, detected in the ${\\rm J}/\\psi \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay channel, which extend to higher $p_{\\rm T}$ values than in any previous measurement. The cross-section ratio with respect to the $\\psi(2S)$ is given differentially in $p_{\\rm T}$, as well as $p_{\\rm T}$ integrated. For the first time at the LHC, the fraction of $\\rm X(3872)$ coming from B hadron decays has been measured. After these studies of the charmonium $\\rm X$, we present a new search for its bottomonium counterpart, denoted as $\\rm X_b$, based on a data sample of pp collisions at 8 TeV collected by CMS in 2012. In analogy to the $\\rm X(3872)$ studies, the analysis uses the ${\\rm X_b} \\to \\Upsilon(1S) \\pi \\pi$ exclusive decay channel, with the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ decaying to $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ pairs. No evidence for $\\rm X_b$ is observed and up...

  10. Halogen bonding and pharmaceutical cocrystals: the case of a widely used preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrighi, Michele; Cavallo, Gabriella; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2013-05-06

    3-Iodo-2-propynyl-N-butylcarbamate (IPBC) is an iodinated antimicrobial product used globally as a preservative, fungicide, and algaecide. IPBC is difficult to obtain in pure form as well as to handle in industrial products because it tends to be sticky and clumpy. Here, we describe the preparation of four pharmaceutical cocrystals involving IPBC. The obtained cocrystals have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, solution and solid-state NMR, IR, and DSC analyses. In all the described cases the halogen bond (XB) is the key interaction responsible for the self-assembly of the pharmaceutical cocrystals thanks to the involvement of the 1-iodoalkyne moiety of IPBC, which functions as a very reliable XB-donor, with both neutral and anionic XB-acceptors. Most of the obtained cocrystals have improved properties with respect to the source API, in terms, e.g., of thermal stability. The cocrystal involving the GRAS excipient CaCl2 has superior powder flow characteristics compared to the pure IPBC, representing a promising solution to the handling issues related to the manufacturing of products containing IPBC.

  11. [Juvenile myasthenia gravis in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study of two consanguine sisters born from consanguinity in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneh, Nidain; Apetse, Kossivi; Diatewa, Bénédicte Marèbe; Domingo, Sidik Abou-Bakr; Agba, Aidé Isabelle; Ayena, Koffi Didier; Balogou, Koffi Agnon; Balo, Komi Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a rare acquired autoimmune pathology causing neuromuscular transmission impairment. Juvenile onset of myasthenia gravis is often characterized by ocular involvement. We report two cases of ocular juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG) in two siblings. They were two young girls, XA and XB, aged 11 and 9 years, of Malian origin, residing in Togo, born from first-degree of consanguinity presenting to Ophthalmology due to progressive decrease in visual acuity. XA showed visual acuity 8/10 on both eyes while XB showed improvement in visual acuity from 3/10 to 7/10 using a pinhole occluder, suggesting ametropia. XA had a 2-year history of bilateral ptosis lifting the upper eyelid of 7 mm, while XB had a 3-year history of bilateral ptosis with no lifting of the upper eyelid. Ice pack test was strongly positive in both patients. They had Cogan's lid twitch with paresis of the oculomotor nerve without diplopia. The dosage of acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies was normal. The diagnosis of JMG associated with ametropia was suspected. Ametropia was corrected by glasses and a specific treatment with pyridostigmine was initiated, but both patients were lost to follow-up. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis with inaugural ophthalmologic manifestation is rare but it can occur among children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies should be conducted to establish the features of this disease.

  12. Silencing of the Rice Gene LRR1 Compromises Rice Xa21 Transcript Accumulation and XA21-Mediated Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddell, Daniel F; Park, Chang-Jin; Thomas, Nicholas C; Canlas, Patrick E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-12-01

    The rice immune receptor XA21 confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight. We previously demonstrated that an auxilin-like protein, XA21 BINDING PROTEIN 21 (XB21), positively regulates resistance to Xoo. To further investigate the function of XB21, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen. We identified 22 unique XB21 interacting proteins, including LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT PROTEIN 1 (LRR1), which we selected for further analysis. Silencing of LRR1 in the XA21 genetic background (XA21-LRR1Ri) compromises resistance to Xoo compared with control XA21 plants. XA21-LRR1Ri plants have reduced Xa21 transcript levels and reduced expression of genes that serve as markers of XA21-mediated activation. Overexpression of LRR1 is insufficient to alter resistance to Xoo in rice lines lacking XA21. Taken together, our results indicate that LRR1 is required for wild-type Xa21 transcript expression and XA21-mediated immunity.

  13. Shear bond strength evaluation of chemically-cured and light-cured orthodontic adhesives after enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, J. C.; Krisnawati; Purbiati, M.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of enamel deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) before etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of Unite (UN; 3M Unitek) and Xihu-BIOM adhesive (XB). Fifty-two maxillary first premolars were divided into four groups: (1) UN and (2) XB according to manufacturer’s recommendation and (3) UN and (4) XB deproteinized with 5.25% NaOCl. Brackets were bonded, and a mechanical test was performed using a universal testing machine. The mean SBS value for groups A1, A2, B1, and B2 was 13.51 ± 2.552, 14.36 ± 2.902, 16.43 ± 2.615, and 13.05 ± 2.348 MPa, respectively. A statistically significant difference in SBSs was observed between chemically cured groups and between group B (p 0.05). NaOCl enamel deproteinization before acid etching has a significant effect on the SBS of Unite adhesive, but not on that of the Xihu-BIOM adhesive. Furthermore, a significant difference in the SBS of Unite and Xihu-BIOM adhesives within the enamel deproteinization group was observed in this study.

  14. Measurement of Exclusive $π^0$ Electroproduction Structure Functions and their Relationship to Transverse Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Niccolai, Silvia; Stoler, Paul; Adhikari, Krishna; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Bennett, Robert; Biselli, Angela; Bookwalter, Craig; Boyarinov, Sergey; Briscoe, William; Brooks, Williams; Burkert, Volker; Carman, Daniel; Celentano, Andrea; Chandavar, Shloka; Charles, Gabriel; Contalbrigo, Marco; Crede, Volker; D& #x27; Angelo, Annalisa; Daniel, Aji; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; Egiyan, Hovanes; El Alaoui, Ahmed; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Fleming, Jamie; Forest, Tony; Garcon, Michel; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francoi-Xavier; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Griffioen, Keith; Guegan, Baptiste; Guidal, Michel; Guo, Lei; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Heddle, David; Hicks, Kenneth; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Keller, Dustin; Khanddaker, Mahbubul; Khertarpal, Puneet; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Franz; Koirala, Suman; Kubarovsky, A; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kvaltine, Nicholas; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Mao, Yuqing; Markov, Nikolai; Martinez, D; Mayer, Michael; McKinnon, Bryan; Meyer, Curtis; Mineeva, Taisiya; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moutarde, Herve; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Pappalardo, Luciano; Permuzyan, Rafayel; Park, Kijun; Park, Sungkyun; Pasyuk, Eugene; Pereira, Sergio; Phelps, Evan; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Puckett, Andrew; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Rimal, Dipak; Ripani, Marco; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Saylor, Nicholas; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Seraydaryan, Heghine; Sharabian, Youri; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stepanyan, Samuel; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Taylor, Charles; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlasov, Alexander; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Walford, Natalie; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygan, Dennis; Wood, Michael; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2012-09-01

    Exclusive $\\pi^0$ electroproduction at a beam energy of 5.75 GeV has been measured with the Jefferson Lab CLAS spectrometer. Differential cross sections were measured at more than 1800 kinematic values in $Q^2$, $x_B$, $t$, and $\\phi_\\pi$, in the $Q^2$ range from 1.0 to 4.6 GeV$^2$,\\ $-t$ up to 2 GeV$^2$, and $x_B$ from 0.1 to 0.58. Structure functions $\\sigma_T +\\epsilon \\sigma_L, \\sigma_{TT}$ and $\\sigma_{LT}$ were extracted as functions of $t$ for each of 17 combinations of $Q^2$ and $x_B$. The data were compared directly with two handbag-based calculations including both longitudinal and transversity GPDs. Inclusion of only longitudinal GPDs very strongly underestimates $\\sigma_T +\\epsilon \\sigma_L$ and fails to account for $\\sigma_{TT}$ and $\\sigma_{LT}$, while inclusion of transversity GPDs brings the calculations into substantially better agreement with the data. There is very strong sensitivity to the relative contributions of nucleon helicity flip and helicity non-flip processes. The results confirm that exclusive $\\pi^0$ electroproduction offers direct experimental access to the transversity GPDs.

  15. Measurement of exclusive π(0) electroproduction structure functions and their relationship to transverse generalized parton distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlinskiy, I; Kubarovsky, V; Niccolai, S; Stoler, P; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Bennett, R P; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Garçon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Markov, N; Martinez, D; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Saylor, N; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2012-09-14

    Exclusive π(0) electroproduction at a beam energy of 5.75 GeV has been measured with the Jefferson Lab CLAS spectrometer. Differential cross sections were measured at more than 1800 kinematic values in Q(2), x(B), t, and ϕ(π), in the Q(2) range from 1.0 to 4.6  GeV(2), -t up to 2  GeV(2), and x(B) from 0.1 to 0.58. Structure functions σ(T)+ϵσ(L), σ(TT), and σ(LT) were extracted as functions of t for each of 17 combinations of Q(2) and x(B). The data were compared directly with two handbag-based calculations including both longitudinal and transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Inclusion of only longitudinal GPDs very strongly underestimates σ(T)+ϵσ(L) and fails to account for σ(TT) and σ(LT), while inclusion of transversity GPDs brings the calculations into substantially better agreement with the data. There is very strong sensitivity to the relative contributions of nucleon helicity-flip and helicity nonflip processes. The results confirm that exclusive π(0) electroproduction offers direct experimental access to the transversity GPDs.

  16. Measurement of Exclusive π0 Electroproduction Structure Functions and their Relationship to Transverse Generalized Parton Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Markov, N.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Saylor, N.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2012-09-01

    Exclusive π0 electroproduction at a beam energy of 5.75 GeV has been measured with the Jefferson Lab CLAS spectrometer. Differential cross sections were measured at more than 1800 kinematic values in Q2, xB, t, and ϕπ, in the Q2 range from 1.0 to 4.6GeV2, -t up to 2GeV2, and xB from 0.1 to 0.58. Structure functions σT+ɛσL, σTT, and σLT were extracted as functions of t for each of 17 combinations of Q2 and xB. The data were compared directly with two handbag-based calculations including both longitudinal and transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Inclusion of only longitudinal GPDs very strongly underestimates σT+ɛσL and fails to account for σTT and σLT, while inclusion of transversity GPDs brings the calculations into substantially better agreement with the data. There is very strong sensitivity to the relative contributions of nucleon helicity-flip and helicity nonflip processes. The results confirm that exclusive π0 electroproduction offers direct experimental access to the transversity GPDs.

  17. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m 3 ; XB, 58.94 μg/m 3 ) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m 3 ; XB, 43.46 μg/m 3 ), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. INTEGRAL observation of renewed activity from 4U 1608-522

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, W.; Ferrigno, C.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 3 March 2010 SuperAGILE detected an X-ray burst from the LMXB 4U 1608-522 (Atel #2461). Confirmation of the renewed activity of this transient source was reported by MAXI/GSC (Atel #2462). 4U1608-522 was in the IBIS/ISGRI and JEMX field of view during several observations between 2010-Feb-23 06......, the source was not detected by IBIS/ISGRI. We derive an upper limit (5-sigma) on the X-ray flux of 5-10 mCrab in the 20-40 keV band. INTEGRAL is currently observing the field of GX 339-4 (March 4th-6th) and will continue monitoring of the inner Galactic Disk until the end of March. 4U 1608...

  19. NuSTAR Observations of the State Transition of Millisecond Pulsar Binary PSR J1023+0038

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Yang, Chengwei; An, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of the millisecond pulsar - low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) transition system PSR J1023+0038 from June and October 2013, before and after the formation of an accretion disk around the neutron star. Between June 10-12, a few days to two weeks before the radio disappearance...... and current multi-wavelength observations and show the hard X-ray power law extending to 79 keV without a spectral break. Sharp edged, flat bottomed `dips' are observed with widths between 30-1000 s and ingress and egress time-scales of 30-60 s. No change in hardness ratio was observed during the dips...

  20. The Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28: the Slowest Transitional Pulsar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, J. M. C.; Altamirano, D.; Sanna, A.

    2018-04-01

    GRO J1744-28 (the Bursting Pulsar) is a neutron star LMXB which shows highly structured X-ray variability near the end of its X-ray outbursts. In this letter we show that this variability is analogous to that seen in Transitional Millisecond Pulsars such as PSR J1023+0038: `missing link' systems consisting of a pulsar nearing the end of its recycling phase. As such, we show that the Bursting Pulsar may also be associated with this class of objects. We discuss the implications of this scenario; in particular, we discuss the fact that the Bursting Pulsar has a significantly higher spin period and magnetic field than any other known Transitional Pulsar. If the Bursting Pulsar is indeed transitional, then this source opens a new window of oppurtunity to test our understanding of these systems in an entirely unexplored physical regime.

  1. The Ultracompact Nature of the Black Hole Candidate X-Ray Binary 47 Tuc X9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Tudor, Vlad; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Bogdanov, Slavko; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Chomiuk, Laura; Strader, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    47 Tuc X9 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, and was previously thought to be a cataclysmic variable. However, Miller-Jones et al. recently identified a radio counterpart to X9 (inferring a radio X-ray luminosity ratio consistent with black hole LMXBs), and suggested that the donor star might be a white dwarf. We report simultaneous observations of X9 performed by Chandra, NuSTAR and Australia Telescope Compact Array. We find a clear 28.18+/- 0.02-min periodic modulation in the Chandra data, which we identify as the orbital period, confirming this system as an ultracompact X-ray binary. Our X-ray spectral fitting provides evidence for photoionized gas having a high oxygen abundance in this system, which indicates a CO white dwarf donor. We also identify reflection features in the hard X-ray spectrum, making X9 the faintest LMXB to show X-ray reflection. We detect an approx. 6.8-d modulation in the X-ray brightness by a factor of 10, in archival Chandra, Swift and ROSAT data. The simultaneous radio X-ray flux ratio is consistent with either a black hole primary or a neutron star primary, if the neutron star is a transitional millisecond pulsar. Considering the measured orbital period (with other evidence of a white dwarf donor), and the lack of transitional millisecond pulsar features in the X-ray light curve, we suggest that this could be the first ultracompact black hole X-ray binary identified in our Galaxy.

  2. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  3. XTE J1701-462 AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF SUBCLASSES IN LOW-MAGNETIC-FIELD NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Mendez, Mariano; Lin Dacheng; Casella, Piergiorgio; Belloni, Tomaso M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an analysis of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (NS-LMXB) XTE J1701-462, obtained during its 2006-2007 outburst. The X-ray properties of the source changed between those of various types of NS-LMXB subclasses. At high luminosities, the source switched between two types of Z source behavior and at low luminosities we observed a transition from Z source to atoll source behavior. These transitions between subclasses primarily manifest themselves as changes in the shapes of the tracks in X-ray color-color (CD) and hardness-intensity diagrams (HID), but they are accompanied by changes in the kHz quasi-periodic oscillations, broadband variability, burst behavior, and/or X-ray spectra. We find that for most of the outburst the low-energy X-ray flux is a good parameter to track the gradual evolution of the tracks in CD and HID, allowing us to resolve the evolution of the source in greater detail than before and relate the observed properties to other NS-LMXBs. We further find that during the transition from Z to atoll, characteristic behavior known as the atoll upper banana can equivalently be described as the final stage of a weakening Z source flaring branch, thereby blurring the line between the two subclasses. Our findings strongly suggest that the wide variety in behavior observed in NS-LXMBs with different luminosities can be linked through changes in a single variable parameter, namely the mass accretion rate, without the need for additional differences in the neutron star parameters or viewing angle. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for the spectral changes observed in NS-LMXBs and suggest that, contrary to what is often assumed, the position along the color-color tracks of Z sources is not determined by the instantaneous mass accretion rate.

  4. SPECTRAL-TIMING ANALYSIS OF THE LOWER kHz QPO IN THE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY AQUILA X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, Jon S.; Cackett, Edward M., E-mail: jon.troyer@wayne.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Spectral-timing products of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems, including energy- and frequency-dependent lags, have been analyzed previously in 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-53, and 4U 1728-34. Here, we study the spectral-timing properties of the lower kHz QPO of the neutron star LMXB Aquila X-1 for the first time. We compute broadband energy lags as well as energy-dependent lags and the covariance spectrum using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer . We find characteristics similar to those of previously studied systems, including soft lags of ∼30 μ s between the 3.0–8.0 keV and 8.0–20.0 keV energy bands at the average QPO frequency. We also find lags that show a nearly monotonic trend with energy, with the highest-energy photons arriving first. The covariance spectrum of the lower kHz QPO is well fit by a thermal Comptonization model, though we find a seed photon temperature higher than that of the mean spectrum, which was also seen in Peille et al. and indicates the possibility of a composite boundary layer emitting region. Lastly, we see in one set of observations an Fe K component in the covariance spectrum at 2.4- σ confidence, which may raise questions about the role of reverberation in the production of lags.

  5. SMM hard X-ray observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J. P.; Cline, T. L.; Dennis, B. R.; Desai, U. D.; Orwig, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    Six bursts from the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 1806-20 have been recorded with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer during a highly active phase in 1983. Rise and decay times of less than 5 ns have been detected. Time profiles of these events indicate low-level emission prior to and after the main peaks. The results suggest that SGRs are distinguished from classical gamma-ray bursts by repetition, softer nonvarying spectra, short durations, simple temporal profiles, and a tendency for source locations to correlate with Population I objects. SGR characteristics differ from those of type I X-ray bursts, but they appear to have similarities with the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster.

  6. SMM hard X-ray observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater 1806-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J.P.; Cline, T.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Desai, U.D.; Orwig, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Six bursts from the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 1806-20 have been recorded with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer during a highly active phase in 1983. Rise and decay times of less than 5 ns have been detected. Time profiles of these events indicate low-level emission prior to and after the main peaks. The results suggest that SGRs are distinguished from classical gamma-ray bursts by repetition, softer nonvarying spectra, short durations, simple temporal profiles, and a tendency for source locations to correlate with Population I objects. SGR characteristics differ from those of type I X-ray bursts, but they appear to have similarities with the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster. 19 references

  7. Fuzzy correlations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.H.; Linder, E.V.; Blumenthal, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts is not known, both in the sense of the nature of the source emitting the radiation and literally, the position of the burst on the sky. Lacking unambiguously identified counterparts in any wavelength band studied to date, statistical approaches are required to determine the burster distance scale. Angular correlation analysis is one of the most powerful tools in this regard. However, poor detector resolution gives large localization errors, effectively beam smearing the positions. The resulting fuzzy angular correlation function is investigated and the generic isotropization that smearing induces on any intrinsic clustering is discussed. In particular, the extent to which gamma-ray burst observations by the BATSE detector aboard the Gamma-Ray Observatory might recover an intrinsic source correlation is investigated. 16 refs

  8. Intermediate long X-ray bursts from the ultra-compact binary candidate SLX1737-282

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falanga, M.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Cumming, A.

    2008-01-01

    . The observed intermediate long burst properties from SLX 1737-282 are consistent with helium ignition at the column depth of 5-8 × 109 g cm-2 and a burst energy release of 1041 erg. The apparent recurrence time of ≃86 days between the intermediate long bursts from SLX 1737-282 suggests a regime of unstable...... bursts. Methods: Up to now only four bursts, all with duration between ≃15{-}30 min, have been recorded for SLX 1737-282. The properties of three of these intermediate long X-ray bursts observed by INTEGRAL are investigated and compared to other burster sources. The broadband spectrum of the persistent...

  9. Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, George

    1991-01-01

    Since the inception of the ETC program, a wide range of new technologies was developed to support this astronomical instrument. The prototype unit was installed at ETC Site 1. The first partially automated observations were made and some major renovations were later added to the ETC hardware. The ETC was outfitted with new thermoelectrically-cooled CCD cameras and a sophisticated vacuum manifold, which, together, made the ETC a much more reliable unit than the prototype. The ETC instrumentation and building were placed under full computer control, allowing the ETC to operate as an automated, autonomous instrument with virtually no human intervention necessary. The first fully-automated operation of the ETC was performed, during which the ETC monitored the error region of the repeating soft gamma-ray burster SGR 1806-21.

  10. Neutron stars as X-ray burst sources. II. Burst energy histograms and why they burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baan, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this work we explore some of the implications of a model for X-ray burst sources where bursts are caused by Kruskal-Schwarzschild instabilities at the magnetopause of an accreting and rotating neutron star. A number of simplifying assumptions are made in order to test the model using observed burst-energy histograms for the rapid burster MXB 1730--335. The predicted histograms have a correct general shape, but it appears that other effects are important as well, and that mode competition, for instance, may suppress the histograms at high burst energies. An explanation is ventured for the enhancement in the histogram at the highest burst energies, which produces the bimodal shape in high accretion rate histograms. Quantitative criteria are given for deciding when accreting neutron stars are steady sources or burst sources, and these criteria are tested using the X-ray pulsars

  11. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  12. Line and continuum spectroscopy as diagnostic tools for gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.

    1990-12-01

    We review the theoretical framework of both line and continuum spectra formation in gamma ray bursts. These include the cyclotron features at 10's of keV, redshifted annihilation features at ∼400 keV, as well as other potentially detectable nuclear transition lines, atomic x-ray lines, proton cyclotron lines and plasma oscillation lines. By combining the parameters derived from line and continuum modeling we can try to reconstruct the location, geometry and physical conditions of the burst emission region, thereby constraining and discriminating the astrophysical models. Hence spectroscopy with current and future generations of detectors should provide powerful diagnostic tools for gamma ray bursters. 48 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Larval biometry of Simulium rubrithorax (Diptera: Simuliidae and size comparison between populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan-Aguilar Miriam Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of larval instars of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz (Diptera: Nematocera was determined using the lateral length of the head capsule. In this study 1,035 larvae, of different sizes, were measured (639 from the state of Roraima and 396 from the state of Minas Gerais. A frequency distribution analysis was carried out on the measurements of the lateral length of the head capsule to determine the number of larval instars. The limits of each instar were defined by the lower frequency of the measurements falling in a range of values, by the presence of the "egg burster" that characterizes the first larval instar, and by the developmental stage of the gill histoblast. The determination of the instar number was tested using a Student's t-test (p 0.05 were observed between them.

  14. Long X-ray burst monitoring with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems. In the frame of the INTEGRAL observational Key Programme over the Galactic Center a good number of the known X-ray bursters are frequently being monitored. An international...... collaboration lead by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Center has proposed to exploit the improved sensitivity of the INTEGRAL instruments to investigate the observational properties and physics up to high energies of exceptional burst events lasting between a few tens of minutes and several hours....... Of special interest are low luminosity bursting sources that exhibit X-ray bursts of very different durations allowing to study the transition from a hydrogen-rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime and from helium burning to carbon burning. I will present results obtained from INTEGRAL archive data...

  15. 3-10 keV and 0.1- to 2-MeV observations of four gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laros, J.G.; Evans, W.D.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Shulman, S.; Fritz, G.

    1983-01-01

    Four catalogued γ-ray bursts that occurred between 79/3/7 and 79/7/31 have been observed over the 3 to 10 keV range by a joint NRL/Los Alamos experiment on the Air Force P78-1 satellite. The bursts were also well observed by members of the interplanetary network. In this paper we present hardness ratios, x-ray/γ-ray luminosity ratios, and time histories. The most significant results presented herein can be summarized as follows: (1) gamma-ray bursters can emit fairly strongly at x-ray energies near the time of the γ burst with L/sub x//L/sub γ/ approx. .02 (L/sub x/ approx. 10 37 ergs s -1 , 3 to 10 keV, assuming a distance of 1 kpc); (2) the centroid of the x-ray emission generally lags the γ-ray centroid, but there is also evidence for one or more types of x-ray precursor activity; (3) the γ-ray hardness ratios were not highly variable for these particular events. However, there is some evidence that the γ-ray spectra softened near the ends of the bursts when the x-ray/γ-ray ratios were high; (4) the x-ray/γ-ray power law number index during times of the strongest γ-ray emission ranged from 0.8 to approx. 1.1 for the four bursts; (5) the x-ray tail of GB790307 probably can be modeled as the cooling of hot plasma generated during the γ-ray burst. Simple versions of this model can be used to estimate various source parameters. These estimates imply a distance of a few hundred to a few thousand pc; (6) gamma-ray bursters probably do not produce events similar to classical x-ray bursts independently of the γ-ray emission

  16. Agronomic and chemical characteristics of hybrid corn to ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Borges de Assis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate agronomic and chemical characteristics of corn hybrids to ensiling. It were evaluated nine corn hybrids (MX 300, RB 9308, 2B655, XB 6012, GNZ 2500, PL6890, PRE 32D10, PRE 22T10 e AG 1051, with three replicates. The higher fresh matter yield were observed in the hybrids PL6890 and PRE 32D10, while the dry matter yield was observed in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (13.43 t ha-1. The hybrids PRE 32D10 and PRE 22T10 stood out to present higher percent of leaf in relation to whole plant, while the lower percent of stems was found in the hybrids MX 300, 2B655 and XB 6012, however the higher leaves: stems relation was found in XB 6012 (0.49. There was higher CP content in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (9.10% of DM, while the lower NDF (57.78% of DM and cellulose content (24.27% of DM were observed in the hybrid GNZ 2500. The hybrid PL6890 presented higher ADF and lignin contents, the others hybrids had values lower. The lower NDIN content was observed in the hybrid RB 9308, while the lower AIDN content occurred on the hybrid 2B655. The lower buffer capacity was observed in the hybrid 2B655 (0.29. There are some differences on chemical composition among the corn hybrids used in this study, however, it is recommended to use the hybrids MX 300, PL6890 and PRE 32D10 for showing higher dry matter yield, which may reflect in the amortization of silage production costs.

  17. SU-E-T-802: Verification of Implanted Cardiac Pacemaker Doses in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy: Dose Prediction Accuracy and Reduction Effect of a Lead Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, J [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To verify delivered doses on the implanted cardiac pacemaker, predicted doses with and without dose reduction method were verified using the MOSFET detectors in terms of beam delivery and dose calculation techniques in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: The pacemaker doses for a patient with a tongue cancer were predicted according to the beam delivery methods [step-and-shoot (SS) and sliding window (SW)], intensity levels for dose optimization, and dose calculation algorithms. Dosimetric effects on the pacemaker were calculated three dose engines: pencil-beam convolution (PBC), analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA), and Acuros-XB. A lead shield of 2 mm thickness was designed for minimizing irradiated doses to the pacemaker. Dose variations affected by the heterogeneous material properties of the pacemaker and effectiveness of the lead shield were predicted by the Acuros-XB. Dose prediction accuracy and the feasibility of the dose reduction strategy were verified based on the measured skin doses right above the pacemaker using mosfet detectors during the radiation treatment. Results: The Acuros-XB showed underestimated skin doses and overestimated doses by the lead-shield effect, even though the lower dose disagreement was observed. It led to improved dose prediction with higher intensity level of dose optimization in IMRT. The dedicated tertiary lead sheet effectively achieved reduction of pacemaker dose up to 60%. Conclusion: The current SS technique could deliver lower scattered doses than recommendation criteria, however, use of the lead sheet contributed to reduce scattered doses.Thin lead plate can be a useful tertiary shielder and it could not acuse malfunction or electrical damage of the implanted pacemaker in IMRT. It is required to estimate more accurate scattered doses of the patient with medical device to design proper dose reduction strategy.

  18. SU-E-T-802: Verification of Implanted Cardiac Pacemaker Doses in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy: Dose Prediction Accuracy and Reduction Effect of a Lead Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J; Chung, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify delivered doses on the implanted cardiac pacemaker, predicted doses with and without dose reduction method were verified using the MOSFET detectors in terms of beam delivery and dose calculation techniques in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: The pacemaker doses for a patient with a tongue cancer were predicted according to the beam delivery methods [step-and-shoot (SS) and sliding window (SW)], intensity levels for dose optimization, and dose calculation algorithms. Dosimetric effects on the pacemaker were calculated three dose engines: pencil-beam convolution (PBC), analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA), and Acuros-XB. A lead shield of 2 mm thickness was designed for minimizing irradiated doses to the pacemaker. Dose variations affected by the heterogeneous material properties of the pacemaker and effectiveness of the lead shield were predicted by the Acuros-XB. Dose prediction accuracy and the feasibility of the dose reduction strategy were verified based on the measured skin doses right above the pacemaker using mosfet detectors during the radiation treatment. Results: The Acuros-XB showed underestimated skin doses and overestimated doses by the lead-shield effect, even though the lower dose disagreement was observed. It led to improved dose prediction with higher intensity level of dose optimization in IMRT. The dedicated tertiary lead sheet effectively achieved reduction of pacemaker dose up to 60%. Conclusion: The current SS technique could deliver lower scattered doses than recommendation criteria, however, use of the lead sheet contributed to reduce scattered doses.Thin lead plate can be a useful tertiary shielder and it could not acuse malfunction or electrical damage of the implanted pacemaker in IMRT. It is required to estimate more accurate scattered doses of the patient with medical device to design proper dose reduction strategy

  19. Evaluate More General Integrals Involving Universal Associated Legendre Polynomials via Taylor's Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Ya(n)ez-Navarro; Guo-Hua Sun; Dong-Sheng Sun; Chang-Yuan Chen; Shi-Hai Dong

    2017-01-01

    A few important integrals involving the product of two universal associated Legendre polynomials Pl'm'(x),Pk'n'(x) and x2a(1-x2)-p-1,xb(1 ±x)-p-1 and xc(1-x2)-p-1 (1 ±-x) are evaluated using the operator form of Taylor's theorem and an integral over a single universal associated Legendre polynomial.These integrals are more general since the quantum numbers are unequal,i.e.l'≠ k'and m'≠ n'.Their selection rules are also given.We also verify the correctness of those integral formulas numerically.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03456-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2xh16.g6 T. reesei HindIII BAC library Hypo... 44 2.5 1 ( CG898233 ) pastbac066xb17.b1.ab1 Res147 1 Pasteuria... penetran... 44 2.5 1 ( CG897330 ) pastbac049xe11.b1.ab1 Res147 1 Pasteuria penetran... 44 2.5 1 ( CG896500... ) pastbac026xc21.b1.ab1 Res147 1 Pasteuria penetran... 44 2.5 1 ( EL572858 ) Phy

  1. High Magnetic Shear Gain in a Liquid Sodium Stable Couette Flow Experiment: A Prelude to an α-Ω Dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Beckley, Howard; Si, Jiahe; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David; Slutz, James; Westrom, Cebastian; Klein, Brianna; Schendel, Paul; Scharle, Cletus; McKinney, Travis; Ginanni, Rocky; Bentley, Ian; Mickey, Timothy; Ferrel, Regnar; Li, Hui; Pariev, Vladimir; Finn, John

    2011-01-01

    The Ω phase of the liquid sodium α-Ω dynamo experiment at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated a high toroidal field B φ that is ≅8xB r , where B r is the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by the rotational shear in stable Couette flow within liquid sodium at a magnetic Reynolds number Rm≅120. Small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette flow is caused by Ekman flow at the end walls, which causes an estimated turbulence energy fraction of (δv/v) 2 ∼10 -3 .

  2. SU-E-T-91: Accuracy of Dose Calculation Algorithms for Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajaldeen, A; Ramachandran, P; Geso, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and quantify the variation in dose distributions in small field lung cancer radiotherapy using seven different dose calculation algorithms. Methods: The study was performed in 21 lung cancer patients who underwent Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR). Two different methods (i) Same dose coverage to the target volume (named as same dose method) (ii) Same monitor units in all algorithms (named as same monitor units) were used for studying the performance of seven different dose calculation algorithms in XiO and Eclipse treatment planning systems. The seven dose calculation algorithms include Superposition, Fast superposition, Fast Fourier Transform ( FFT) Convolution, Clarkson, Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA), Acurous XB and pencil beam (PB) algorithms. Prior to this, a phantom study was performed to assess the accuracy of these algorithms. Superposition algorithm was used as a reference algorithm in this study. The treatment plans were compared using different dosimetric parameters including conformity, heterogeneity and dose fall off index. In addition to this, the dose to critical structures like lungs, heart, oesophagus and spinal cord were also studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Prism software. Results: The mean±stdev with conformity index for Superposition, Fast superposition, Clarkson and FFT convolution algorithms were 1.29±0.13, 1.31±0.16, 2.2±0.7 and 2.17±0.59 respectively whereas for AAA, pencil beam and Acurous XB were 1.4±0.27, 1.66±0.27 and 1.35±0.24 respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed significant variations among the seven different algorithms. Superposition and AcurosXB algorithms showed similar values for most of the dosimetric parameters. Clarkson, FFT convolution and pencil beam algorithms showed large differences as compared to superposition algorithms. Based on our study, we recommend Superposition and AcurosXB algorithms as the first choice of

  3. Xenomicrobiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos; Budisa, Nediljko

    2016-01-01

    for potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry and biocontainment strategies for enhanced biosafety. In this perspective, we provide a brief history and evolution of the genetic code in the context of XB. We then discuss the latest efforts and challenges ahead for engineering the genetic code...... with focus on substitutions and additions of ncAAs as well as standard amino acid reductions. Finally, we present a roadmap for the directed evolution of artificial microbes for emancipating rare sense codons that could be used to introduce novel building blocks. The development of such xenomicroorganisms...

  4. Synthesis and Luminescent Characteristics of Ce3+-Activated Borosilicate Blue-Emitting Phosphors for LEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hong; Chen, Jinlei; Gan, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    The phosphors Sr3B2SiO8:Ce3+ have been successfully synthesized via solid-state reaction process. Emission/excitation spectra and photoluminescence decay behaviors were investigated in detail. Under the excitation of 340 nm, the emission spectrum presented an asymmetry emission band extended from 350 to 600 nm, which with the main peak at 425 nm can be fitted in two peaks (23940 cm−1 and 21934 cm−1). The chromaticity coordinates of Sr3-xB2SiO8:xCe3+ are fixed in the blue region; when the inte...

  5. Generation of plasma rotation by ICRH in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Phillips, C.K.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Rice, J.; Greenwald, M.; Grassie, J.S. de

    2001-01-01

    A physical mechanism to generate plasma rotation by ICRH is presented in a tokamak geometry. By breaking the omnigenity of resonant ion orbits, ICRH can induce a non-ambipolar minor-radial flow of resonant ions. This induces a return current j p r in the plasma, which then drives plasma rotation through the j p r xB force. It is estimated that the fast-wave power in the present-day tokamak experiments can be strong enough to give a significant modification to plasma rotation. (author)

  6. Preliminary Design of the Low Speed Propulsion Air Intake of the LAPCAT-MR2 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts, C.; Steelant, J.; Hendrick, P.

    2011-08-01

    A supersonic air intake has been designed for the low speed propulsion system of the LAPCAT-MR2 aircraft. Development has been based on the XB-70 aircraft air intake which achieves extremely high performances over a wide operation range through the combined use of variable geometry and porous wall suction for boundary layer control. Design of the LAPCAT-MR2 intake has been operated through CFD simulations using DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model - Menter SST turbulence model). First, a new boundary condition has been validated into the DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model) for porous wall suction modelling. Standard test cases have shown surprisingly good agreement with both theoretical predictions and experimental results. Based upon this validation, XB-70 air intake performances have been assessed through CFD simulations over the subsonic, transonic and supersonic operation regions and compared to available flight data. A new simulation strategy was deployed avoiding numerical instabilities when initiating the flow in both transonic and supersonic operation modes. First, the flow must be initiated with a far field Mach number higher than the target flight Mach number. Additionally, the inlet backpressure may only be increased to its target value once the oblique shock pattern downstream the intake compression ramps is converged. Simulations using that strategy have shown excellent agreement with in-flight measurements for both total pressure recovery ratio and variable geometry schedule prediction. The demarcation between stable and unstable operation could be well reproduced. Finally, a modified version of the XB-70 air intake has been integrated in the elliptical intake on the LAPCAT vehicle. Operation of this intake in the LAPCAT-MR2 environment is under evaluation using the same simulation strategy as the one developed for the XB-70. Performances are assessed at several key operation points to assess viability of this design. This information will allow in a next

  7. Spectroscopy and decay properties with b-hadrons at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, Konstantin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest results from the ATLAS experiment on hadron decays and spectroscopy, including observation of the B_c(2S) state, production of the B_c+ meson, branching ratio measurements of B_c->J/psiD(), extraction of fragmentation fractions fs/fd via reconstructed Bs->J/psiPhi and Bd->J/psiK decays, and studies of the decay properties of the Lambda_b. We also present the results of searches for the Xb, the bottomonium counterpart to the X(3872) exotic charmonium state.

  8. Materials Research at Stanford University, 1 July 1980-30 June 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    extract such information from the tunneling that is subject to corrections required to account for both an apparent region of depressed superconductivity...temperature for the f irst time, Pre 1 im i na ry measurenh.nts show that tile detector is capable of a noise temperature for pul se detect.ion of 3 inK ...phases and couples it into a SQUID via a superconducting transformer. Because XA> XB, changes in the distribution of A & B phases cause changes in

  9. Linearizability conditions for Lotka-Volterra planar complex cubic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gine, Jaume; Romanovski, Valery G

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the linearizability problem for the two-dimensional planar complex system x-dot=x(1-a 10 x-a 01 y-a 20 x 2 -a 11 xy-a 02 y 2 ), y-dot=(1-b 10 x-b 01 y-b 20 x 2 -b 11 xy-b 02 y 2 ). The necessary and sufficient conditions for the linearizability of this system are found. From them the conditions for isochronicity of the corresponding real system can be derived

  10. Immunologic Intervention in HIV Infection: Anti-Polymerase Responses and Hormonal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    34), has serious physical ad psyhdologic cosequn , including further compromise of irmmu status in AIMS (1). Dr. D. Kotler of Columbia University recently...nutritional factors in the induction of immunologic abnormalities in HIV-positive homosexual men. J. AIDS 2:235, 1989. 2. Kotler D, Nutrition in AIDS...1051, 1990. 14. Korq X-B, Zhu Q-Y, Vidal PM, Watanole AM, Polsky B, Armstrong D, Ostrandz M, lang SA Jr, Rxthors E, Cmaa T-C. Cmparisons of anti-HIV

  11. SU-E-T-91: Accuracy of Dose Calculation Algorithms for Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajaldeen, A [RMIT university, Docklands, Vic (Australia); Ramachandran, P [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Bendigo (Australia); Geso, M [RMIT University, Bundoora, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and quantify the variation in dose distributions in small field lung cancer radiotherapy using seven different dose calculation algorithms. Methods: The study was performed in 21 lung cancer patients who underwent Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR). Two different methods (i) Same dose coverage to the target volume (named as same dose method) (ii) Same monitor units in all algorithms (named as same monitor units) were used for studying the performance of seven different dose calculation algorithms in XiO and Eclipse treatment planning systems. The seven dose calculation algorithms include Superposition, Fast superposition, Fast Fourier Transform ( FFT) Convolution, Clarkson, Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA), Acurous XB and pencil beam (PB) algorithms. Prior to this, a phantom study was performed to assess the accuracy of these algorithms. Superposition algorithm was used as a reference algorithm in this study. The treatment plans were compared using different dosimetric parameters including conformity, heterogeneity and dose fall off index. In addition to this, the dose to critical structures like lungs, heart, oesophagus and spinal cord were also studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Prism software. Results: The mean±stdev with conformity index for Superposition, Fast superposition, Clarkson and FFT convolution algorithms were 1.29±0.13, 1.31±0.16, 2.2±0.7 and 2.17±0.59 respectively whereas for AAA, pencil beam and Acurous XB were 1.4±0.27, 1.66±0.27 and 1.35±0.24 respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed significant variations among the seven different algorithms. Superposition and AcurosXB algorithms showed similar values for most of the dosimetric parameters. Clarkson, FFT convolution and pencil beam algorithms showed large differences as compared to superposition algorithms. Based on our study, we recommend Superposition and AcurosXB algorithms as the first choice of

  12. Spectroscopic determination of inverse photon efficiencies of W atoms in the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinsek, S.; Laengner, M.; Coenen, J. W.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U.

    2017-12-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy can be applied to determine in situ tungsten particle fluxes from erosion processes at plasma-facing materials. Inverse photon efficiencies convert photon fluxes of WI and WII line transitions into W and {{{W}}}+ particle fluxes, respectively, dependening on the local plasma conditions. Experiments in TEXTOR were carried out to determine effective conversion factors for different WI and WII transitions with the aid of WF6 injection into deuterium scrape-off layer plasmas in the electron temperature T e range between {T}{e}=20 {eV} and {T}{e}=82 {eV}. The inverse photon efficiencies or so-called effective \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}-values have been determined for WI lines at λ =400.9 {nm}, 429.5 nm, 488.7 nm, 498.3 nm, and 522.5 nm as well as for WII at λ =434.6 {nm} and compared with theoretical calculations from the ADAS data base. Moreover, a multi-machine scaling for the \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}-value in the range of T e between 2...100 {eV} has been determined for the most prominent WI line at λ =400.9 {nm} to \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}({T}{e})=53.63-56.07× {e}(0.045× {T{e}[{eV}])} considering experimental data from TEXTOR, ASDEX Upgrade, PSI and PISCES. Comparison with ADAS calculations for the same transition reveal a good qualitative agreement with the dependence on T e , but an underestimation of ADAS calculations of less than 25% over the full covered range of experimentally accessible T e in the multi-machine scaling. A good agreement within the experimental uncertainties is found between TEXTOR and ADAS \\tfrac{S}{{XB}}-values for WI at λ =429.5 {nm} and λ =488.7 {nm} whereas an underestimation of up to a factor two of ADAS values for WI at λ =522.5 {nm} and λ =498.3 {nm} was measured. Potentially, reasons for the discrepancy are an overestimation of applied ionisation rate coefficients in ADAS for neutral W and a stronger electron dependence n e for these transitions.

  13. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on optical properties of ZnO-PbO-B2O3 glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, G.; Thind, K.S.; Manupriya, -

    2006-01-01

    Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on some optical properties of xZnO(.)2xPbO(.)(1-3x)B2O3 glasses have been studied in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. Decrease in transmittance indicates the formation of color-center defects. Values for the energy-band gap, the width of the energy tail above...... the mobility gap and the cut-off wavelength have been measured before and after irradiation. Changes in the optical properties are explained in terms of radiation-induced structural defects and the composition of the glass....

  14. On the spectrum of elementary type operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, G.A.; Kyle, J.

    1990-11-01

    Let H be a complex separable Hilbert space and let B(H) be the algebra of all bounded linear operators on H. Let {A 1 ,...,A n } and {B 1 ,...,B n } be two commuting families of self-adjoint operators in B(H). In this paper we are concerned with the investigation of the spectrum of the elementary type operator Γ : B(H) → B(H) defined by Γ(X) = Σ n i=1 A i XB i for all X in B(H). 8 refs

  15. Molecular Signatures and Diagnostic Biomarkers of Cumulative, Blast-Graded Mild TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ischemic stroke. Neurol. Res. 30, 783–793. 35. Wang, H.C., Lin, W.C., Lin, Y.J., Rau, C.S., Lee, T.H., Chang, W.N., Tsai, N.W., Cheng, B.C., Kung , C.T., and...J.K., Shen, C.A., Yin, H.N., Zhou, X.F., Lu, W., Hu, Q.G., Chi, Y.F., Ma, L., 22  Deng, H.P., Zhang, X.B., Sun, T.J., and Han , Y.F. (2010). [Early

  16. Rosenbluth separation of the $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross section

    OpenAIRE

    Defurne, M.; Mazouz, M.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. -P.

    2016-01-01

    We present deeply virtual $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross-section measurements at $x_B$=0.36 and three different $Q^2$--values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV$^2$, obtained from experiment E07-007 that ran in the Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The Rosenbluth technique was used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component, and thus is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics....

  17. Rosenbluth separation of the $\\pi^0$ Electroproduction Cross Section off the Neutron

    OpenAIRE

    Mazouz, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. -P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the first longitudinal/transverse separation of the deeply virtual exclusive $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross section off the neutron and coherent deuteron. The corresponding four structure functions $d\\sigma_L/dt$, $d\\sigma_T/dt$, $d\\sigma_{LT}/dt$ and $d\\sigma_{TT}/dt$ are extracted as a function of the momentum transfer to the recoil system at $Q^2$=1.75 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. The $ed \\to ed\\pi^0$ cross sections are found compatible with the small values expected from theoretical...

  18. ZnO-PbO-B2O3 glasses as gamma-ray shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harvinder; Singh, Kulwant; Gerward, Leif; Singh, Kanwarjit; Sahota, Hari Singh; Nathuram, Rohila

    2003-01-01

    Values of the gamma-ray mass-attenuation coefficient, the photon mean free path (MFP), the effective atomic number and the effective electron density have been determined experimentally for xZnO · 2xPbO · (1-3x)B 2 O 3 (x=0.1-0.26) glasses at photon energies 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV and compared with theoretical data. The specific volume of the glasses has been derived from density measurements and studied as a function of composition. It is pointed out that these glasses have potential applications in radiation shielding

  19. Comparative analysis of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis regarding some epidemiological and anamnestic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Izairi, Remzi; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana

    2007-01-01

    Classifying patients into two subsets of the disease--seronegative RA and seropositive RA--has been the subject of many studies which aim to clarify this phenomenon--without any conclusive or acceptable answer so far. The aim of this prospective study was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) regarding some epidemiological and anamnestic characteristics. The studied group consisted of seronegative patients with titers lower than 1:64 as defined by Rose-Waaler test, while the control group consisted of seropositive patients with titers of 1:64 or higher. All patients belonged to 2nd and 3rd functional class according to the ARA criteria, were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96), with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb=6.41). Education, residence, economic and living conditions did not show any significant statistical difference regarding serostatus. Familial clustering of RA confirmed higher susceptibility in the seropositive group (chi2=7.02; p<0.01). In both subsets banal diseases, psychic and physical trauma, weakness, and numbness of hands and legs dominated, without any statistical differenceregarding serostatus. Some differences between groups regarding sex were noticed, but were not statistically significant, except regarding physical trauma, which was more present in seronegative females (chi2=8.05; p<0.01).

  20. Inhibition of PAI-1 release from human endothelial cells by Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (Ashitaba chalcones is structure-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Ohkura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (Ashitaba is a traditional herbal medicine and it is also regarded in Japan as a health food that might have antithrombotic properties. Ashitaba exudate suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, a risk factor for thrombotic diseases in mice. Xanthoangelol (XA and 4-hydroxyderricin (4-HD comprise > 95% of total chalcones from Ashitaba exudates that also contain trace amounts of other chalcone subtypes. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Ashitaba chalcones including xanthoangelols B (XB, D (XD, E (XE, F (XF and XA as well as 4-HD on PAI-1 levels in the medium of stimulated human EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Xanthoangelol (10 and #61549;M inhibited PAI-1 production at a rate of 77.1%, whereas the inhibition rates of XB, XD, XE and 4-HD were not significant. Xanthoangelol F was highly cytotoxic and thus its ability to inhibit PAI-1 production could not be evaluated. The side hydrocarbon chain of XA played an important role in the excretion of inhibitory activity. Small modifications of the hydrocarbon chain or small functional groups on the A ring measurably influenced the inhibitory activity of xanthoangelols. These findings warrant future research towards an understanding of the mechanism of antithrombotic action of Ashitaba as herbal medicine or antithrombotic health food. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 355-357

  1. Low-noise electromagnetic δf particle-in-cell simulation of electron Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Nong; Cary, John R.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Carlsson, John

    2006-01-01

    The conversion of the extraordinary (X) mode to an electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is one way to get rf energy into an overdense plasma. Analysis of this is complex, as the EBW is a fully kinetic wave, and so its linear propagation is described by an intractable integro-differential equation. Nonlinear effects cannot be calculated within this rubric at all. Full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations cannot be used for these analyses, as the noise levels for reasonable simulation parameters are much greater than the typical rf amplitudes. It is shown that the delta-f computations are effective for this analysis. In particular, the accuracy of those computations has been verified by comparison with full PIC, cold plasma theory, and small gyroradius theory. This computational method is then used to analyze mode conversion in different frequency regimes. In particular, reasonable agreement with the theoretical predictions of Ram and Schultz [Phys. Plasmas 7, 4084 (2000)] in the linear regime is found, where 100% X-B mode conversion has been obtained when the driving frequency is less than twice the electron gyrofrequency. The results show that cold-plasma theory well predicts the mode conversion efficiency, as is consistent with the phase-space picture of mode conversion. From this it can be shown that nearly 100% X-B mode conversion cannot be obtained when the frequency is higher than the electron second harmonic cyclotron frequency

  2. The 1:1 co-crystal of triphenyl(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzylphosphonium bromide and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodoethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C25H18F4P+·Br−·C2F4I2, is a 1:1 co-crystal of triphenyl(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzylphosphonium (TTPB bromide and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodoethane (TFDIE. The crystal structure consists of a framework of TTPB cations held together by C—H...Br interactions. In this framework, infinite channels along [100] are filled by TFDIE molecules held together in infinite ribbons by short F...F [2.863 (2–2.901 (2Å] interactions. The structure contains halogen bonds (XB and hydrogen bonds (HB in the bromide coordination sphere. TFDIE functions as a monodentate XB donor as only one I atom is linked to the Br− anion and forms a short and directional interaction [I...Br− 3.1798 (7 Å and C—I...Br− 177.76 (5°]. The coordination sphere of the bromide anion is completed by two short HBs of about 2.8 Å (for H...Br with the acidic methylene H atoms and two longer HBs of about 3.0 Å with H atoms of the phenyl rings. Surprisingly neither the second iodine atom of TFDIE nor the H atom on the tetrafluorophenyl group make any short contacts.

  3. Modeling of plasma distortions by laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) and implications for the interpretation of LIAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.; Gierse, N.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.

    2015-09-01

    For the interpretation of the line radiation observed from laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) such parameters as the density and temperature of electrons within very compact clouds of atoms and singly charged ions of ablated material have to be known. Compared to the local plasma conditions prior to the laser pulse, these can be strongly changed during LIAS since new electrons are generated by the ionisation of particles ejected from the irradiated target. Because of their transience and spatial inhomogeneity it is technically difficult to measure disturbances induced in the plasma by LIAS. To overcome this uncertainty a numerical model has been elaborated, providing a self-consistent description for the spreading of ablated particles and accompanying modifications in the plasma. The results of calculations for LIAS performed on carbon-containing targets in Ohmic and additionally heated discharges in the tokamak TEXTOR are presented. Due to the increase in the electron density the ‘ionisation per photon’ ratio, S/XB factor, is significantly enhanced compared to unperturbed plasma conditions. The impact of the amount of material ablated and of the plasma conditions before LIAS on the level of the S/XB-enhancement is investigated.

  4. On the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary Nature of the Star CGCS 5926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masetti N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on multiwavelength (from X-ray to optical follow up observations of a carbon star CGCS 5926, motivated by the fact that it is positionally coincident with a faint X-ray source of the ROSAT catalog, thus suggesting its possible symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB nature. Our optical spectroscopy confirms that this is a carbon star of type C(6,2. This allows us to infer for CGCS 5926 a distance of ~5 kpc. BVRCIC photometry of the star shows variability of ~0.3 mag with a periodicity of 151 days, which we interpret as due to radial pulsations. the source is not detected with the Swift satellite in X-rays down to a 0.3-10 keV luminosity of ~3 × 1032 erg s−1. This nondetection is apparently in contrast with the ROSAT data; however, the present information does not rule out that CGCS 5926 can be a SyXB. This will be settled by more sensitive observations at high energies.

  5. Synthetic alienation of microbial organisms by using genetic code engineering: Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Budisa, Nediljko

    2017-08-01

    The main goal of synthetic biology (SB) is the creation of biodiversity applicable for biotechnological needs, while xenobiology (XB) aims to expand the framework of natural chemistries with the non-natural building blocks in living cells to accomplish artificial biodiversity. Protein and proteome engineering, which overcome limitation of the canonical amino acid repertoire of 20 (+2) prescribed by the genetic code by using non-canonic amino acids (ncAAs), is one of the main focuses of XB research. Ideally, estranging the genetic code from its current form via systematic introduction of ncAAs should enable the development of bio-containment mechanisms in synthetic cells potentially endowing them with a "genetic firewall" i.e. orthogonality which prevents genetic information transfer to natural systems. Despite rapid progress over the past two decades, it is not yet possible to completely alienate an organism that would use and maintain different genetic code associations permanently. In order to engineer robust bio-contained life forms, the chemical logic behind the amino acid repertoire establishment should be considered. Starting from recent proposal of Hartman and Smith about the genetic code establishment in the RNA world, here the authors mapped possible biotechnological invasion points for engineering of bio-contained synthetic cells equipped with non-canonical functionalities. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U.

    2004-01-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E r and thus of E r xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E r xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions

  7. ZnO-PbO-B2O3 glasses as gamma-ray shielding materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, H.; Singh, K.; Gerward, Leif

    2003-01-01

    Values of the gamma-ray mass-attenuation coefficient, the photon mean free path (MFP), the effective atomic number and the effective electron density have been determined experimentally for xZnO.2xPbO.(1-3x)B2O3 (x = 0.1-0.26) glasses at photon energies 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV and compared wi...... with theoretical data. The specific volume of the glasses has been derived from density measurements and studied as a function of composition. It is pointed out that these glasses have potential applications in radiation shielding.......Values of the gamma-ray mass-attenuation coefficient, the photon mean free path (MFP), the effective atomic number and the effective electron density have been determined experimentally for xZnO.2xPbO.(1-3x)B2O3 (x = 0.1-0.26) glasses at photon energies 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV and compared...

  8. THE ABSENCE OF RADIO EMISSION FROM THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Wrobel, J. M. [NRAO Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Miller, R. E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Plotkin, R. M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Joseph, T. D.; Maccarone, T. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom); Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-10

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass (1.8 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric accuracy of the radio detection, and the non-simultaneity of the X-ray and radio measurements, this identification required further confirmation. Here we present deep, high angular resolution, strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of G1. While the X-ray emission (L{sub X} = 1.74{sup +0.53}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} (d/750 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-10 keV band) remained fully consistent with previous observations, we detected no radio emission from the cluster center down to a 3{sigma} upper limit of 4.7 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}. Our favored explanation for the previous radio detection is flaring activity from a black hole low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We performed a new regression of the 'Fundamental Plane' of black hole activity, valid for determining black hole mass from radio and X-ray observations of sub-Eddington black holes, finding log M{sub BH} = (1.638 {+-} 0.070)log L{sub R} - (1.136 {+-} 0.077)log L{sub X} - (6.863 {+-} 0.790), with an empirically determined uncertainty of 0.44 dex. This constrains the mass of the X-ray source in G1, if a black hole, to be <9.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence, suggesting that it is a persistent LMXB. This annuls what was previously the most convincing evidence from radiation for an IMBH in the Local Group, though the evidence for an IMBH in G1 from velocity dispersion measurements remains unaffected by these results.

  9. THE MEGASECOND CHANDRA X-RAY VISIONARY PROJECT OBSERVATION OF NGC 3115. III. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF LMXBS AND DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Wong, Ka-Wah [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Jennings, Zachary G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P. [University of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824 (United States); Sivakoff, Gregory R., E-mail: dacheng.lin@unh.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2015-07-20

    We studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ∼1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ∼10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}, which is much deeper than that typically reached for other early-type galaxies. We found significant flattening of the overall LMXB XLF from dN/dL ∝ L{sup −2.2±0.4} above 5.5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} to dN/dL ∝ L{sup −1.0±0.1} below it, although we could not rule out a fit with a higher break at ∼1.6 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. We also found evidence that the XLF of LMXBs in globular clusters (GCs) is overall flatter than that of field LMXBs. Thus, our results for this galaxy do not support the idea that all LMXBs are formed in GCs. The XLF of field LMXBs seems to show spatial variation, with the XLF in the inner region of the galaxy being flatter than that in the outer region, probably due to contamination of LMXBs from undetected and/or disrupted GCs in the inner region. The XLF in the outer region is probably the XLF of primordial field LMXBs, exhibiting dN/dL ∝ L{sup −1.2±0.1} up to a break close to the Eddington limit of neutron star LMXBs (∼1.7 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}). The break of the GC LMXB XLF is lower, at ∼1.1 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}. We also confirm previous findings that the metal-rich/red GCs are more likely to host LMXBs than the metal-poor/blue GCs, which is more significant for more luminous LMXBs, and that more massive GCs are more likely to host LMXBs.

  10. Gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars and evaluation of fast chirp transform techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E

    2002-01-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass x-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies in the range 300-600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion-induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so-called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end, I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince (Prince T A and Jenet F A 2000 Phys. Rev. D 62 122001) in the conte...

  11. Low-mass X-ray binaries from black hole retaining globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D.

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining ˜1000 BHs produce a galactic population of ˜150 ejected BH-LMXBs, whereas GCs retaining only ˜20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.

  12. An asymmetric distribution of positrons in the Galactic disk revealed by {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenspointner, G; Skinner, G; Jean, P; Knoedlseder, J; Von Ballmoos, P; Bignami, G [UPS, CNRS, Ctr Etud Spatiale Rayonnements, Toulouse 4, (France); Weidenspointner, G; Diehl, R; Strong, A [Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85741 Garching, (Germany); Weidenspointner, G [MPI Halbleiterlab, D-81739 Munich, (Germany); Skinner, G [NASA, CRESST, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Skinner, G [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Skinner, G [Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 (United States); Cordier, B; Schanne, S [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, SAp, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Winkler, Ch [ESA, ESTEC, SCI SA, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, (Netherlands); Bignami, G [IUSS, I-27100 Pavia, (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    Gamma-ray line radiation at 511 keV is the signature of electron positron annihilation. Such radiation has been known for 30 years to come from the general direction of the Galactic Centre, but the origin of the positrons has remained a mystery. Stellar nucleosynthesis, accreting compact objects, and even the annihilation of exotic dark-matter particles have all been suggested. Here we report a distinct asymmetry in the 511 keV line emission coming from the inner Galactic disk ({approx} 10-50 degrees from the Galactic Centre). This asymmetry resembles an asymmetry in the distribution of low mass X-ray binaries with strong emission at photon energies {>=}20 keV ('hard' LMXBs), indicating that they may be the dominant origin of the positrons. Although it had long been suspected that electron-positron pair plasmas may exist in X-ray binaries, it was not evident that many of the positrons could escape to lose energy and ultimately annihilate with electrons in the interstellar medium and thus lead to the emission of a narrow 511 keV line. For these models, our result implies that up to a few times 10{sup 41} positrons escape per second from a typical hard LMXB. Positron production at this level from hard LMXBs in the Galactic bulge would reduce (and possibly eliminate) the need for more exotic explanations, such as those involving dark matter. (authors)

  13. An asymmetric distribution of positrons in the Galactic disk revealed by γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenspointner, G.; Skinner, G.; Jean, P.; Knoedlseder, J.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Bignami, G.; Weidenspointner, G.; Diehl, R.; Strong, A.; Weidenspointner, G.; Skinner, G.; Skinner, G.; Skinner, G.; Cordier, B.; Schanne, S.; Winkler, Ch.; Bignami, G.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray line radiation at 511 keV is the signature of electron positron annihilation. Such radiation has been known for 30 years to come from the general direction of the Galactic Centre, but the origin of the positrons has remained a mystery. Stellar nucleosynthesis, accreting compact objects, and even the annihilation of exotic dark-matter particles have all been suggested. Here we report a distinct asymmetry in the 511 keV line emission coming from the inner Galactic disk (∼ 10-50 degrees from the Galactic Centre). This asymmetry resembles an asymmetry in the distribution of low mass X-ray binaries with strong emission at photon energies ≥20 keV ('hard' LMXBs), indicating that they may be the dominant origin of the positrons. Although it had long been suspected that electron-positron pair plasmas may exist in X-ray binaries, it was not evident that many of the positrons could escape to lose energy and ultimately annihilate with electrons in the interstellar medium and thus lead to the emission of a narrow 511 keV line. For these models, our result implies that up to a few times 10 41 positrons escape per second from a typical hard LMXB. Positron production at this level from hard LMXBs in the Galactic bulge would reduce (and possibly eliminate) the need for more exotic explanations, such as those involving dark matter. (authors)

  14. Advantage of nonlinear relativistic mean-field model in studying neutron star matter

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K

    2006-01-01

    We test the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model of relativistic nuclear matter for reproducing the density dependence of the symmetry energy, the direct URCA constraint M_{G}^{DU} \\geq 1.5M_{\\odot} on the gravitational mass of neutron star (NS), the large radii of NSs in RX J1856.5-3754 and qLMXB X7, the massive NSs in PSR J0751+1807 and 4U1700-37, and the baryonic mass of J0737-3039B. The two sets of NN\\rho coupling constant are considered. The first (EZM1) is the same as the Bonn A potential. The second (EZM2) is chosen so as to reproduce the symmetry energy E_s=32MeV of nuclear matter. The EZM1 can pass 6 tests among 7, while the EZM2 passes 5 tests. We can therefore conclude that the EZM model has unique and excellent features and is the most prospective one for studying the dense baryonic matter.

  15. A NICER Look at the Aql X-1 Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Peter; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Cackett, Edward M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Gendreau, Keith C.; Guillot, Sebastien; Homan, Jeroen; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Keek, Laurens; Kenyon, Steve; Lamb, Frederick K.; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig; Miller, Jon M.; Prigozhin, Gregory; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Uttley, Phil

    2018-05-01

    We report on a spectral-timing analysis of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Aql X-1 with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) on the International Space Station (ISS). Aql X-1 was observed with NICER during a dim outburst in 2017 July, collecting approximately 50 ks of good exposure. The spectral and timing properties of the source correspond to that of a (hard) extreme island state in the atoll classification. We find that the fractional amplitude of the low-frequency (soft thermal emission and the power-law emission. Additionally, we measure hard time lags, indicating the thermal emission at 0.5 keV leads the power-law emission at 10 keV on a timescale of ∼100 ms at 0.3 Hz to ∼10 ms at 3 Hz. Our results demonstrate that the thermal emission in the hard state is intrinsically variable, and is driving the modulation of the higher energy power-law. Interpreting the thermal spectrum as disk emission, we find that our results are consistent with the disk propagation model proposed for accretion onto black holes.

  16. THE PECULIAR EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patruno, Alessandro; Alpar, M. Ali; Van der Klis, Michiel; Van den Heuvel, Ed P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) IGR J17480-2446 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 harbors an 11 Hz accreting pulsar. This is the first object discovered in a globular cluster with a pulsar spinning at such low rate. The accreting pulsar is anomalous because its characteristics are very different from the other five known slow accreting pulsars in galactic LMXBs. Many features of the 11 Hz pulsar are instead very similar to those of accreting millisecond pulsars, spinning at frequencies >100 Hz. Understanding this anomaly is valuable because IGR J17480-2446 could be the only accreting pulsar discovered so far which is in the process of becoming an accreting millisecond pulsar. We first verify that the neutron star (NS) in IGR J17480-2446 is indeed spinning up by carefully analyzing X-ray data with coherent timing techniques that account for the presence of timing noise. We then study the present Roche lobe overflow epoch and the two previous spin-down epochs dominated by magneto-dipole radiation and stellar wind accretion. We find that IGR J17480-2446 is very likely a mildly recycled pulsar and suggest that it has started a spin-up phase in an exceptionally recent time, which has lasted less than a few 10 7 yr. We also find that the total age of the binary is surprisingly low (∼ 8 yr) when considering typical parameters for the newborn NS and propose different scenarios to explain this anomaly.

  17. The Peculiar Evolutionary History of IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Alessandro; Alpar, M. Ali; van der Klis, Michiel; van den Heuvel, Ed P. J.

    2012-06-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) IGR J17480-2446 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 harbors an 11 Hz accreting pulsar. This is the first object discovered in a globular cluster with a pulsar spinning at such low rate. The accreting pulsar is anomalous because its characteristics are very different from the other five known slow accreting pulsars in galactic LMXBs. Many features of the 11 Hz pulsar are instead very similar to those of accreting millisecond pulsars, spinning at frequencies >100 Hz. Understanding this anomaly is valuable because IGR J17480-2446 could be the only accreting pulsar discovered so far which is in the process of becoming an accreting millisecond pulsar. We first verify that the neutron star (NS) in IGR J17480-2446 is indeed spinning up by carefully analyzing X-ray data with coherent timing techniques that account for the presence of timing noise. We then study the present Roche lobe overflow epoch and the two previous spin-down epochs dominated by magneto-dipole radiation and stellar wind accretion. We find that IGR J17480-2446 is very likely a mildly recycled pulsar and suggest that it has started a spin-up phase in an exceptionally recent time, which has lasted less than a few 107 yr. We also find that the total age of the binary is surprisingly low (lsim 108 yr) when considering typical parameters for the newborn NS and propose different scenarios to explain this anomaly.

  18. Constraining the Dense Matter Equation of State with ATHENA-WFI observations of Neutron Stars in Quiescent LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Oezel, F.

    2015-09-01

    The study of neutron star quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) will address one of the main science goals of the Athena x-ray observatory. The study of the soft X-ray thermal emission from the neutron star surface in qLMXBs is a crucial tool to place constrains on the dense matter equation of state. I will briefly review this method, its strength and current weaknesses and limitations, as well as the current constraints on the equation of state from qLMXBs. The superior sensitivity of Athena will permit the acquisition of unprecedentedly high signal-to-noise spectra from these sources. It has been demonstrated that a single qLMXB, even with high S/N, will not place useful constraints on the EoS. However, a combination of qLMXBs spectra has shown promises of obtaining tight constraints on the equation of state. I will discuss the expected prospects for observations of qLMXBs inside globular clusters -- those that Athena will be able to resolve. I will also present the constraints on the equation of state that Athena will be able to obtain from these qLMXBs and from a population of qLMXBs in the field of the Galaxy, with distance measurements provided by Gaia.

  19. A TEST OF THE NATURE OF THE FE K LINE IN THE NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SERPENS X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chia-Ying; Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI48109-1046 (United States); Barret, Didier [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Toulouse (France); Fabian, Andy C.; Parker, Michael L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); D’Aì, Antonino [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Bhattacharyya, Sudip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Burderi, Luciano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, SP Monserrato-Sestu, KM 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Salvo, Tiziana Di; Iaria, Rosario [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universitá di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Egron, Elise [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Homan, Jeroen [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-582D, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lin, Dacheng [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: ft8320@wayne.edu [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Broad Fe K emission lines have been widely observed in the X-ray spectra of black hole systems as well as in neutron star systems. The intrinsically narrow Fe K fluorescent line is generally believed to be part of the reflection spectrum originating in an illuminated accretion disk which is broadened by strong relativistic effects. However, the nature of the lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) has been a matter of debate. We therefore obtained the longest, high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a neutron star LMXB to date with a 300 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) observation of Serpens X-1. The observation was taken under the “continuous clocking” mode, and thus was free of photon pile-up effects. We carry out a systematic analysis and find that the blurred reflection model fits the Fe line of Serpens X-1 significantly better than a broad Gaussian component does, implying that the relativistic reflection scenario is much preferred. Chandra HETGS also provides a highest spectral resolution view of the Fe K region and we find no strong evidence for additional narrow lines.

  20. Low-mass X-ray binaries from black-hole retaining globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D.

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH-binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining ˜1000 BHs produce a galactic population of ˜150 ejected BH-LMXBs whereas GCs retaining only ˜20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.

  1. Searching for Jet Emission in LMXBs: A Polarimetric View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Baglio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present results taken from a study aiming at detecting the emission from relativistic particles jets in neutron star-low mass X-ray binaries using optical polarimetric observations. First, we focus on a polarimetric study performed on the persistent LMXB 4U 0614+091. Once corrected for interstellar effects, we measured an intrinsic linear polarization in the r-band of ~3% at a 3σ confidence level. This is in-line with the observation of an infrared excess in the spectral energy distribution (SED of the source, reported in a previous work, which the authors linked to the optically thin synchrotron emission of a jet. We then present a study performed on the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 during quiescence. We measured a linear polarization of 1.09 ± 0.27% and 0.90 ± 0.17% in the V and R bands, respectively. The phase-resolved polarimetric curve of the source in the R-band reveals a hint of a sinusoidal modulation at the source orbital period. The NIR -optical SED of the system did not suggest the presence of a jet. We conclude that the optical linear polarization observed for PSR J1023+0038 is possibly due to Thomson scattering with electrons in the disc, as also suggested by the hint of the modulation of the R-band linear polarization at the system orbital period.

  2. EVIDENCE FOR SIMULTANEOUS JETS AND DISK WINDS IN LUMINOUS LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Jeroen; Neilsen, Joseph; Allen, Jessamyn L.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Remillard, Ronald A.; Schulz, Norbert [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-582D, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fender, Rob [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fridriksson, Joel K., E-mail: jeroen@space.mit.edu [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-10-10

    Recent work on jets and disk winds in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) suggests that they are to a large extent mutually exclusive, with jets observed in spectrally hard states and disk winds observed in spectrally soft states. In this paper we use existing literature on jets and disk winds in the luminous neutron star (NS) LMXB GX 13+1, in combination with archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data, to show that this source is likely able to produce jets and disk winds simultaneously. We find that jets and disk winds occur in the same location on the source’s track in its X-ray color–color diagram. A further study of literature on other luminous LMXBs reveals that this behavior is more common, with indications for simultaneous jets and disk winds in the black hole LMXBs V404 Cyg and GRS 1915+105 and the NS LMXBs Sco X-1 and Cir X-1. For the three sources for which we have the necessary spectral information, we find that simultaneous jets/winds all occur in their spectrally hardest states. Our findings indicate that in LMXBs with luminosities above a few tens of percent of the Eddington luminosity, jets and disk winds are not mutually exclusive, and the presence of disk winds does not necessarily result in jet suppression.

  3. Low mass X-ray binaries in the Inner Galaxy: implications for millisecond pulsars and the GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2017-05-01

    If millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are responsible for the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, the same region should also contain a large population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In this study, we compile and utilize a sizable catalog of LMXBs observed in the the Milky Way's globular cluster system and in the Inner Galaxy, as well as the gamma-ray emission observed from globular clusters, to estimate the flux of gamma rays predicted from MSPs in the Inner Galaxy. From this comparison, we conclude that only up to $\\sim$4-23% of the observed gamma-ray excess is likely to originate from MSPs. This result is consistent with, and more robust than, previous estimates which utilized smaller samples of both globular clusters and LMXBs. If MSPs had been responsible for the entirety of the observed excess, INTEGRAL should have detected $\\sim$$10^3$ LMXBs from within a $10^{\\circ}$ radius around the Galactic Center, whereas only 42 LMXBs (and 46 additional LMXB candidates) have been observed.

  4. Extra-Articular Manifestations of Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjollca Sahatçiu-Meka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Although considered a “joint disease,” rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the involvement of extra-articular manifestations. The aim of the study is the investigation and comparison of frequency and type of extra-articular manifestations in a well defined community based cohort of patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Using the ACR (1987 criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, patients have been classified into the 2nd and 3rd functional class (ARA. The studied group consisted of 125 seronegative patients with titters lower than 1:64 as defined by Rose-Waaler test, whereas the control group consisted of 125 seropositive patients with titters of 1:64 or higher. All patients were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49,96, with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb=6,41. In order to present the findings of the study, the structure, prevalence, arithmetic mean (Xb, standard deviation (SB, variation quotient (QV% and variation interval (Rmax-Rmin have been used. Probability level has been expressed by p<0,01 and p<0,05. Correlation between the number of extra-articular manifestations and duration of the disease has been calculated by means of Pearson linear correlation. Higher presence of diffuse lung fibrosis, central and peripheral nervous system damages have been confirmed in the seropositive group, and osteoporosis in the seronegative; however, no statistical difference has been found. In extra-articular manifestations, “rheumatoid core” in the seropositive subset (χ2=4,80, p<0,05 presented significant statistical difference. Rheumatoid nodules were more frequent in seropositive subset (12%:16%, in both sexes; however, they were not of significant statistical difference. Neuropathy and lung diseases were also frequently present in seropositive group, but no statistical difference has been found regarding the statistical difference. Longer duration of the disease resulted in an increase of the number of extra

  5. Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Rexhepi, Mjellma

    2010-02-01

    Although considered a "joint disease," rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the involvement of extra-articular manifestations. The aim of the study is the investigation and comparison of frequency and type of extra-articular manifestations in a well defined community based cohort of patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Using the ACR (1987) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, patients have been classified into the 2nd and 3rd functional class (ARA). The studied group consisted of 125 seronegative patients with titters lower than 1:64 as defined by Rose-Waaler test, whereas the control group consisted of 125 seropositive patients with titters of 1:64 or higher. All patients were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49,96), with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb=6,41). In order to present the findings of the study, the structure, prevalence, arithmetic mean (Xb), standard deviation (SB), variation quotient (QV%) and variation interval (Rmax-Rmin) have been used. Probability level has been expressed by p<0,01 and p<0,05. Correlation between the number of extra-articular manifestations and duration of the disease has been calculated by means of Pearson linear correlation. Higher presence of diffuse lung fibrosis, central and peripheral nervous system damages have been confirmed in the seropositive group, and osteoporosis in the seronegative; however, no statistical difference has been found. In extra-articular manifestations, "rheumatoid core" in the seropositive subset (chi2=4,80, p<0,05) presented significant statistical difference. Rheumatoid nodules were more frequent in seropositive subset (12%:16%), in both sexes; however, they were not of significant statistical difference. Neuropathy and lung diseases were also frequently present in seropositive group, but no statistical difference has been found regarding the statistical difference. Longer duration of the disease resulted in an increase of the number of extra

  6. Evolution of surfaces properties for 100Cr6 steel by implantation and ionic mixing; Evolution des proprietes de surface de l`acier 100Cr6 par implantation et melange ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussemagne, A

    1996-07-09

    Physico-chemical characterizations performed on samples of 100Cr6 steel implanted both with boron and nitrogen revealed the formation of boron nitride along with the following new phases: Fe{sub 1-x}(B, N), Fe{sub 2-x}(B, N) and Fe{sub 3-x}(B, N). A thorough analysis of boron NITRIDE (5BN) indicates that a low ion current density (3 {mu}A.cm{sup -2}) in the case of the boron plus nitrogen sequence favours the formation of sp{sup 2} bonds (hexagonal-BN) while a higher ion current density (6{mu}A.cm{sup -2}) promotes sp{sup 3} bonds (cubic-BN) in the opposite sequence. Tribological tests carried out on these samples revealed that nitrogen and boron implantations do not lead to any significant improvement of friction and wear at variance with the results obtained by others authors. However, on a set samples accidentally contaminated with carbon during implantation, we noticed a considerable improvement of these tribological parameters. As this pollution is commonly encountered in surface treatment by ion beams, one can invoke this phenomenon to explain the origin of the discrepancy reported by the literature. Extensive investigations allowed us to conclude that surface carbon, whatever its origin (contamination, ion implantation or ion beam mixed coating), provided that its amount is sufficiently high ({>=}2 x 10{sup 16} C.cm{sup -2}), decreases the coefficient of friction by a factor 5 and reduces drastically ({approx} 100) the wear. A careful examination of the whole results led us to propose a theoretical model, based on the role of the asperities of the two bodies in contact, to explain the evolution of the coefficient of friction and wear with the amount of surface carbon. This analysis revealed that in order to improve friction and wear of 100Cr6 steel, one needs to coat this material with a well adherent carbon layer having a thickness higher than the asperity heights of the two bodies in contact. Finally, this study allowed us to develop a simple lower

  7. Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring in a temperate location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G

    2018-04-16

    Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in Oklahoma. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency was consistent over different seasons. Over 3 yrs, 240 straightbred and crossbred steers (F1 and three-way crosses) of Angus, Brahman or Romosinuano breeding, born in Brooksville, FL were transported to El Reno, OK in October and fed in two phases to determine performance, individual intake and efficiency. Phase 1 (WIN) began in November after a 28 d recovery from shipping stress and Phase 2 (SS) began in March, 28 d following completion of WIN each year. The diet for WIN was a grower diet (14% CP, 1.10 Mcal NEg/kg) and that for the SS was a feedlot diet (12.8% CP; 1.33 Mcal NEg/kg). After a 14 d adjustment to diet and facilities, intake trials were conducted over a period of 56 to 162 d for determination of intake and gain for efficiency. Body weights were recorded at approximately 14 d intervals, and initial BW, median BW, and ADG were determined from individual animal regressions of BW on days on feed (DOF). Individual daily DMI was then regressed by phase on median BW and ADG, and residuals of regression were recorded as residual feed intake (RFI). Similarly, daily gain was regressed by phase on median BW and DMI, and errors of regression were recorded as residual gain (RADG). Gain to feed (G:F) was also calculated. The statistical model to evaluate ADG, DMI, and efficiency included fixed effects of dam age (3 to 4, 5, 6 to10, and > 10yr), harvest group (3 per year), age on test, and a nested term DT(ST x XB) where DT = proportion tropical breeding of dam (0, 0.5, or 1), ST= proportion tropical breeding of sire (1, or 0), and XB whether the calf was straightbred or crossbred. Year of record, sire(ST x XB) and pen were random effects. Pre-weaning ADG and BW increased (P efficiency

  8. SU-D-204-07: Retrospective Correlation of Dose Accuracy with Regions of Local Failure for Early Stage Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devpura, S; Li, H; Liu, C; Fraser, C; Ajlouni, M; Movsas, B; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To correlate dose distributions computed using six algorithms for recurrent early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), with outcome (local failure). Methods: Of 270 NSCLC patients treated with 12Gyx4, 20 were found to have local recurrence prior to the 2-year time point. These patients were originally planned with 1-D pencil beam (1-D PB) algorithm. 4D imaging was performed to manage tumor motion. Regions of local failures were determined from follow-up PET-CT scans. Follow-up CT images were rigidly fused to the planning CT (pCT), and recurrent tumor volumes (Vrecur) were mapped to the pCT. Dose was recomputed, retrospectively, using five algorithms: 3-D PB, collapsed cone convolution (CCC), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), AcurosXB, and Monte Carlo (MC). Tumor control probability (TCP) was computed using the Marsden model (1,2). Patterns of failure were classified as central, in-field, marginal, and distant for Vrecur ≥95% of prescribed dose, 95–80%, 80–20%, and ≤20%, respectively (3). Results: Average PTV D95 (dose covering 95% of the PTV) for 3-D PB, CCC, AAA, AcurosXB, and MC relative to 1-D PB were 95.3±2.1%, 84.1±7.5%, 84.9±5.7%, 86.3±6.0%, and 85.1±7.0%, respectively. TCP values for 1-D PB, 3-D PB, CCC, AAA, AcurosXB, and MC were 98.5±1.2%, 95.7±3.0, 79.6±16.1%, 79.7±16.5%, 81.1±17.5%, and 78.1±20%, respectively. Patterns of local failures were similar for 1-D and 3D PB plans, which predicted that the majority of failures occur in centraldistal regions, with only ∼15% occurring distantly. However, with convolution/superposition and MC type algorithms, the majority of failures (65%) were predicted to be distant, consistent with the literature. Conclusion: Based on MC and convolution/superposition type algorithms, average PTV D95 and TCP were ∼15% lower than the planned 1-D PB dose calculation. Patterns of failure results suggest that MC and convolution

  9. Central supermassive black hole study of our galaxy and its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trap, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    This thesis gathers a series of observational and phenomenological studies pertaining to compact objects at the center of our Galaxy, i.e. the central supermassive black hole, SagittariusA"*, and neutron stars hosted by X-ray bursters. The first part deals with SgrA"*, which is subject to daily flares of unknown origins, both from the point of view of the triggers and the radiation mechanisms. This flaring activity has been probed by several extensive multiwavelength campaigns (in gamma-rays, X-rays, infrared and submillimeter) conducted between 2007 and 2009. Data recorded simultaneously by the XMM-Newton/EPIC, INTEGRAL/ISGRI+JEM-X, Fermi/LAT, VLT/NACO+VISIR, and APEX/LABOCA instruments, during new major flares, have helped characterize in detail the spectral and temporal behaviors of these eruptions, and constrain the non-thermal emission models of the radiative medium (synchrotron, inverse Compton, expanding plasmoid, etc). In a second section, a score of type I X-ray bursts from two low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic nucleus, GRS 1741.9-2853 and AXJ1745.6-2901, have been examined through the data of various low-energy X-ray satellites (2-30 keV). These observations have then been discussed in the relatively well established theoretical frame of thermonuclear explosions in a plasma of hydrogen and helium, built up at the surfaces of accreting neutron stars. (author) [fr

  10. Black holes in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, M.

    2005-01-01

    While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)

  11. Measurements of hard cosmic X-rays with special reference to burst phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.S.

    1978-06-01

    The bulk of this work is concerned with the development and subsequent flights of two balloon-borne gamma-burst detectors. The first was a 1 m 2 device which accumulated a total of 13 1/2 hours flying time at a latitude of 40 0 . The second was a large 7 m 2 detector which was flown from Alice Springs, N. Australia. Both detectors were sensitive to 50 keV to 2 MeV X-rays. The results of these flights are discussed with particular reference to the origin of gamma-bursts. The nature of X-ray bursts is also discussed, together with the results of observations by Experiment F on Ariel V, of the region of the sky centred on the rapid burster MXB1730-335. The last chapter is concerned with the development of a large area hard X-ray detector. This device is designed to be built in modular form and have a total collecting area up to 1 m 2 . It is sensitive to X-rays in the range 20 to 200 keV and is collimated by a tantalum honeycomb which has a field of view of 2 0 FWHM. A small version of this detector was flown on the same platform as the large burst detector. (author)

  12. XXII SLAC summer institute on particle physics: Proceedings. Particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J; DePorcel, L [eds.

    1996-02-01

    The seven-day school portion of the Institute revolved around the question of dark matter: where is it and what is it? Reviews were given of microlensing searches for baryonic dark matter, of dark matter candidates in the form of neutrinos and exotic particles, and of low-noise detection techniques used to search for the latter. The history of the universe, from the Big Bang to the role of dark matter in the formation of large-scale structure, was also covered. Other lecture series described the astrophysics that might be done with x-ray timing experiments and through the detection of gravitational radiation. As in past years, the lectures each morning were followed by stimulating afternoon discussion sessions, in which students could pursue with the lecturers the topics that most interested them. The Institute concluded with a three-day topical conference covering recent developments in theory and experiment. Highlights from the astrophysical and cosmological arenas included observations of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, and of the mysterious gamma-ray bursters. From terrestrial accelerators came tantalizing hints of the top quark and marked improvements in precision electroweak measurements, among many other results. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Time Domain Astronomy with Fermi GBM in the Multi-messenger Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fermi GBM team, GBM-LIGO team

    2018-01-01

    As the Multi-Messenger era begins with detections of gravitational waves with LIGO/Virgo and neutrinos with IceCube, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) provides context observations of gamma-ray transients between 8 keV and 40 MeV. Fermi GBM has a wide field of view, high uptime, and both in-orbit triggering and high time resolution continuous data enabling offline searches for weaker transients. GBM detects numerous gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray bursters, solar flares and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Longer timescale transients, predominantly in our galaxy so far, are detected using the Earth occultation technique and epoch-folding for periodic sources. The GBM team has developed two ground-based searches to enhance detections of faint transients, especially short GRBs. The targeted search uses the time and location of an event detected with another instrument to coherently search the GBM data, increasing the sensitivity to a transient. The untargeted search agnostically searches the GBM data for all directions and times to find weaker transients. This search finds about 80 short GRBs per year, adding to the 40 per year triggered on-orbit. With its large field of view, high duty cycle and increasingly sophisticated detection methods, Fermi GBM is expected to have a major role in the Multi-Messenger era.

  14. Surveying the skies how astronomers map the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wynn-Williams, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Since the time of Galileo, astronomy has been driven by technological innovation. With each major advance has come the opportunity and enthusiasm to survey the sky in a way that was not possible before. It is these surveys of discovery that are the subject of this book. In the first few chapters the author discusses what astronomers learned from visible-light surveys, first with the naked eye, then using telescopes in the seventeenth century, and photography in the nineteenth century. He then moves to the second half of the twentieth century when the skies started to be swept by radio, infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray and gamma ray telescopes, many of which had to be flown in satellites above the Earth’s atmosphere. These surveys led to the discovery of pulsars, quasars, molecular clouds, protostars, bursters, and black holes. He then returns to Earth to describe several currently active large-scale projects that methodically collect images, photometry and spectra that are then stored in vast publicly-accessibl...

  15. Different types of bursting calcium oscillations in non-excitable cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz; Marhl, Marko

    2003-01-01

    In the paper different types of bursting Ca 2+ oscillations are presented. We analyse bursting behaviour in four recent mathematical models for Ca 2+ oscillations in non-excitable cells. Separately, regular, quasi-periodic, and chaotic bursting Ca 2+ oscillations are classified into several subtypes. The classification is based on the dynamics of separated fast and slow subsystems, the so-called fast-slow burster analysis. For regular bursting Ca 2+ oscillations two types of bursting are specified: Point-Point and Point-Cycle bursting. In particular, the slow passage effect, important for the Hopf-Hopf and SubHopf-SubHopf bursting subtypes, is explained by local divergence calculated for the fast subsystem. Quasi-periodic bursting Ca 2+ oscillations can be found in only one of the four studied mathematical models and appear via a homoclinic bifurcation with a homoclinic torus structure. For chaotic bursting Ca 2+ oscillations, we found that bursting patterns resulting from the period doubling root to chaos considerably differ from those appearing via intermittency and have to be treated separately. The analysis and classification of different types of bursting Ca 2+ oscillations provides better insight into mechanisms of complex intra- and intercellular Ca 2+ signalling. This improves our understanding of several important biological phenomena in cellular signalling like complex frequency-amplitude signal encoding and synchronisation of intercellular signal transduction between coupled cells in tissue

  16. A soft mHz quasi periodic oscillation in the fastest accreting millisecond pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.; Sanna, A.; Pintore, F.; Papitto, A.; Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; D'ai, A.

    2017-10-01

    We illustrate the peculiar X-ray variability displayed by the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 in a 80 ks-long joint Nustar and XMM-Newton observation performed during the source outburst in 2015. The lightcurve of the source is characterized by a flaring behavior, with typical rise and decay timescales of ˜120 s. The flares are accompanied by a remarkable spectral variability, with the X- ray emission being generally softer at the peak of the flares. A strong QPO is detected at ˜8 mHz in the power spectrum of the source and clearly associated to its flaring-like behaviour. This feature has the strongest power at soft X-rays (hearth-beat in the black-hole binary GRS 1915+105, or, less likely, to unstable nuclear burning on the neutron star surface, as observed in the burster 4U 1636-536. This phenomenology could be ideally studied with the large throughput and wide energy coverage of present and future instruments.

  17. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN THE SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON STAR MASSES AND RADII FROM THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURSTS. III. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güver, Tolga [Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Beyazıt, 34119, Istanbul (Turkey); Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marshall, Herman [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Guainazzi, Matteo [European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Trigo, Maria [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-09-20

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826–238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE /PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE /PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE /PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0 ± 0.3% less flux than the RXTE /PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared with EPIC MOS1, MOS2, and ACIS-S detectors. We also show that any intrinsic time-dependent systematic uncertainty that may exist in the calibration of the satellites has already been implicity taken into account in the neutron star radius measurements.

  18. On hard X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Formation of the spectra of X-ray pulsars and gamma bursters is investigated. Interpretation of a hard X-ray spectrum of pulsars containing cyclotron lines is feasible on the basis of an isothermal model of a polar spot heated due to acccretion to a neutron star. It has been ascertained that in the regions responsible for the formation of continuum radiation and lines the mode polarization is determined by a magnetized vacuum rather than by a plasma. Bearing this in mind, the influence of the magnetic field of a star on the wide wings of the cyclotron line and on its depth is discussed. The part played by the accreting column in the case of strong accretion (approx. equal to 10 19 el cm -3 ) needed for long sustaining of the high level of X-rays from a neutron star-pulsar is studied. There occur the gaps in spectrum at frequencies close to the electron gyro-frequency and its harmonics due to the screening of the hot spot by the opaque gyro-resonant layer located within the accreting column. These gaps ensure the formation of cyclotron lines in absorption irrespective of the presence of such lines in the X-ray spectrum of a polar hot spot. (orig./WL)

  19. Intermittent synchronization in a network of bursting neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choongseok; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.

    2011-09-01

    Synchronized oscillations in networks of inhibitory and excitatory coupled bursting neurons are common in a variety of neural systems from central pattern generators to human brain circuits. One example of the latter is the subcortical network of the basal ganglia, formed by excitatory and inhibitory bursters of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus, involved in motor control and affected in Parkinson's disease. Recent experiments have demonstrated the intermittent nature of the phase-locking of neural activity in this network. Here, we explore one potential mechanism to explain the intermittent phase-locking in a network. We simplify the network to obtain a model of two inhibitory coupled elements and explore its dynamics. We used geometric analysis and singular perturbation methods for dynamical systems to reduce the full model to a simpler set of equations. Mathematical analysis was completed using three slow variables with two different time scales. Intermittently, synchronous oscillations are generated by overlapped spiking which crucially depends on the geometry of the slow phase plane and the interplay between slow variables as well as the strength of synapses. Two slow variables are responsible for the generation of activity patterns with overlapped spiking, and the other slower variable enhances the robustness of an irregular and intermittent activity pattern. While the analyzed network and the explored mechanism of intermittent synchrony appear to be quite generic, the results of this analysis can be used to trace particular values of biophysical parameters (synaptic strength and parameters of calcium dynamics), which are known to be impacted in Parkinson's disease.

  20. THE FERMI –GBM THREE-YEAR X-RAY BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, P. A. [CSPAR, SPA University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Linares, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Connaughton, V.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Beklen, E. [Department of Physics, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260, Isparta (Turkey); Wilson-Hodge, C. A. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an all-sky gamma-ray monitor well known in the gamma-ray burst (GRB) community. Although GBM excels in detecting the hard, bright extragalactic GRBs, its sensitivity above 8 keV and its all-sky view make it an excellent instrument for the detection of rare, short-lived Galactic transients. In 2010 March, we initiated a systematic search for transients using GBM data. We conclude this phase of the search by presenting a three-year catalog of 1084 X-ray bursts. Using spectral analysis, location, and spatial distributions we classified the 1084 events into 752 thermonuclear X-ray bursts, 267 transient events from accretion flares and X-ray pulses, and 65 untriggered gamma-ray bursts. All thermonuclear bursts have peak blackbody temperatures broadly consistent with photospheric radius expansion (PRE) bursts. We find an average rate of 1.4 PRE bursts per day, integrated over all Galactic bursters within about 10 kpc. These include 33 and 10 bursts from the ultra-compact X-ray binaries 4U 0614+09 and 2S 0918-549, respectively. We discuss these recurrence times and estimate the total mass ejected by PRE bursts in our Galaxy.

  1. Science from the first 10 months of observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is an international, multi-agency satellite mission that was launched by NASA in june 2008 and has since then been exploring the high energy gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. This largely unexplored region of the electro-magnetic spectrum is home to emissions from the most energetic and mysterious objects in the cosmos, like black holes, active galactic nuclei, rapidly spinning neutron stars, supernovae remnants and gamma-ray bursters. Leveraging on the high instrument resolution and acceptance, and on an outstanding operation efficiency, the mission team has been able to record a remarkable variety of novel observations, spanning from astronomy to particle astrophysics with exciting implications on fundamental physics. At the same time the collaboration is preparing to deliver photon data and analysis tools to the public starting from the second year of operations, along with improved knowledge of the instrument performance. In this talk I will review some of the most inte...

  2. Black Hole Firewalls and Lorentzian Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2013-04-01

    In a paper published (Z. f. Naturforsch. 56a, 889, 2001) I had shown that the pre-Einstein theory of relativity by Lorentz and Poincare, extended to the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, predicts the disintegration of matter by passing through the event horizon. The zero point vacuum energy is there cut-off at the Planck energy, but Lorentz-invariant all the way up to this energy. The cut-off creates a distinguished reference system in which this energy is at rest. For non-relativistic velocities relative to this reference system, the special and general relativity remain a good approximations, with matter held together in a stable equilibrium by electrostatic forces (or forces acting like them) as a solution of an elliptic partial differential equation derived from Maxwell's equation. But in approaching and crossing the velocity of light in the distinguished reference system, which is equivalent in approaching and crossing of the event horizon, the elliptic differential equation goes over into a hyperbolic differential equation (as in fluid dynamics from subsonic to supersonic flow), and there is no such equilibrium. According to Schwarzschild's interior solution, the event horizon of a collapsing mass appears first as a point in its center, thereafter moving radially outwards, thereby converting all the mass into energy, explaining the observed gamma ray bursters.

  3. Focused Study of Thermonuclear Bursts on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-05-01

    X-ray bursters form a class of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries where accreted material from a donor star undergoes rapid thermonuclear burning in the surface layers of a neutron star. The flux released can temporarily exceed the Eddington limit and drive the photosphere to large radii. Such photospheric radius expansion bursts likely eject nuclear burning ashes into the interstellar medium, and may make possible the detection of photoionization edges. Indeed, theoretical models predict that absorption edges from 58Fe at 9.2 keV, 60Zn and 62Zn at 12.2 keV should be detectable by the future missions Simbol-X and NuSTAR. A positive detection would thus probe the nuclear burning as well as the gravitational redshift from the neutron star. Moreover, likely observations of atomic X-ray spectral components reflected from the inner accretion disk have been reported. The high spectral resolution capabilities of the focusing X-ray telescopes may therefore make possible to differentiate between the potential interpretations of the X-ray bursts spectral features.

  4. NICER Discovers mHz Oscillations and Marginally Stable Burning in GS 1826-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Keek, Laurens; Bult, Peter; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Arzoumanian, Zaven; NICER Science Team

    2018-01-01

    To date, marginally stable thermonuclear burning, evidenced as mHz X-ray flux oscillations, has been observed in only five accreting neutron star binaries, 4U 1636-536, 4U 1608-52, Aql X-1, 4U 1323-619 and Terzan 5 X-2. Here we report the discovery with NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) of such oscillations from the well-known X-ray burster GS 1826-24. NICER observed GS 1826-24 on 9 September, 2017 for a total exposure of about 4 ksec. Timing analysis revealed highly significant oscillations at a frequency of 8.2 mHz in two successive pointings. The oscillations have a fractional modulation amplitude of approximately 3% for photon energies less than 6 keV. The observed frequency is consistent with the range observed in the other mHz QPO systems, and indeed is slightly higher than the frequency measured in 4U 1636-536 below which mHz oscillations ceased and unstable burning (X-ray bursts) resumed. We discuss the mass accretion rate dependence of the oscillations as well as the X-ray spectrum as a function of pulsation phase. We place the observations in the context of the current theory of marginally stable burning and briefly discuss the potential for constraining neutron star properties using mHz oscillations.

  5. Nuclear weapon race does not stop; Le nucleaire ne desarme pas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahe Ter, Minassian

    2005-04-01

    60 years after Hiroshima, the race for nuclear weaponry keeps on. The comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), signed in 1996 by the 5 official nuclear-weapon-owning states (Usa, Russia, China, U.K. and France), has not yet been implemented because its implementation requires the ratification of 44 states that harbour on their territories industrial or research nuclear reactors. Till now only 33 such states have ratified CTBT. CTBT aims at prohibiting any nuclear test whatever the amount of energy released in it. Countries like Usa, North-Korea, Russia, soon Iran... are suspected to develop new types of nuclear warfare. For 2005 the American Congress have decided to freeze the funding of programmes dedicated to the development of 'mini-nukes' like the bunker-burster. The international network of monitoring stations will soon cover all the world and will be able to detect and locate, in an almost automated way, any test involving an energy greater than 1 kiloton. 321 stations have been settled and their efficient detection systems are based on seismic or infra-sound or radioactivity or hydro-acoustic analysis. (A.C.)

  6. Determining the Number of Instars in Simulium quinquestriatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Using k-Means Clustering via the Canberra Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao Ming; Jia, Ruo; Xun, Hui; Yang, Jie; Chen, Qiang; Zeng, Xiang Guang; Yang, Ming

    2018-02-21

    Simulium quinquestriatum Shiraki (Diptera: Simuliidae), a human-biting fly that is distributed widely across Asia, is a vector for multiple pathogens. However, the larval development of this species is poorly understood. In this study, we determined the number of instars in this pest using three batches of field-collected larvae from Guiyang, Guizhou, China. The postgenal length, head capsule width, mandibular phragma length, and body length of 773 individuals were measured, and k-means clustering was used for instar grouping. Four distance measures-Manhattan, Euclidean, Chebyshev, and Canberra-were determined. The reported instar numbers, ranging from 4 to 11, were set as initial cluster centers for k-means clustering. The Canberra distance yielded reliable instar grouping, which was consistent with the first instar, as characterized by egg bursters and prepupae with dark histoblasts. Females and males of the last cluster of larvae were identified using Feulgen-stained gonads. Morphometric differences between the two sexes were not significant. Validation was performed using the Brooks-Dyar and Crosby rules, revealing that the larval stage of S. quinquestriatum is composed of eight instars.

  7. XXII SLAC summer institute on particle physics: Proceedings. Particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, J.; DePorcel, L.

    1996-02-01

    The seven-day school portion of the Institute revolved around the question of dark matter: where is it and what is it? Reviews were given of microlensing searches for baryonic dark matter, of dark matter candidates in the form of neutrinos and exotic particles, and of low-noise detection techniques used to search for the latter. The history of the universe, from the Big Bang to the role of dark matter in the formation of large-scale structure, was also covered. Other lecture series described the astrophysics that might be done with x-ray timing experiments and through the detection of gravitational radiation. As in past years, the lectures each morning were followed by stimulating afternoon discussion sessions, in which students could pursue with the lecturers the topics that most interested them. The Institute concluded with a three-day topical conference covering recent developments in theory and experiment. Highlights from the astrophysical and cosmological arenas included observations of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, and of the mysterious gamma-ray bursters. From terrestrial accelerators came tantalizing hints of the top quark and marked improvements in precision electroweak measurements, among many other results. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  8. Protostellar Jets in Context

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinganos, Kanaris; Stute, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Conference Protostellar Jets in Context held by the JETSET Marie Curie Research Training Network in July 2008. This meeting not only served to showcase some of the network's achievements but was also a platform to hear from, discuss and debate the recent findings of world-class astrophysicists in the field of protostellar jet research. Jets from young stars are of course not an isolated astrophysical phenomenon. It is known that objects as diverse as young brown dwarfs, planetary nebulae, symbiotic stars, micro-quasars, AGN, and gamma-ray bursters produce jets. Thus in a series of talks, protostellar jets were put in context by comparing them with their often much larger brethren and also by considering the ubiquitous accretion disks that seem to be necessary for their formation. With this spectrum of contributions on observations and the theory of astrophysical jets and accretion disks, this book serves as a comprehensive reference work for researchers and students...

  9. ANTARES: An underwater neutrino observatory for the exploration of both the deep Ocean and the deep Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoffier, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy is a new and unique method to explore the Universe. It is full of promises, such as improving our knowledge on cosmic accelerators or distinguishing unambiguously between hadronic and electronic acceleration mechanisms of very high energy cosmic rays. In this document the issues of neutrino astronomy are introduced and an overview of current and former neutrino telescopes is given, with a description of the performance results expected from the ANTARES underwater detector. My research path is marked by contributions to the detector calibration and by studies of the trigger system with the development of a new data selection algorithm. The potential for discovery of the ANTARES telescope is then illustrated with two analyses, one dedicated to the research of high-energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursters and the other dedicated to the search for magnetic monopoles. Within this dissertation, I also discuss the opportunity offered by a submarine detector to understand the deep-sea environment. Indeed, ANTARES is a multidisciplinary, permanent marine observatory bringing its brick to the edifice of the global understanding of physical phenomena and biological oceanography in the context of global changes. I illustrate these remarks with studies on marine bioluminescence observed by ANTARES and its connection to the dense water formation originating from the Gulf of Lion. (author)

  10. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  11. DISK-RELATED BURSTS AND FADES IN YOUNG STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, Krzysztof; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Ofek, Eran; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from a new, multiyear, time domain survey of young stars in the North America Nebula complex using the Palomar Transient Factory. Our survey is providing an unprecedented view of aperiodic variability in young stars on timescales of days to years. The analyzed sample covers R PTF ≈ 13.5-18 and spans a range of mid-infrared color, with larger-amplitude optical variables (exceeding 0.4 mag root mean squared) more likely to have mid-infrared evidence for circumstellar material. This paper characterizes infrared excess stars with distinct bursts above or fades below a baseline of lower-level variability, identifying 41 examples. The light curves exhibit a remarkable diversity of amplitudes, timescales, and morphologies, with a continuum of behaviors that cannot be classified into distinct groups. Among the bursters, we identify three particularly promising sources that may represent theoretically predicted short-timescale accretion instabilities. Finally, we find that fading behavior is approximately twice as common as bursting behavior on timescales of days to years, although the bursting and fading duty cycle for individual objects often varies from year to year.

  12. Phase composition and magnetic properties in nanocrystalline permanent magnets based on misch-metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, X. F.; Liu, F.; Liu, Y. L.; Jv, X. M.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, G. F.

    2017-09-01

    The magnetic properties and phase composition of magnets based on misch-metal (MM) with nominal composition of MM13+xFe84-xB6.5 with x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 using melt-spinning method were investigated. For x = 1.5, it could exhibit best magnetic properties (Hcj = 753.02 kA m-1, (BH)max = 70.77 kJ m-3). X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy show that the multi hard magnetic phase of RE2Fe14B (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) existed in the magnets. The domain wall pinning effect and the exchange coupling interaction between grains are dependent on the abnormal RE-rich phase composition. Optimizing the phase constitution is necessary to improve magnetic properties in MM-Fe-B magnets for utilizing the rare earth resource in a balanced manner.

  13. PENGARUH STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN GENIUS LEARNING TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR FISIKA SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Siagian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar Fisika siswa dengan menerapkan strategi pembelajaran Genius Learning. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Pancur Batu, di mana dari kelas X-A sebagai kelas eksperimen (strategi pembelajaran Genius Learning dan kelas X-B sebagai kela kontrol (pembelajaran konvensional dengan masing-masing kelas berjumlah 40 siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian quasi experiment dengan menggunakan metode groups pretest-posttest desaign dalam pengambilan data penelitian. Berdasarkan data yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa rata-rata hasil belajar fisika siswa dengan strategi pembelajaran Genius Learning mengalami peningkatan. Data penelitian berupa hasil belajar kognitif diperoleh dari test hasil belajar yang diperoleh untuk mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar siswa. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan adanya peningkatan hasil belajar kognitif. Dari hasil analisis tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa penerapan stategi pembelajaran Genius Learning dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar fisika siswa.

  14. Structural and critical current properties in Al-doped MgB 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. N.; Xiang, J. Y.; Lang, P. L.; Li, J. Q.; Che, G. C.; Zhao, Z. W.; Wen, H. H.; Tian, H. Y.; Ni, Y. M.; Zhao, Z. X.

    2004-08-01

    A series of Al-doped Mg 1- xAl xB 2 samples have been fabricated and systematic study on structure and superconducting properties have been carried out for the samples. In addition to a structural transition observed by XRD, TEM micrographs showed the existence of a superstructure of double c-axis lattice constant along the direction perpendicular to the boron honeycomb sheet. In order to investigate the effect of Al doping on flux pinning and critical current properties in MgB 2, measurements on the superconducting transition temperature Tc, irreversible field Birr and critical current density Jc were performed too, for the samples with the doping levels lower than 0.15 in particular. These experimental observations were discussed in terms of Al doping induced changes in carrier concentration.

  15. Beam spin asymmetry in deep and exclusive pi0 electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. De Masi

    2007-01-01

    The beam spin asymmetry (BSA) in the exclusive reaction ep->ep pi0 was measured with the CEBAF 5.77 GeV polarized electron beam and Large Acceptance Spectrometer(CLAS). The xB, Q2, t and phi dependences of the pi0 BSA are presented in the deep inelastic regime. The asymmetries are fitted with a sin(phi) function and their amplitudes are extracted. Overall, they are of the order of 0.04 - 0.11 and roughly independent of t. This is the signature of a non-zero longitudinal-transverse interference. The implications concerning the applicability of a formalism based on generalized parton distributions, as well as the extension of a Regge formalism at high photon virtualities, are discussed

  16. New horizons for aerobic fitness normalization in children: Breaking the paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p709 Traditional methods to normalize aerobic fitness (VO2max have been considered inadequate for not properly adjusting the effects of body size in children, adolescents and adults. Allometric scaling (Y=aXb has emerged as an efficient method to compare individuals of different body dimensions. Studies aimed to compare VO2max in individuals with different body sizes should use methodology that properly accounts for the body size effect, thereby avoiding misinterpretation and reaching the potentially wrong conclusion. The use of allometric scaling for studies aimed to compare aerobic fitness in children and adolescents who dramatically vary in body size is strongly recommended.

  17. Performance of local correlation methods for halogen bonding: The case of Br2-(H2O)n,n = 4,5 clusters and Br2@5(12)6(2) clathrate cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Romero, Fidel A; Pajón-Suárez, Pedro; Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón

    2015-09-07

    The performance of local correlation methods is examined for the interactions present in clusters of bromine with water where the combined effect of hydrogen bonding (HB), halogen bonding (XB), and hydrogen-halogen (HX) interactions lead to many interesting properties. Local methods reproduce all the subtleties involved such as many-body effects and dispersion contributions provided that specific methodological steps are followed. Additionally, they predict optimized geometries that are nearly free of basis set superposition error that lead to improved estimates of spectroscopic properties. Taking advantage of the local correlation energy partitioning scheme, we compare the different interaction environments present in small clusters and those inside the 5(12)6(2) clathrate cage. This analysis allows a clear identification of the reasons supporting the use of local methods for large systems where non-covalent interactions play a key role.

  18. Study of boro-tellurite glasses doped with neodymium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, Kishore, N.; Sheoran, M. S.; Devi, S.

    2018-05-01

    Borotellurite glasses doped with Nd2O3 [xB2O3(95-x)TeO25Nd2O3] have been prepared by the standard melt-quenching technique. Amorphous nature of the present system was estimated by XRD patterns. The thermal parameters like glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization (Tc) and melting (Tm) temperatures have been estimated from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces. Density and molar volume have been determined. It was found that Tg is increased due to increasing number of Te-O bonds were replaced by a number of stronger B-O bonds whereas density was decreased with an increase in B2O3 content is due to the higher degree of cross-bonding between the Boron and non-bridging oxygen ions resulting in a strengthening of glass network.

  19. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Souhegan River Watershed Dam Number 35 (NH 00435), NHWRB 175.21, Merrimack River Basin, New Ipswich, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    left end of the service platform has spalled over a 12 inch by 4 inch area. This spalling is attributed to excessive concrete vibra- tion. A...reinforced rod on ton of service platform exposed for 12"’ 1-f f Irescenct- NKone notedl Hon n E, com r)-1 12"’ x I" on headwa . seer- S age flowing through...3 nL 3 o m W(\\ +4 X -. = 0 wix .- X a kD X-~ W-I)~ + 0 5 Z I-- wJ 0 - U) w X -n = -o-Xb \\ W -- ~U)~.I-+ + -L a " fJ f It 1.Z’ X - r X tO U- -w LLI- W

  20. Development of a radiochemical separation method for toxic elements determination from biologic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine Hg, Sb, As and Se in biological materials by neutron activation analysis, a radiochemical separation was developed. The chemical separation procedure used was based on the digestion of the irradiated sample in a mixture of HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 in a teflon bomb, at 130 0 C for 1 to 4 hours. After the dissolution of organic matter, Hg and Sb were retained by a Dowex 2-XB resin column in 6M HCI. The efluent was passed through a TDO, tin dioxide column which retains As and Se in 3M HCI medium. Radioactive tracers of these elements were used to determine the yields of the separation process. Certified reference materials were analyzed to check the precision and accuracy of the method. (author)

  1. Thermal, spectral, and surface properties of LED light-polymerized bulk fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Mehmet Burçin; Atalı, Pınar Yılmaz; Figen, Aysel Kantürk

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal, spectral, and surface properties of four different bulk fill materials – SureFil SDR (SDR, Dentsplay DETREY), QuixFil (QF, Dentsplay DETREY), X-tra base (XB, Voco) X-tra fil (XF, Voco) – polymerized by light-emitting diode (LED). Resin matrix, filler type, size and amount, and photoinitiator types influence the degree of conversion. LED-cured bulk fill composites achieved sufficient polymerization. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed different patterns of surface roughness, depending on the composite material. Bulk fill materials showed surface characteristics similar to those of nanohybrid composites. Based on the thermal analysis results, glass transition (T(g)) and initial degradation (T(i)) temperatures changed depending on the bulk fill resin composites.

  2. Solar wind controlled pulsations: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odera, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the solar wind controlled Pc 3, 4 pulsations by early and recent researchers are highlighted. The review focuses on the recent observations, which cover the time during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Results from early and recent observations agree on one point, that is, that the Pc 3, 4 pulsations are influenced by three main solar wind parameters, namely, the solar wind velocity V/sub 5w/, the IMF orientation theta/sub x/B, and magnitude B. The results can be interpreted, preferably, in terms of an external origin for Pc 3, 4 pulsations. This implies, essentially, the signal model, which means that the pulsations originate in the upstream waves (in the interplanetary medium) and are transported by convection to the magnetopause, where they couple to oscillations of the magnetospheric field lines

  3. Towards a self-consistent computation of vacuum energy in 11-dimensional supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1984-02-01

    An attempt is made to balance the negative vacuum energy associated with the Freund-Rubin compactification of the 11-dimensional supergravity theory against the contribution from vacuum fluctuations. We do this in order to obtain a ground state geometry which has four physical (flat) dimensions and is of the form (Minkowski) 4 xB 7 where B 7 is one of the 7-dimensional manifolds: S 7 , S 5 xS 2 , S 4 xS 3 , CP 2 xS 3 , S 3 xS 2 xS 2 or a 5-parameter family of SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) invariant spaces Msup(pqrst). We find that all of these solutions are unstable. As a side-issue the facility for computation of the particle spectra, which results from the use of lightcone gauge, is emphasized. (author)

  4. Spectroscopic studies of silver boro tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Rao, B. Appa; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-01

    The FTIR absorption and Raman scattering studies were used to obtain the structural information of AgI-Ag2O-[(1-x)B2O3-xTeO2] (x=0 to 1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glasses. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. FTIR and Raman spectra were recorded for all samples at room temperature. FTIR spectra which provides the information about the change in bond structure of the glasses. Raman spectra provide the effect of TeO2 on SBT glass system is that as increasing the concentration of TeO2 the band intensity at 707 cm-1 increase.

  5. Preparation and characterization of boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Nirmal; Khanna, Atul; Krishna, P. S. R.

    2014-04-01

    Glass samples of the system: xB2O3-(100-x) TeO2; x= 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were prepared by melt quenching and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the amorphous structure of all samples. Density of glasses decreased with increase in B2O3 concentration due to the replacement of heavier TeO2 with lighter B2O3 whereas the glass transition temperature increased from 339°C to 366°C; the later effect was due to increase in the concentration of stronger B-O bonds in the glass network. FTIR studies found that BO4 units convert into BO3 with the addition of B2O3.

  6. Modelling of SOL flows and target asymmetries in JET field reversal experiments with EDGE2D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankin, A.; Coad, J.; Corrigan, G.

    1999-11-01

    The EDGE2D code with drifts can reproduce the main trends of target asymmetries observed in field reversal experiments. It also re-produces qualitatively the main feature of recent JET results obtained with double-sided reciprocating Langmuir probes introduced near the top of the torus: the reversal of parallel plasma flow with toroidal field reversal. The code results suggest that the major contributor to the observed target asymmetries is the co-current toroidal momentum generated inside the scrape-off layer (SOL) by j r xB forces due to the presence of large up-down pressure asymmetries. Contrary to previous expectations of the predominant role of ExB drifts in creating target asymmetries, ∇B and centrifugal drifts were found to be mainly responsible for both parallel flows and target asymmetries. (author)

  7. Flight calibration of compensated and uncompensated pitot-static airspeed probes and application of the probes to supersonic cruise vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L. D.; Washington, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Static pressure position error calibrations for a compensated and an uncompensated XB-70 nose boom pitot static probe were obtained in flight. The methods (Pacer, acceleration-deceleration, and total temperature) used to obtain the position errors over a Mach number range from 0.5 to 3.0 and an altitude range from 25,000 feet to 70,000 feet are discussed. The error calibrations are compared with the position error determined from wind tunnel tests, theoretical analysis, and a standard NACA pitot static probe. Factors which influence position errors, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, probe tip geometry, static orifice location, and probe shape, are discussed. Also included are examples showing how the uncertainties caused by position errors can affect the inlet controls and vertical altitude separation of a supersonic transport.

  8. ATLAS studies of spectroscopy and B-decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dolezal, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has a wide programme to study the production cross section and decay properties of particles with beauty, as well as charmonium and bottomonium states. This presentation will cover the latest ATLAS results, including searches for excited b-hadrons, new decay modes of b-hadrons, indirect New Physics searches in rare B-hadron decays, as well as sthe study of mixing and CP violation in the Bs system. We will also review the results in the domain of charmonium production, including J/psi, psi(2s) and chi_c states, associated vector boson + J/psi production and search for hidden-beauty state Xb, the bottomonium counterpart of X(3876) in the Upsilon pi pi channel.

  9. Dose measurement during defectoscopic work using electronic personal dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoldasova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Personal monitoring of the external radiation of radiation, personnel exposed to sources of ionizing radiation at a workplace is an important task of the radiological protection. Information based on the measured quantities characterizing the level of the exposure of radiation personnel enable to assess the optimum radiological protection at the relevant workplace and ascertain any deviation from the normal operation in time. Different types of personal dosimeters are used to monitor the external radiation of radiation personnel. Basically, there are two types of dosimeters, passive and active (electronic). Passive dosimeters provide information on the dose of exposure after its evaluation, while electronic dosimeters provide this information instantly. The goal of the work is to compare data acquired during different working activities using the DMC 2000 XB electronic dosimeters and the passive film dosimeters currently used at the defectoscopic workplace. (authors)

  10. Complex Heat Capacity of Lithium Borate Glasses Studied by Modulated DSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yu; Matsui, Chihiro; Ike, Yuji; Kodama, Masao; Kojima, Seiji

    2006-05-01

    Complex heat capacity, Cp* = Cp' - iCp″, of lithium borate glasses Li2Oṡ(1-x)B2O3 (x = 0.00 - 0.33) has been investigated by Modulated DSC (MDSC). We have successfully observed the frequency dependent Cp* by MDSC in the frequency range 0.01 to 0.1 Hz, and the average relaxation time of glass transition has been determined as a function of temperature. Moreover, the composition dependence of the thermal properties has been investigated. The calorimetric glass transition temperatures become higher with the increase of concentration of Li2O and show the board maximum around x = 0.26-0.28. The width of glass transition region becomes narrower as Li2O increases. These results relate to the change of the fragility of the system. It has been proven that the complex heat capacity spectroscopy by MDSC is a powerful tool to investigate the glass transition phenomena.

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Length-weight and length-length relationship of three species of snakehead fish, Channa diplogramma, C. marulius and C. striata from the riverine reaches of Lake Vembanad, Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationships (LLR of three snakehead fishes, Channa diplogramma, C. marulius and C. striata, exploited by small-scale fishers in the riverine reaches of Lake Vembanad, Kerala were studied using the allometric growth equation Y = aXb. Our analysis shows that the LWR of C. diplogramma and C. marulius is nonisometric with exponents much smaller than the cubic value (b = 3, while that of C. striata is isometric. Channa marulius showed a definite change in LWR with size, with smaller fish growing with positive allometric exponents (b greater than 3 and larger individuals having negative allometric relationship (b less than 3, indicating a possible age-related change in growth pattern. In the case of LLR, all three snakehead species showed non-isometric growth patterns. The caudal fin did not grow substantially with increasing fish length.

  12. Variation of energy absorption and exposure buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for boro-tellurite (B2O3-TeO2) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Elhouichet, H.

    2017-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of (100-x)TeO2-xB2O3 glass systems (where x=5, 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25 mol%) have been calculated in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameters (G-P) fitting method has been used to estimate both EABF and EBF values. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy and penetration depth have been studied. It was found that EABF and EBF values were higher in the intermediate energy region, for all the glass systems. Furthermore, boro-tellurite glass with 5 mol% B2O3, was found to present the lowest EABF and EBF values, hence it is superior gamma-ray shielding material. The results indicate that the boro-tellurite glasses can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  13. Exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction on transversely polarised protons and deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-01-01

    The transverse target spin azimuthal asymmetry A_UT in hard exclusive production of rho^0 mesons was measured at COMPASS by scattering 160 GeV/c muons off transversely polarised protons and deuterons. The measured asymmetry is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip generalised parton distributions E^q, which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. The Q^2, x_B and p_t^2 dependence of A_UT is presented in a wide kinematic range. Results for deuterons are obtained for the first time. The measured asymmetry is small in the whole kinematic range for both protons and deuterons, which is consistent with the theoretical interpretation that contributions from GPDs E^u and E^d approximately cancel.

  14. Single spin asymmetries in charged kaon production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. X.; Wang, Y.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, C.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Katich, J.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J.-C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L.-G.; Tobias, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries of charged kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of electrons off a transversely polarized 3He target. Both the Collins and Sivers moments, which are related to the nucleon transversity and Sivers distributions, respectively, are extracted over the kinematic range of 0.1 <xb j<0.4 for K+ and K- production. While the Collins and Sivers moments for K+ are consistent with zero within the experimental uncertainties, both moments for K- favor negative values. The Sivers moments are compared to the theoretical prediction from a phenomenological fit to the world data. While the K+ Sivers moments are consistent with the prediction, the K- results differ from the prediction at the 2-sigma level.

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Components of Zhengtian Pills Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui-Ting; Zhang, Min; Yan, Ping; Liu, Hai-Chan; Liu, Xing-Yun; Zhan, Ruo-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Zhengtian pills (ZTPs) are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which have been commonly used to treat headaches. Volatile components of ZTPs extracted by ethyl acetate with an ultrasonic method were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-two components were identified, accounting for 78.884% of the total components of volatile oil. The three main volatile components including protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). Baseline separation was achieved on an XB-C18 column with linear gradient elution of methanol-0.2% acetic acid aqueous solution. The UHPLC-DAD method provided good linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.9992), precision (RSD components, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, and ligustilide, in 13 batches of ZTPs, which is suitable for discrimination and quality assessment of ZTPs.

  16. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  17. The Boolean algebra of Galois algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianyong Xue

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B|bx=g(xb for all x∈B} for each g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg, Ba the Boolean algebra generated by {0,eg|g∈G}, e a nonzero element in Ba, and He={g∈G|eeg=e}. Then, a monomial e is characterized, and the Galois extension Be, generated by e with Galois group He, is investigated.

  18. Investigation of thermal stability and spectroscopic properties in Er3+ doped bismuth-boron-germanium glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Qiuhua; Lu Longjun; Dai Shixun; Xu Tiefeng; Shen Xiang; Zhang Xudong; Liang Xiaowei; Zhang Xianghua

    2007-01-01

    A series of Er 3+ -doped 50Bi 2 O 3 -(50-x)B 2 O 3 -xGeO 2 +0.5 wt% Er 2 O 3 (x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mol%) glasses were prepared. The thermal stability, absorption spectra, emission spectra and lifetime of the 4 I 13 / 2 level of Er 3+ ions were measured and studied. It is found that the absorption cross-section of Er 3+ , emission intensity and lifetime of the 4 I 13 / 2 level of Er 3+ increase with increasing GeO 2 content in the glass composition, while the fluorescence full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at 1.5 μm of Er 3+ is about 79 nm in x=20 mol% glass sample under 970 nm pump. The obtained data suggest that this system glass can be used as a candidate host material for potential broadband optical amplifiers

  19. Performance of local correlation methods for halogen bonding: The case of Br{sub 2}–(H{sub 2}O){sub n},n = 4,5 clusters and Br{sub 2}@5{sup 12}6{sup 2} clathrate cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista-Romero, Fidel A.; Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I.; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón, E-mail: ramon@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62209 (Mexico); Pajón-Suárez, Pedro [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), Habana 6163 (Cuba)

    2015-09-07

    The performance of local correlation methods is examined for the interactions present in clusters of bromine with water where the combined effect of hydrogen bonding (HB), halogen bonding (XB), and hydrogen-halogen (HX) interactions lead to many interesting properties. Local methods reproduce all the subtleties involved such as many-body effects and dispersion contributions provided that specific methodological steps are followed. Additionally, they predict optimized geometries that are nearly free of basis set superposition error that lead to improved estimates of spectroscopic properties. Taking advantage of the local correlation energy partitioning scheme, we compare the different interaction environments present in small clusters and those inside the 5{sup 12}6{sup 2} clathrate cage. This analysis allows a clear identification of the reasons supporting the use of local methods for large systems where non-covalent interactions play a key role.

  20. Longitudinal Target-Spin Asymmetries for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, E.; Biselli, A.; Pisano, S.; Niccolai, S.; Smith, G. D.; Joo, K.; Adhikari, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carlin, C.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Senderovich, I.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tian, Y.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the electroproduction of photons off protons in the deeply inelastic regime was performed at Jefferson Lab using a nearly 6 GeV electron beam, a longitudinally polarized proton target, and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Target-spin asymmetries for e p →e'p'γ events, which arise from the interference of the deeply virtual Compton scattering and the Bethe-Heitler processes, were extracted over the widest kinematics in Q2 , xB, t , and ϕ , for 166 four-dimensional bins. In the framework of generalized parton distributions, at leading twist the t dependence of these asymmetries provides insight into the spatial distribution of the axial charge of the proton, which appears to be concentrated in its center. These results also bring important and necessary constraints for the existing parametrizations of chiral-even generalized parton distributions.

  1. Exclusive η electroproduction at W >2 GeV with CLAS and transversity generalized parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Yurov, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The cross section of the exclusive η electroproduction reaction e p →e'p'η was measured at Jefferson Laboratory with a 5.75 GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d4σ /d t d Q2d xBd ϕη and structure functions σU=σT+ɛ σL,σT T , and σL T, as functions of t , were obtained over a wide range of Q2 and xB. The η structure functions are compared with those previously measured for π0 at the same kinematics. At low t , both π0 and η are described reasonably well by generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in which chiral-odd transversity GPDs are dominant. The π0 and η data, when taken together, can facilitate the flavor decomposition of the transversity GPDs.

  2. Cross Sections for the Exclusive Photon Electroproduction on the Proton and Generalized Parton Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, H. S.; Girod, F. X.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V. D.; Garçon, M.; Guidal, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Unpolarized and beam-polarized fourfold cross sections (d4σ /d Q2d xBd t d ϕ ) for the e p →e'p'γ reaction were measured using the CLAS detector and the 5.75-GeV polarized electron beam of the Jefferson Lab accelerator, for 110 (Q2,xB,t ) bins over the widest phase space ever explored in the valence-quark region. Several models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) describe the data well at most of our kinematics. This increases our confidence that we understand the GPD H , expected to be the dominant contributor to these observables. Through a leading-twist extraction of Compton form factors, these results support the model predictions of a larger nucleon size at lower quark-momentum fraction xB.

  3. Beam-spin asymmetries from semi-inclusive pion electroproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohn, W.; Avakian, H.; Joo, K.; Ungaro, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T.; Garçon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, Mohammad; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Vernarsky, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We have measured the moment ALUsinϕ corresponding to the polarized electron beam-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. ALUsinϕ is a twist-3 quantity providing information about quark-gluon correlations. Data were taken with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab using a 5.498 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam and an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. All three pion channels (π+, π0 and π-) were measured simultaneously over a large range of kinematics within the virtuality range Q2≈ 1.0-4.5 GeV2. The observable was measured with better than 1% statistical precision over a large range of z, PT, xB, and Q2, which permits comparison with several reaction models. The discussed measurements provide an upgrade in statistics over previous measurements, and serve as the first evidence for the negative sign of the π- sinϕ moment.

  4. Optimizing the calculation of point source count-centroid in pixel size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Luyi; Kuang Anren; Su Xianyu

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Pixel size is an important parameter of gamma camera and SPECT. A number of Methods are used for its accurate measurement. In the original count-centroid method, where the image of a point source(PS) is acquired and its count-centroid calculated to represent PS position in the image, background counts are inevitable. Thus the measured count-centroid (Xm) is an approximation of the true count-centroid (Xp) of the PS, i.e. Xm=Xp+(Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb), where Rp is the net counting rate of the PS, Xb the background count-centroid and Rb the background counting rate. To get accurate measurement, Rp must be very big, which is unpractical, resulting in the variation of measured pixel size. Rp-independent calculation of PS count-centroid is desired. Methods: The proposed method attempted to eliminate the effect of the term (Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb) by bringing Xb closer to Xp and by reducing Rb. In the acquired PS image, a circular ROI was generated to enclose the PS, the pixel with the maximum count being the center of the ROI. To choose the diameter (D) of the ROI, a Gaussian count distribution was assumed for the PS, accordingly, K=I-(0.5)D/R percent of the total PS counts was in the ROI, R being the full width at half maximum of the PS count distribution. D was set to be 6*R to enclose most (K=98.4%) of the PS counts. The count-centroid of the ROI was calculated to represent Xp. The proposed method was tested in measuring the pixel size of a well-tuned SPECT, whose pixel size was estimated to be 3.02 mm according to its mechanical and electronic setting (128*128 matrix, 387 mm UFOV, ZOOM=1). For comparison, the original method, which was use in the former versions of some commercial SPECT software, was also tested. 12 PSs were prepared and their image acquired and stored. The net counting rate of the PSs increased from 10cps to 1183cps. Results: Using the proposed method, the measured pixel size (in mm) varied only between 3.00 and 3.01( mean= 3.01±0.00) as Rp increased

  5. Analysis of the strong decay X(5568) → B{sub s}{sup 0}π{sup +} with QCD sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang [North China Electric Power University, Department of Physics, Baoding (China)

    2016-05-15

    In this article, we take the X(5568) to be the scalar diquark-antidiquark type tetraquark state, study the hadronic coupling constant g{sub XB{sub sπ}} with the three-point QCD sum rules by carrying out the operator product expansion up to the vacuum condensates of dimension-6 and including both the connected and the disconnected Feynman diagrams; then we calculate the partial decay width of the strong decay X(5568) → B{sub s}{sup 0}π{sup +} and obtain the value Γ{sub X} = (20.5 ± 8.1) MeV, which is consistent with the experimental data Γ{sub X} = (21.9 ± 6.4{sup +5.0}{sub -2.5}) MeV from the D0 collaboration. (orig.)

  6. Radiographic estimation in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Rexhepi, Mjellma

    2011-08-01

    Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, regarding some radiological and clinical parameters, applied for the first time on patients from Kosovo. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the radiographic damage and clinical parameters of the disease, using a data base. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96, SD=10.37) with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb = 6.41, SD=6.47). All patients underwent a standardised evaluation radiographs. Baseline standardised poster anterior radiographs of hands and feet and radiographs of other joints, depending on indications, were assessed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate values correlated with the radiological damages and statistical difference was found for seronegative subset (r=0.24, p<0.01). Longer duration of the disease resulted in the increase of radiological changes in both subsets (r=0.66, p<0.01) seronegative, (r=0.49, p<0.01) seropositive. Anatomic changes of IInd and IIIrd level were nearly equally distributed in both subsets, 76 (60.8%) seronegative, 75 (60%) seropositive. Radiological damages are nearly equal in both subsets, elevate in relation to the duration of the disease and correlate with ESR values. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant. Although there are some definite quantitative and qualitative differences regarding sero-status, obviously there is a great deal of overlap between the two groups.

  7. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  8. Radiographic estimation in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjollca Sahatçiu-Meka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Our aim was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, regarding some radiological and clinical parameters, applied for the first time on patients from Kosovo. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the radiographic damage and clinical parameters of the disease, using a data base. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96, SD=10.37 with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb = 6.41, SD=6.47. All patients underwent a standardised evaluation radiographs. Baseline standardised poster anterior radiographs of hands and feet and radiographs of other joints, depending on indications, were assessed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate values correlated with the radiological damages and statistical difference was found for seronegative subset (r=0.24, p<0.01. Longer duration of the disease resulted in the increase of radiological changes in both subsets (r=0.66, p<0.01 seronegative, (r=0.49, p<0.01 seropositive. Anatomic changes of IInd and IIIrd level were nearly equally distributed in both subsets, 76 (60.8% seronegative, 75 (60% seropositive. Radiological damages are nearly equal in both subsets, elevate in relation to the duration of the disease and correlate with ESR values. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant. Although there are some definite quantitative and qualitative differences regarding sero-status, obviously there is a great deal of overlap between the two groups.

  9. Tetraphenylphosphonium iodide–1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene–methanol (3/4/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cavallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of a 1:1 molar solution of 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-diiodobenzene (TFTIB and tetraphenylphosponium iodide (TPPI from methanol produced tetragonal needles of pure TPPI and tabular pseudo-hexagonal truncated bipyramids of the title compound, 3C24H20P+·3I−·4C6F3I3·CH4O or (TPPI3(TFTIB4·MeOH. The asymmetric unit is composed of six TPPI molecules, eight TFTIB molecules and two methanol molecules, overall 16 constituents. The formation of the architecture is essentially guided by a number of C—I...I− halogen bonds (XB, whose lengths are in the range 3.276 (1–3.625 (1 Å. Layers of supramolecular polyanions are formed parallel to (10-1 wherein iodide anions function as penta-, tetra- or bidentate XB acceptors. The structure is not far from being P21/n, but the centrosymmetry is lost due to a different conformation of a single couple of cations and the small asymmetry in the formed supramolecular anion. One methanol molecule is hydrogen bonded to an iodide anion, while the second is linked to the first one via an O—H...O contact. This second methanol molecule is more loosely pinned in its position than the first and presents very high anisotropic displacement parameters and a seeming shortening of the C—O bond length. The crystal studied was refined as a perfect inversion twin.

  10. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  11. Accretion from a clumpy massive-star wind in supergiant X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mellah, I.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Keppens, R.

    2018-04-01

    Supergiant X-ray binaries (SgXB) host a compact object, often a neutron star (NS), orbiting an evolved O/B star. Mass transfer proceeds through the intense line-driven wind of the stellar donor, a fraction of which is captured by the gravitational field of the NS. The subsequent accretion process on to the NS is responsible for the abundant X-ray emission from SgXB. They also display peak-to-peak variability of the X-ray flux by a factor of a few 10-100, along with changes in the hardness ratios possibly due to varying absorption along the line of sight. We use recent radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of inhomogeneities (a.k.a. clumps) in the non-stationary wind of massive hot stars to evaluate their impact on the time-variable accretion process. For this, we run 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the wind in the vicinity of the accretor to investigate the formation of the bow shock and follow the inhomogeneous flow over several spatial orders of magnitude, down to the NS magnetosphere. In particular, we show that the impact of the wind clumps on the time variability of the intrinsic mass accretion rate is severely tempered by the crossing of the shock, compared to the purely ballistic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton estimation. We also account for the variable absorption due to clumps passing by the line of sight and estimate the final effective variability of the column density and mass accretion rate for different orbital separations. Finally, we compare our results to the most recent analysis of the X-ray flux and the hardness ratio in Vela X-1.

  12. SU-F-SPS-11: The Dosimetric Comparison of Truebeam 2.0 and Cyberknife M6 Treatment Plans for Brain SRS Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabhouti, H; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Codel, G; Pacaci, P; Serin, E; Kucuk, N; Kucukmorkoc, E; Doyuran, M; Canoglu, D; Altinok, A; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brain stereotactic radiosurgery involves the use of precisely directed, single session radiation to create a desired radiobiologic response within the brain target with acceptable minimal effects on surrounding structures or tissues. In this study, the dosimetric comparison of Truebeam 2.0 and Cyberknife M6 treatment plans were made. Methods: For Truebeam 2.0 machine, treatment planning were done using 2 full arc VMAT technique with 6 FFF beam on the CT scan of Randophantom simulating the treatment of sterotactic treatments for one brain metastasis. The dose distribution were calculated using Eclipse treatment planning system with Acuros XB algorithm. The treatment planning of the same target were also done for Cyberknife M6 machine with Multiplan treatment planning system using Monte Carlo algorithm. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using both machine by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution were measured using EBT3 film dosimeter. The measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The dose distribution in the target and 2 cm beyond the target edge were calculated on TPSs and measured using EBT3 film. For cyberknife plans, the gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.2% and 96.7% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. For Truebeam plans, the gamma analysis passing rates were 99.1% and 95.5% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. Conclusion: Although, target dose distribution calculated accurately by Acuros XB and Monte Carlo algorithms, Monte carlo calculation algorithm predicts dose distribution around the peripheral region of target more accurately than Acuros algorithm.

  13. Halogen Bonding from Dispersion-Corrected Density-Functional Theory: The Role of Delocalization Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A; Johnson, Erin R; DiLabio, Gino A

    2014-12-09

    Halogen bonds are formed when a Lewis base interacts with a halogen atom in a different molecule, which acts as an electron acceptor. Due to its charge transfer component, halogen bonding is difficult to model using many common density-functional approximations because they spuriously overstabilize halogen-bonded dimers. It has been suggested that dispersion-corrected density functionals are inadequate to describe halogen bonding. In this work, we show that the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) dispersion correction coupled with functionals that minimize delocalization error (for instance, BH&HLYP, but also other half-and-half functionals) accurately model halogen-bonded interactions, with average errors similar to other noncovalent dimers with less charge-transfer effects. The performance of XDM is evaluated for three previously proposed benchmarks (XB18 and XB51 by Kozuch and Martin, and the set proposed by Bauzá et al.) spanning a range of binding energies up to ∼50 kcal/mol. The good performance of BH&HLYP-XDM is comparable to M06-2X, and extends to the "extreme" cases in the Bauzá set. This set contains anionic electron donors where charge transfer occurs even at infinite separation, as well as other charge transfer dimers belonging to the pnictogen and chalcogen bonding classes. We also show that functional delocalization error results in an overly delocalized electron density and exact-exchange hole. We propose intermolecular Bader delocalization indices as an indicator of both the donor-acceptor character of an intermolecular interaction and the delocalization error coming from the underlying functional.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Isolated Xanthomonas sp. From Rice Rhizosphere Soil and their Inhibition using Clerodendrum viscosum Vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, R.; Ahmed, J.; Al-Reza, S. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Nyme, Z.; Lisa, L. A.; Yousaf, M.; Alam, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized some Xanthomonas sp. from rice rhizosphere soil by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the potentiality tested of oil and extracts of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. leaves against those isolated bacteria. The essential oil compositions were evaluated by GC-MS analysis and identified twenty four compounds as 94.37% of the total essential oil, where cyclohepta-1,3,5,-triene (16.07%), 2H-1,4-pyridoxazin-3(4H)-one (12.27%), L-carvenol (8.04%), p-cymene (9.15%), alpha-terpineol (7.98%), beta-sitosterol (6.76%), tyranton (6.42%), mesityl oxide (6.34%), gamma-terpinene (5.42%) and beta-linalool (3.74%) were the major constituents. According to the 16S rDNA sequences analysis, Hb28 and Xb43 isolates have shown the 100% similarity for Xanthomonas retroflexus and Xanthomonas theicola. In addition, isolates Ha18, Xb33 and Jb30 also have shown the maximum similarity of 98% for Xanthomonas sp. TB8-9-II, Xanthomonas campestris and Xanthomonas sp. BBCT38. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that the oil have the inhibitory effect on Xanthomonas sp. TB8-9-II, X. campestris, X. retroflexus, Xanthomonas sp. BBCT38, and X. theicola, where the zone of inhibition and MIC values were 18.8 to 25.9 mm and 62.5 to 125 meu g ml/sup -1/, respectively. However, organic extracts showed the zone of inhibition and MIC values were 13.4 to 22.9 and 62.5 to 500 meu g ml-1, respectively. Our findings suggested that the essential oil and extracts of C. viscosum Vent. leaves might be the effective source to control Xanthomonas sp. biologically. (author)

  15. A linear functional differential equation with distributions in the input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Z. Tsalyuk

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the functional differential equation $$ dot x(t = int_a^t {d_s R(t,s, x(s} + F'(t, quad t in [a,b], $$ where $F'$ is a generalized derivative, and $R(t,cdot$ and $F$ are functions of bounded variation. A solution is defined by the difference $x - F$ being absolutely continuous and satisfying the inclusion $$ frac{d}{dt} (x(t - F(t in int_a^t {d_s R(t,s,x(s}. $$ Here, the integral in the right is the multivalued Stieltjes integral presented in cite{VTs1} (in this article we review and extend the results in cite{VTs1}. We show that the solution set for the initial-value problem is nonempty, compact, and convex. A solution $x$ is said to have memory if there exists the function $x$ such that $x(a = x(a$, $x(b = x(b$, $ x(t in [x(t-0,x(t+0]$ for $t in (a,b$, and $frac{d}{dt} (x(t - F(t = int_a^t {d_s R(t,s,{x}(s}$, where Lebesgue-Stieltjes integral is used. We show that such solutions form a nonempty, compact, and convex set. It is shown that solutions with memory obey the Cauchy-type formula $$ x(t in C(t,ax(a + int_a^t C(t,s, dF(s. $$

  16. SU-F-T-441: Dose Calculation Accuracy in CT Images Reconstructed with Artifact Reduction Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C; Chan, S; Lee, F; Ngan, R [Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Hong Kong); Lee, V [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, HK (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculation in patients with surgical implants is complicated by two factors. First is the accuracy of CT number, second is the dose calculation accuracy. We compared measured dose with dose calculated on CT images reconstructed with FBP and an artifact reduction algorithm (OMAR, Philips) for a phantom with high density inserts. Dose calculation were done with Varian AAA and AcurosXB. Methods: A phantom was constructed with solid water in which 2 titanium or stainless steel rods could be inserted. The phantom was scanned with the Philips Brillance Big Bore CT. Image reconstruction was done with FBP and OMAR. Two 6 MV single field photon plans were constructed for each phantom. Radiochromic films were placed at different locations to measure the dose deposited. One plan has normal incidence on the titanium/steel rods. In the second plan, the beam is at almost glancing incidence on the metal rods. Measurements were then compared with dose calculated with AAA and AcurosXB. Results: The use of OMAR images slightly improved the dose calculation accuracy. The agreement between measured and calculated dose was best with AXB and image reconstructed with OMAR. Dose calculated on titanium phantom has better agreement with measurement. Large discrepancies were seen at points directly above and below the high density inserts. Both AAA and AXB underestimated the dose directly above the metal surface, while overestimated the dose below the metal surface. Doses measured downstream of metal were all within 3% of calculated values. Conclusion: When doing treatment planning for patients with metal implants, care must be taken to acquire correct CT images to improve dose calculation accuracy. Moreover, great discrepancies in measured and calculated dose were observed at metal/tissue interface. Care must be taken in estimating the dose in critical structures that come into contact with metals.

  17. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  18. Halogen bond: a long overlooked interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Because of their high electronegativity, halogen atoms are typically considered, in most of their derivatives, as sites of high electron density and it is commonly accepted that they can form attractive interactions by functioning as the electron donor site (nucleophilic site). This is the case when they work as hydrogen bond acceptor sites. However, the electron density in covalently bound halogens is anisotropically distributed. There is a region of higher electron density, accounting for the ability of halogens to function as electron donor sites in attractive interactions, and a region of lower electron density where the electrostatic potential is frequently positive (mainly in the heavier halogens). This latter region is responsible for the ability of halogen atoms to function as the electron-acceptor site (electrophilic site) in attractive interactions formed with a variety of lone pair-possessing atoms, anions, and π-systems. This ability is quite general and is shown by a wide diversity of halogenated compounds (e.g., organohalogen derivatives and dihalogens). According to the definition proposed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, any attractive interactions wherein the halogen atom is the electrophile is named halogen bond (XB). In this chapter, it is discussed how the practice and the concept of XB developed and a brief history of the interaction is presented. Papers (either from the primary or secondary literature) which have reported major experimental findings in the field or which have given important theoretical contributions for the development of the concept are recollected in order to trace how a unifying and comprehensive categorization emerged encompassing all interactions wherein halogen atoms function as the electrophilic site.

  19. THE QUASI-ROCHE LOBE OVERFLOW STATE IN THE EVOLUTION OF CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING A RADIO PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP), CCT-CONICET-UNLP. Paseo del Bosque S/N (B1900FWA), La Plata (Argentina); Horvath, J. E., E-mail: adevito@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: foton@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo R. do Matão 1226 (05508-090), Cidade Universitária, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate-mass-donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These nonstandard ingredients deeply modify the mass-transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long-standing mass-transfer episodes, models including these effects suffer a number of cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer, the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when they are detached they behave as binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have radii slightly smaller than their Roche lobes. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for an orbital period as well as donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as ''redbacks''. Thus, redback companions should be quasi-RLOF stars. We show that the characteristics of the redback system PSR J1723-2837 are accounted for by these models. In each mass-transfer cycle these systems should switch from LMXB to binary radio pulsar states with a timescale of approximately one million years. However, there is recent and fast growing evidence of systems switching on far shorter, human timescales. This should be related to instabilities in the accretion disk surrounding the neutron star and/or radio ejection, still to be included in the model having the quasi-RLOF state as a general condition.

  20. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses

  1. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Kundu, Arunav [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100 Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lehmer, Bret D. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maraston, Claudia, E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom-heavy IMFs. These bottom-heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of BHs and NSs based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations of nearby early-type galaxies. In these binaries, an NS or BH accretes matter from a low-mass donor star. Their number is therefore expected to scale with the number of BHs and NSs present in a galaxy. We find that the number of LMXBs per K-band light is similar among the galaxies in our sample. These data therefore demonstrate the uniformity of the slope of the IMF from massive stars down to those now dominating the K-band light and are consistent with an invariant IMF. Our results are inconsistent with an IMF which varies from a Kroupa/Chabrier like IMF for low-mass galaxies to a steep power-law IMF (with slope x = 2.8) for high mass galaxies. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  2. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Maraston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom-heavy IMFs. These bottom-heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of BHs and NSs based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations of nearby early-type galaxies. In these binaries, an NS or BH accretes matter from a low-mass donor star. Their number is therefore expected to scale with the number of BHs and NSs present in a galaxy. We find that the number of LMXBs per K-band light is similar among the galaxies in our sample. These data therefore demonstrate the uniformity of the slope of the IMF from massive stars down to those now dominating the K-band light and are consistent with an invariant IMF. Our results are inconsistent with an IMF which varies from a Kroupa/Chabrier like IMF for low-mass galaxies to a steep power-law IMF (with slope x = 2.8) for high mass galaxies. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  3. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E.; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS , are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ∼10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS >0.5 M ☉ ). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS , constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R NS =9.1 +1.3 -1.5 km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  4. Measurement of the Radius of Neutron Stars with High Signal-to-noise Quiescent Low-mass X-Ray Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by "normal matter" equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ~10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS>0.5 M ⊙). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R_NS =9.1^{+ 1.3}_{- 1.5} \\,km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  5. COMPARING THE ACCRETION DISK EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE AND NEUTRON STAR X-RAY BINARIES FROM LOW TO SUPER-EDDINGTON LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Shanshan; Zhang Shuangnan

    2011-01-01

    Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) are systems in which a low-mass companion transfers mass via Roche-lobe overflow onto a black hole (BH) or a weakly magnetized neutron star (NS). It is believed that both the solid surface and the magnetic field of an NS can affect the accretion flow and show some observable effects. Using the disk emission dominant data, we compare the disk evolution of the two types of systems from low luminosity to super-Eddington luminosity. As the luminosity decreases the disk in the NS LMXB 4U1608-522 begins to leave the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) at much higher luminosity (∼0.1 L Edd ), compared with BH LMXBs at much lower luminosity (∼0.03 L Edd ), due to the interaction between the NS magnetosphere and accretion flow. However, as the luminosity increases above a critical luminosity, the disks in BH and NS LMXBs trace the same evolutionary pattern, because the magnetosphere is restricted inside ISCO, and then both the NS surface emission and (dipole) magnetic field do not significantly affect the secular evolution of the accretion disk, which is driven by the increased radiation pressure in the inner region. We further suggest that the NS surface emission provides additional information about the accretion disk not available in BH systems. Through the observed NS surface emission, we argue that the disk thickness H/R is less than 0.3-0.4, and that the significant outflow from the inner disk edge exists at a luminosity close to Eddington luminosity.

  6. A study of the cross-correlation and time lag in black hole X-ray binary XTE J1859+226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Songpeng; Ding, Guoqiang; Li, Zhibing; Lei, Yajuan; Yuen, Rai; Qu, Jinlu

    2017-07-01

    With Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data, we systematically study the cross-correlation and time lag in all spectral states of black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) XTE J1859+226 in detail during its entire 1999-2000 outburst that lasted for 166 days. Anti-correlations and positive correlations and their respective soft and hard X-ray lags are only detected in the first 100 days of the outburst when the luminosity is high. This suggests that the cross-correlations may be related to high luminosity. Positive correlations are detected in every state of XTE J1859+226, viz., hard state, hard-intermediate state (HIMS), soft-intermediate state (SIMS) and soft state. However, anti-correlations are only detected in HIMS and SIMS, anti-correlated hard lags are only detected in SIMS, while anti-correlated soft lags are detected in both HIMS and SIMS. Moreover, the ratio of the observations with anti-correlated soft lags to hard lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is significantly different from that in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs). So far, anti-correlations are never detected in the soft state of BHXBs but detected in every branch or state of NS LMXBs. This may be due to the origin of soft seed photons in BHXBs is confined to the accretion disk and, for NS LMXBs, from both accretion disk and the surface of the NS. We notice that the timescale of anti-correlated time lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is similar with that of other BHXBs and NS LMXBs. We suggest that anti-correlated soft lag detected in BHXB may result from fluctuation in the accretion disk as well as NS LMXB.

  7. Accretion onto stellar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    I present work on the accretion onto stellar mass black holes in several scenarios. Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes are expected to form high density cusps in the inner parsec of our Galaxy. These compact remnants may be accreting cold dense gas present there, and give rise to potentially observable X-ray emission. I build a simple but detailed time-dependent model of such emission. Future observations of the distribution and orbits of the gas in the inner parsec of Sgr A* will put tighter constraints on the cusp of compact remnants. GRS 1915+105 is an LMXB, whose large orbital period implies a very large accretion disc and explains the extraordinary duration of its current outburst. I present smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the accretion disc. The models includes the thermo-viscous instability, irradiation from the central object and wind loss. I find that the outburst of GRS 1915+105 should last a minimum of 20 years and up to ˜ 100 years if the irradiation is playing a significant role in this system. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104 years, making the duty cycle of GRS 1915+105 to be a few 0.1%. I present a simple analytical method to describe the observable behaviour of long period black hole LMXBs, similar to GRS 1915+105. Constructing two simple models for the surface density in the disc, outburst and quiescence times are calculated as a function of orbital period. LMXBs are an important constituent of the X-ray light function (XLF) of giant elliptical galaxies. I find that the duty cycle can vary considerably with orbital period, with implications for modelling the XLF.

  8. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GX17+2: CONFIRMATION OF A PERIODIC SYNCHROTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Bornak, Jillian; Gelino, Dawn M.; Wachter, Stefanie; Rupen, Michael P.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    GX17+2 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is also a member of a small family of LMXBs known as 'Z-sources' that are believed to have persistent X-ray luminosities that are very close to the Eddington limit. GX17+2 is highly variable at both radio and X-ray frequencies, a feature common to Z-sources. What sets GX17+2 apart is its dramatic variability in the near-infrared, where it changes by ΔK ∼ 3 mag. Previous investigations have shown that these brightenings are periodic, recurring every 3.01 days. Given its high extinction (A V ≥ 9 mag), it has not been possible to ascertain the nature of these events with ground-based observations. We report mid-infrared Spitzer observations of GX17+2 which indicate a synchrotron spectrum for the infrared brightenings. In addition, GX17+2 is highly variable in the mid-infrared during these events. The combination of the large-scale outbursts, the presence of a synchrotron spectrum, and the dramatic variability in the mid-infrared suggest that the infrared brightening events are due to the periodic transit of a synchrotron jet across our line of sight. An analysis of both new, and archival, infrared observations has led us to revise the period for these events to 3.0367 days. We also present new Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for GX17+2 obtained during two predicted infrared brightening events. Analysis of these new data, and data from the RXTE archive, indicates that there is no correlation between the X-ray behavior of this source and the observed infrared brightenings. We examine various scenarios that might produce periodic jet emission.

  9. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, Joel K. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A., E-mail: J.K.Fridriksson@uva.nl [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses.

  10. THE FERMI-GBM X-RAY BURST MONITOR: THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM 4U 0614+09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R.; Jenke, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Beklen, E.; Von Kienlin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear bursts from slowly accreting neutron stars (NSs) have proven difficult to detect, yet they are potential probes of the thermal properties of the NS interior. During the first year of a systematic all-sky search for X-ray bursts using the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope we have detected 15 thermonuclear bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary 4U 0614+09 when it was accreting at nearly 1% of the Eddington limit. We measured an average burst recurrence time of 12 ± 3 days (68% confidence interval) between 2010 March and 2011 March, classified all bursts as normal duration bursts and placed a lower limit on the recurrence time of long/intermediate bursts of 62 days (95% confidence level). We discuss how observations of thermonuclear bursts in the hard X-ray band compare to pointed soft X-ray observations and quantify such bandpass effects on measurements of burst radiated energy and duration. We put our results for 4U 0614+09 in the context of other bursters and briefly discuss the constraints on ignition models. Interestingly, we find that the burst energies in 4U 0614+09 are on average between those of normal duration bursts and those measured in long/intermediate bursts. Such a continuous distribution in burst energy provides a new observational link between normal and long/intermediate bursts. We suggest that the apparent bimodal distribution that defined normal and long/intermediate duration bursts during the last decade could be due to an observational bias toward detecting only the longest and most energetic bursts from slowly accreting NSs.

  11. Magnetized Langmuir wave packets excited by a strong beam-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.; Sol, H.; Asseo, E.

    1988-01-01

    The physics of beam-plasma interaction, which has been investigated for a long time mostly in relation with solar bursts, is now more widely invoked in various astrophysical contexts such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, close binaries, cataclysmic variables, γ bursters, and so on. In these situations the interaction is more likely in the spirit of strong Langmuir turbulence rather than in the spirit of quasilinear theory. Many investigations have been done for two opposite extremes, namely, in very weak and in very strong magnetic fields. Very few properties of the strong Langmuir turbulence are known in the most usual astrophysical situation where the magnetic field plays a significant role but is not strong enough to force the electrons into one-dimensional motion. For this case, we analyze the dynamics of Langmuir wave packets and provide new results about the stability of the solitons against transverse perturbations. It turns out that both the averaged Lagrangian method and the adiabatic perturbation method derived from the inverse scattering transform give exactly the same results (which is not obvious in soliton perturbation theory). In particular, they predict the stability of the solitons as long as the electron gyrofrequency is greater than the plasma frequency (strong magnetic field) and their instability against transverse self-modulation in the opposite case (weak magnetic field); moreover, they allow one to deduce the self-similar collapsing oblate cavitons in the latter case. The laws governing the collapse of the wave packets determine the relaxation of the beam in the surrounding medium and we derive a useful formula giving the power loss of the beam. We outline the astrophysical consequences of this investigation

  12. Proceedings of the 25th SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics: Physics of Leptons (SSI97) , Stanford, CA, August 4-15, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deporcel, Lilian

    1998-01-01

    One hundred ninety-eight physicists from 16 countries gathered at SLAC from August 4 to 15, 1997 to attend the XXV SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics. The theme of the school was ''The Physics of Leptons'', commemorating a century since the electron, the first lepton, was discovered. We heard about the electron's role as a probe of the structure of matter, as well as the beautifully precise tests of charged-lepton universality in Z 0 decays. The focus of the school then shifted from the charged leptons to their weak partners, the neutrinos. Summer Institute attendees were not surprised in early 1998 by Super-Kamiokande's announcement of evidence for neutrino mass. After all, they had already seen the mounting evidence, both solar and atmospheric, the preceding August, in a comprehensive review of all nonaccelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, as well as a topical conference report from Super-Kamiokande. We also heard about the past, present, and future of reactor- and accelerator-based oscillation experiments, including the prospects for terrestrial tests of the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. Leptons in cosmology and as harbingers of physics beyond the Standard Model were the subject of two more lecture series. The three-day topical conference concluding the Institute was highlighted by the Super-Kamiokande neutrino results, and Beppo-Sax's report on the cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursters. As for terrestrial accelerators, SLC, LEP, and the Tevatron put increasing pressure on the electroweak sector through precision measurements, but all direct searches for new phenomena still came up empty

  13. A survey for variable young stars with small telescopes: First results from HOYS-CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebrich, D.; Campbell-White, J.; Scholz, A.; Eislöffel, J.; Zegmott, T.; Billington, S. J.; Donohoe, J.; Makin, S. V.; Hibbert, R.; Newport, R. J.; Pickard, R.; Quinn, N.; Rodda, T.; Piehler, G.; Shelley, M.; Parkinson, S.; Wiersema, K.; Walton, I.

    2018-05-01

    Variability in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is one of their primary characteristics. Long-term, multi-filter, high-cadence monitoring of large YSO samples is the key to understand the partly unusual light-curves that many of these objects show. Here we introduce and present the first results of the HOYS-CAPScitizen science project which aims to perform such monitoring for nearby (d < 1 kpc) and young (age < 10 Myr) clusters and star forming regions, visible from the northern hemisphere, with small telescopes. We have identified and characterised 466 variable (413 confirmed young) stars in 8 young, nearby clusters. All sources vary by at least 0.2 mag in V, have been observed at least 15 times in V, R and I in the same night over a period of about 2 yrs and have a Stetson index of larger than 1. This is one of the largest samples of variable YSOs observed over such a time-span and cadence in multiple filters. About two thirds of our sample are classical T-Tauri stars, while the rest are objects with depleted or transition disks. Objects characterised as bursters show by far the highest variability. Dippers and objects whose variability is dominated by occultations from normal interstellar dust or dust with larger grains (or opaque material) have smaller amplitudes. We have established a hierarchical clustering algorithm based on the light-curve properties which allows the identification of the YSOs with the most unusual behaviour, and to group sources with similar properties. We discuss in detail the light-curves of the unusual objects V2492 Cyg, V350 Cep and 2MASS J21383981+5708470.

  14. Large Observatory for x-ray Timing (LOFT-P): a Probe-class mission concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Alvarez, Laura; Baysinger, Michael; Becker, Chris; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Soren; Carson, Billy; Chapman, Jack; Dominguez, Alexandra; Fabisinski, Leo; Gangl, Bert; Garcia, Jay; Griffith, Christopher; Hernanz, Margarita; Hickman, Robert; Hopkins, Randall; Hui, Michelle; Ingram, Luster; Jenke, Peter; Korpela, Seppo; Maccarone, Tom; Michalska, Malgorzata; Pohl, Martin; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanne, Stephane; Schnell, Andrew; Stella, Luigi; van der Klis, Michiel; Watts, Anna; Winter, Berend; Zane, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (matter? What are the effects of strong gravity on matter spiraling into black holes? It would be optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources including X-ray bursters, black hole binaries, and magnetars to study phenomena at the natural timescales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons and to measure mass and spin of black holes. These measurements are synergistic to imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments, addressing much smaller distance scales than are possible without very long baseline X-ray interferometry, and using complementary techniques to address the geometry and dynamics of emission regions. LOFT-P would have an effective area of >6 m2, > 10x that of the highly successful Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). A sky monitor (2-50 keV) acts as a trigger for pointed observations, providing high duty cycle, high time resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, enabling multi-wavelength and multimessenger studies. A probe-class mission concept would employ lightweight collimator technology and large-area solid-state detectors, segmented into pixels or strips, technologies which have been recently greatly advanced during the ESA M3 Phase A study of LOFT. Given the large community interested in LOFT (>800 supporters*, the scientific productivity of this mission is expected to be very high, similar to or greater than RXTE ( 2000 refereed publications). We describe the results of a study, recently completed by the MSFC Advanced Concepts Office, that demonstrates that such a mission is feasible within a NASA probe-class mission budget.

  15. Estimation of the number of extreme pathways for metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiele Ines

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The set of extreme pathways (ExPa, {pi}, defines the convex basis vectors used for the mathematical characterization of the null space of the stoichiometric matrix for biochemical reaction networks. ExPa analysis has been used for a number of studies to determine properties of metabolic networks as well as to obtain insight into their physiological and functional states in silico. However, the number of ExPas, p = |{pi}|, grows with the size and complexity of the network being studied, and this poses a computational challenge. For this study, we investigated the relationship between the number of extreme pathways and simple network properties. Results We established an estimating function for the number of ExPas using these easily obtainable network measurements. In particular, it was found that log [p] had an exponential relationship with log⁡[∑i=1Rd−id+ici] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacyGGSbaBcqGGVbWBcqGGNbWzdaWadaqaamaaqadabaGaemizaq2aaSbaaSqaaiabgkHiTmaaBaaameaacqWGPbqAaeqaaaWcbeaakiabdsgaKnaaBaaaleaacqGHRaWkdaWgaaadbaGaemyAaKgabeaaaSqabaGccqWGJbWydaWgaaWcbaGaemyAaKgabeaaaeaacqWGPbqAcqGH9aqpcqaIXaqmaeaacqWGsbGua0GaeyyeIuoaaOGaay5waiaaw2faaaaa@4414@, where R = |Reff| is the number of active reactions in a network, d−i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacqWGKbazdaWgaaWcbaGaeyOeI0YaaSbaaWqaaiabdMgaPbqabaaaleqaaaaa@30A9@ and d+i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb

  16. Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Kleiber Ratio and Growth Traits in Kurdish Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Ali Saghi

    2016-11-01

    restricted maximum likelihood (REML method fitting six animal models using WOMBAT (18: y =Xb+Zaa+e Model 1 y=Xb+Zaa+Zpepe+e Model 2 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+e\tCov(a,m=0\tModel 3 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+e\tCov(a,m=Aσam\tModel 4 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+Zpepe+e\tCov(a,m=0\tModel 5 y =Xb+Zaa+Zmm+Zpepe+e\tCov(a,m= Aσam\tModel 6 where y: is a vector of records, b: is a vector of fixed effects, a: is a vector of direct additive genetic effects, m: is a vector of maternal additive genetic effects, pe: is a vector of permanent environmental effects due to ewe, X, Za, Zm and Zpe are corresponding design matrices relating the fixed effects, direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects due to ewe to vector of y, respectively, e: is a vector of residual effects, and Cov(a,m: is the covariance between direct additive genetic and maternal additive genetic effects. Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC was used for selecting the best model among the tested models (3: Where logLi: is the maximized log likelihood of model i at convergence and pi: is the number of the parameters in each model. Model with the lowest AIC was considered as the best model for each trait. Estimation of genetic and phenotypic correlations was accomplished using multi-trait analysis (with model 1. The fixed effects included in the multi-trait animal models were those in single-trait analyses. Results and Discussion The pre-weaning average daily gain in Kurdish lambs was 215.33±0.96 g, while this trait in post-weaning periods had a decreased trend. These values (especially in pre-weaning period indicated that Kurdish lambs have a good potential for growth. Results from the analysis of variance of ADG and KR in different ages showed that birth year and sex of the lambs significantly influenced studied traits (P< 0.01. Type of birth had significant effect (P< 0.01 on ADG0-3, ADG3-6, KR1 and KR2. The effect of ewe age was significant for ADG0-3 and KR1. The significant effects of fixed

  17. Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Time Token Berbantu Puzzle Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Peserta Didik Kelas X Pada Materi Gelombang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Latifah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose in this research is to know the influence of cooperative Learning Models Time Type Token with puzzle toward critical thought abilityof the students grade X on Wave material at MA Al Hikmah Bandar Lampung year2014/2015 This research is quantitative with quasi experiment. Reasearch design that used is Nonequivalent Control Group Design with the population of all the students in grade X semestre even at MA Al Hikmah, Bandar Lampung year 2014/2015. The Sample of this research are used 2 classes; experiment and control class, where as experiment class (XA used cooperative time type token model with puzzle and control class (XB used cooperative learning model with pictures as media. Data colecting is using test (pretest and posttest, observation and documentation. After the data test collected, then it is analyzed by using normality test of statistic analysis, homoginity test and test-t. According to the result, it can be concluded that time type token with puzzle application influence significantly ttoward the ability of critical thinking of the students on Wave material at MA Al Hikmah Bandar Lampung year 2014/2015. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe time token berbantu puzzle terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis peserta didik kelas X pada materi Gelombang di MA Al Hikmah Bandar Lampung Tahun Pelajaran 2014/2015 .Penelitian ini termasuk kedalam penelitian kuantitatif dengan jenis penelitian Quasi Eksperimen. Desain penelitian ini menggunakan Nonequivalent Control Group Design dengan populasi yaitu seluruh peserta didik kelas X semester genap di MA Al Hikmah Bandar Lampung T.P 2014/2015. Sampel penelitian ini menggunakan 2 kelas yaitu kelas eksperimen dan kontrol, dimana kelas eksperimen (XA menggunakan model kooperatif tipe time token berbantu puzzle dan kelas kontrol (XB menggunakan model pembelajaran kooperatif media gambar. Teknik pengambilan data menggunakan test (pretest dan

  18. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and charge transfer in halogen bonded complexes of noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Cappelletti, David; Pirani, Fernando [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Belpassi, Leonardo [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Falcinelli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile ed Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Grandinetti, Felice [Dipartimento per la Innovazione nei sistemi Biologici, Agroalimentari e Forestali (DIBAF), Università della Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Tarantelli, Francesco [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR, Perugia 06123 (Italy)

    2015-05-14

    The systems studied in this work are gas-phase weakly bound adducts of the noble-gas (Ng) atoms with CCl{sub 4} and CF{sub 4}. Their investigation was motivated by the widespread current interest for the intermolecular halogen bonding (XB), a structural motif recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. The simulation of the static and dynamic behaviors of complex systems featuring XB requires the formulation of reliable and accurate model potentials, whose development relies on the detailed characterization of strength and nature of the interactions occurring in simple exemplary halogenated systems. We thus selected the prototypical Ng-CCl{sub 4} and Ng-CF{sub 4} and performed high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments to measure the absolute scale of their intermolecular potentials, with high sensitivity. In general, we expected to probe typical van der Waals interactions, consisting of a combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. For the He/Ne-CF{sub 4}, the analysis of the glory quantum interference pattern, observable in the velocity dependence of the integral cross section, confirmed indeed this expectation. On the other hand, for the He/Ne/Ar-CCl{sub 4}, the scattering data unravelled much deeper potential wells, particularly for certain configurations of the interacting partners. The experimental data can be properly reproduced only including a shifting of the repulsive wall at shorter distances, accompanied by an increased role of the dispersion attraction, and an additional short-range stabilization component. To put these findings on a firmer ground, we performed, for selected geometries of the interacting complexes, accurate theoretical calculations aimed to evaluate the intermolecular interaction and the effects of the complex formation on the electron charge density of the constituting moieties. It was thus ascertained that the adjustments of the potential

  19. Comparison of Acuros (AXB) and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for dose calculation in treatment of oesophageal cancer: effects on modelling tumour control probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, Sriram; Warren, Samantha; Walsh, Anthony; Partridge, Mike; Hawkins, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate systematic changes in dose arising when treatment plans optimised using the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) are recalculated using Acuros XB (AXB) in patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) for locally advanced oesophageal cancers. We have compared treatment plans created using AAA with those recalculated using AXB. Although the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) is currently more widely used in clinical routine, Acuros XB (AXB) has been shown to more accurately calculate the dose distribution, particularly in heterogeneous regions. Studies to predict clinical outcome should be based on modelling the dose delivered to the patient as accurately as possible. CT datasets from ten patients were selected for this retrospective study. VMAT (Volumetric modulated arc therapy) plans with 2 arcs, collimator rotation ± 5-10° and dose prescription 50 Gy / 25 fractions were created using Varian Eclipse (v10.0). The initial dose calculation was performed with AAA, and AXB plans were created by re-calculating the dose distribution using the same number of monitor units (MU) and multileaf collimator (MLC) files as the original plan. The difference in calculated dose to organs at risk (OAR) was compared using dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics and p values were calculated using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The potential clinical effect of dosimetric differences in the gross tumour volume (GTV) was evaluated using three different TCP models from the literature. PTV Median dose was apparently 0.9 Gy lower (range: 0.5 Gy - 1.3 Gy; p < 0.05) for VMAT AAA plans re-calculated with AXB and GTV mean dose was reduced by on average 1.0 Gy (0.3 Gy −1.5 Gy; p < 0.05). An apparent difference in TCP of between 1.2% and 3.1% was found depending on the choice of TCP model. OAR mean dose was lower in the AXB recalculated plan than the AAA plan (on average, dose reduction: lung 1.7%, heart 2.4%). Similar trends were seen for CRT plans

  20. Comparison of Acuros (AXB) and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for dose calculation in treatment of oesophageal cancer: effects on modelling tumour control probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Sriram; Warren, Samantha; Walsh, Anthony; Partridge, Mike; Hawkins, Maria A

    2014-12-23

    To investigate systematic changes in dose arising when treatment plans optimised using the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) are recalculated using Acuros XB (AXB) in patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) for locally advanced oesophageal cancers. We have compared treatment plans created using AAA with those recalculated using AXB. Although the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) is currently more widely used in clinical routine, Acuros XB (AXB) has been shown to more accurately calculate the dose distribution, particularly in heterogeneous regions. Studies to predict clinical outcome should be based on modelling the dose delivered to the patient as accurately as possible. CT datasets from ten patients were selected for this retrospective study. VMAT (Volumetric modulated arc therapy) plans with 2 arcs, collimator rotation ± 5-10° and dose prescription 50 Gy / 25 fractions were created using Varian Eclipse (v10.0). The initial dose calculation was performed with AAA, and AXB plans were created by re-calculating the dose distribution using the same number of monitor units (MU) and multileaf collimator (MLC) files as the original plan. The difference in calculated dose to organs at risk (OAR) was compared using dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics and p values were calculated using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The potential clinical effect of dosimetric differences in the gross tumour volume (GTV) was evaluated using three different TCP models from the literature. PTV Median dose was apparently 0.9 Gy lower (range: 0.5 Gy - 1.3 Gy; p AAA plans re-calculated with AXB and GTV mean dose was reduced by on average 1.0 Gy (0.3 Gy -1.5 Gy; p AAA plan (on average, dose reduction: lung 1.7%, heart 2.4%). Similar trends were seen for CRT plans. Differences in dose distribution are observed with VMAT and CRT plans recalculated with AXB particularly within soft tissue at the tumour/lung interface, where AXB has been shown to more

  1. SU-F-T-609: Impact of Dosimetric Variation for Prescription Dose Using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) in Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, D [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Kamima, T [Cancer Institute Hospital Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Baba, H [The National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kshiwa, Chiba (Japan); Yamamoto, T; Kubo, Y [Otemae Hospital, Chuo-ku, Osaka (Japan); Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Tani, K [St Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Actual irradiated prescription dose to patients cannot be verified. Thus, independent dose verification and second treatment planning system are used as the secondary check. AAA dose calculation engine has contributed to lung SBRT. We conducted a multi-institutional study to assess variation of prescription dose for lung SBRT when using AAA in reference to using Acuros XB and Clarkson algorithm. Methods: Six institutes in Japan participated in this study. All SBRT treatments were planed using AAA in Eclipse and Adaptive Convolve (AC) in Pinnacle3. All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, Japan), which implemented a Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm using CT image dataset. A retrospective analysis for lung SBRT plans (73 patients) was performed to compute the confidence limit (CL, Average±2SD) in dose between the AAA and the SMU. In one of the institutes, a additional analysis was conducted to evaluate the variations between the AAA and the Acuros XB (AXB). Results: The CL for SMU shows larger systematic and random errors of 8.7±9.9 % for AAA than the errors of 5.7±4.2 % for AC. The variations of AAA correlated with the mean CT values in the voxels of PTV (a correlation coefficient : −0.7) . The comparison of AXB vs. AAA shows smaller systematic and random errors of −0.7±1.7%. The correlation between dose variations for AXB and the mean CT values in PTV was weak (0.4). However, there were several plans with more than 2% deviation of AAPM TG114 (Maximum: −3.3 %). Conclusion: In comparison for AC, prescription dose calculated by AAA may be more variable in lung SBRT patient. Even AXB comparison shows unexpected variation. Care should be taken for the use of AAA in lung SBRT. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)

  2. XRD and FTIR analysis heat treated lithium bismo-borate glasses doped with 1.0 mol% copper ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Arti; Narwal, P.; Dahiya, Manjeet S.; Dahiya, T.; Agarwal, A.; Khasa, S.

    2018-05-01

    Glasses of compositions of 20Li20 • xBi2O3• (79-x)B2O3 + (1.0 mol%) CuFe2O4, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 40 were prepared by melt-quench technique. To obtain the glass-ceramics the controlled heat treatment were given to the prepared glasses. Two nano crystalline phases, i.e., Li2B4O7 and LiB3O5 were observed from X-ray diffraction patterns of the prepared glass- ceramic samples. We investigated the change in coordination number of network formers B2O3 and Bi2O3 and network modifiers Bi2O3, Li2O and CuFe2O4. Crystallites size (lies in range ˜47-50nm) and lattice strain (ɛ) were calculated for major phases for all prepared samples. FT-IR study revealed the de-polymerization of borate groups that change with heat treatment and Bi2O3 content. Deconvolution of IR absorption spectra resolves the overlapped and hidden peaks in IR spectra. Sharp and more intense FTIR peaks confirm the vibrations due to crystallites Li2B4O7 and LiB3O5 and change in coordination of network forming borate units.

  3. Magnetic field pitch angle diagnostic using the motional Stark effect (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.; Gammel, G.M.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Roberts, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Stark effect has been employed in a novel technique for obtaining the pitch angle profile and q(r) using polarimetry measurements of the Doppler shifted H α emission from a hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. As a neutral beam propagates through a plasma, collisions of the beam particles with the background ions and electrons will excite beam atoms, leading to emission of radiation. The motional Stark effect, which arises from the electric field induced in the atom's rest frame due to the beam motion across the magnetic field (E=V beam xB), causes a wavelength splitting of several angstroms and polarization of the emitted radiation. The Δm=±1 transitions, or σ components, from the beam fluorescence are linearly polarized parallel to the direction of the local magnetic field when viewed transverse to the fields. Since the hydrogen beam provides good spatial localization and penetration, the pitch angle can be obtained anywhere in the plasma. A photoelastic modulator (PEM) is used to modulate the linearly polarized light. Depending on the orientation of the PEM, it can measure the sine or cosine of the angle of polarization. Two PEM's are used to measure both components simultaneously. Results of q(r) for both Ohmic and NBI heated discharges have been obtained in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX-M) tokamak, with an uncertainty of ∼6% for q(0)

  4. Course and prognosis in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Kukeli, Anton; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Pallaskas, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2013-01-01

    Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor (RF) tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the study was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between RA seronegative and seropositive, regarding course and prognoses of the disease. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the (American College of Rheumatology) criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the course and prognoses of disease. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.9, SD=10.3) with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xbox=6.41, SD=6.47). Course of the disease with "remissions and exacerbations", progressive continual course and bad prognoses, were more presented in seropositive group ofpatients. Partial remission was more common in seronegative patients but according to serostatus and gender has not shown statistically significant difference. Duration of the disease was a specific prognostic sign for both subsets [(r=0.32, p0.05) seronegative, (r=0.18, p<0.05) seropositive]. Seropositive and seronegative RA distinguish in course and prognostic feature, but not enough to differentiate them in two different forms of the disease. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant.

  5. Physical, structural and luminescence investigation of Eu3+-doped lithium-gadolinium bismuth-borate glasses for LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, F.; Rooh, G.; Srisittipokakun, N.; Wongdeeying, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the current report is to fabricate Eu3+-doped glasses with the chemical composition of 50Li2O-15Gd2O3-5Bi2O3-(30-x)B2O3-xEu2O3 (where x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%), with the help of conventional melt quenching technique. The fabricated glasses have been studied with help of physical, structural and luminescence properties for application of LEDs. The structural properties were investigated by XRD and FTIR spectra. Physical properties have been measured. Direct and indirect optical energy band gap (Eg) have been calculated and found to be increasing with Eu2O3 concentration. Luminescence spectra have been observed from photo and radioluminescence spectra and found in good agreement with each other, however the concentration quenching was not determined for the samples. The high-covalence and asymmetric nature was confirmed from Photoluminescence emission and RL emission transition as well as from the higher values of luminescence intensity ratio. The JO parameters have been found for the better performance of lasing materials. The lifetime's data have been found to be decreasing from 1.64 to 1.50 ms, which is the confirmation of energy transfer in Eu3+ ions through cross relaxations. From the calculated properties it has been suggested that the present glass samples might be good for red-light emitting devices.

  6. Driving mechanism of SOL plasma flow and effects on the divertor performance in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, N.; Takenaga, H.; Sakurai, S.

    2003-01-01

    The measurements of the SOL flow and plasma profiles both at the high-field-side (HFS) and low field- side (LFS), for the first time, identified the SOL flow pattern and its driving mechanism. 'Flow reversal' was found near the HFS and LFS separatrix of the main plasma for the ion ∇β drift direction towards the divertor. Radial profiles of the SOL flow were similar to those calculated numerically using the UEDGE code with the plasma drifts included although Mach numbers in measurements were greater than those obtained numerically. Particle fluxes towards the HFS and LFS divertors produced by the parallel SOL flow and E r xB drift flow were evaluated. The particle flux for the case of intense gas puff and divertor pump (puff and pump) was investigated, and it was found that both the Mach number and collisionality were enhanced, in particular, at HFS. Drift flux in the private flux region was also evaluated, and important physics issues for the divertor design and operation, such as in-out asymmetries of the heat and particle fluxes, and control of impurity ions were investigated. (author)

  7. Spin-dependent energy distribution of B-hadrons from polarized top decays considering the azimuthal correlation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Moosavi Nejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Basically, the energy distribution of bottom-flavored hadrons produced through polarized top quark decays t(↑→W++b(→Xb, is governed by the unpolarized rate and the polar and the azimuthal correlation functions which are related to the density matrix elements of the decay t(↑→bW+. Here we present, for the first time, the analytical expressions for the O(αs radiative corrections to the differential azimuthal decay rates of the partonic process t(↑→b+W+ in two helicity systems, which are needed to study the azimuthal distribution of the energy spectrum of the hadrons produced in polarized top decays. These spin-momentum correlations between the top quark spin and its decay product momenta will allow the detailed studies of the top decay mechanism. Our predictions of the hadron energy distributions also enable us to deepen our knowledge of the hadronization process and to test the universality and scaling violations of the bottom-flavored meson fragmentation functions.

  8. Evaluation method of longitudinal static stability of tailless airplane. Mubiyokuki no tate no seianteisei no hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S; Kajita, H [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-01-05

    As for the tailless airplane which has the swept taper wing of linear leading and tailing edges, the longitudinal static stability was evaluated by using the modified strip or airfoil theory and the lifting surface theory (DLM method). The sectional lift coefficient of the whole wing, the pitching moment coefficient around the center of gravity, and the equation relating to the elevon were shown. It is thought as a weak point of any tailless airplane that the spanwise lift distribution may keep away from the optimal one because the wash-out is necessary to keep the longitudinal static stability. In order to evaluate this fact, the inductive drag was calculated by using the calculation soft for the induced drag based on the lift surface method to obtain the airplane efficiency factor. The Northrop XB-35 was used for the model of this calculation. Both theories agreed qualititatively. The allowable range of longitudinal center of gravity was 12.5% of the mean chord length. The structural twist is about 9{degree}, and this value gives hardly any adverse effect to the airplane efficiency factor for crusing configuration. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Progress on major genes for high fecundity in ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyue LIU,Zhangyuan PAN,Xiangyu WANG,Wenping HU,Ran DI,Yaxing YAO,Mingxing CHU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of major genes affecting fecundity in sheep flocks throughout the world has been demonstrated. Three major genes whose mutations can increase ovulation rate have been discovered, and all related to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β superfamily. The mutant FecB of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B has an additive effect on ovulation rate. Six mutations (FecXI, FecXH, FecXG, FecXB, FecXL, FecXR of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 related with fertility have been identified that share the same mechanism. All the mutants can increase ovulation rate in heterozygotes and cause complete sterility in homozygotes. Homozygous ewes with two new mutations (FecXGr, FecXO of BMP15 had increased ovulation rate without causing sterility. There are five mutations in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 associated with sheep prolificacy where FecGE and FecGF have additive an effect on ovulation rate and litter size. The newly identified β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4GALNT2 gene of FecL is proposed as a new mechanism of ovulation rate regulation in sheep. Woodlands is an X-linked maternally imprinted gene which increases ovulation rate. In addition, several putative major genes need to be verified. This review is focused on the identification of the mutations and mechanisms whereby the major genes affecting ovulation rate.

  10. Intrinsic strength of sodium borosilicate glass fibers by using a two-point bending technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikubo, Y; Yoshida, S; Sugawara, T; Matsuoka, J

    2011-01-01

    Flaws existing on glass surface can be divided into two types, extrinsic and intrinsic. Although the extrinsic flaws are generated during processing and using, the intrinsic flaws are regarded as structural defects which result from thermal fluctuation. It is known that the extrinsic flaws determine glass strength, but effects of the intrinsic flaws on the glass strength are still unclear. Since it is considered that the averaged bond-strength and the intrinsic flaw would affect the intrinsic strength, the intrinsic strength of glass surely depends on the glass composition. In this study, the intrinsic failure strain of the glass fibers with the compositions of 20Na 2 O-40xB 2 O 3 -(80-40x)SiO 2 (mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) were measured by using a two-point bending technique. The failure strength was estimated from the failure strain and Young's modulus of glass. It is elucidated that two-point bending strength of glass fiber decreases with increasing B 2 O 3 content in glass. The effects of the glass composition on the intrinsic strength are discussed in terms of elastic and inelastic deformation behaviors prior to fracture.

  11. Development of a 3-D visible limiter imaging system for the HSX stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelo, C.; Stephey, L.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Eisert, D.; Anderson, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    A visible camera diagnostic has been developed to study the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX) limiter plasma interaction. A straight line view from the camera location to the limiter was not possible due to the complex 3D stellarator geometry of HSX, so it was necessary to insert a mirror/lens system into the plasma edge. A custom support structure for this optical system tailored to the HSX geometry was designed and installed. This system holds the optics tube assembly at the required angle for the desired view to both minimize system stress and facilitate robust and repeatable camera positioning. The camera system has been absolutely calibrated and using Hα and C-III filters can provide hydrogen and carbon photon fluxes, which through an S/XB coefficient can be converted into particle fluxes. The resulting measurements have been used to obtain the characteristic penetration length of hydrogen and C-III species. The hydrogen λiz value shows reasonable agreement with the value predicted by a 1D penetration length calculation.

  12. Absence of magnetic long-range order in Y2CrSbO7 : Bond-disorder-induced magnetic frustration in a ferromagnetic pyrochlore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L.; Greaves, C.; Riyat, R.; Hansen, T. C.; Blackburn, E.

    2017-09-01

    The consequences of random nonmagnetic-ion dilution for the pyrochlore family Y2(M 1 -xN x)2O7 (M = magnetic ion, N = nonmagnetic ion) have been investigated. As a first step, we experimentally examine the magnetic properties of Y2CrSbO7 (x =0.5 ), in which the magnetic sites (Cr3 +) are percolative. Although the effective Cr-Cr spin exchange is ferromagnetic, as evidenced by a positive Curie-Weiss temperature, ΘCW ≃19.5 K , our high-resolution neutron powder diffraction measurements detect no sign of magnetic long-range order down to 2 K. In order to understand our observations, we construct a lattice model to numerically study the bond disorder introduced by the ionic size mismatch between M and N , which reveals that the bond disorder percolates at xb ≃0.23 , explaining the absence of magnetic long-range order. This model could be applied to a series of frustrated magnets with a pyrochlore sublattice, for example, the spinel compound Zn (Cr1 -xGax )2O4 , wherein a Néel to spin glass phase transition occurs between x =0.2 and 0.25 [Lee et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 014405 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.014405]. Our study stresses the non-negligible role of bond disorder on magnetic frustration, even in ferromagnets.

  13. Structure and luminescence properties of Dy2O3 doped bismuth-borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugoni, Consuelo; Gatto, C.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Siligardi, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this study heavy bismuth-borate glasses were studied as host matrices of Dy 2 O 3 rare earth, for potential application as scintillator materials in high energy physics experiments and in general radiation detection systems. Glass matrices were prepared from 20BaO-xBi 2 O 3 -(80-x)B 2 O 3 (x = 20, 30, 40 mol%) ternary systems and synthesized by the melt-quenching method at different temperatures in order to obtain high density and high transparency in the UV/Vis range. Particularly, the glass manifesting the higher transparency and with sufficiently high density was doped with Dy 2 O 3 (2.5 and 5 mol%) in order to induce the luminescence characteristics. The effects of Bi 2 O 3 and Dy 2 O 3 on density, thermal behaviour, transmission as well as luminescence properties under UV excitation, were investigated. The experimental results show that the synthesized glasses can be considered promising candidate materials as dense scintillators, due to the Dy 3+ centres emission.

  14. Crystal growth in zinc borosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Ana T. G.; Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Veiga, João P. B.; Monteiro, Regina C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Glass samples with a molar composition (64+x)ZnO-(16-x)B2O3-20SiO2, where x=0 or 1, were successfully synthesized using a melt-quenching technique. Based on differential thermal analysis data, the produced glass samples were submitted to controlled heat-treatments at selected temperatures (610, 615 and 620 °C) during various times ranging from 8 to 30 h. The crystallization of willemite (Zn2SiO4) within the glass matrix was confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under specific heat-treatment conditions, transparent nanocomposite glass-ceramics were obtained, as confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The influence of temperature, holding time and glass composition on crystal growth was investigated. The mean crystallite size was determined by image analysis on SEM micrographs. The results indicated an increase on the crystallite size and density with time and temperature. The change of crystallite size with time for the heat-treatments at 615 and 620 °C depended on the glass composition. Under fixed heat-treatment conditions, the crystallite density was comparatively higher for the glass composition with higher ZnO content.

  15. Sex Determination in Bees. IV. Genetic Control of Juvenile Hormone Production in MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Akahira, Yukio; Camargo, Conceição A.

    1975-01-01

    Cell number and volume of corpora allata was determined for 8 phases of development, the first prepupal stage to adults 30 days old, in the social Apidae Melipona quadrifasciata. In the second prepupal stage a strong correlation was found between cell number and body weight ( r=0.651**), and cell number and corpora allata volume in prepupal stage (r=0.535*), which indicates that juvenile hormone has a definite role in caste determination in Melipona. The distribution of the volume of corpus allatum suggest a 3:1 segregation between bees with high volume of corpora allata against low and medium volume. This implies that genes xa and xb code for an enzyme that directly participates in juvenile hormone production. It was also concluded that the number of cells in the second prepupal stage is more important than the weight of the prepupa for caste determination. A scheme summarizing the genic control of sex and caste determination in Melipona bees in the prepupal phase is given. PMID:1213273

  16. Driving mechanism of SOL plasma flow an effects on the divertor performance in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Nobuyuki; Takenaga, H.; Sakurai, S.

    2003-01-01

    The measurements of the scrape-off layer(SOL) flow and plasma profiles both at the high-field-side (HFS) and low-field-side (LFS), for the first time, identified the SOL flow pattern and its driving mechanism. 'Flow reversal' was found near the HFS and LFS separatrix of the main plasma for the ion ∇B drift direction towards the divertor, Radial profiles of the SOL flow were similar to those calculated numerically using the UEDGE code with the plasma drifts included although Mach numbers in measurements were greater than those obtained numerically. Particle fluxes towards the HFS and LFS divertors produced by the parallel SOL flow and E r xB drift flow were evaluated. The particle flux for the case of intense gas puff and divertor pump (puff and pump) was investigated, and it was found that both the Mach number and collisionality were enhanced, in particular, at HFS. Drift flux in the private flux region was also evaluated, and important physics issues for the divertor design and operation, such as in-out asymmetries of the heat and particle fluxes, and control of impurity ions were investigated. (author)

  17. Full in-vitro analyses of new-generation bulk fill dental composites cured by halogen light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Tuçe Hazal; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Yılmaz Atalı, Pınar; Coşkuner Filiz, Bilge; Pişkin, Mehmet Burçin

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the full in-vitro analyses of new-generation bulk-fill dental composites cured by halogen light (HLG). Two types' four composites were studied: Surefill SDR (SDR) and Xtra Base (XB) as bulk-fill flowable materials; QuixFill (QF) and XtraFill (XF) as packable bulk-fill materials. Samples were prepared for each analysis and test by applying the same procedure, but with different diameters and thicknesses appropriate to the analysis and test requirements. Thermal properties were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis; the Vickers microhardness (VHN) was measured after 1, 7, 15 and 30days of storage in water. The degree of conversion values for the materials (DC, %) were immediately measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The surface morphology of the composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The sorption and solubility measurements were also performed after 1, 7, 15 and 30days of storage in water. In addition to his, the data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, and both the Newman Keuls and Tukey multiple comparison tests. The statistical significance level was established at pfill, resin-based dental composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytotoxic and biological effects of bulk fill composites on rat cortical neuron cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalak, Hakan; Kamalak, Aliye; Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Ali; Hacımüftüoğlu, Ahmet; Nalcı, Kemal Alp

    2018-03-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential cellular responses and biological effects of new generation dental composites on cortical neuron cells in two different exposure times. The study group included five different bulk-fill flow able composites; Surefil SDR Flow, X-tra Base Flow, Venus Bulk Flow, Filtek Bulk Flow and Tetric-Evo Flow. They were filled in Teflon molds (Height: 4 mm, Width: 6 mm) and irradiated for 20 s. Cortical neuron cells were inoculated into 24-well plates. After 80% of the wells were coated, the 3 µm membrane was inserted and dental filling materials were added. The experiment was continued for 24 and 72 h. Cell viability measured by MTT assay test, total antioxidant and total oxidant status were examined using real assay diagnostic kits. The patterns of cell death (apoptosis) were analyzed using annexin V-FITC staining with flow cytometry. Β-defensins were quantitatively assessed by RT-PCR. IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines were measured from the supernatants. All composites significantly affected analyses parameters during the exposure durations. Our data provide evidence that all dental materials tested are cytotoxic in acute phase and these effects are induced cellular death after different exposure periods. Significant cytotoxicity was detected in TE, XB, SS, FBF and VBF groups at 24 and 72 h, respectively.

  19. A novel TaqI polymorphism in the coding region of the ovine TNXB gene in the MHC class III region: morphostructural and physiological influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oyeyemi O; Adefenwa, Mufliat A; Agaviezor, Brilliant O; Ikeobi, Christian O N; Wheto, Matthew; Okpeku, Moses; Amusan, Samuel A; Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; De Donato, Marcos; Peters, Sunday O; Imumorin, Ikhide G

    2014-02-01

    The tenascin-XB (TNXB) gene has antiadhesive effects, functions in matrix maturation in connective tissues, and localizes to the major histocompatibility complex class III region. We hypothesized that it may influence adaptive physiological response through an effect on blood vessel function. We identified a novel g.1324 A→G polymorphism at a TaqI recognition site in a 454 bp fragment of ovine TNXB and genotyped it in 150 Nigerian sheep using PCR-RFLP. The missense mutation changes glutamic acid (GAA) to glycine (GGA). Among SNP genotypes, significant differences (P bone length. Interaction effects of breed, SNP genotype, and geographic location had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on chest girth. The SNP genotype was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with physiological traits of pulse rate and skin temperature. The observed effect of this novel polymorphism may be mediated through its role in connective tissue biology, requiring further association and functional studies.

  20. Stability, elastic properties and fracture toughness of Al0.75X0.75B14 (X=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo) investigated using ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerlich, Jens; Thieme, Niklas; To Baben, Moritz; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the transition metal valence electron concentration on the energy of formation, effective charge of B icosahedra, elastic properties, surface energy and fracture toughness was calculated using density functional theory for icosahedral transition metal borides of AlXB 14 (X=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Consistent with previous work on AlYB 14 (Kölpin et al 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 355006) it is shown that phase stability is generally dependent on the effective charge of the icosahedral transition metal borides. Also, ionization potential and electronegativity are identified as parameters affecting the effective charge of B icosahedra suitable for use in predicting the phase stability. Al 0.75 Y 0.75 B 14 , Al 0.75 Sc 0.75 B 14 and Al 0.75 Zr 0.75 B 14 have been identified as promising phases for application as protective coatings as they exhibit high phase stability and stiffness combined with a comparatively high fracture toughness. (paper)

  1. Electronic structure of Pr doped into superconducting Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.I.; Karazhanova, G.I.; Smirnov, Yu.P.; Sovestnov, A.E.; Tyunis, A.V.; Shaburov, V.A.

    1992-07-01

    The shift of K α 1 and K β 1 X-ray lines of Pr in HTS-ceramic Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2-x Pr x Ca 2 Cu 3 O y (0,10≤x≤0,50, refer to PrF 3 ) are measured experimentally. The valence m(x), the charge q(x) and the 4f(x)-, 5d(x)-levels population of Pr are determined from experimental shifts. It is found that the Pr valence is near 3; the small valence increasing m≅3,04 at x=0,1 is observed. The small of Pr 5d-electron localization in ceramics in comparison with PrF 3 is revealed (∼0,1-0,2 5d-electron per Pr-atom). The probable cause of the superconductivity suppression in Y 1-x Pr xB a 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ system is discussed. 26 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Pulsed currents carried by whistlers. IV. Electric fields and radiation excited by an electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.; Urrutia, J.M.; Rousculp, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of current pulses carried by whistler wave packets are obtained from a basic laboratory experiment. While the magnetic field and current density are described in the preceding companion paper (Part III), the present analysis starts with the electric field. The inductive and space charge electric field contributions are separately calculated in Fourier space from the measured magnetic field and Ohm's law along B 0 . Inverse Fourier transformation yields the total electric field in space and time, separated into rotational and divergent contributions. The space-charge density in whistler wave packets is obtained. The cross-field tensor conductivity is determined. The frozen-in condition is nearly satisfied, E+v e xB congruent 0. The dissipation is obtained from Poynting's theorem. The waves are collisionally damped; Landau damping is negligible. A radiation resistance for the electrode is determined. Analogous to Poynting's theorem, the transport of helicity is analyzed. Current helicity is generated by a flow of helicity between pulses traveling in opposite directions which carry opposite signs of helicity. Helicity is dissipated by collisions. These observations complete a detailed description of whistler/current pulses which can occur in various laboratory and space plasmas. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. KEEFEKTIFAN MODEL PjBL DENGAN TUGAS CREATIVE MIND-MAP UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KONEKSI MATEMATIK SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfa Ainurrizqiyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui  peningkatan kemampuan koneksi matematik, apakah terdapat perbedaan serta manakah yang lebih baik antara pembelajaran dengan model PjBL dengan tugas creative mind-map dan pembelajaran ekspositori pada siswa kelas X materi Trigonometri. Penelitian eksperimen yang dilakukan dengan pre and posttest control group design ini memiliki populasi yakni siswa kelas X SMAN 1 Sukorejo tahun ajaran 2014/2015. Dengan menggunakan cluster random sampling, terpilih sampel yaitu siswa kelas XB sebagai kelas kontrol dengan pembelajaran ekspositori dan XC sebagai kelas eksperimen dengan model PjBL dengan tugas creative mind-map. Data kemampuan koneksi matematik dianalisis menggunakan uji proporsi, uji beda rata-rata. Berdasarkan uji proporsi, diperoleh lebih dari 75 % siswa kelas eksperimen mencapai nilai ketuntasan belajar, yaitu 75. Selain itu, diperoleh adanya perbedaan hasil kemampuan koneksi matematik antar kedua kelas dimana kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada siswa kelas kontrol. Sedangkan untuk peningkatan menggunakan uji t berpasangan dan gain ternormalisasi dengan hasilnya yaitu terdapat peningkatan kemampuan koneksi matematik pada kelas eksperimen dengan kriteria tinggi.

  4. The structure of n-alkane binary mixtures adsorbed on graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espeau, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Minerale, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene Descartes-Paris V, F-75006 Paris (France)]. E-mail: philippe.espeau@univ-paris5.fr; White, John W. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Papoular, Robert J. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA-CEN Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2005-12-15

    The thermodynamics and structure of the surface adsorbed phase in binary C15-C16 and C15-C17 n-alkane mixtures confined in graphite pores have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. The previously observed selective adsorption of the longer alkane for chain length differences greater than five carbon atoms is verified but reduced for chain length differences less than or equal to two. With a difference in chain length of one carbon atom, Vegard's law is followed for the melting points of the adsorbed mixture and the (0 2) d-spacing is a continuous function of the mole fraction x. With a two-carbon atom difference, samples aged for 1 week have a lamellar structure for which the entities A{sub 1-x}B {sub x} try to be commensurate with the substrate. The same samples aged for 1 month show a continuous parabolic x-dependence for both the melting points and the d-spacings. An explanation in terms of selective probability of adsorption is proposed based on crystallographic considerations.

  5. [Preliminary results of an open-label observational study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Prolia used in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, O B; Lesniak, O M; Belova, K Iu; Nazarova, A V; Manovitskaia, A V; Musaeva, T M; Musraev, R M; Nurlygaianov, R Z; Rozhinskaia, L Ia; Skripnikova, I A; Toroptsova, N V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Denosumab (Prolia), a first-line osteoporosis (OP) medication that is a fully human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor xB ligand (RANKL), within an open-label observational study. Patients aged 50 years or older with postmenopausal OP, who were treated with Prolia in clinical practice, were examined. The concentrations of the bone resorption (BR) marker of C-terminal telopeptide and other laboratory indicators (total serum calcium, total alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine) were measured following 3 months. Adverse drug reactions were recorded. Three months after initiation of the investigation, there was a significant decrease in the BR marker C-terminal telopeptide (by 89%; p<0.0001). There were rare adverse reactions: hypocalcemia in 3 (5.9%) patients, arthralgias in 2 (3.9%), and eczema in 1 (1.9%). There were neither serious adverse events nor study withdrawal cases. The preliminary results of the open-label study of Prolia in postmenopausal OP suggest that the significantly lower BR activity determines the efficacy of this drug and its high safety.

  6. Role of radial electric field in LH transition triggered by counter-NBI at low plasma density in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukachinsky, A.S.; Askinazi, L.G.; Chernyshev, F.V. and others; Krupnik, L.I.; Rushkevich, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Threshold power needed to attain H-mode in a tokamak is a critical parameter for designing of future devices and in particular fusion reactor ITER [1]. According to commonly accepted scaling [2] the threshold power P t hr increases with average density n e when the density exceeds some n em in at which P t hr is minimal. An increase in the P t hr towards low density was observed in many experiments [3-6], prevents the transition at lower n e as well. Physics of the threshold power increase at low ne is not well understood. Since the radial electric field E r and E r xB sheared flow play important roles in the LH transition one could expect these quantities effect the low n-bar e transitions. Toroidal rotation and radial electric field generation during counter-NBI have been studied in [7] and recently reconsidered theoretically in [8]. Thus, motivation for the presented study is to analyze effect of counter-NBI on the LH transition at low density

  7. PENGARUH PENERAPAN BELAJAR MANDIRI PADA MATERI EKOSISTEM TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN BERPIKIR KRITIS DAN KEMAMPUAN MEMECAHKAN MASALAH SISWA SMA DI KOTA METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Oka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the effect of  alone learning to the critical thinking skill and problem solving ability in SMA Teladan 1 Metro. This research applied quasy experimental with non-equvalent control group design. The population of this research is allow students of class X SMA Teladan 1 Metro on academic year 2009/2010. The samples of this research were class XA as experimental (alone learning and class XB as control (conventional. The instrument of this research namely critical thinking and problem solving test. This research data are quantitative data consisted by score capacity critical thinking and problem solving ability to river ecosystem, collected on 15 january until 12 Juni 2010. Data were analysed by bilinear covariant statistical analysis (Ancova, continued with LSD test. The result of this research indicated that there were an effect of alone learning strategy toward the critical thinking skill and problem solving ability. Student with alone learning strategy having critical thinking higher 80,111% than conventional learning. Beside, student with alone learning strategy having 11,124% higher than convensional learning. Based on this research, the researcher suggest to the teacher that this strategy can implemented in biology learning.   Kata Kunci: Belajar Mandiri, Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Kemampuan Memecahkan Masalah.

  8. Ra/Ca separation by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Mendoza, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ra/Ca separation by ion exchange. The objective of this work was to acquire knowledge of the chromatographic behaviour of the alkaline earth cations calcium, barium and radium and the obtention of well-defined alpha spectra of 226 Ra. Three cationic ion exchange resins (Dower 50 W-X8, AG 50W-XB and Merck I) and three complexing agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid) at various pH values have been investigated. The three types of ions are fixed on the resins at pH 4.8; calcium is eluted at pH between 5 and 6 depending on the resin; barium and radium are eluted at pH values from 8 to 11. Radium is also eluted with a 2 M nitric acid solution, from which it can be electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk potassium fluoride as electrolyte at pH 14. The electrolysis is conducted for 18 hours with a current of mA. Under these conditions high resolution alpha spectra were obtained for 226 Ra, which was practically free from radioactive contaminants (Author)

  9. Investigations on structural and optical behavior of Er3+ doped lead boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Suthanthirakumar, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    Er3+ doped lead boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (30-x)B2O3+30TeO2+23MgO+17PbF2+xEr2O3 (where x=0.05, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 in wt%) were synthesized by melt quenching technique. The structural and optical behaviors have been investigated through FTIR, absorption and emission spectral analysis. The UV-vis- NIR absorption spectra were used to calculate the bonding parameters (β ¯, δ), Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6), Optical band gap and Urbach's energy of the prepared glasses. The radiative properties such as transition probability (AR), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE ), branching ratios (βR) were calculated from the luminescence spectra. The optical properties of the prepared glasses with varying Er3+ ion concentration have been studied and reported in the present work.

  10. Optical studies on Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2012-06-01

    Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (39-x)B2O3+30TeO2+15MgO+15K2O +xEu2O3 (where x = 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3 wt%) have been prepared by following conventional melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses have been studied by recording the optical absorption and luminescence measurements. Through the optical absorption spectra, bonding parameters (β¯, δ) have been calculated to identify the ionic/covalent nature of the glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis have been carried out using the luminescence spectra. The JO parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4 and 6) were used to calculate the radiative properties for the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 3 and 4) emission transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The change in optical properties with the variation of Eu3+ ion concentration have been studied and discussed with similar studies.

  11. Scintillation and optical properties of TiO2-ZnO-Al2O3-B2O3 glasses and glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yuki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Masai, Hirokazu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    13TiO2-xZnO-17Al2O3-(70 - x)B2O3 (x = 17, 26, and 35) glasses were prepared by a melt-quenching method, and the obtained glass samples were heated at temperatures 30 °C above the glass transition temperature of corresponding glass in order to obtain glass-ceramics. The obtained glass-ceramic samples were confirmed to have anatase (x = 17) and rutile (x = 26 and 35) phases from X-ray diffraction analysis. Then, the scintillation and optical properties were evaluated and discussed the difference between the glass-ceramic and glass samples. In the scintillation spectra under X-ray irradiation, a broad emission peak was observed around 450 nm in all the samples, and the new peak around 500 nm appeared in the anatase-precipitated glass-ceramic. The intensities of the glass-ceramic samples were enhanced in comparison with the corresponding glasses because the glass-ceramics includes TiO2 crystallites with defect centers which act as effective emission centers. The scintillation decay curves of the glass and glass-ceramic samples were approximated by one and a sum of two exponential decay functions, respectively. The faster component of glass and glass-ceramic samples would be caused by the host emission, and the slower component of glass-ceramic sample would be ascribed to the emission of Ti3+.

  12. Synthesis and Luminescent Characteristics of Ce3+-Activated Borosilicate Blue-Emitting Phosphors for LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphors Sr3B2SiO8:Ce3+ have been successfully synthesized via solid-state reaction process. Emission/excitation spectra and photoluminescence decay behaviors were investigated in detail. Under the excitation of 340 nm, the emission spectrum presented an asymmetry emission band extended from 350 to 600 nm, which with the main peak at 425 nm can be fitted in two peaks (23940 cm−1 and 21934 cm−1. The chromaticity coordinates of Sr3-xB2SiO8:xCe3+ are fixed in the blue region; when the intensity of Ce3+ reached the maximum, the chromaticity coordinate is (0.154, 0.088 which is more close to the standard CIE of blue light (0.140, 0.080. The results showed the kind of phosphor may have potential applications in the fields of UV-excited white LEDs.

  13. In situ deuterium inventory measurements of a-C:D layers on tungsten in TEXTOR by laser induced ablation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierse, N; Brezinsek, S; Coenen, J W; Huber, A; Laengner, M; Möller, S; Nonhoff, M; Philipps, V; Pospieszczyk, A; Schweer, B; Sergienko, G; Xiao, Q; Zlobinski, M; Samm, U; Giesen, T F

    2014-01-01

    Laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) is a diagnostic to provide temporally and spatially resolved in situ measurements of tritium retention and material migration in order to characterize the status of the first wall in future fusion devices. In LIAS, a ns-laser pulse ablates the first nanometres of the first wall plasma-facing components into the plasma edge. The resulting line radiation by plasma excitation is observed by spectroscopy. In the case of the full ionizing plasma and with knowledge of appropriate photon efficiencies for the corresponding line emission the amount of ablated material can be measured in situ. We present the photon efficiency for the deuterium Balmer α-line resulting from ablation in TEXTOR by performing LIAS on amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:D) layers deposited on tungsten substrate of thicknesses between 0.1 and 1.1 μm. An experimental inverse photon efficiency of [(D/(XB))] D α (EXP) a-C:D→ LIAS D =75.9±23.4 was determined. This value is a factor 5 larger than predicted values from the ADAS database for atomic injection of deuterium under TEXTOR plasma edge conditions and about twice as high, assuming normal wall recycling and release of molecular deuterium and break-up of D 2 via the molecular ion which is usually observed at the high temperature tokamak edge (T e  > 30 eV). (paper)

  14. Deep-UV Raman spectroscopic analysis of structure and dissolution rates of silica-rich sodium borosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; WindischJr., Charles F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Burton, Sarah D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Bovaird, Chase C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing studies to evaluate relationships between structure and rates of dissolution of silicate glasses in aqueous media, sodium borosilicate glasses of composition Na2O xB2O3 (3 x)SiO2, with x 1 (Na2O/B2O3 ratio 1), were analyzed using deep-UV Raman spectroscopy. Results were quantified in terms of the fraction of SiO4 tetrahedra with one non-bridging oxygen (Q3) and then correlated with Na2O and B2O3 content. The Q3 fractionwas found to increase with increasing Na2O content, in agreement with studies on related glasses, and, as long as the value of x was not too high, this contributed to higher rates of dissolution in single pass flow-through testing. In contrast, dissolution rates were less strongly determined by the Q3 fraction when the value of x was near unity, and appeared to grow larger upon further reduction of the Q3 fraction. Results were interpreted to indicate the increasingly important role of network hydrolysis in the glass dissolution mechanism as the BO4 tetrahedron replaces the Q3 unit as the charge-compensating structure for Na+ ions. Finally, the use of deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was found to be advantageous in studying finely powdered glasses in cases where visible Raman spectroscopy suffered from weak Raman scattering and fluorescence interference.

  15. Simultaneous determination of 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethylquercetin and its possible metabolite 3,3',4',7-tetramethylquercetin in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to preclinical pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Dongyan; Hu, Yan; Jin, Manwen; Zhou, Liping; Peng, Kelong; Zheng, Heng

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive, simple and rapid ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)-ESI-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethylquercetin (PMQ) and its possible metabolite 3,3',4',7-tetramethylquercetin (TMQ) in dog plasma using 4',5,7-trimethylapigenin (TMA) as the internal standard. The plasma sample was pretreated with acetonitrile for protein precipitation and the analytes were separated on an Ultimate XB-CN column (5 μm, 2.1 mm × 150 mm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (2:1, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer under a positive multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM). The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 373.1-312.1 for PMQ, 359.1-344.0 for TMQ and 313.1-298.1 for TMA. The validated concentration ranged from 1.272 to 3060 ng/mL for PMQ and from 10.35 to 1725 ng/mL for TMQ. The lower limit of quantifications for PMQ and TMQ were 1.272 ng/mL and 10.35 ng/mL, respectively. The developed-method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of PMQ and its metabolite TMQ in dogs following a single oral dose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenstein, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3 H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap

  17. Exclusive processes at JLab at 6 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeply virtual exclusive reactions provide a unique opportunity to probe the complex internal structure of the nucleon. They allow to access information about the correlations between parton transverse spatial and longitudinal momentum distributions from experimental observables. Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP have been carried out at Jefferson Lab using continuous electron beam with energies up to 6 GeV. Unpolarized cross sections, beam, target and double spin asymmetries have been measured for DVCS as well as for π0 exclusive electroproduction. The data from Hall B provide a wide kinematic coverage with Q2=1-4.5 GeV2, xB=0.1-0.5, and −t up to 2 GeV2. Hall A data have limited kinematic range partially overlapping with Hall B kinematics but provide a high accuracy measurements. Scaling tests of the DVCS cross sections provide solid evidence of twist-2 dominance, which makes chiral-even GPDs accessible even at modest Q2. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs model. Successful description of the recent CLAS π0 exclusive production data within the framework of the GPD-based model provides a unique opportunity to access the chiral-odd GPDs.

  18. Net requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals for weight gain of grazing beef cattle castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilza Andréia da Rocha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to estimate the requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals of grazing crossbreds calves, in Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-seven young calves at initial age of 120±30.1 days and 115.3±1.97 kg of live weight were used. To estimate net energy requirements for weight gain, a regression equation between energy retained in the gain and empty body weight gain and metabolic empty body weight was obtained. For estimation of net protein requirements for weight gain, a regression equation was adjusted between protein retained in gain and empty body weight gain and energy content of this gain. Net requirements of Ca, P, Mg and Na for weight gain were determined by the equation Y' = a.b. Xb-1, in which a and b represent the intercept and the coefficient of the alometric equation of macromineral body content prediction, respectively. Neither castration nor concentrate supplementation affects body weight gain net requirements, except the ones of Ca, which were higher for non-castrated animals.

  19. Complex Heat Capacity of Lithium Borate Glasses Studied by Modulated DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yu; Ike, Yuji; Matsui, Chihiro; Kodama, Masao; Kojima, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    Complex heat capacity, C p * = C p ' - iC p '', of lithium borate glasses Li2O·(1-x)B2O3 (x = 0.00 - 0.33) has been investigated by Modulated DSC (MDSC). We have successfully observed the frequency dependent C p * by MDSC in the frequency range 0.01 to 0.1 Hz, and the average relaxation time of glass transition has been determined as a function of temperature. Moreover, the composition dependence of the thermal properties has been investigated. The calorimetric glass transition temperatures become higher with the increase of concentration of Li2O and show the board maximum around x = 0.26-0.28. The width of glass transition region becomes narrower as Li2O increases. These results relate to the change of the fragility of the system. It has been proven that the complex heat capacity spectroscopy by MDSC is a powerful tool to investigate the glass transition phenomena

  20. Determination of fenticonazole in human plasma by HPLC–MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Mao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the determination of fenticonazole in human plasma after percutaneous and intravaginal administration. Mifepristone was used as an internal standard (IS, and simple protein precipitation by acetonitrile containing 2% acetic acid was utilized for extracting the analytes from the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex XB-C18 column. The quantitation was performed by a mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM positive ion mode using precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 455.2–199.1 for fenticonazole and m/z 430.2–372.3 for mifepristone. The validated linear ranges were 5–1000 pg/mL and 0.1–20 ng/mL fenticonazole in plasma for the methods A and B, respectively. For the two methods, the accuracy data ranged from 85% to 115%, the intra- and inter-batch precision data were less than 15%, the recovery data were more than 90%, and no matrix interference was observed. The methods A and B were successfully validated and applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of fenticonazole gel in Chinese healthy volunteers after percutaneous and intravaginal administration, respectively.

  1. Flexural modeling of the elastic lithosphere at an ocean trench: A parameter sensitivity analysis using analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Garay, Jeremías

    2018-01-01

    The outer rise is a topographic bulge seaward of the trench at a subduction zone that is caused by bending and flexure of the oceanic lithosphere as subduction commences. The classic model of the flexure of oceanic lithosphere w (x) is a hydrostatic restoring force acting upon an elastic plate at the trench axis. The governing parameters are elastic thickness Te, shear force V0, and bending moment M0. V0 and M0 are unknown variables that are typically replaced by other quantities such as the height of the fore-bulge, wb, and the half-width of the fore-bulge, (xb - xo). However, this method is difficult to implement with the presence of excessive topographic noise around the bulge of the outer rise. Here, we present an alternative method to the classic model, in which lithospheric flexure w (x) is a function of the flexure at the trench axis w0, the initial dip angle of subduction β0, and the elastic thickness Te. In this investigation, we apply a sensitivity analysis to both methods in order to determine the impact of the differing parameters on the solution, w (x). The parametric sensitivity analysis suggests that stable solutions for the alternative approach requires relatively low β0 values (rise bulge. The alternative method is a more suitable approach, assuming that accurate geometric information at the trench axis (i.e., w0 and β0) is available.

  2. Investigation of thermal stability and spectroscopic properties in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped TeO2-Li2O-B2O3-GeO2 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qiu-Hua; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Tie-Feng; Shen, Xiang

    2005-06-01

    The new Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped 70TeO2-5Li2O-(25-x)B2O3-xGeO2 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 fand 20 mol.%) glasses were prepared. The thermal stability, absorption spectra, emission spectra and lifetime of the 4I(13/2) level of Er3+ ions were measured and studied. The FT-IR spectra were carried out in order to investigate the structure of local arrangements in glasses. It is found that the thermal stability, absorption cross-section of Yb3+, emission intensity and lifetime of the 4I(13/2) level of Er3+ increase with increasing GeO2 content in the glass composition, while the fluorescence width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1.5 um of Er3+ is about 70 nm. The obtained data suggest that this system glass can be used as a candidate host material for potential broadband optical amplifiers.

  3. Evaluation of TeO2 content on the optical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3 +-doped calcium borotellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. M. O.; Gomes, J. F.; Hegeto, F. L.; Medina, A. N.; Steimacher, A.; Barboza, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the characterization of Yb3 +-doped calcium borotellurite (CaBTeX) glasses with composition 10CaF2-(29.5 - 0.4x)CaO-(60 - 0.6x)B2O3-xTeO2-0.5Yb2O3 (x = 10, 16, 22, 31 and 54 mol%). The results of XRD confirm the amorphous character of all the samples. The density, molar volume, refractive index and electronic polarizability values show an increase with TeO2 content. Otherwise, the optical band gap energy shows a decrease with the increase of TeO2 content. The replacement of CaO and B2O3 by TeO2 changes the glass structure, which decreases the excited Yb3 +/cm3 and, consequently, the luminescence intensity. The temperature dependence of luminescence was studied for all the samples up to 420 K. The fluorescence lifetime does not change significantly due to TeO2 addition. In addition, absorption and emission cross section were calculated and present high values as compared to other tellurite and phosphate glasses.

  4. Triple modifier effect on physical, optical and structural properties of boro tellurite zinc lithium glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, P.; Srinivasu, D.; Narsimlu, N.; Ch. Srinivas, Kavitha, B.; Deshpandhe, Uday; Kumar, K. Siva

    2018-05-01

    To investigate physical, optical and structural properties of glass samples of the Quaternary system (60-x)B2O3-xTeO2-10ZnO-30Li2O with x=0,5,10,15, and 20 mol% were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. XRD confirmed the amorphous nature of all samples. Physical parameters like density, molar volume, Oxygen packing density and etc. calculated. Density of glass samples increased with the increase of TeO2 concentration due to the replacement of lighter B2O3 with heavier TeO2. Optical properties has studied with the help of UV-Visible spectra. Cut off wavelength is increases whereas Eopt and Urbache energies is decreased except intermediate mole fraction of TeO2 at which the triple modifier effect can be observed. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the network consists of TeO3 and TeO6 structural units along with BO3 and BO4 units.

  5. Raman, FTIR, thermal and optical properties of TeO2-Nb2O5-B2O3-V2O5 quaternary glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of quaternary glass systems with the composition 79TeO2-(20−xNb2O5-xB2O3-1V2O5 was prepared using the melt quench technique. Such studies as optical absorption, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, EPR and DSC were carried out on the glass system. The physical properties, such as density (ρ and molar volume (VM, were determined. The Urbach energy (ΔE, optical band gap (Eopt, optical basicity (Λ, refractive index (n and electron polarizability (α of the glasses were determined from optical absorption data. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters of VO2+ ions were calculated from the EPR data. With the gradual substitution of B2O3 at the expense of Nb2O5, the density and optical band gap of the glasses decreased, and the electronic polarizability increased. EPR spectra revealed that VO2+ occupies an octahedral site with tetrahedral compression. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters g|| and g⊥ increased as B2O3 content increased in the glass. The glass transition temperature (Tg also decreased as the B2O3 content in the glass increased.

  6. AAA and AXB algorithms for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using IMRT and RapidArc techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleldin, Maha; Elsherbini, Nader A; Elshemey, Wael M

    2017-09-27

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and 2 reporting systems (AXB-D m and AXB-D w ) of Acuros XB algorithm (AXB) on clinical plans of nasopharyngeal patients using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and RapidArc (RA) techniques. Six plans of different algorithm-technique combinations are performed for 10 patients to calculate dose-volume histogram (DVH) physical parameters for planning target volumes (PTVs) and organs at risk (OARs). The number of monitor units (MUs) and calculation time are also determined. Good coverage is reported for all algorithm-technique combination plans without exceeding the tolerance for OARs. Regardless of the algorithm, RA plans persistently reported higher D 2% values for PTV-70. All IMRT plans reported higher number of MUs (especially with AXB) than did RA plans. AAA-IMRT produced the minimum calculation time of all plans. Major differences between the investigated algorithm-technique combinations are reported only for the number of MUs and calculation time parameters. In terms of these 2 parameters, it is recommended to employ AXB in calculating RA plans and AAA in calculating IMRT plans to achieve minimum calculation times at reduced number of MUs. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure and ionic transport studies of sodium borophosphate glassy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantha, P.S.; Hariharan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium borophosphate glasses of composition (mol%) 50Na 2 O-50[xB 2 O 3 -(1-x)P 2 O 5 ], 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 have been prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through XRD, DSC, FTIR and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The glass transition temperature increases with the substitution of B 2 O 3 due to the cross-linking of the network and the FTIR study shows the presence of different structural units in the network. The ionic conductivity study as a function of composition of B 2 O 3 shows increment in conductivity with two conductivity maxima at 10 and 30 mol% of B 2 O 3 and conductivity variations with temperature follow an Arrhenius type behaviour. Transport numbers evaluated for ions and electrons show that Na + ions are the mobile species in the investigated systems. The frequency dependence of the electric conductivity follows a simple power law feature. The analysis of various electrical parameters as a function of temperature in different complex planes shows that the charge transport occurs by the hopping mechanism

  8. XbaI GLUT1 Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes with Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Stefanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of the facilitated glucose transporter GLUT1 affects pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. There is indication that variation of GLUT1 gene (SLC2A1 contributes to development of microangiopathy in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM patients. A genetic association study involving Caucasians was carried out to investigate the role of XbαI polymorphism in the GLUT1 gene in diabetic nephropathy (DN. Study population (n = 240 consisted of 148 unrelated patients with DM (92 cases with diabetic nephropathy (DN, and of 92 matched healthy control subjects. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h and/or renal failure, in the absence of non-diabetes induced renal disease. The analysis showed that the risk of developing DM and DN in XbaI(− carriers, when healthy individuals were considered as controls, was two-fold: odds ratio (OR 2.08 [95% confidence interval (1.14–3.79]. However, there was no evidence of association between XbaI(− and DN when patients with DM and without DN were considered as controls: OR = 1.12 (0.55–2.26. Thus, the GLUT1 XbaI(− allele is associated with DM, and possibly with a more severe form of the disease that can lead to development of DN.

  9. A gene for late-onset fundus flavimaculatus with macular dystrophy maps to chromosome 1p13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M.; Bonneau, D.; Souied, E.; Camuzat, A.; Munnich, A.; Kaplan, J. [Hopital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Dufier, J.L. [Hopital Laeennec, Paris (France); Amalric, P. [Consultation d`Ophtalmologie, Albi (France); Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France)

    1995-02-01

    Fundus flavimaculatus with macular dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disease responsible for a progressive loss of visual acuity in adulthood, with pigmentary changes of the macula, perimacular flecks, and atrophy of the retinal pigmentary epithelium. Since this condition shares several clinical features with Stargardt disease, which has been mapped to chromosome 1p21-p13, we tested the disease for linkage to chromosome 1p. We report the mapping of the disease locus to chromosome 1p13-p21, in the genetic interval defined by loci D1S435 and D1S415, in four multiplex families (maximum lod score 4.79 at recombination fraction 0 for probe AFM217xb2 at locus D1S435). Thus, despite differences in the age at onset, clinical course, and severity, fundus flavimaculatus with macular dystrophy and Stargardt disease are probably allelic disorders. This result supports the view that allelic mutations produce a continuum of macular dystrophies, with onset in early childhood to late adulthood. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of the 12C (e,e'pd) Reaction at High Energy Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Neil [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-31

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E01015 measured the differential cross sections of the 12C (e,e'pd) reaction with low yields for kinematics of w = 0.865 GeV , Q2 = 2 (GeV/c)2, xB = 1.2 at three kinematic settings of 12C (e,e'p) missing momentum of 300, 400 and 500 MeV/c. The main objective of the experiment was to measure the 12C (e, e0p) cross section and the cross section ratios of 12C (e,e'pp) and 12C (e,e'pn) to investigate Short Range Correlations. The 12C (e,e'pd) reaction was investigated to find out what its magnitude of cross section. The very low yields and differential cross sections of 12C (e,e'pd) reaction measured at the three different kinematic settings suggests that the contribution of many of the different reaction mechanisms, including three nucleon forces, may be suppressed at the kinematics of this experiment.

  11. Crystallographic and Mössbauer investigations on Np1- xPuxB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipaux, R.; Bonnisseau, D.; Bogé, M.; Larroque, J.

    1988-08-01

    The diborides of neptunium and plutonium and their solid solutions Np 1- xPu xB 2 have been synthesized by direct reaction with a good purity. The lattice parameters follow Vegard's law. The magnetic properties of the samples containing neptunium have been investigated by Mössbauer spectrometry. The isomer shift is almost constant in all compounds (-14.5 (0.2) mm/s resp. to NpAl 2), suggesting tetravalent Np ions. At high temperatures, a large quadrupolar interaction, clearly connected to the crystal structure, is observed in all compounds, decreasing slowly with the neptunium concentration. At low temperature, magnetic patterns appear for x ⩽ 0.5. The magnetic moments are ordered perpendicular to the c-axis and equal to 0.57μ B for x = 0. In Np 0.5Pu 0.5B 2 and, in less degree in Np 0.7Pu 0.3B 2 and Np 0.33Pu 0.67B 2, magnetic fluctuations are detec ted.

  12. Crystallographic parameters of magnetic Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14−x}Co{sub x}B-type alloys determined using anomalous x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galego, E., E-mail: egalego@ipen.br; Serna, M.M.; Ramanathan, L.V.; Faria, R.N.

    2017-02-15

    Anomalous x-ray synchrotron diffraction was used to determine the crystallographic parameters of PrFeCoB-based magnetic alloys. The effect of cobalt concentration on the crystallographic parameters of the magnetically hard Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14−x}Co{sub x}B phase was studied. The results indicate that addition of cobalt has a marked effect on crystal structure. Variation of the c parameter decreased twice as much as the a parameter with increase in Co content. The positions of inequivalent atoms of the magnetically hard matrix phase ϕ in the Pr-based alloys were determined using Rietveld refinement. This permitted determination of the relative distance of each inequivalent atom from its nearest neighbors. Cobalt occupied the 16k{sub 2} site and Fe had a tendency to occupy the 8j{sub 2} sites located between the Kagomé layers. - Highlights: • Good magnetics properties can be achieved with addition of 4% and 8% Co. • Rietveld refinement is proposed for crystallographic parameters studies. • Co has preference to substitute Fe in 16k{sub 2} site and avoid the 8j{sub 2} site.

  13. Be I and Be II spectroscopy in divertor plasma relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R. P.; Seraydarian, R. P.

    2013-07-01

    Intensity ratios of various Be I and Be II lines measured in Be-seeded D and He plasmas in the PISCES-B linear divertor plasma simulator are compared with the corresponding ratios of the photon emissivity coefficient, PEC, calculated by ADAS. Agreement of measured intensity ratios with calculated PEC ratios is satisfactory within a factor of ˜2 for both Be I and Be II. It is proposed that a Be I line ratio of 234.8 nm/265.0 nm and a Be II line ratio of 467.3 nm/313.1 nm can be used to estimate the electron temperature, while a 265.0 nm/332.1 nm Be I line ratio is sensitive to the electron density. Further, S/XB values of a Be I line at 457.3 nm were experimentally determined from a ratio of the sputtered Be flux to the emission intensity. Measured values are systematically lower than calculated ADAS values, which may be explained by the increased sputtering yield of redeposited Be atoms.

  14. Be I and Be II spectroscopy in divertor plasma relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, D., E-mail: dnishijima@ferp.ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Doerner, R.P.; Seraydarian, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Intensity ratios of various Be I and Be II lines measured in Be-seeded D and He plasmas in the PISCES-B linear divertor plasma simulator are compared with the corresponding ratios of the photon emissivity coefficient, PEC, calculated by ADAS. Agreement of measured intensity ratios with calculated PEC ratios is satisfactory within a factor of ∼2 for both Be I and Be II. It is proposed that a Be I line ratio of 234.8 nm/265.0 nm and a Be II line ratio of 467.3 nm/313.1 nm can be used to estimate the electron temperature, while a 265.0 nm/332.1 nm Be I line ratio is sensitive to the electron density. Further, S/XB values of a Be I line at 457.3 nm were experimentally determined from a ratio of the sputtered Be flux to the emission intensity. Measured values are systematically lower than calculated ADAS values, which may be explained by the increased sputtering yield of redeposited Be atoms.

  15. [Comparison of dose calculation algorithms in stereotactic radiation therapy in lung].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Yuki; Araki, Fujio; Kanetake, Nagisa; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Tominaga, Hirofumi; Sakata, Jyunichi; Oono, Takeshi; Kouno, Tomohiro; Hioki, Kazunari

    2013-06-01

    Dose calculation algorithms in radiation treatment planning systems (RTPSs) play a crucial role in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the lung with heterogeneous media. This study investigated the performance and accuracy of dose calculation for three algorithms: analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA), pencil beam convolution (PBC) and Acuros XB (AXB) in Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems), by comparison against the Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm (VMC) in iPlan (BrainLab). The dose calculations were performed with clinical lung treatments under identical planning conditions, and the dose distributions and the dose volume histogram (DVH) were compared among algorithms. AAA underestimated the dose in the planning target volume (PTV) compared to VMC and AXB in most clinical plans. In contrast, PBC overestimated the PTV dose. AXB tended to slightly overestimate the PTV dose compared to VMC but the discrepancy was within 3%. The discrepancy in the PTV dose between VMC and AXB appears to be due to differences in physical material assignments, material voxelization methods, and an energy cut-off for electron interactions. The dose distributions in lung treatments varied significantly according to the calculation accuracy of the algorithms. VMC and AXB are better algorithms than AAA for SBRT.

  16. Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π0 production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e→p→→epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS. The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, −t and ϕ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and E¯T. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.

  17. Six Decades of Flight Research: An Annotated Bibliography of Technical Publications of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, 1946-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Titles, authors, report numbers, and abstracts are given for nearly 2900 unclassified and unrestricted technical reports and papers published from September 1946 to December 2006 by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and its predecessor organizations. These technical reports and papers describe and give the results of 60 years of flight research performed by the NACA and NASA, from the X-1 and other early X-airplanes, to the X-15, Space Shuttle, X-29 Forward Swept Wing, X-31, and X-43 aircraft. Some of the other research airplanes tested were the D-558, phase 1 and 2; M-2, HL-10 and X-24 lifting bodies; Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing F-8; XB-70; YF-12; AFTI F-111 TACT and MAW; F-15 HiDEC; F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and the NASA Landing Systems Research aircraft. The citations of reports and papers are listed in chronological order, with author and aircraft indices. In addition, in the appendices, citations of 270 contractor reports, more than 200 UCLA Flight System Research Center reports, nearly 200 Tech Briefs, 30 Dryden Historical Publications, and over 30 videotapes are included.

  18. Fifty Years of Flight Research: An Annotated Bibliography of Technical Publications of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, 1946-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.

    1999-01-01

    Titles, authors, report numbers, and abstracts are given for more than 2200 unclassified and unrestricted technical reports and papers published from September 1946 to December 1996 by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and its predecessor organizations. These technical reports and papers describe and give the results of 50 years of flight research performed by the NACA and NASA, from the X-1 and other early X-airplanes, to the X-15, Space Shuttle, X-29 Forward Swept Wing, and X-31 aircraft. Some of the other research airplanes tested were the D-558, phase 1 and 2; M-2, HL-10 and X-24 lifting bodies; Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing F-8; XB-70; YF-12; AFTI F-111 TACT and MAW; F-15 HiDEC; F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, and F-18 Systems Research Aircraft. The citations of reports and papers are listed in chronological order, with author and aircraft indices. In addition, in the appendices, citations of 233 contractor reports, more than 200 UCLA Flight System Research Center reports and 25 video tapes are included.

  19. Effect of 3-D magnetic fields on neutral particle fueling and exhaust in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Kurt; Kremeyer, Thierry; Waters, Ian; Schmitz, Oliver; Kirk, Andrew; Harrison, James

    2017-10-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is used to suppress edge localized modes but causes in many cases a density pump-out. At MAST, this particle pump out was found to be connected to an amplifying MHD plasma response. An analysis is presented on past MAST discharges to understand the effect of these RMPs on the neutral household and on changes in neutral fueling and exhaust during the pump out. A global, 0-D particle balance model was used to study the neutral dynamics and plasma confinement during shots with and without RMP application. Using the D α emission measured by filterscopes and a calibrated 1-D CCD camera, as well as S/XB coefficients determined by the edge plasma parameters, globally averaged ion confinement times were calculated. In L-mode, discharges with RMPs that caused an MHD response had a 15-20% decrease in confinement time but an increase in total recycling flux. The application of RMPs in H-mode caused either a decrease or no change in confinement, like those in L-mode, depending on the configuration of the RMPs and plasma response. A spectroscopically assisted Penning gauge is being prepared for the next campaign at MAST-U to extend this particle balance to study impurity exhaust with RMPs. This work was funded in part by the U.S. DoE under Grant DE-SC0012315.

  20. Electroproduction of the neutral pion off 4He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torayev, Bayram [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Deeply virtual exclusive processes offer a unique opportunity to study the internal structure of the nucleon and nuclei. The goal of this work is to extract the beam-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual coherent neutral pion electroproduction, e^4He to e'^4He'pi^0, using the CLAS detector in the experimental Hall B at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data were collected in 2009 with a 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam impinging on a 30 cm long, 6 atm Helium-4 gaseous target. In order to ensure that the process is coherent, a new Radial Time Projection Chamber was used to detect and identify low energy recoil a-particles. The Beam Spin Asymmetry in the coherent deep exclusive regime was measured at Q^2 = 1.50 GeV^2, xB = 0.18 and -t = 0.14 GeV^2. The measured asymmetry has an amplitude of 10%+/-5% and has the opposite sign compared the asymmetry measured for pi^0 production on the proton.

  1. A calibration-free formulation of the complementary relationship of evaporation for continental-scale hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Crago, Richard; Qualls, Russell

    2017-01-01

    An important scaling consideration is introduced into the formulation of the complementary relationship (CR) of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) by specifying the maximum possible evaporation rate (Epmax) of a small water body (or wet patch) as a result of adiabatic drying from the prevailing near-neutral atmospheric conditions. In dimensionless form the CR therefore becomes yB = f(Epmax-EpEpmax-EwxB) = f(X) = 2X2 - X3, where yB = ET/Ep, xB = Ew/Ep. Ew is the wet-environment evaporation rate as given by the Priestley-Taylor equation, Ep is the evaporation rate of the same small wet surface for which Epmax is specified and estimated by the Penman equation. With the help of North American Regional Reanalysis data, the CR this way yields better continental-scale performance than earlier, calibrated versions of it and is on par with current land surface model results, the latter requiring vegetation, soil information and soil moisture bookkeeping. Validation has been performed by Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model precipitation and United States Geological Survey runoff data. A novel approach is also introduced to calculate the value of the Priestley-Taylor parameter to be used with continental-scale data, making the new formulation of the CR completely calibration free.

  2. Evaluation of chromatographic columns packed with semi- and fully porous particles for benzimidazoles separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Lumbreras, Raquel; Sanz-Landaluze, Jon; Cámara, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of 15 benzimidazoles, including their main metabolites, using several C18 columns with standard or narrow-bore diameters and different particle size and type were evaluated. These commercial columns were selected because their differences could affect separation of benzimidazoles, and so they can be used as alternative columns. A simple screening method for the analysis of benzimidazole residues and their main metabolites was developed. First, the separation of benzimidazoles was optimized using a Kinetex C18 column; later, analytical performances of other columns using the above optimized conditions were compared and then individually re-optimized. Critical pairs resolution, analysis run time, column type and characteristics, and selectivity were considered for chromatographic columns comparison. Kinetex XB was selected because it provides the shortest analysis time and the best resolution of critical pairs. Using this column, the separation conditions were re-optimized using a factorial design. Separations obtained with the different columns tested can be applied to the analysis of specific benzimidazoles residues or other applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Time-resolved photon echoes from donor-bound excitons in ZnO epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kosarev, A. N.; Akimov, I. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Sadofev, S.; Puls, J.; Hoffmann, S. P.; Albert, M.; Meier, C.; Meier, T.; Bayer, M.

    2017-07-01

    The coherent optical response from 140 nm and 65 nm thick ZnO epitaxial layers is studied using four-wave-mixing spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution. Resonant excitation of neutral donor-bound excitons results in two-pulse and three-pulse photon echoes. For the donor-bound A exciton (D0XA ) at temperature of 1.8 K we evaluate optical coherence times T2=33 -50 ps corresponding to homogeneous line widths of 13 -19 μ eV , about two orders of magnitude smaller as compared with the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transitions. The coherent dynamics is determined mainly by the population decay with time T1=30 -40 ps, while pure dephasing is negligible. Temperature increase leads to a significant shortening of T2 due to interaction with acoustic phonons. In contrast, the loss of coherence of the donor-bound B exciton (D0XB ) is significantly faster (T2=3.6 ps ) and governed by pure dephasing processes.

  4. A multiwavelength study of SXP 1062, the long-period X-ray pulsar associated with a supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galán, A.; Oskinova, L. M.; Popov, S. B.; Haberl, F.; Kühnel, M.; Gallagher, J.; Schurch, M. P. E.; Guerrero, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    SXP 1062 is a Be X-ray binary (BeXB) located in the Small Magellanic Cloud. It hosts a long-period X-ray pulsar and is likely associated with the supernova remnant MCSNR J0127-7332. In this work we present a multiwavelength view on SXP 1062 in different luminosity regimes. We consider monitoring campaigns in optical (OGLE survey) and X-ray (Swift telescope). During these campaigns a tight coincidence of X-ray and optical outbursts is observed. We interpret this as typical Type I outbursts as often detected in BeXBs at periastron passage of the neutron star (NS). To study different X-ray luminosity regimes in depth, during the source quiescence we observed it with XMM-Newton while Chandra observations followed an X-ray outburst. Nearly simultaneously with Chandra observations in X-rays, in optical the RSS/SALT telescope obtained spectra of SXP 1062. On the basis of our multiwavelength campaign we propose a simple scenario where the disc of the Be star is observed face-on, while the orbit of the NS is inclined with respect to the disc. According to the model of quasi-spherical settling accretion our estimation of the magnetic field of the pulsar in SXP 1062 does not require an extremely strong magnetic field at the present time.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE LINEAR SYSTEM SOLVER APPLIED TO FAST DECOUPLED LOAD FLOW METHOD FOR CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafii

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of fast decoupled load flow computation using three linear system solver scheme. The full matrix version of the fast decoupled load flow based on XB methods used in this study. The numerical investigations are carried out on the small and large test systems. The execution time of small system such as IEEE 14, 30, and 57 are very fast, therefore the computation time can not be compared for these cases. Another cases IEEE 118, 300 and TNB 664 produced significant execution speedup. The superLU factorization sparse matrix solver has best performance and speedup of load flow solution as well as in contigency analysis. The invers full matrix solver can solved only for IEEE 118 bus test system in 3.715 second and for another cases take too long time. However for superLU factorization linear solver can solved all of test system in 7.832 second for a largest of test system. Therefore the superLU factorization linear solver can be a viable alternative applied in contingency analysis.

  6. Structure and energetics of bimetallic surface confined alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Roetter, Ralf T.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University (Germany); Gross, Axel [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Ulm University (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The atomic distribution in a number of A{sub x}B{sub 1-x}/B type surface alloys was determined by STM imaging with chemical contrast and statistically evaluated. Whereas in the systems Au{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111), Ag{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111), and Pd{sub x}Ru{sub 1-x}/Ru(0001) we find preferences for larger homoatomic aggregates, the atom distribution in Pt{sub x}Ru{sub 1-x}/Ru(0001) and Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111) is very close to a random one[1]. In Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111), our data show a small tendency towards clustering for x{sub Ag}<0.5, whereas at x{sub Ag}>0.5 this is reversed to a slight preference for heteroatomic neighborhoods. Based on these experimental results, we have derived effective cluster interaction energies for all surface alloys. These allow us to calculate phase diagrams for the surface alloys that we compare to predictions from theoretical work and to the behaviour of the corresponding bulk systems. We also discuss in how far the different atom distributions affect chemical and catalytic properties of the surface alloys.

  7. Exclusive π0 electroproduction at W>2  GeV with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Procureur, S.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Yurov, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2014-08-01

    Exclusive neutral-pion electroproduction (ep -> e'p'pi(0)) was measured at Jefferson Lab with a 5.75-GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d(4)sigma/dtdQ(2)dx(B)d phi(pi) and structure functions sigma(T) + sigma(L), sigma(TT), and sigma(LT) as functions of t were obtained over a wide range of Q(2) and x(B). The data are compared with Regge and handbag theoretical calculations. Analyses in both frameworks find that a large dominance of transverse processes is necessary to explain the experimental results. For the Regge analysis it is found that the inclusion of vector meson rescattering processes is necessary to bring the magnitude of the calculated and measured structure functions into rough agreement. In the handbag framework, there are two independent calculations, both of which appear to roughly explain the magnitude of the structure functions in terms of transversity generalized parton distributions.

  8. Measurement of transparency ratios for protons from short-range correlated pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O.; Hakobyan, H.; Shneor, R.; Piasetzky, E.; Weinstein, L. B.; Brooks, W. K.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Gilad, S.; Korover, I.; Beck, A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Arrington, J. R.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear transparency, Tp (A), is a measure of the average probability for a struck proton to escape the nucleus without significant re-interaction. Previously, nuclear transparencies were extracted for quasi-elastic A (e ,e‧ p) knockout of protons with momentum below the Fermi momentum, where the spectral functions are well known. In this Letter we extract a novel observable, the transparency ratio, Tp (A) /Tp(12 C), for knockout of high-missing-momentum protons from the breakup of short-range correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in Al, Fe and Pb nuclei relative to C. The ratios were measured at momentum transfer Q2 ⩾ 1.5(GeV /c) 2 and xB ⩾ 1.2 where the reaction is expected to be dominated by electron scattering from 2N-SRC. The transparency ratios of the knocked-out protons coming from 2N-SRC breakup are 20-30% lower than those of previous results for low missing momentum. They agree with Glauber calculations and agree with renormalization of the previously published transparencies as proposed by recent theoretical investigations. The new transparencies scale as A - 1 / 3, which is consistent with dominance of scattering from nucleons at the nuclear surface.

  9. Rosenbluth Separation of the π^{0} Electroproduction Cross Section Off the Neutron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouz, M; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Defurne, M; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Huber, G M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, Ho; Kang, Hy; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zana, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2017-06-02

    We report the first longitudinal-transverse separation of the deeply virtual exclusive π^{0} electroproduction cross section off the neutron and coherent deuteron. The corresponding four structure functions dσ_{L}/dt, dσ_{T}/dt, dσ_{LT}/dt, and dσ_{TT}/dt are extracted as a function of the momentum transfer to the recoil system at Q^{2}=1.75  GeV^{2} and x_{B}=0.36. The ed→edπ^{0} cross sections are found compatible with the small values expected from theoretical models. The en→enπ^{0} cross sections show a dominance from the response to transversely polarized photons, and are in good agreement with calculations based on the transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon. By combining these results with previous measurements of π^{0} electroproduction off the proton, we present a flavor decomposition of the u and d quark contributions to the cross section.

  10. Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π 0 production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V.; Joo, K.; Kim, W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Badui, R. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garc con, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.

    2017-05-01

    The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e→p→→epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, -t and Φ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and E¯T. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.

  11. Rosenbluth Separation of the π^{0} Electroproduction Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defurne, M; Mazouz, M; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Huber, G M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, Ho; Kang, Hy; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zana, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2016-12-23

    We present deeply virtual π^{0} electroproduction cross-section measurements at x_{B}=0.36 and three different Q^{2} values ranging from 1.5 to 2  GeV^{2}, obtained from Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E07-007. The Rosenbluth technique is used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component and, thus, is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Nonetheless, an indication of a nonzero longitudinal contribution is provided by the measured interference term σ_{LT}. Results are compared with several models based on the leading-twist approach of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models in which the scattering amplitude includes convolution terms of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. This experiment, together with previous extensive unseparated measurements, provides strong support to the exciting idea that transversity GPDs can be accessed via neutral pion electroproduction in the high-Q^{2} regime.

  12. Exclusive π0 electroproduction at W >2 GeV with CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Procureur, S.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Yurov, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    Exclusive neutral-pion electroproduction (ep→e'p'π0) was measured at Jefferson Lab with a 5.75-GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d4σ/dtdQ2dxBdϕπ and structure functions σT+ɛσL,σTT, and σLT as functions of t were obtained over a wide range of Q2 and xB. The data are compared with Regge and handbag theoretical calculations. Analyses in both frameworks find that a large dominance of transverse processes is necessary to explain the experimental results. For the Regge analysis it is found that the inclusion of vector meson rescattering processes is necessary to bring the magnitude of the calculated and measured structure functions into rough agreement. In the handbag framework, there are two independent calculations, both of which appear to roughly explain the magnitude of the structure functions in terms of transversity generalized parton distributions.

  13. Exclusive pi^0 electroproduction at W > 2 GeV with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedlinskiy, I; Kubarovsky, V; Niccolai, S; Stoler, P; Adhikari, K P; Anderson, M D; Pereira, S Anefalos; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bono, J; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D' Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J.D.; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moody, C I; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, E; Phelps, W; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Procureur, S; Puckett, A J.R.; Raue, B A; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Senderovich, I; Sharabian, Y G; Simonyan, A; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Tang, W; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Yurov, M; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2014-08-01

    Exclusive neutral-pion electroproduction (ep-->e'p'pi0) was measured at Jefferson Lab with a 5.75-GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d4sigma/dtdQ2dxBdphipi and structure functions sigmaT+epsilonsigmaL,sigmaTT and σLT as functions of t were obtained over a wide range of Q2 and xB. The data are compared with Regge and handbag theoretical calculations. Analyses in both frameworks find that a large dominance of transverse processes is necessary to explain the experimental results. For the Regge analysis it is found that the inclusion of vector meson rescattering processes is necessary to bring the magnitude of the calculated and measured structure functions into rough agreement. In the handbag framework, there are two independent calculations, both of which appear to roughly explain the magnitude of the structure functions in terms of transversity generalized parton distributions.

  14. Rosenbluth Separation of the π0 Electroproduction Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defurne, M.; Mazouz, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Desnault, C.; Deur, A.; El Fassi, L.; Ent, R.; Flay, D.; Friend, M.; Fuchey, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D.; Holmstrom, T.; Horn, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Iqbal, S.; Itard, F.; Kang, Ho.; Kang, Hy.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Magne, M.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nuruzzaman, N.; Paremuzyan, R.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Rashad, M. N. H.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Russo, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sperduto, M. L.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yao, H.; Ye, Z.; Zana, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We present deeply virtual π0 electroproduction cross-section measurements at xB=0.36 and three different Q2 values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV 2 , obtained from Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E07-007. The Rosenbluth technique is used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component and, thus, is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Nonetheless, an indication of a nonzero longitudinal contribution is provided by the measured interference term σL T. Results are compared with several models based on the leading-twist approach of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models in which the scattering amplitude includes convolution terms of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. This experiment, together with previous extensive unseparated measurements, provides strong support to the exciting idea that transversity GPDs can be accessed via neutral pion electroproduction in the high-Q2 regime.

  15. Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π0 production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V.; Joo, K.; Kim, W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Badui, R. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garc con, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.

    2017-05-01

    The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e → p → → epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, -t and ϕ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and EbarT. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.

  16. Rosenbluth Separation of the π0 Electroproduction Cross Section Off the Neutron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouz, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Defurne, M.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Desnault, C.; Deur, A.; El Fassi, L.; Ent, R.; Flay, D.; Friend, M.; Fuchey, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D.; Holmstrom, T.; Horn, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Iqbal, S.; Itard, F.; Kang, Ho.; Kang, Hy.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Magne, M.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nuruzzaman, N.; Paremuzyan, R.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Rashad, M. N. H.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Russo, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sperduto, M. L.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yao, H.; Ye, Z.; Zana, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    We report the first longitudinal-transverse separation of the deeply virtual exclusive π0 electroproduction cross section off the neutron and coherent deuteron. The corresponding four structure functions d σL/d t , d σT/d t , d σL T/d t , and d σT T/d t are extracted as a function of the momentum transfer to the recoil system at Q2=1.75 GeV2 and xB=0.36 . The e d →e d π0 cross sections are found compatible with the small values expected from theoretical models. The e n →e n π0 cross sections show a dominance from the response to transversely polarized photons, and are in good agreement with calculations based on the transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon. By combining these results with previous measurements of π0 electroproduction off the proton, we present a flavor decomposition of the u and d quark contributions to the cross section.

  17. Faraday effect in semimagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, P.I.; Savchuk, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the Faraday effect in a new class of materials -semimagnetic semiconductors (SS) have been received. Mechanisms of the giant Faraday effect in SS based on s, p-d exchange interaction of excitons, electrons and holes with magnetic ions have been discussed. Faraday rotation as a function of a radiation wavelength, magnetic component concentration, temperature, magnetic field intensity for crystals A 2 B 6 (Mn)A 2 x -1Mn xB 6 : and other SS (GaAs(Mn), CdP 2 (Mn),Pb 1-X2 )Mn x J 2 have been considered. We have attended to use FR for the study of a paramagnetic-spin glass transmission for determining the role of the relaxation effects with a participation of magnetic Mn 2+ ions, exitons, polarons in the direct and inverse Faraday effects. In addition the features of FR in thin films of SS and in spin superlattices have been discussed. Finally, we have analysed possibilities of applying the SS Faraday effect for developing magnetooptic devices (optical isolators and fibre optic sensors of magnetic fields)

  18. Pb-free Radiation Shielding Glass Using Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharin Rachniyom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Pb-free shielding glass samples were prepared by the melt quenching technique using subbituminous fly ash (SFA composed of xBi2O3 : (60-xB2O3 : 10Na2O : 30SFA (where x = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 by wt%. The samples were investigated for their physical and radiation shielding properties. The density and hardness were measured. The results showed that the density increased with the increase of Bi2O3 content. The highest value of hardness was observed for glass sample with 30 wt% of Bi2O3 concentration. The samples were investigated under 662 keV gamma ray and the results were compared with theoretical calculations. The values of the mass attenuation coefficient (μm, the atomic cross section (σe and the effective atomic number (Zeff were found to increase with an increase of the Bi2O3 concentration and were in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The best results for the half-value layer (HVL were observed in the sample with 35 wt% of Bi2O3 concentration, better than the values of barite concrete. These results demonstrate the viability of using coal fly ash waste for radiation shielding glass without PbO in the glass matrices.

  19. Effect of molybdenum on gamma ray shielding and structural properties of PbO-B2O3 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Mridula; Singh, K. J.; Kaur, Kulwinder

    2018-04-01

    The present study is aimed at developing new shielding materials for gamma ray shielding applications. Transparent glasses of the composition xMoO3-0.7PbO-(0.3-x)B2O3 where x= 0.03 to 0. 06 (mole fraction) have been prepared by using melt-quenchingtechnique. Gamma ray shielding properties have been evaluated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient and half value layer parameter at photon energies 662 and 1173 keV. These shielding parameters are also compared with standard shielding material`concretes'. It has been found that prepared glass system shows better shielding properties than barite and ordinary concretes proving the possibility of its usage as an alternate to conventional concrete for gamma ray shielding applications. The density, molar volume, X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform InfraRed and Raman studies have been performed to study the structural properties of the glass system. It has been analyzed from FTIR and Raman studies that bridging oxygens increase with the decrease of MoO3 content in the glass composition.

  20. Improvement of BaO:B2O3:Fly ash glasses: Radiation shielding, physical and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuscharoen, S.; Kaewkhao, J.; Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Limsuwan, P.; Chewpraditkul, W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BaO:B 2 O 3 :Fly ash glasses have been improved in radiation Shielding, physical and optical properties. ► The visible light transmission of RHA glass was better than SiO 2 . ► At all BaO concentrations, exhibited the better half values layer in comparison window and ordinary concrete. -- Abstract: Rice husk ash glass (RHA-glass) of composition xBaO:(80 − x)B 2 O 3 :20RHA where x = 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 wt.% have been prepared using melt-quenching method and investigated on their optical, physical and gamma-rays shielding properties. The densities of these glass samples were increased with increasing of BaO content, due to higher molecular weight of BaO comparing with B 2 O 3 . The molar volume of these glasses was increased with increasing content of BaO; BaO acts as modifier to increase the loose packing. The visible light transmission of RHA glass was better than SiO 2 glass prepared in same formula and preparing condition. The experimental values of gamma ray shielding properties such as; mass attenuation coefficients, atomic cross sections and effective atomic numbers, were found in good agreement with the theoretical values as calculated from WinXCom. Moreover the glass system at all BaO concentrations, exhibited the better half values layer in comparison window and ordinary concrete.

  1. Gamma-ray shielding effect of Gd3+ doped lead barium borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummathi, Harshitha; Naveen Kumar, P.; Vedavathi T., C.; Abhiram, J.; Rajaramakrishna, R.

    2018-05-01

    The glasses of the batch xPbO: 10BaO: (90-x)B2O3: 0.2Gd2O3 (x = 40,45,50 mol %) were prepared by melt-quench technique. The work emphasizes on gamma ray shielding effect on doped lead glasses. The role of Boron is significant as it acts as better neutron attenuator as compared with any other materials, as the thermal neutron cross-sections are high for Gadolinium, 0.2 mol% is chosen as the optimum concentration for this matrix, as higher the concentration may lead to further increase as it produces secondary γ rays due to inelastic neutron scattering. Shielding effects were studied using Sodium Iodide (NaI) - Scintillation Gamma ray spectrometer. It was found that at higher concentration of lead oxide (PbO) in the matrix, higher the attenuation which can be co-related with density. Infra-red (I.R.) spectra reveals that the conversion of Lose triangles to tight tetrahedral structure results in enhancement of shielding properties. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (D.S.C.) study also reveals that the increase in glass forming range increases the stability which in-turn results in inter-conversion of BO3 to BO4 units such that the density of glass increases with increase in PbO content, resulting in much stable and efficient gamma ray shielding glasses.

  2. Development of BaO-ZnO-B2O3 glasses as a radiation shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.; Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Tuscharoen, S.; Kothan, S.; Tungjai, M.; Kaewjaeng, S.; Sarachai, S.; Limsuwan, P.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of the BaO on the optical, physical and radiation shielding properties of the xBaO: 20ZnO: (80-x)B2O3, where x=5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mol%, were investigated. The glasses were developed by the conventional melt-quenching technique at 1400 °C with high purity chemicals of H3BO3, ZnO, and BaSO4. The optical transparency of the glasses indicated that the glasses samples were high, as observed by visual inspections. The mass attenuation coefficients (μm), the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and the effective electron densities (Ne) were increased with the increase of BaO concentrations, and the decrease of gamma-ray energy. The developed glass samples were investigated and compared with the shielding concretes and glasses in terms of half value layer (HVL). The overall results demonstrated that the developed glasses had good shielding properties, and highly practical potentials in the environmental friendly radiation shielding materials without an additional of Pb.

  3. Magnetic field annealing for improved creep resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Nicholson, Don M.; Rios, Orlando; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-12-22

    The method provides heat-resistant chromia- or alumina-forming Fe-, Fe(Ni), Ni(Fe), or Ni-based alloys having improved creep resistance. A precursor is provided containing preselected constituents of a chromia- or alumina-forming Fe-, Fe(Ni), Ni(Fe), or Ni-based alloy, at least one of the constituents for forming a nanoscale precipitate MaXb where M is Cr, Nb, Ti, V, Zr, or Hf, individually and in combination, and X is C, N, O, B, individually and in combination, a=1 to 23 and b=1 to 6. The precursor is annealed at a temperature of 1000-1500.degree. C. for 1-48 h in the presence of a magnetic field of at least 5 Tesla to enhance supersaturation of the M.sub.aX.sub.b constituents in the annealed precursor. This forms nanoscale M.sub.aX.sub.b precipitates for improved creep resistance when the alloy is used at service temperatures of 500-1000.degree. C. Alloys having improved creep resistance are also disclosed.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H2X-3R4 (Canada); Servillat, Mathieu [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot), CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Webb, Natalie A., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-20

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter-present in the core of NSs-is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R{sub NS}, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of {approx}10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M{sub NS}>0.5 M{sub Sun }). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R{sub NS} value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R{sub NS}, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R{sub NS}=9.1{sup +1.3}{sub -1.5} km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R{sub NS} equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  5. Where Are the r-modes? Chandra Observations of Millisecond Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod [Astrophysics Science Division and Joint Space-Science Institute, NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present the results of Chandra observations of two non-accreting millisecond pulsars, PSRs J1640+2224 (J1640) and J1709+2313 (J1709), with low inferred magnetic fields and spin-down rates in order to constrain their surface temperatures, obtain limits on the amplitude of unstable r -modes in them, and make comparisons with similar limits obtained for a sample of accreting low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) neutron stars. We detect both pulsars in the X-ray band for the first time. They are faint, with inferred soft X-ray fluxes (0.3–3 keV) of ≈6 × 10{sup −15} and 3 × 10{sup −15} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} for J1640 and J1709, respectively. Spectral analysis assuming hydrogen atmosphere emission gives global effective temperature upper limits (90% confidence) of 3.3–4.3 × 10{sup 5} K for J1640 and 3.6–4.7 × 10{sup 5} K for J1709, where the low end of the range corresponds to canonical neutron stars ( M = 1.4 M {sub ⊙}), and the upper end corresponds to higher-mass stars ( M = 2.21 M {sub ⊙}). Under the assumption that r -mode heating provides the thermal support, we obtain dimensionless r -mode amplitude upper limits of 3.2–4.8 × 10{sup −8} and 1.8–2.8 × 10{sup −7} for J1640 and J1709, respectively, where again the low end of the range corresponds to lower-mass, canonical neutron stars ( M = 1.4 M {sub ⊙}). These limits are about an order of magnitude lower than those we derived previously for a sample of LMXBs, except for the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658, which has a comparable amplitude limit to J1640 and J1709.

  6. 100y DASCH Search for historical outbursts of Black Hole Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Miller, George; Gomez, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Black Hole Low mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs) are all transients, although several (e.g. GRS1915+109 and GX339-4) are quasi-persistent. All of the now 22 dynamically confirmed BH-LMXBs were discovered by their luminous outbursts, reaching Lx ~10^37 ergs/s, with outburst durations of typically ~1-3 months. These systems then (with few exceptions) return to a deep quiescent state, with Lx reduced by factors ~10^5-6 and hard X-ray spectra. The X-ray outbursts are accompanied by optical outbursts (if not absorbed by Galactic extinction) with ~6-9 magnitude increases and similar lightcurve shapes and durations as the X-ray (discovery) outburst. Prior to this work, only 3 BH-LMXBs have had historical (before the X-ray discovery) outbursts found in the archival data: A0620-00, the first BH-LMXB to be so identified, V404 Cyg (discoverd as "Nova Cyg" in 1938 and regarded as a classical nova), and V4641-Sgr which was given its variable star name when first noted in 1975. We report on the historical outbursts now discovered from the DASCH (Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard) data from scanning and digitizing the now ~210,000 glass plates in the northern Galactic Hemisphere. This was one of the primary motivations for the DASCH project: to use the detection (or lack threof) of historic outbursts to measure or constrain the Duty Cycle of the accreting black holes in these systems. This, in turn, allows the total population of BH-LMXBs to be estimated and compared with that for the very similar systems containing neutron stars as the accretor (NS-LMXBs). Whereas the ratio of BHs/NSs from stellar evolution and IMFs is expected to be <<1, the DASCH results on half the sky point to an excess of BH-LMXBs. This must constrain the formation process for these systems, of importance for understanding both BH formation and compact binary evolution.

  7. Statistical properties of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Chen, L.; Zhang, C. M.; Lei, Y. J.; Qu, J. L.

    2014-02-01

    We collect the data of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) published before 2012 from 26 neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) sources, then we analyze the centroid frequency (ν) distribution of twin kHz QPOs (lower frequency ν_1 and upper frequency ν_2) both for Atoll and Z sources. For the data without shift-and-add, we find that Atoll and Z sources show different distributions of ν_1, ν_2 and ν_2/ν_1, but the same distribution of Δν (difference of twin kHz QPOs), which indicates that twin kHz QPOs may share the common properties of LXMBs and have the same physical origins. The distribution of Δν is quite different from a constant value, so is ν_2/ν_1 from a constant ratio. The weighted mean values and maxima of ν_1 and ν_2 in Atoll sources are slightly higher than those in Z sources. We also find that shift-and-add technique can reconstruct the distributions of ν_1 and Δν. The K-S test results of ν_1 and Δν between Atoll and Z sources from data with shift-and-add are quite different from those without it, and we think that this may be caused by the selection biases of the sample. We also study the properties of the quality factor (Q) and the root-mean-squared (rms) amplitude of 4U 0614+09 with data from the two observational methods, but the errors are too big to make a robust conclusion. The NS spin frequency (ν_s) distribution of 28 NS-LMXBs show a bigger mean value (˜ 408 Hz) than that (˜ 281 Hz) of the radio binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs), which may be due to the lack of the spin detections from Z sources (systematically lower than 281 Hz). Furthermore, on the relations between the kHz QPOs and NS spin frequency ν_s, we find the approximate correlations of the mean values of Δν with NS spin and its half, respectively.

  8. Nicotinic receptor activation contrasts pathophysiological bursting and neurodegeneration evoked by glutamate uptake block on rat hypoglossal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Silvia; Tortora, Maria; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    facilitated burst emergence in non-burster cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited excitatory transmission and enhanced synaptic inhibition. Strong neuroprotection by nicotine prevented the HM loss observed after 4 h of TBOA exposure. This neuroprotective action was due to suppression of downstream effectors of neurotoxicity such as increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, impaired energy metabolism and upregulated genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, HMs surviving TBOA toxicity often expressed UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, a key element in repair of misfolded proteins: this phenomenon was absent after nicotine application, indicative of ER stress prevention. Our results suggest nAChRs to be potential targets for inhibiting excitotoxic damage of motoneurons at an early stage of the neurodegenerative process. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  9. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M. [Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J.; Forbrich, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Covey, K. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M.; Bouy, H. [Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Terebey, S., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ∼35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ∼10′ × ∼20′ area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded spectral energy distributions (SEDs) (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10–90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5] > 0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1–0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be “dippers,” where texture in the disk occults the central star, and 11 likely to be “bursters,” where accretion instabilities create brightness bursts. There are 39 objects that have significant trends in [3.6]–[4.5] color over the campaign, about evenly divided between redder-when-fainter (consistent with extinction variations) and bluer-when-fainter. About a third of the 17 Class 0 and/or jet-driving sources from the literature are variable over the YSOVAR campaign, and a larger fraction (∼half) are variable between the YSOVAR campaign and the cryogenic-era Spitzer observations (6–7 years), perhaps because it takes time for the envelope to respond to changes in the central source. The NGC 1333 brown dwarfs do not stand out from the stellar light curves in any way except there is a much larger fraction of periodic objects (∼60% of variable brown dwarfs are periodic, compared to ∼30% of the variables overall)

  10. The characteristics of mine explosion injury of wading in shoal: A study on an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the characteristics and mechanism of mine blast injury that wading in shoal of different depths through an animal model. Methods Ninety-six healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.19±0.12kg were randomly divided into land group (n=16, limb wading group (n=16, the water depth reaching up the middle of the thighs of rabbits, and chest wading group (n=16, the water depth reaching up the thoracic xiphoid, stress test group (n=30, fake injury group (n=18. Punctiform burster was used to simulate landmine. Electric ignited the simulated mine away, causing landmine explosion injury to rabbits' one-sided hind limbs in upright state. High-speed photography was used to observe the movement of water accompanying the simulated mine explosion. Arterial blood serum markers of myocardial injury (CK-MB, cTnI and nerve injury (MBP, NSE were detected before injury, and 3, 6 and 12h after injury, and echocardiography, electrocardiography, CT, DSA and other examinations were implemented at the same time. Survival animals were killed 12h after injury for anatomy to record their injuries to the limbs and distant organs. The histopathological examination was done to define the injury characteristics further. Results Feet and distal tibia were broken, and closed femoral fractures and arterial damage were often found away from the stump in limb wading group. This type of injury was different from the mop-like tearing tissue in the land group. Chest, abdominal organs and the brain, spinal cord injury in wading group were more severe than those in land group. There were higher incidences of chest, abdominal organs and spinal cord injury in chest wading Group. Conclusion The energy transfer of underwater explosion is affected by water depth and limbs or trunk mutually, which is an important mechanism of the complex and serious injuries in the wading group. The wading depth is an important factor affecting severity of the injury. Based on

  11. NuSTAR OBSERVATION OF A TYPE I X-RAY BURST FROM GRS 1741.9-2853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 10 34  erg s –1 on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 10 35  erg s –1 in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H mass fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M ☉ , we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M ☉

  12. NICER Eyes on Bursting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    What happens to a neutron stars accretion disk when its surface briefly explodes? A new instrument recently deployed at the International Space Station (ISS) is now watching bursts from neutron stars and reporting back.Deploying a New X-Ray MissionLaunch of NICER aboard a Falcon 9 rocket in June 2017. [NASA/Tony Gray]In early June of 2017, a SpaceX Dragon capsule on a Falcon 9 rocket launched on a resupply mission to the ISS. The pressurized interior of the Dragon contained the usual manifest of crew supplies, spacewalk equipment, and vehicle hardware. But the unpressurized trunk of the capsule held something a little different: the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER).In the two weeks following launch, NICER was extracted from the SpaceX Dragon capsule and installed on the ISS. And by the end of the month, the instrument was already collecting its first data set: observations of a bright X-ray burst from Aql X-1, a neutron star accreting matter from a low-mass binary companion.Impact of BurstsNICERs goal is to provide a new view of neutron-star physics at X-ray energies of 0.212 keV a window that allows us to explore bursts of energy that neutron stars sometimes emit from their surfaces.Artists impression of an X-ray binary, in which a compact object accretes material from a companion star. [ESA/NASA/Felix Mirabel]In X-ray burster systems, hydrogen- and helium-rich material from a low-mass companion star piles up in an accretion disk around the neutron star. This material slowly funnels onto the neutron stars surface, forming a layer that gravitationally compresses and eventually becomes so dense and hot that runaway nuclear fusion ignites.Within seconds, the layer of material is burned up, producing a burst of emission from the neutron star that outshines even the inner regions of the hot accretion disk. Then more material funnels onto the neutron star and the process begins again.Though we have a good picture of the physics that causes these bursts

  13. Evaluation of the sustainability of road drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diez, Iván; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2017-04-01

    Water is the most erosive agent that exists on the linear structures, because they are constantly subjected to outdoor condition like irregular infiltration, frosts and different rain intensities. Another variables that highly influence in the entire lifetime of a natural drainage system are the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, the soil, the vegetation cover and the design. All this factors are affecting the vulnerability of the clearings and embankments, by wearing away the weakest materials which surround the roads or train rails, producing erosion and very bumpy surfaces. The result is that the original pattern, developped to disminished the lost of soil, is not properly working and it cannot eliminate water, with the consequence destruction of the linear structure after several rainfall periods, and the accumulation of material down slope. The propose of this research focuses on analysing the drainage systems used in spanish roads and railways lines. For this purpose, a revision of the literature has been done, and the main drainage solutions have been recovered, carrying out an evaluation of them from an environmental point of view. This procedure has been requested by several authors in the past (Nwa, E.U. & Twocock, J.G., 1969; Goulter, I.C., 1992), together with the need of designing a more sustainable drainage system. The final objective of this complete revision is to compare objetively the designs to valuate them in order to develop a new drainage patter which minimize the erosion, increasing the durability and effectiveness of the drainage system. For this purpose, it is neccesary to assure that all the systems will be compare under similar parameters of flow rate, vegetation, substrate, lenght, slope and total section. Only the channels pattern and water distribution will change. The analysis has been done following Liu, H. & Zhu, X.B., (2012), who pointed out that the main parameters to take into account to select a road drainage

  14. Formal representation of complex SNOMED CT expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markó Kornél

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Definitory expressions about clinical procedures, findings and diseases constitute a major benefit of a formally founded clinical reference terminology which is ontologically sound and suited for formal reasoning. SNOMED CT claims to support formal reasoning by description-logic based concept definitions. Methods On the basis of formal ontology criteria we analyze complex SNOMED CT concepts, such as "Concussion of Brain with(out Loss of Consciousness", using alternatively full first order logics and the description logic ℰℒ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaWenfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnHbqeg0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1aaceaGae8hmHuKae8NeHWeaaa@37B1@. Results Typical complex SNOMED CT concepts, including negations or not, can be expressed in full first-order logics. Negations cannot be properly expressed in the description logic ℰℒ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaWenfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnHbqeg0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1aaceaGae8hmHuKae8NeHWeaaa@37B1@ underlying SNOMED CT. All concepts concepts the meaning of which implies a temporal scope may be subject to diverging interpretations, which are often unclear in SNOMED CT as their contextual determinants are not made explicit. Conclusion The description of complex medical occurrents is ambiguous, as the same situations can be described as (i a complex occurrent C that has A and B as temporal parts, (ii a simple occurrent A' defined as a kind of A followed by some B, or (iii a simple occurrent B' defined as a kind of B preceded by some A. As negative statements in SNOMED CT cannot be exactly represented without

  15. Composição corporal e exigências líquidas e dietéticas de macroelementos minerais de bovinos F1 Limousin x Nelore não-castrados Body composition and net and dietary macrominerals requirements of F1 Limousin x Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mattos Veloso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 50 novilhos F1 Limousin x Nelore inteiros, alocados em dez tratamentos, com cinco níveis de concentrado (25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75% e duas formas de balanceamento protéico da dieta (uma isoprotéica com 12% de proteína bruta [PB] e outra variando proteína com energia. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de capim-Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon. Após o abate, todas as partes do corpo do animal foram pesadas e amostradas. As amostras foram secas, pré-desengorduradas com éter, moídas e foram determinados os teores de macroelementos minerais. O conteúdo corporal de Ca, P, Na, K e Mg foi determinado em função das concentrações destes nas várias partes do corpo. O conteúdo de macroelementos minerais retidos no corpo foi estimado por meio de equações de regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo corporal dos macroelementos minerais em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. As exigências líquidas dos macroelementos minerais, para ganho de 1 kg de PCVZ, foram obtidas utilizando a equação Y' = b. 10ª. Xb-1, sendo a e b o intercepto e o coeficiente de regressão, respectivamente, das equações de predição dos conteúdos corporais dos macroelementos minerais. Houve diminuição nas concentrações dos cinco macroelementos estudados no corpo vazio e no ganho de corpo vazio, com a elevação do peso vivo. As relações g Ca/100 g de proteína retida e g P/100 g de proteína retida foram iguais a 8,70 e 3,46, respectivamente.Fifty F1 Limousin x Nellore bulls were allotted to ten treatments, with five concentrate levels (25; 37.5; 50; 62.5 e 75% and two diet protein balance methods (one isoprotein and the other changing protein as diet energy changed. The roughage used was Coastcross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon. After the slaughter, all animal body parts were weighted and sampled. The samples were dried, most of the fat was extracted with ether, grinded, and the concentrations of macrominerals were determined. Ca, P, Na, K

  16. Body composition and net and dietary macrominerals requirements of Nellore steers under grazing Composição corporal e exigências líquidas e dietéticas de macrominerais de bovinos Nelore castrados em pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Visintin Silva de Almeida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objective of determining the macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K and Na requirements of Nellore steers under grazing. Twenty four Nellore steers (371 ± 14 kg of BW and 26 mo old were used. Four steers were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (reference group, serving as a reference in subsequent study. The remaining 20 animals were weighed and distributed into a completely randomized design with four supplementation levels offer: 0.0 (mineral mixture - control, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% of BW, with five replications. The supplements, based on ground corn, soybean meal and/or urea, were previously balanced to achieve an average daily gain of 350, 650 and 850g, respectively, for the different supplementation levels offer. The contents of macrominerals retained in the animal body were determined by regression equations of the macrominerals body content logarithm in function of the empty body weight logarithm (EBW. Net macrominerals requirements for a gain of 1kg of EBW were obtained using the equation Y'= b.10ª.Xb-1, with a and b, respectively, the intercept and the regression coefficient of the prediction equations of macrominerals in the animal body contents for each macromineral considered. The concentrations of all macrominerals, in the empty body weight and gain of the empty body weight, decreased with the increase in the body weight. Total calcium and phosphorus dietary requirements are higher than those recommended in the literature.Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de macrominerais (Ca, P, Mg, K e Na de bovinos Nelore castrados sob pastejo, foi conduzido um experimento com 24 novilhos da raça Nelore, castrados, com peso inicial de 371 ± 14 kg e 26 meses de idade. Quatro novilhos foram abatidos no início do experimento (grupo referência para servir de referência nos estudos subsequentes. Os animais restantes (20 foram pesados e distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com

  17. Exigências nutricionais de zebuínos: minerais Nutritional requirements of zebu cattle: minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências dos macroelementos minerais (Ca, P, Mg, K e Na de zebuínos, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, utilizando-se 16 novilhos castrados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 270 kg, mantidos em confinamento. Quatro animais foram abatidos, após o período de adaptação, para servirem como referência, e os doze restantes foram distribuídos em três tratamentos com diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas (5, 35 e 65%, na base da matéria seca (MS total, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As dietas foram formuladas de forma a serem isoprotéicas. O volumoso foi constituído de pré-secado de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.. Os conteúdos de macroelementos minerais retidos no corpo foram estimados por meio de equações de regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo corporal dos macroelementos minerais, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. As exigências líquidas dos macroelementos minerais, para ganho de 1 kg de PCVZ, foram obtidas utilizando-se a equação Y' = b.10ª. Xb-1, sendo a e b o intercepto e o coeficiente de regressão, respectivamente, das equações de predição dos conteúdos corporais de cada macroelemento mineral considerado. Verificou-se diminuição nas concentrações de todos os macroelementos minerais estudados, no corpo vazio e no ganho de corpo vazio, com a elevação do peso vivo. As relações obtidas para g Ca/100g de proteína retida e g P/100 g de proteína retida foram, respectivamente, 10,92 e 5,26.With the objective to determine the macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K requirements of zebu cattle, a trial involving sixteen zebu steers with initial live weight of 270 kg was conducted. Four steers were slaughtered after the adaptation period of the trial, performing the reference group, and the remaining were uniformly allotted to a

  18. Fast index based algorithms and software for matching position specific scoring matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homann Robert

    2006-08-01

    XatLxBI9gBamrtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvtyaeHbnfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaWaaeGaeaaakeaaimaacqWFaeFqaaa@3821@|m + m - 1, where m is the length of the PSSM and A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBamrtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvtyaeHbnfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaWaaeGaeaaakeaaimaacqWFaeFqaaa@3821@ a finite alphabet. In practice, ESAsearch shows superior performance over the most widely used programs, especially for DNA sequences. The new algorithm for accurate on-the-fly calculations of thresholds has the potential to replace formerly used approximation approaches. Beyond the algorithmic contributions, we provide a robust, well documented, and easy to use software package, implementing the ideas and algorithms presented in this manuscript.

  19. Complete probabilistic analysis of RNA shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voß Björn

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soon after the first algorithms for RNA folding became available, it was recognised that the prediction of only one energetically optimal structure is insufficient to achieve reliable results. An in-depth analysis of the folding space as a whole appeared necessary to deduce the structural properties of a given RNA molecule reliably. Folding space analysis comprises various methods such as suboptimal folding, computation of base pair probabilities, sampling procedures and abstract shape analysis. Common to many approaches is the idea of partitioning the folding space into classes of structures, for which certain properties can be derived. Results In this paper we extend the approach of abstract shape analysis. We show how to compute the accumulated probabilities of all structures that share the same shape. While this implies a complete (non-heuristic analysis of the folding space, the computational effort depends only on the size of the shape space, which is much smaller. This approach has been integrated into the tool RNAshapes, and we apply it to various RNAs. Conclusion Analyses of conformational switches show the existence of two shapes with probabilities approximately 23 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaadaWcaaqaaiabikdaYaqaaiabiodaZaaaaaa@2EA2@ vs. 13 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaadaWcaaqaaiabigdaXaqaaiabiodaZaaaaaa@2EA0@, whereas the analysis of a microRNA precursor reveals one shape with a probability near to 1.0. Furthermore, it is shown that a shape can outperform an energetically more favourable one by

  20. Development of an in-situ diagnostic for the measurement of the hydrogen content of amorphous hydrocarbon layers in fusion devices; Entwicklung einer In-situ-Messmethode zur Bestimmung des Wasserstoffgehalts amorpher Kohlenwasserstoffschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrek, F.

    2008-07-15

    A diagnostic method, the laser-induced thermal desorption spectroscopy (LDS), is developed to measure in situ the hydrogen inventory in the surface of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments. Its capabilities will be demonstrated in TEXTOR. In LDS, during the plasma discharge a laser beam is used to heat a spot on a surface close to the plasma to a temperature of 1400 to 2100 K to a depth of 100 {mu}m. Trapped hydrogen will be released into the plasma where it emits line radiation. The emitted H{sub a}-light is quantitatively measured. The amount of released hydrogen is calculated from the intensity of this emission using conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff}. The laser light (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) is conducted via light fibres. At TEXTOR, a 5 mm{sup 2} sized homogeneous laser spot is created with a pulse duration of 1.5 ms, and an Energy of 5 J, typically. Below the laser spot a volume of at most 1 mm{sup 3} is desorbed. The generated temperature is calculated numerically and indirectly deduced from surface changings. Depending on the conditions during the layer formation the hydrogen content of the hydrocarbon layer will vary and different fractions of the released molecules (H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) are created during the laser heating. The release of atomic hydrogen by laser desorption was not found. The emitted light is measured by means of narrow-band interference filters and a CCD-camera. The fraction of the light emission which lies outside the observation volume is estimated using simulations of the emission by the neutral gas transport Monte Carlo code EIRENE for each molecular fraction. Conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff} were measured in various reference plasmas (T{sub e}=22-30 eV, n{sub e}=1-11 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} and T{sub e}=50-74 eV, n{sub e}=1-5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) by desorbing prepared graphite samples which release a known amount of hydrogen with a known molecular distribution. LDS measurements were carried out in TEXTOR at