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Sample records for burster gs 1826-238

  1. DIAGNOSING THE BURST INFLUENCE ON ACCRETION IN THE CLOCKED BURSTER GS 1826-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Long; Zhang, Shu; Chen, YuPeng; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Chang, Zhi [Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China); Torres, Diego F. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), E-08010 Barcelona (Spain); Kretschmar, Peter; Kuulkers, Erik [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, Villanueva de la Cañada (Madrid) (Spain); Li, Jian [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC–IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n E-08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-10

    Type I X-ray bursts on the surface of a neutron star are a unique probe into accretion in X-ray binary systems. However, we know little about the feedback of the burst emission on accretion. Hard X-ray shortages and enhancements of the persistent emission at soft X-rays have been observed. To put these findings in context with the aim of understanding the possible mechanism underneath, we investigated 68 bursts seen by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from the clocked burster GS 1826-238. We diagnosed jointly the burst influence of both soft and hard X-rays, and we found that the observations can be described by the CompTT model with variable normalization, electron temperature, and optical depth. Putting these results in a scenario of coronal Compton cooling via the burst emission would lead to a shortage of cooling power, which may suggest that additional considerations, like the influence of the burst on corona formation, should be accounted for as well.

  2. Hard X-ray Tail Discovered in the Clocked Burster GS 1826-238

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, James; Roques, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The LMXB NS GS 1826-238 was discovered by Ginga in 1988 September. Due to the presence of quasi-periodicity in the type I X-ray burst rate, the source has been a frequent target of X-ray observations for almost 30 years. Though the bursts were too soft to be detected by INTEGRAL/SPI, the persistent emission from GS 1826-238 was detected over 150 keV during the ~10 years of observations. Spectral analysis found a significant high-energy excess above a Comptonization model that is well fit by a power law, indicating an additional spectral component. Most previously reported spectra with hard tails in LMXB NS have had an electron temperature of a few keV and a hard tail dominating above ~50 keV with an index of \\Gamma ~ 2-3. GS 1826-238 was found to have a markedly different spectrum with $ kT_e \\sim 20 $ keV and a hard tail dominating above ~150 keV with an index of \\Gamma ~ 1.8, more similar to BHXRB. We report on our search for long-term spectral variability over the 25-370 keV energy range and on a compariso...

  3. Observations of Type i X-Ray Bursts from GS 1826-238 with RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Walter

    Type I X-ray bursts are the result of thermonuclear flashes on the surface of accreting neutron stars. The spectral lines which are expected in the X-ray spectra of the bursts will allow for a direct measurement of the gravitational redshift from the surface of the neutron stars (one of the holy grails in physics). XMM-Newton has the potential of detecting such lines. We have been awarded 200 ksec observations with XMM-Newton of the X-ray burster GS 1826-238. During this time we expect to observe ten X-ray bursts and to accumulate about 40,000 high-spectral resolution burst counts with the RGS, and roughly 2 Mcounts with EPIC-PN. We are requesting simultaneous observations with RXTE to obtain essential information about the underlying continuum spectrum.

  4. Bursts from GS 1826-238 a clocked thermonuclear flashes generator

    CERN Document Server

    Ubertini, P; Cocchi, M; Natalucci, L; Heise, J; Müller, J M; in 't Zand, J J M

    1999-01-01

    The transient X-ray source GS 1826-238 was monitored during five different observing periods between August 1996 and October 1998 with the BeppoSAX Wide Field Camera instrument in the framework of a deep observation of the Galactic Center region. A first detection of X-ray bursts from this source occurred, ruling out its previously suggested black hole candidacy and strongly suggesting the compact object to be a weakly magnetized neutron star. During the 2.5 years of monitoring, corresponding to ~2.0 Ms observing time, 70 bursts were detected from the source. We here report a quasi-periodicity of 5.76 h in the burst occurrence time which is present during all observations. This is the first example of quasi-periodic bursting over a period of years. It is in line with the history of a rather constant flux since the turn on in 1988 and points to a very stable accretion.

  5. The hard X-ray shortages prompted by the clock bursts in GS 1826--238

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Ji; YuPeng, Chen; Shuang-Nan, Zhang; Diego, Torres F; Peter, Kretschmar; Jian, Li

    2013-01-01

    We report on a study of GS 1826--238 using all available {\\it RXTE} observations, concentrating on the behavior of the hard X-rays during type-I bursts. We find a hard X-ray shortage at 30--50 keV promoted by the shower of soft X-rays coming from type-I bursts. This shortage happens with a time delay after the peak of the soft flux of 3.6 $\\pm$ 1.2 seconds.The behavior of hard X-rays during bursts indicates cooling and reheating of the corona, during which a large amount of energy is required. We speculate that this energy originates from the feedback of the type-I bursts to the accretion process, resulting in a rapid temporary increase of the accretion rate.

  6. New insights into the quasi-periodic X-ray burster GS 0836-429

    CERN Document Server

    Aranzana, E; Kuulkers, E

    2015-01-01

    GS 0836-429 is a neutron star X-ray transient that displays Type-I X-ray bursts. In 2003 and 2004 it experienced two outbursts in X-rays. We present here an analysis of the system bursting properties during these outbursts. We studied the evolution of the 2003-2004 outbursts in soft X-rays using RXTE (2.5-12 keV; ASM), and in hard X-rays with INTEGRAL (17-80 keV, IBIS/ISGRI). Using data from the JEM-X monitor onboard INTEGRAL we detected 61 Type-I X-ray bursts, and confirm that the source displayed a quasi-periodic burst recurrence time of about 2.3 hours. We improve the characterization of the fuel composition, as well as the description of the typical burst durations and fluences. We estimate the average value of $\\alpha$ to be $49\\pm\\,3$. This value together with the observed burst profiles indicate a regime of a mixed He/H runaway triggered by unstable helium ignition. In addition, we report the detection of four series of double bursts, with burst recurrence times of $\\leq\\,20$ minutes. The measured recu...

  7. New insights into the quasi-periodic X-ray burster GS 0836-429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranzana, E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.

    2016-02-01

    GS 0836-429 is a neutron star X-ray transient that displays Type-I X-ray bursts. In 2003 and 2004 it experienced two outbursts in X-rays. We present here an analysis of the system's bursting properties during these outbursts. We studied the evolution of the 2003-2004 outbursts in soft X-rays using RXTE (2.5-12 keV; ASM) and in hard X-rays with INTEGRAL (17-80 keV, IBIS/ISGRI). Using data from the JEM-X monitor onboard INTEGRAL, we studied the bursting properties of the source. We detected 61 Type-I X-ray bursts during the 2004 outburst and confirm that the source displayed a quasi-periodic burst recurrence time of about 2.3 h. We improve the characterisation of the fuel composition, as well as the description of the typical burst durations and fluences. We estimate the average value of α to be 49 ± 3, which describes the ratio of the gravitational energy released between bursts to the nuclear energy released in an X-ray burst. Both this value and the observed burst profiles indicate a regime of a mixed He/H runaway triggered by unstable helium ignition. In addition, we report the detection of four series of double bursts, with burst recurrence times of ≤20 min. The secondary bursts are always shorter and less energetic than the primary and typical bursts from the source. The measured recurrence time in double bursts is too short to allow the accretion of enough fresh material, which is needed to trigger a Type-I X-ray burst. This suggests the presence of leftover, unburned material from the preceding burst, which gets ignited on a time scale of minutes. The energies and time scales of the secondary bursts suggest a lower fraction of hydrogen compared to that estimated for the primary bursts. The persistent emission was roughly constant during the period when the Type I X-ray bursts were detected. We derive an average accretion rate during our observations of ṁ ~ 8% ṁEdd. The spectrum of the persistent emission during these observations can be fit with a non

  8. A Soft X-Ray Spectral Episode for the Clocked Burster, GS 1826-24 as Measured by Swift and NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Chenevez, J; Zand, J J M in 't; Tomsick, J A; Barret, D; Chakrabarty, D; Fürst, F; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Romano, P; Stern, D; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    We report on NuSTAR and Swift observations of a soft state of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary GS 1826-24, commonly known as the "clocked" burster. The transition to the soft state was recorded in 2014 June through an increase of the 2-20 keV source intensity measured by MAXI, simultaneous with a decrease of the 15-50 keV intensity measured by Swift/BAT. The episode lasted approximately two months, after which the source returned to its usual hard state. We analyze the broad-band spectrum measured by Swift/XRT and NuSTAR, and estimate the accretion rate during the soft episode to be about 13% of Eddington, within the range of previous observations. However, the best fit spectral model, adopting the double Comptonization used previously, exhibits significantly softer components. We detect seven type-I X-ray bursts, all significantly weaker (and with shorter rise and decay times) than observed previously. The burst profiles and recurrence times vary significantly, ruling out the regular bursts that are ty...

  9. Six years of BeppoSAX Wide Field Cameras observations of nine galactic type-I X-ray bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelisse, R; Verbunt, F; Kuulkers, E; Heise, J; Den Hartog, P R; Cocchi, M; Natalucci, L; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of BeppoSAX Wide Field Cameras observations of the nine most frequent type-I X-ray bursters in the Galactic center region. Six years of observations (from 1996 to 2002) have amounted to 7 Ms of Galactic center observations and the detection of 1823 bursts. The 3 most frequent bursters are GX 354-0 (423 bursts), KS 1731-260 (339) and GS 1826-24 (260). These numbers reflect an unique dataset. We show that all sources have the same global burst behavior as a function of luminosity. At the lowest luminosities (L_X<=2E37 erg/s bursts occur quasi-periodically and the burst rate increases linearly with accretion rate (clear in e.g. GS 1826-24 and KS 1731-260). At L_pers=2E37 erg/s the burst rate drops by a factor of five. This corresponds to the transition from, on average, a hydrogen-rich to a pure helium environment in which the flashes originate that are responsible for the bursts. At higher luminosities the bursts recur irregularly; no bursts are observed at the highest luminosities. Ou...

  10. Uhuru observations of the Norma X-ray burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    Four X-ray bursts consistent with a single source in Norma are reported which were discovered by reexamining Uhuru data obtained between 1970 and 1973. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the bursts are described and shown to be similar to those displayed by bursts from the globular cluster NGC 6224. An error box of the source location is given, and it is found that both the position and intensity of the four bursts are consistent with those of 10 bursts detected by the Vela satellites in 1976. It is concluded that the source is the same as that observed by the Vela and is an X-ray burster with characteristics similar to those of certain other bursters. XB 1608-52 is suggested as the designation of this burster, possible burst models are considered, and it is noted that the error box of the present source contains an identified globular cluster.

  11. Neutrino production in nucleonic interactions in gamma-ray bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Koers, Hylke B J

    2008-01-01

    Neutrinos produced in gamma-ray bursters (GRBers) may provide a unique probe for the physics of these extreme astrophysical systems. Here we discuss neutrino production in inelastic neutron-proton collisions within the relativistic outflows associated with GRBers. We consider both the widely used fireball model and a recently proposed magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model for the GRB outflow.

  12. Lexus Unveils GS 450h

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    lGS 450h features the second generation Lexus hybrid drive systeml Fuel Economyimproved by morethan 30 percentl New Atkinson cycle V6 with gas engine Lexus reinforced its commitment to hybrid technology with the all-new 2013 GS 450h at the Frankfurt Motor Show on September 12, 2011.

  13. Identification of a Likely Radio Counterpart of the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, C B; Fox, D W; Guerriero, R A; Lewin, W H G; Fender, R P; Van Paradijs, J

    1999-01-01

    We have identified a likely radio counterpart to the low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1730-335 (the Rapid Burster). The counterpart has shown 8.4 GHz radio on/off behavior correlated with the X-ray on/off behavior as observed by the RXTE/ASM during six VLA observations. The probability of an unrelated, randomly varying background source duplicating this behavior is 1--3% depending on the correlation time scale. The location of the radio source is RA 17h 33m 24.61s; Dec -33d 23' 19.8" (J2000), +/- 0.1". We do not detect 8.4 GHz radio emission coincident with type II (accretion-driven) X-ray bursts. The ratio of radio to X-ray emission during such bursts is constrained to be below the ratio observed during X-ray persistent emission at the 2.9-sigma level. Synchrotron bubble models of the radio emission can provide a reasonable fit to the full data set, collected over several outbursts, assuming that the radio evolution is the same from outburst to outburst, but given the physical constraints the emission is more likel...

  14. A strongly truncated inner accretion disc in the Rapid Burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Bagnoli, T.; Degenaar, N.; Lohfink, A. M.; Parker, M. L.; in ‘t Zand, J. J. M.; Fabian, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) the Rapid Burster (RB; MXB 1730-335) uniquely shows both Type I and Type II X-ray bursts. The origin of the latter is ill-understood but has been linked to magnetospheric gating of the accretion flow. We present a spectral analysis of simultaneous Swift, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the RB during its 2015 outburst. Although a broad Fe K line has been observed before, the high quality of our observations allows us to model this line using relativistic reflection models for the first time. We find that the disc is strongly truncated at 41.8^{+6.7}_{-5.3} gravitational radii (∼87 km), which supports magnetospheric Type II burst models and strongly disfavours models involving instabilities at the innermost stable circular orbit. Assuming that the RB magnetic field indeed truncates the disc, we find B = (6.2 ± 1.5) × 108 G, larger than typically inferred for NS LMXBs. In addition, we find a low inclination (i = 29° ± 2°). Finally, we comment on the origin of the Comptonized and thermal components in the RB spectrum.

  15. A strongly truncated inner accretion disk in the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Eijnden, J van den; Degenaar, N; Lohfink, A M; Parker, M L; Zand, J J M in 't; Fabian, A C

    2016-01-01

    The neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) the Rapid Burster (RB; MXB 1730-335) uniquely shows both Type-I and Type-II X-ray bursts. The origin of the latter is ill-understood but has been linked to magnetospheric gating of the accretion flow. We present a spectral analysis of simultaneous Swift, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the RB during its 2015 outburst. Although a broad Fe-K line has been observed before, the high quality of our observations allows us to model this line using relativistic reflection models for the first time. We find that the disk is strongly truncated at $41.8^{+6.7}_{-5.3}$ gravitational radii ($\\sim 87$ km), which supports magnetospheric Type-II burst models and strongly disfavors models involving instabilities at the innermost stable circular orbit. Assuming that the RB magnetic field indeed truncates the disk, we find $B = (6.2 \\pm 1.5) \\times 10^8$ G, larger than typically inferred for NS LMXBs. In addition, we find a low inclination ($i = 29\\pm2^{\\rm o}$). Finally,...

  16. INTEGRAL/JEM-X detects a new outburst of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevenez, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Alfonso-Garzon, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bird, T.; Brandt, S.; Del Santo, M.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Sanchez-Fernández, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron star X-ray transient MXB 1730-335, aka the Rapid Burster, has been detected in outburst by the JEM-X monitors onboard INTEGRAL during the Galactic Bulge monitoring (see ATel #438) observation performed on February 28th, 2013, between (UT) 14:28 and 18:10. It is detected at 25 σ in the co

  17. Search for Millisecond Periodicities in Type I X-ray Bursts of the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, D W; Rutledge, R E; Morgan, E H; Guerriero, R A; Bildsten, L; Van der Klis, M; Van Paradijs, J; Moore, C B; Dotani, T; Asai, K

    2000-01-01

    We have searched the rising portion of type I X-ray bursts observed from the Rapid Burster with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for the presence of periodicities. The 95 per cent confidence upper limit on the average root-mean-square variation of near coherent pulsations with a width of 98 per cent significance) at 306.5 Hz.

  18. INTEGRAL monitoring of the X-ray burster XTE J1739-285

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme;

    2008-01-01

    XTE J1739-285 is a recurrent X-ray transient first discovered by INTEGRAL as an X-ray burster. We have carried out a systematic search for X-ray bursts at various levels of accretion rate onto the Neutron Star surface during the source outbursts in 2005 and 2006. A total of 25 X-ray bursts were f...

  19. O modelo GS-RH

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Maria de Lourdes de Melo Salmito

    1997-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnologico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção Neste trabalho é proposto um modelo de Jogo de Empresas cujo desenvolvimento tem por base a integração dos jogos GS-ENE e LÍDER, desenvolvidos e implementados pelo LJE (Laboratório de Jogos de Empresas) da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. A metodologia utilizada é a observação direta e a análise de conteúdo quanto à estrutura e à dinâmica básica do...

  20. INTEGRAL high-energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, G.; Bazzano, A.; Martínez Núñez, S.; Stratta, G.; Tarana, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.

    2007-09-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM on the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, had not been detected in the hard X-ray band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover, this source has recently been the object of scientific discussion, being also associated with a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion-induced collapse in the binary system. Our long-term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from 2003 February to 2005 May, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in the soft and hard X-ray bands. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide-band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, which can be fitted by a two-component model: a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power-law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including this source in the class of hard-tailed X-ray bursters. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA. E-mail: giovanni.decesare@iasf-roma.inaf.it ‡ INAF personnel resident at ASDC.

  1. Discovery of hard X-ray emission from Type II bursts of the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Frontera, F; Orlandini, M; Amati, L; Palazzi, E; Dal Fiume, D; Del Sordo, S; Cusumano, G; Parmar, A N; Pareschi, G; Lapidus, I; Stella, L

    2000-01-01

    We report on results of BeppoSAX Target Of Opportunity (TOO) observations of the source MXB 1730-335, also called the Rapid Burster (RB), made during its outburst of February-March 1998. We monitored the evolution of the spectral properties of the RB from the outburst decay to quiescence. During the first TOO, the X-ray light curve of the RB showed many Type II bursts and its broadband (1-100 keV) spectrum was acceptably fit with a two blackbody plus power law model. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first time that this source is detected beyond 30 keV.

  2. Burst-only sources: probing type I X-ray bursters at low persistent luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelisse, R.; Zand, J.J.M. in ' t; Kuulkers, E.; Heise, J.; Verbunt, F.; Cocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P

    2004-06-01

    The Wide Field Cameras onboard BeppoSAX observed 9 type I X-ray bursters without detectable persistent emission around the burst. According to the standard theory of X-ray bursts these sources should be in the lowest mass-accretion regime, opening the possibility to study this regime for the first time. We compare the sources with the burst theory, and show that the evidence of a new sub-class of low mass X-ray binaries, the burst-only source, is still meagre.

  3. INTEGRAL high energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    CERN Document Server

    De Cesare, G; Nunez, S Martinez; Stratta, G; Tarana, A; De Santo, M; Ubertini, P

    2007-01-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM in the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, has not been detected in the hard X band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover this source has been recently object of scientific discussion, being also associated to a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion induced collapse in the binary system. Our long term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from February 2003 to May 2005, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in soft and hard X band. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, that can be fit by a two component model, a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including t...

  4. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to distill from observational and theoretical information on the galactic bulge X-ray sources in general, and on the X-ray burst sources in particular, those aspects which seem to have the greatest relevance to the understanding of these sources. Galactic bulge sources appear to be collapsed objects of roughly solar mass, in most cases neutron stars, which are accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions. Type I bursts seem to result from thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of some of these neutron stars, while the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster are almost certainly due to an instability in the accretion flow onto a neutron star. It is concluded that the studies cited offer a new and powerful observational handle on the fundamental properties of neutron stars and of the interacting binary systems in which they are often contained.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Models of thermonuclear X-ray bursters (Lampe+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, N.; Heger, A.; Galloway, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Using the KEPLER 1D hydrodynamics code (Woosley et al. 2004ApJS..151...75W), 464 models of thermonuclear X-ray bursters were performed across a range of accretion rates and compositions. We present the library of simulated burst profiles from this sample, and examine variations in the simulated light curve for different model conditions. We find that the recurrence time varies as a power law against accretion rate, and measure its slope while mixed H/He burning is occurring for a range of metallicities, finding the power law gradient to vary from {eta}=1.1 to 1.24. We identify the accretion rates at which mixed H/He burning stops and a transition occurs to different burning regimes. We explore how varying the accretion rate and metallicity affects burst morphology in both the rise and tail. (1 data file).

  6. Spike-adding in parabolic bursters: The role of folded-saddle canards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2016-09-01

    The present work develops a new approach to studying parabolic bursting, and also proposes a novel four-dimensional canonical and polynomial-based parabolic burster. In addition to this new polynomial system, we also consider the conductance-based model of the Aplysia R15 neuron known as the Plant model, and a reduction of this prototypical biophysical parabolic burster to three variables, including one phase variable, namely the Baer-Rinzel-Carillo (BRC) phase model. Revisiting these models from the perspective of slow-fast dynamics reveals that the number of spikes per burst may vary upon parameter changes, however the spike-adding process occurs in an explosive fashion that involves special solutions called canards. This spike-adding canard explosion phenomenon is analysed by using tools from geometric singular perturbation theory in tandem with numerical bifurcation techniques. We find that the bifurcation structure persists across all considered systems, that is, spikes within the burst are incremented via the crossing of an excitability threshold given by a particular type of canard orbit, namely the true canard of a folded-saddle singularity. However there can be a difference in the spike-adding transitions in parameter space from one case to another, according to whether the process is continuous or discontinuous, which depends upon the geometry of the folded-saddle canard. Using these findings, we construct a new polynomial approximation of the Plant model, which retains all the key elements for parabolic bursting, including the spike-adding transitions mediated by folded-saddle canards. Finally, we briefly investigate the presence of spike-adding via canards in planar phase models of parabolic bursting, namely the theta model by Ermentrout and Kopell.

  7. 掀起GS1的盖头来(三)——GS1基础知识介绍%Unveil Curiosity of GS1 (Ⅲ)——The Basic Knowledge of GS1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    前两期本刊已经连续对GS1系统进行了详细地介绍,本期将结合GS1系统自身特点,通过GS1系统在行业中的具体应用案例,为您展示GS1系统的应用流程及应用价值。

  8. The X-ray Spectrum of the Rapid Burster using the Chandra HETGS

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Fox, D; Miller, J M; Guerriero, R; Morgan, E; Van der Klis, M; Bildsten, L; Dotani, T; Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    We present observations of the Rapid Burster (RB, also known as MXB 1730-335) using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The average interval between type II (accretion) bursts was about 40 s. There was one type I (thermonuclear flash) burst and about 20 "mini-bursts" which are probably type II bursts whose peak flux is 10-40% of the average peak flux of the other type II bursts. The time averaged spectra of the type II bursts are well fit by a blackbody with a temperature of kT = 1.6 keV, a radius of 8.9 km for a distance of 8.6 kpc, and an interstellar column density of 1.7e22 per sq. cm. No narrow emission or absorption lines were clearly detected. The 3 sigma upper limits to the equivalent widths of any features are < 10 eV in the 1.1-7.0 keV band and as small as 1.5 eV near 1.7 keV. We suggest that Comptonization destroys absorption features such as the resonance line of Fe XXVI.

  9. A population study of type II bursts in the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, T; D'Angelo, C R; Galloway, D K

    2015-01-01

    Type II bursts are thought to arise from instabilities in the accretion flow onto a neutron star in an X-ray binary. Despite having been known for almost 40 years, no model can yet satisfactorily account for all their properties. To shed light on the nature of this phenomenon and provide a reference for future theoretical work, we study the entire sample of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data of type II bursts from the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). We find that type II bursts are Eddington-limited in flux, that a larger amount of energy goes in the bursts than in the persistent emission, that type II bursts can be as short as 0.130 s, and that the distribution of recurrence times drops abruptly below 15-18 s. We highlight the complicated feedback between type II bursts and the NS surface thermonuclear explosions known as type I bursts, and between type II bursts and the persistent emission. We review a number of models for type II bursts. While no model can reproduce all the observed burst properties and explain...

  10. The INTEGRAL long monitoring of persistent Ultra Compact X-ray Bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Fiocchi, M; Ubertini, P; Bird, A J; Natalucci, L; Sguera, V

    2008-01-01

    The combination of compact objects, short period variability and peculiar chemical composition of the Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries make up a very interesting laboratory to study accretion processes and thermonuclear burning on the neutron star surface. The improved large optical telescopes and more sensitive X-ray satellites have increased the number of known Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries allowing their study with unprecedented detail. We analyze the average properties common to all ultra compact Bursters observed by INTEGRAL from ~0.2keV to ~150keV. We have performed a systematic analysis of the INTEGRAL public data and Key-Program proprietary observations of a sample of the Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries. In order to study their average properties in a very broad energy band, we combined INTEGRAL with BeppoSAX and SWIFT data whenever possible. For sources not showing any significant flux variations along the INTEGRAL monitoring, we build the average spectrum by combining all available data; in the case of vari...

  11. Liquid helium centrifugal pump characteristics from 80 g/s to 1200 g/s

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Junker, S

    2010-01-01

    The large amount of data collected from three different centrifugal liquid helium pumps tested, namely with 80, 600 and 1200 g/s nominal mass flow are reviewed. The data include the analysis of the characteristic curves, their total efficiencies, their Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and the slip factor. The 1200 g/s pumps tested are of the full emission type, with curved blades, whilst the other pumps have straight blades. The pumps were also tested at different rotary speeds. The pumps were manufactured by Barber \\& Nichols (Denver, USA). (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Behind the scenes of GS: preventing and curing - the GS-SE group

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, GS-SE

    2013-01-01

    With over 3,000 CERN personnel and more than 300 visitors on the site, CERN’s infrastructure takes a real hammering every day of the year. Fortunately, the GS-SE Group is on the watch… Here, like everywhere else, nothing stays shiny and new for very long. That’s why it’s important to carry out regular, even daily, maintenance of buildings, equipment, pipes and roads which every single day see thousands of CERN personnel and visitors passing by. The team responsible for this weighty task is part of the GS-SE Group.

  13. Systematic Uncertainties in the Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron-Star Masses and Radii from Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts. III. Absolute Flux Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Guver, Tolga; Marshall, Herman; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Guainazzi, Matteo; Diaz-Trigo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826-238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE/PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE/PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE/PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0$\\pm$0.3% less flux than the RXTE/PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared to EPIC-MOS1, MOS2 and ACIS-S detectors. We also address the calibration uncertainty in the RXTE/PCA int...

  14. Behind the scenes of GS: shared mobility

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    The GS-IS team responsible for mobility is working on the problematic equation of improving transport with a growing number of people on site.   Congested car parks and sites that are far apart mean that going from one place to another at CERN often requires patience. Transport is major a concern not only for people working at the Organization, but also those in charge of the road infrastructure. The 120-hectare Meyrin site and the distance between the various sites mean that efficient modes of transport are essential. The growing number of people on site and the increasingly congested car parks have made the problem even trickier. Over the past five years, the GS-IS group has launched several initiatives to facilitate mobility on site without proportionately increasing CERN’s fleet of vehicles. Sharing is the only solution! The shuttle service has been reinforced:  since 2010, four regular routes have been set up as well as a service for operators working shifts during t...

  15. INTEGRAL/JEM-X detects a new outburst of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevez, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Alfonso-Garzon, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bird, T.; Brandt, S.; Del Santo, M.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Sanchez-Fernández, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-03-01

    The neutron star X-ray transient MXB 1730-335, aka the Rapid Burster, has been detected in outburst by the JEM-X monitors onboard INTEGRAL during the Galactic Bulge monitoring (see ATel #438) observation performed on February 28th, 2013, between (UT) 14:28 and 18:10. It is detected at 25 σ in the combined JEM-X mosaic with an effective exposure time of 2 ksec, and the measured fluxes are the following: 170 ±6 mCrab (2.9e-9 erg/cm2/s) in the 3-10 keV energy band, 122 ±13 mCrab (1.5e-9 erg/cm2/s) in the 10-25 keV energy band. The source is not visible in the IBIS/ISGRI camera with flux upper limits (6 σ) of ~3 mCrab (2.9e-11 erg/cm2/s) in the 18-40 keV band, and ~10 mCrab (1.0e-10 erg/cm2/s) in the 40-100 keV band. No bursting activity is noticeable. During the previous observation of the Galactic Bulge on February 24th (see ATel #4840) the source was not detected with 5 σ upper limits of 8 mCrab (1.1e-10 erg/cm2/s) and 5 mCrab (5e-11 erg/cm2/s) in the 3-10 keV and 10-25 keV bands, respectively.

  16. The Optical Counterpart of the NGC 6624 X-Ray Burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ivan R.; Stanford, S. Adam

    1993-05-01

    On a pair of 30-min HST FOC images taken at 1400 Angstroms (F140W), we have identified the optical counterpart of the X-ray burster in the globular cluster NGC 6624; this object completely dominates these UV images. Its flux agrees with the UV flux seen by Rich et al. \\ (1993,ApJ,406,489) with the large aperture of IUE. In the blue (F430W) the object is at B =~ 18.6, while in the V band (F480LP) we can find no trace of it. The 1400-B color is consistent with a Rayleigh--Jeans spectrum. (For an interpretation of this radiation as X-ray energy reprocessed by the accretion disk around the LMXB and by the binary companion, see a separate paper by Arons and King at this meeting.) The X-ray source is now found to be only 0.3 arcsec from the cluster center, increasing the likelihood that the bizarre dot P of the binary is influenced by gravitational acceleration. The counterpart of the LMXB is surrounded by several brighter red giants, one only 80 mas away, so that it cannot be observed from the ground. Our new astrometry corrects the previously published positions of the cluster center and places the counterpart within 2 sigma of the X-ray position. The optical counterpart is very close to the radio position of Johnston and Kulkarni (1992,ApJL,393,L17), but that position is now recognized to refer to a coincidentally neighboring pulsar rather than to the LMXB. Further analysis of the UV light will be pursued with HST's High Speed Photometer.

  17. X-ray, radio, and infrared observations of the 'rapid burster' /MXB 1730-335/ during 1979 and 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A.; Cominsky, L.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Oda, M.; Ogawara, Y.; Inoue, H.; Koyama, K.; Makishima, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Murakami, T.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reports partially simultaneous observations of the 'rapid burster' (MXB 1730-335) at X-ray, infrared, and radio wavelengths, covering several hundred hours during 1979 and 1980. None of the authors of this report saw any infrared or radio bursts. On several occasions an absence of infrared bursting was observed during X-ray bursting. On one occasion an absence of X-ray bursting was observed during a radio burst (4.1 GHz) reported by Calla et al. (1979). To date, radio bursts (a total of at least a dozen) have been reported only by Calla et al. (1980). Considering these and other observations summarized here, the reported radio bursts are either unreal or do not bear a simple relation to the X-ray bursts from the 'rapid burster'. The status of the reported infrared bursts also remain ambiguous. Limits to the brightness of any persistent radio source at the position of MXB 1730-335, limits to persistent X-ray emission during an extended X-ray quiet phase, and a measurement of the infrared polarization in the direction of the X-ray source are also reported.

  18. Probing the MSP Prenatal Stage: The Optical Identification of the X-Ray Burster EXO 1745-248 in Terzan 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Pallanca, C.; Lanzoni, B.; Cadelano, M.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Mucciarelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optical identification of the neutron star burster EXO 1745-248 in Terzan 5. The identification was performed by exploiting Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images acquired in Director's Discretionary Time shortly after (approximately one month) the Swift detection

  19. Behind the scenes of GS: preventing and curing - the GS-SE group (VERSION FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, GS-SE

    2013-01-01

    Avec, chaque jour, plus de 3000 Cernois sur le site et plus de 300 visiteurs, le CERN et ses infrastructures en voient des vertes et des pas mûres. Heureusement, le groupe GS-SE veille au grain… Ici comme partout ailleurs, rien ne reste jamais neuf bien longtemps. D’où l’importance d’entretenir régulièrement, pour ne pas dire « quotidiennement », les bâtiments, équipements, canalisations, routes, qui voient passer, jour après jour, des milliers de Cernois et de visiteurs. Au CERN, l’équipe en charge de cette lourde tâche fait partie du groupe GS-SE.

  20. Behind the scenes of GS: Sweet dreams!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Hostel is located in the heart of the Meyrin site and provides the Organization’s many users with a comfortable and peaceful place to stay. The services offered by the Hostel, which is managed by the GS-IS Group, have seen many changes over the years.   The first CERN Hostel (Building 38) was built in 1982 in response to an increasing demand for accommodation, which until then had been met by a handful of converted bedrooms in Building 5 and, since 1974, by 81 additional bedrooms made available to CERN through an agreement with the Foyer Schumann in Saint-Genis-Pouilly. Let’s not even mention the fact that the barracks now occupied by the CERN clubs used to be dormitories… The Hostel was gradually extended, particularly in 1995 with the construction of Building 39, and then in 2007, when Building 41 was added, resulting in a total of 413 rooms (495 beds) today. In addition, a new agreement now gives users access to 151 low-cost rooms at the Foyer Schuma...

  1. Behind the scenes of GS: Open Sesame!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The section in the GS-IS Group responsible for running the CERN Stores processes hundreds of orders per day, checks the quality of each and every product and is responsible for warehousing thousands of items available in a richly-stocked catalogue.   Sprawling across several buildings (73, 128 and 129), a total surface area of 3640 m2, and providing 28,300 cubic metres of storage space, the equivalent of 330 semi-trailers, the CERN stores are a veritable treasure trove! The products on offer range from office stationery and computer hardware to fire extinguishers, cables, steel and chemicals. The new (above) and old storage system for the CERN stores. The CERN Stores catalogue contains nearly 48,000 referenced items, 12,000 of which are available on site. Goods arrive at either Building 194 (Meyrin) or Building 904 (Prévessin) and are then forwarded to the central stores in Building 73. “Every item that arrives here undergoes a strict quality control,” says M...

  2. Behind the scenes of GS: precious stones

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Since the laying of the foundation stone for the Synchrocyclotron in June 1954, CERN has been expanding constantly to reach a current constructed surface area of 580,000 m2 covered by some 650 buildings (just 125 of which account for 70% of this area).   This year, while CERN’s 60th anniversary is an important milestone in the Laboratory’s history, it also highlights another reality: CERN is a collection of ageing buildings, no less than 60% of which are more than 40 years old. “Of the 580,000 m2 of buildings, around 52,000 m2 are nearing the end of their useful life and 140,000 m2 are in need of extensive renovations,” says Natacha Lopez, GS-SE-PO Section Leader. “Of course, we’ve already started several renovation projects, but it's a huge challenge as we have to renovate buildings constructed in the 1960s and 70s while complying with modern standards, which are very different from those that were in force when they were bu...

  3. Models of Type I X-ray Bursts from GS 1826-24: A Probe of rp-Process Hydrogen Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Heger, Alexander; Galloway, Duncan K; Woosley, Stanford E

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray burster GS 1826-24 shows extremely regular Type I X-ray bursts whose energetics and recurrence times agree well with thermonuclear ignition models. We present calculations of sequences of burst lightcurves using multizone models which follow the rp-process nucleosynthesis with an extensive nuclear reaction network. The theoretical and observed burst lightcurves show remarkable agreement. The models naturally explain the slow ~5s rise and long ~100s tails of these bursts, as well as their dependence on mass accretion rate. This comparison provides further evidence for solar metallicity in the accreted material in this source, and constrains the distance to the source. The main difference is that the observed lightcurves do not show the distinct two-stage rise of the models. This may reflect the time for burning to spread over the stellar surface, or may indicate that our treatment of heat transport or nuclear physics needs to be revised. The trends in burst properties with accretion rate are well-rep...

  4. Segregation of the Qb-SNAREs GS27 and GS28 into Golgi vesicles regulates intra-Golgi transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusella, Aurora; Micaroni, Massimo; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Mironov, Alexandre A; Beznoussenko, Galina V

    2013-05-01

    The Golgi apparatus is the main glycosylation and sorting station along the secretory pathway. Its structure includes the Golgi vesicles, which are depleted of anterograde cargo, and also of at least some Golgi-resident proteins. The role of Golgi vesicles remains unclear. Here, we show that Golgi vesicles are enriched in the Qb-SNAREs GS27 (membrin) and GS28 (GOS-28), and depleted of nucleotide sugar transporters. A block of intra-Golgi transport leads to accumulation of Golgi vesicles and partitioning of GS27 and GS28 into these vesicles. Conversely, active intra-Golgi transport induces fusion of these vesicles with the Golgi cisternae, delivering GS27 and GS28 to these cisternae. In an in vitro assay based on a donor compartment that lacks UDP-galactose translocase (a sugar transporter), the segregation of Golgi vesicles from isolated Golgi membranes inhibits intra-Golgi transport; re-addition of isolated Golgi vesicles devoid of UDP-galactose translocase obtained from normal cells restores intra-Golgi transport. We conclude that this activity is due to the presence of GS27 and GS28 in the Golgi vesicles, rather than the sugar transporter. Furthermore, there is an inverse correlation between the number of Golgi vesicles and the number of inter-cisternal connections under different experimental conditions. Finally, a rapid block of the formation of vesicles via COPI through degradation of ϵCOP accelerates the cis-to-trans delivery of VSVG. These data suggest that Golgi vesicles, presumably with COPI, serve to inhibit intra-Golgi transport by the extraction of GS27 and GS28 from the Golgi cisternae, which blocks the formation of inter-cisternal connections.

  5. Affine Fullerene C60 in a GS-Quasigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Volenec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It will be shown that the affine fullerene C60, which is defined as an affine image of buckminsterfullerene C60, can be obtained only by means of the golden section. The concept of the affine fullerene C60 will be constructed in a general GS-quasigroup using the statements about the relationships between affine regular pentagons and affine regular hexagons. The geometrical interpretation of all discovered relations in a general GS-quasigroup will be given in the GS-quasigroup C(1/2(1+5.

  6. Cardiac Effects of Attenuating Gsα - Dependent Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus R Streit

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-adrenergic signalling plays a key role in treatment of heart failure. Gsα is essential for β-adrenergic signal transduction. In order to reduce side-effects of beta-adrenergic inhibition diminishing β-adrenergic signalling in the heart at the level of Gsα is a promising option.We analyzed the influence of Gsα on regulation of myocardial function and development of cardiac hypertrophy, using a transgenic mouse model (C57BL6/J mice overexpressing a dominant negative Gsα-mutant under control of the α-MHC-promotor. Cardiac phenotype was characterized in vivo and in vitro and under acute and chronic β-adrenergic stimulation. At rest, Gsα-DN-mice showed bradycardia (602 ± 13 vs. 660 ± 17 bpm, p<0.05 and decreased dp/dtmax (5037 ± 546- vs. 6835 ± 505 mmHg/s, p = 0.02. No significant differences were found regarding ejection fraction, heart weight and cardiomyocyte size. β-blockade by propranolol revealed no baseline differences of hemodynamic parameters between wildtype and Gsα-DN-mice. Acute adrenergic stimulation resulted in decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness in Gsα-DN-mice. Under chronic adrenergic stimulation, wildtype mice developed myocardial hypertrophy associated with increase of LV/BW-ratio by 23% (4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.5 ± 0.1 mg/g, p<0.01 and cardiac myocyte size by 24% (14927 ± 442 px vs. 12013 ± 583 px, p<0.001. In contrast, both parameters were unchanged in Gsα-DN-mice after chronic isoproterenol stimulation.Overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of Gsα leads to decreased β-adrenergic responsiveness and is protective against isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy. Thus, Gsα-DN-mice provide novel insights into β-adrenergic signal transduction and its modulation in myocardial overload and failure.

  7. Results of INTEGRAL TOO observation of the transient X-ray burster XTE J1810-189

    CERN Document Server

    Chelovekov, I

    2010-01-01

    We report results of the INTEGRAL Target of Opportunity observations of the transient X-ray burster XTE J1810-189. The observations were performed on April 3--6, 2008, soon after the discovery of the source and near the peak of its outburst. That time the source had a flux of about 50 mCrab and exhibited a hard Comptonized X-ray spectrum extending well above 100 keV. Being approximated by a power law with an exponetial cut-off in the broad 3--100 keV energy band it gave the average photon index $\\Gamma\\simeq 1.6$ and $kT_{cutoff}\\simeq 67$ keV. We found only slight indications for changes in the index during the observation ($\\Gamma$ first steady decreased from $\\sim 2.0$ to $\\sim1.3$ and then increased back to $\\sim 2.0$). However the $N_{\\rmn H}$ value measured by absorption in the low energy part of the spectrum changed drastically and very irregularly (from $\\sim 4\\times 10^{22}$ till $\\sim 100\\times 10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$). There were 10 type I X-ray bursts detected from the source during these TOO observati...

  8. Hard X-rays from Type II bursts of the Rapid Burster and its transition toward quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, N; Stella, L; Orlandini, M; Parmar, A N; Del Sordo, S; Amati, L; Palazzi, E; Dal Fiume, D; Cusumano, G; Pareschi, G; Lapidus, I; Remillard, R A

    2000-01-01

    We report on 4 BeppoSAX Target Of Opportunity observations of MXB 1730-335, the Rapid Burster (RB), made during the 1998 February-March outburst. In the first observation, approximately 20 days after the outburst peak, the X-ray light curve showed Type II bursts at a rate of 43 per hour. Nine days later, during the second BeppoSAX pointing, only 5 Type II bursts were detected at the beginning of the observation. During the third pointing no X-ray bursts were detected and in the fourth and final observation the RB was not detected at all. Persistent emission from the RB was detected up to 10 keV during the first three pointings. The spectra of the persistent and bursting emissions below 10 keV were best fit with a model consisting of two blackbodies. An additional component (a power law) was needed to describe the 1-100 keV bursting spectrum when the persistent emission was subtracted. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of the RB beyond 20 keV. We discuss the evolution of the spectral parameters for...

  9. Broadband observations of the X-ray burster 4U 1705-44 with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Piraino, S; Mueck, B; Kaaret, P; Di Salvo, T; D'Ai, A; Iaria, R; Egron, E

    2016-01-01

    4U 1705-44 is one of the most-studied type I X-ray burster and Atoll sources. This source represents a perfect candidate to test different models proposed to self-consistently track the physical changes occurring between different spectral states because it shows clear spectral state transitions. The broadband coverage, the sensitivity and energy resolution of the BeppoSAX satellite offers the opportunity to disentangle the components that form the total X-ray spectrum and to study their changes according to the spectral state. Using two BeppoSAX observations carried out in August and October 2000, respectively, for a total effective exposure time of about 100 ks, we study the spectral evolution of the source from a soft to hard state. Energy spectra are selected according to the source position in the color-color diagram (CCD) Results. We succeeded in modeling the spectra of the source using a physical self-consistent scenario for both the island and banana branches (the double Comptonization scenario). The ...

  10. Regulation of PDH, GS and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    The aims of the present thesis were to investigate 1) The impact of physical inactivity on insulinstimulated Akt, TBC1D4 and GS regulation in human skeletal muscle, 2) The impact of exercise training on glucose-mediated regulation of PDH and GS in skeletal muscle in elderly men, 3) The impact...... of inflammation on resting and exercise-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle and 4) The effect of IL-6 on PDH regulation in mouse skeletal muscle. Study I demonstrated that bed rest–induced insulin resistance was associated with reduced insulinstimulated GS activity and Akt signaling as well...... as decreased protein level of HKII and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Iαn addition, the ability of acute exercise to increase insulin-stimulated glucose extraction was maintained after 7 days of bed rest. However, acute exercise after bed rest did not fully normalize the ability of skeletal muscle to extract...

  11. Gs signaling in osteoblasts and hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Henry M

    2010-03-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein Gs is a major mediator of the actions of several G protein-coupled receptors that target cells of the osteoblast lineage. For this reason, we generated chimeric mice with normal host cells and cells derived from embryonic stem cells missing the gene encoding the alpha subunit of Gs. While the mutant cells contributed to cortical osteoblasts and to hematopoietic cells in the liver, the marrow space contained few if any osteoblasts or hematopoietic cells missing Gs. Subsequent studies using the Cre-lox approach to delete Gsalpha from early cells of the osteoblast lineage and from hematopoietic stem cells were performed. These studies demonstrated the crucial roles of Gsalpha in osteoblastic cells in regulating the differentiation of osteoblasts and in supporting B-cell development as well as the essential role for Gsalpha in hematopoietic stem cells in allowing the homing of these cells to the marrow.

  12. Behinds the scenes of GS: a DSO like no other

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, Departmental Safety Officers (DSOs) are responsible for making the members of their department aware of safety issues. They’re our first point of call every time a problem arises relating to environmental matters or the safety of people and installations. In GS, this role is even more crucial as the Department’s activities are scattered across the Laboratory and affect everyone.   As we have pointed out in our article series "Behind the scenes of GS”, the GS Department is responsible for the construction, renovation and maintenance of buildings and related technical infrastructures. The latter include heating and toilet facilities; detection and alarm systems; the management of the hotels, stores, stocks, shuttle services and mail; and the development of technical and administrative databases. The activities of the Medical Service and the Fire and Rescue Service also come under the umbrella of GS, as do the many other daily activities that are pa...

  13. GS920系列剑杆织机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小兰; 阎磊

    2008-01-01

    最近,意大利Smit公司推出新型GS920系列剑杆织机(GS920型机用于生产平面织物,GS920F型机用于生产毛圈织物,GS920T型机用于生产产业用织物)和JS900型喷气织机,这些先进的织机均根据Smit公司专有的“SMART”平台而设计。“SMART”平台是一种最新的、综合性的模块化设计理念,它包括所有Smit公司开发的项目(包括机械、电子和通信系统)以及先进的电子开口机构。920系列剑杆织机采用先进技术和Smit公司专有织造技术,从而提高了该类剑杆织机的多功能性和产量。

  14. A soft X-ray spectral episode for the Clocked Burster, GS 1826-24 as measured by Swift and NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, J.; Galloway, D.K.; in ’t Zand, J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    . The burst profiles and recurrence times vary significantly, ruling out the regular bursts that are typical for this source. One burst exhibited photospheric radius expansion and we estimate the source distance as (5.7 ±0.2) ξb-1/2kpc, where ξb parameterizes the possible anisotropy of the burst emission...

  15. Behind the scenes of GS: the impact of IMPACT

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Carrying out a job at CERN can be a complicated task, with coordinators reaching across departments to manage personnel, ensure safety and minimise the impact of their activities on the rest of the Laboratory.  To help coordinators with this tough task, the GS Department developed IMPACT, the platform that, since 2011, has unified CERN's major experiment, accelerator and injector coordination tools.   When planning interventions both large and small, IMPACT (the Intervention Management Planning and Coordination Tool) is the go-to gizmo on every CERN coordinator's tool belt. "IMPACT is a central repository of activity requests that standardises the way work is declared at CERN," says Benoit Daudin, GS-AIS-PM Section Leader. "If you need to intervene in any of CERN's major facilities, you need to declare this work on IMPACT. The tool will analyse the job and see whose approval is required. This could simply b...

  16. Behind the scenes of GS: an eye for accuracy

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The CERN sites are constantly evolving… with new buildings, extensions, redevelopment and renovation. The team in charge of geographical information in the GS Department measures and records even the smallest changes so that it can provide everyone at CERN with the most up-to-date plans possible.   The “Patrimony” team in the GS-SE-DOP Section is responsible for geographical information and has the job of updating all of the information relating to CERN's property, including the land made available to the Organization by Switzerland (110 hectares) and France (516 hectares), green spaces, buildings, underground structures, underground networks (gas, water, electricity, etc. – for which the "Patrimony” team works closely with numerous other groups and departments), car parks, roads… and much more. “Our team consists of seven surveyors and GIS specialists, who identify, define, measure, catalogue and pinpoi...

  17. Evaluation of Two Guralp Preamplifiers for GS21 Seismometer Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slad, George William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two Guralp preamplifiers for use with a GS21 seismometer application. The two preamplifiers have a gain factor of 61.39. The purpose of the preamplifier evaluation was to determine a measured gain factor, transfer function, total harmonic distortion, self-noise, application passband, dynamic range, seismometer calibration pass-through, and to comment on any issues encountered during the evaluation. The test results included in this report were in response to static, tonal, and dynamic input signals. The Guralp GS21 preamplifiers are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). Test methodologies used were based on IEEE Standards 1057 for Digitizing Waveform Recorders and 1241 for Analog to Digital Converters

  18. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS2 from Dunaliella viridis and biochemical identification of DvGS2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-02-25

    The salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella has remarkable capability to survive in some extreme environments such as nitrogen starvation, which makes Dunaliella be a proper model for mining novel genes on nitrogen uptake or assimilation. In this study, a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS2 with amino acid identity of 72% to other homologous GS proteins, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic comparison with other GSs revealed that DvGS2 occupied an independent phylogenetic position. Expressional analysis in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation confirmed that DvGS2 increased its mRNA level in 12h. Subcellular localization study and functional analysis in a GS-deficient Escherichia coli mutant proved that DvGS2 was a chloroplastic and functional GS enzyme. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS2 in higher plants, the transgenic studies of DvGS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana were carried out. Results showed that the transgenic lines expressed the DvGS2 gene and demonstrated obviously enhanced root length (29%), fresh weight (40%-48% at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (21%), leaf size (39%) and silique number (44%) in contrast with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content (35%-43%), total GS activity (39%-45%) and soluble protein concentration (23%-24%) than the wild type. These results indicated that the overexpression of DvGS2 in A. thaliana resulted in higher biomass and the improvement of the host's nitrogen use efficiency.

  19. In vitro functional characterization of feline IgGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strietzel, Catherine J; Bergeron, Lisa M; Oliphant, Theodore; Mutchler, Veronica T; Choromanski, Leszek J; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-04-15

    Very little is known about the functional properties of feline IgGs. Here we report the in vitro characterization of cloned feline IgGs. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and full-length PCR of cat splenic cDNA were used to identify feline sequences encoding IgG heavy chain constant regions (IGHC). Two of the sequences are possibly allelic and have been previously reported in the literature as the only feline IgG, IgG1. Although we confirmed these alleles to be highly abundant (∼98%), analysis of numerous amplification products revealed an additional sequence (∼2%). We cloned and characterized chimeric monoclonal antibodies with each of these heavy chains. Using RACE we revealed the sequences for feline Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI) and feline Fc neonatal receptor (FcRn). We constructed these recombinant receptors as well as fFcγRIII and determined their binding affinities to the chimeras. All of the chimeras bound to Protein A but not to Protein G, and bound tightly to fFcRn (KD=2-5 nM). Both IgG1 alleles have a high affinity for fFcγRI (KD=10-20 nM), they bind to the low-affinity fFcγRIII receptor (2-4 μM), and also bind to human complement C1q. Thus, feline IgG1a and 1b are expected to induce strong effector function in vivo. The additional IgG detected does not bind to recombinant fFcγRI or fFcγRIII and has negligible binding to hC1q. Consequently, although this putative subclass is projected to have a similar serum half-life as the IgG1 alleles based on comparable in vitro affinity to FcRn, it may not elicit the effector responses mediated by fFcγRI or fFcγRIII. Further testing with native receptors and functional cell-based assays would confirm effector function capabilities of feline IgG subclasses; however this is the first report characterizing affinities of feline IgGs to their Fc receptors and helps pave the way for construction of feline-specific IgGs for therapeutic use.

  20. Building a scientific data grid with DiGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Mark G; Allton, Chris R; Davies, Christine T H; Davis, Ilan; Flynn, Jonathan M; Grant, Eilidh J; Hamilton, Russell S; Irving, Alan C; Kenway, R D; Ostrowski, Radoslaw H; Perry, James T; Swedlow, Jason R; Trew, Arthur

    2009-06-28

    We provide an insight into the challenge of building and supporting a scientific data infrastructure with reference to our experience working with scientists from computational particle physics and molecular biology. We illustrate how, with modern high-performance computing resources, even small scientific groups can generate huge volumes (petabytes) of valuable scientific data and explain how grid technology can be used to manage, publish, share and curate these data. We describe the DiGS software application, which we have developed to meet the needs of smaller communities and we have highlighted the key elements of its functionality.

  1. Behind the scenes of GS: preventing and curing

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    With about 10,000 persons on the site every day, CERN’s infrastructure takes a real hammering every day of the year. Fortunately, the GS-SE Group is on the watch…   Here, like everywhere else, nothing stays shiny and new for very long. That’s why it’s important to carry out regular, even daily, maintenance of buildings, equipment, pipes and roads which every single day see thousands of CERN personnel and visitors passing by. The team responsible for this weighty task is part of the GS-SE Group. Suspicious steam All CERN’s buildings are heated by two heating plants (see the article in Bulletin 13-14/2011) via the underground hot-water network. Seen from below the ground, this is a labyrinth of pipes stretching over 30 km (including both the Meyrin and Prévessin sites). And with some of these pipes now over 40 years old, it goes without saying that leaks are a common hazard. “At the end of 2013, we had to deal with a big l...

  2. Behind the scenes of GS: nothing left to chance

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The AS (Alarm Systems) Section in the GS-ASE Group is, as its name suggests, in charge of the various alarm systems spread across CERN’s many sites. Its mission? To install, manage and maintain more than 26,000 alarms of all types located both above ground and in the tunnels.   Detection Among these systems, the best known are of course the heat and/or smoke detectors, which quickly raise the alarm in the event of a fire. CERN has 8500 of these devices in total. In combination with these, evacuation alarms are also found all over the Laboratory, including some 1800 break glass call points for 2000 sirens. In the LHC tunnel, the evacuation alarms are connected to 200 Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) sensors, but this is not the only way of triggering an alarm. “The Fire Brigade permanently monitors the evolution of safety conditions in the LHC tunnels,” says Henrik Nissen, who is responsible for “Alarm Transmission” in the GS-ASE-AS Section. &...

  3. Differential effects of antidepressants escitalopram versus lithium on Gs alpha membrane relocalization

    OpenAIRE

    Donati, Robert J.; Schappi, Jeffrey; Czysz, Andrew H; Jackson, Alexander; Mark M Rasenick

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma membrane localization can play a significant role in the ultimate function of certain proteins. Specific membrane domains like lipid rafts have been shown to be inhibitory domains to a number of signaling proteins, including Gsα, and chronic antidepressant treatment facilitates Gs signaling by removing Gsα form lipid rafts. The intent of this study is to compare the effects of the selective serotnin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram, with that of the mood stabilizing drug, li...

  4. GS1及其成员组织活动资讯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田芮丰

    2009-01-01

    @@ GS1总部开展OE项目 GS1总部开展OE(Organizational Effectiveness,提高组织效率)项目,不仅仅是为了重组GS1总部,更重要的是为会员提供更多、更好的服务,从而获得如下好处:

  5. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  6. Behind the scenes of GS: security affects us all

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    A CERN manager, supported by two outside companies, manages the three entities in the GS Department that are in charge of various aspects of security. In total, about 80 people, 300 cameras, a surveillance centre (CSA) and 22 kilometres of fences are responsible for ensuring that the Organization is secure. But in spite of these significant resources, the best strategy for maintaining a good level of security at CERN is the active support of its users.   CERN’s security service covers three main areas: access control, comprising the security guards and a patrol service that ensures the site is secure and monitors compliance with traffic and parking rules; registration; and locks and keys. The 22 guards on the day shift and the seven on the night shift, who constantly monitor access, are spread across the two main sites and the four experiment sites. “The guards’ main job is to check that only those who are authorised to do so enter the site,” explains...

  7. Behind the scenes of GS: keeping CERN clean

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    More than 350,000 square metres to be maintained, two different cleaning companies due to CERN’s sites being in two different countries, underground installations where cleanliness is a question of safety… the CERN team in charge of supervising cleaning services overcomes all these challenges to ensure that our workplace remains clean and pleasant every day.   Ensuring the cleanliness of sites containing a huge variety of buildings is an enormous challenge for the two experts in the GS Department in charge of cleaning services. Alain Bertrand has been at CERN for 29 years and knows all there is to know about the Organization’s buildings and what they are used for, the condition of their toilet facilities and, of course, the location of the border between France and Switzerland which, in terms of cleaning services, denotes the transition point between the two companies used. David Chameaux has been doing the same job as Alain for two years, working with him to ensu...

  8. GS-TEC: the Gaia Spectrophotometry Transient Events Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Wyrzykowski, \\Lukasz; Irwin, Mike; Walton, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm for classifying the nearby transient objects detected by the Gaia satellite. The algorithm will use the low-resolution spectra from the blue and red spectro-photometers on board of the satellite. Taking a Bayesian approach we model the spectra using the newly constructed reference spectral library and literature-driven priors. We find that for magnitudes brighter than 19 in Gaia $G$ magnitude, around 75\\% of the transients will be robustly classified. The efficiency of the algorithm for SNe type I is higher than 80\\% for magnitudes $G\\leq$18, dropping to approximately 60\\% at magnitude $G$=19. For SNe type II, the efficiency varies from 75 to 60\\% for $G\\leq$18, falling to 50\\% at $G$=19. The purity of our classifier is around 95\\% for SNe type I for all magnitudes. For SNe type II it is over 90\\% for objects with $G \\leq$19. GS-TEC also estimates the redshifts with errors of $\\sigma_z \\le$ 0.01 and epochs with uncertainties $\\sigma_t \\simeq$ 13 and 32 days for type SNe I and SNe II re...

  9. Behind the scenes of GS: Service orientation CERN-wide

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    A far-reaching project to improve the management of services was initiated in 2010, through the implementation of standard methods and tools to improve the efficiency of CERN services continuously.   Everyone at CERN now knows the telephone number 77777, the e-mail address service-desk@cern.ch and the CERN Service Portal. Behind all this lies a one-stop-shop where a team of operators is ready to answer your call as swiftly as possible and help you send that over-sized parcel to Patagonia or repair those faulty blinds (see Bulletin article 44-45/2013). But that’s not all, as Reinoud Martens, head of the Service Management Support Group in the GS Department, explains: “As far as the service management project is concerned, receiving and assigning incoming calls is just the tip of the iceberg! More generally, the aim of this massive project, launched in 2010 in close collaboration with the IT Department, is to enhance service management and implement standardised met...

  10. Collaborative Activities Enabled by GroupScribbles (GS): An Exploratory Study of Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Ng, Foo-Keong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory cycle of a design-based research project and examines the learning effectiveness of collaborative activities that are supported by the GroupScribbles (GS) software technology in two Singapore primary science classrooms. The students had ten weeks of GS-based lessons in science, which were…

  11. GS6, A Member of the GRAS Gene Family, Negatively Regulates Grain Size in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianjun Sun; Xiaojiao Li; Yongcai Fu; Zuofeng Zhu; Lubin Tan; Fengxia Liu; Xianyou Sun; Xuewen Sun; Chuanqing Sun

    2013-01-01

    Grain size is an important yield-related trait in rice. Intensive artificial selection for grain size during domestication is evidenced by the larger grains of most of today’s cultivars compared with their wild relatives. However, the molecular genetic control of rice grain size is still not well characterized. Here, we report the identification and cloning of Grain Size 6 (GS6), which plays an important role in reducing grain size in rice. A premature stop at the þ348 position in the coding sequence (CDS) of GS6 increased grain width and weight significantly. Alignment of the CDS regions of GS6 in 90 rice materials revealed three GS6 alleles. Most japonica varieties (95%) harbor the Type I haplotype, and 62.9%of indica varieties harbor the Type II haplotype. Association analysis revealed that the Type I haplotype tends to increase the width and weight of grains more than either of the Type II or Type III haplotypes. Further investigation of genetic diversity and the evolutionary mechanisms of GS6 showed that the GS6 gene was strongly selected in japonica cultivars. In addition, a “ggc” repeat region identified in the region that encodes the GRAS domain of GS6 played an important historic role in the domestication of grain size in rice. Knowledge of the function of GS6 might aid efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control grain development and evolution in rice plants, and could facilitate the genetic improvement of rice yield.

  12. Research advances on GS/GOGAT cycle i n higher plants%高等植物GS/GOGAT循环研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫良玉; 吴良欢; 陶勤南

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this ar ticle are to review recent studies onammonium assimilation via the GS/GOGAT cyc le in higher plants. More than 95% of the ammonium, derived from various metabo l isms and uptake from soil, are thought to be assimilated via GS/GOGAT cycle. GS and GOGAT can be found in leave, nodules and roots. The role of GS/GOGAT cycle i s to assimilate the ammonium from photorespiration and nitrate reduction in leav e, the ammonium from nitrogen fixation in nodule and the ammonium from absorptio n by roots from soil and nitrate reduction in roots. The regulatory mechanisms o f the GS/GOGAT cycle are not clear. But the advances of gene engineering techno l ogy, immunocyto-chemistry and modern physiological technology can help us to be tter understand the regulatory mechanisms of the GS/GOGAT cycle. With modern bi o technology held, the plant nutrition studies can expand more. To better underst a nd the regulatory mechanisms of the GS/GOGAT cycle is essential to adequately ap ply nitrogen fertilizer and improve plant nitrogen use efficiency.%高等植物体内95%以上的NH4+通过GS/GOGAT(谷氨酰胺合成酶/谷氨酸合成酶)循环同化。GS、GOGAT在植物叶片、根瘤以及根中均有分布,但在不同器官中GS/GOGAT循环的作用不尽相同。在绿色组织中,GS/GOGAT循环的主要作用是同化光呼吸产生的NH4+以及硝酸盐在叶中还原产生的NH4+,在根瘤中则主要同化根瘤菌固N产生的NH4+,而在根中则是同化吸收到体内的NH4+以及硝酸盐被吸收后在根中还原产生的NH4+。迄今有关植物GS/GOGAT循环的研究还不太深入,但是随着基因工程技术、免疫组织化学技术以及现代植物生理学技术的发展,GS/GOGAT循环研究展示广阔前景。对该循环及其调控机制的进一步了解,可为合理利用氮肥、提高植物N的利用率提供理论依据。本文综述了近年来对GS/GOGAT循环的研究进展情况。

  13. Chromatin modification contributes to the expression divergence of three TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaoli; Gao, Yingjie; Liu, Lei; Sun, Lijing; Su, Qiannan; Han, Jie; Zhang, Na; Cui, Fa; Ji, Jun; Tong, Yiping; Li, Junming

    2017-01-01

    Plastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) is responsible for ammonium assimilation. The reason that TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat experience different selection pressures in the breeding process remains unclear. TaGS2 were minimally expressed in roots but predominantly expressed in leaves, and TaGS2-B had higher expression than TaGS2-A and TaGS2-D. ChIP assays revealed that the activation of TaGS2-B expression in leaves was correlated with increased H3K4 trimethylation. The transcriptional silencing of TaGS2 in roots was correlated with greater cytosine methylation and less H3K4 trimethylation. Micrococcal nuclease and DNase I accessibility experiments indicated that the promoter region was more resistant to digestion in roots than leaves, which indicated that the closed nucleosome conformation of the promoter region was important to the transcription initiation for the spatial-temporal expression of TaGS2. In contrast, the transcribed regions possess different nuclease accessibilities of three TaGS2 homoeologs in the same tissue, suggesting that nucleosome conformation of the transcribed region was part of the fine adjustment of TaGS2 homoeologs. This study provides evidence that histone modification, DNA methylation and nuclease accessibility coordinated the control of the transcription of TaGS2 homoeologs. Our results provided important evidence that TaGS2-B experienced the strongest selection pressures during the breeding process. PMID:28300215

  14. Density-dependent nerve growth factor regulation of Gs-alpha RNA in pheochromocytoma 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, G; Aguanno, A; Kumar, R; Benincasa, D; Gubits, R M; Yu, H; Dolan, K P

    1990-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) affects levels of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs-alpha) in pheochromocytoma 12 cells in a bidirectional, density-dependent manner. Cells grown at high density responded to NGF treatment with increased levels of Gs-alpha mRNA and protein. Conversely, in cells grown in low-density cultures, levels of this mRNA were lowered by NGF treatment. Images PMID:2160599

  15. Differential regulation of GS-GOGAT gene expression by plant growth regulators in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary ammonium assimilation is catalyzed by the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT pathway in plants. The Arabidopsis genome contains five cytosolic GS1 genes (GLN1;1 - GLN1;5, one nuclear gene for chloroplastic GS2 isoform (GLN2, two Fd-GOGAT genes (GLU1 and GLU2 and a GLT1 gene coding for NADH-GOGAT. Even though the regulation of GS and GOGAT isoforms has been extensively studied in response to various environmental and metabolic cues in many plant species, little is known about the effects of phytohormones on their regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of representative plant growth regulators, kinetin (KIN, abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellic acid (GA3 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, on the expression of A. thaliana GS and GOGAT genes. The obtained results indicate that GS and GOGAT genes are differentially regulated by growth regulators in shoots and roots. KIN and 2,4-D repressed GS and GOGAT expression in roots, with little effect on transcript levels in shoots. KIN affected all tested genes; 2,4-D was apparently more selective and less potent. ABA induced the expression of GLN1;1 and GLU2 in whole seedlings, while GA3 enhanced the expression of all tested genes in shoots, except GLU2. The observed expression patterns are discussed in relation to physiological roles of investigated plant growth regulators and N-assimilating enzymes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON173024

  16. A novel Glycine soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14, interacting with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK, regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Yang, Shanshan; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Sunting; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dan; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhao, Chaoyue; Wang, Xuedong; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that cystatins regulated plant stress tolerance through inhibiting the cysteine proteinase activity under environmental stress. However, there was limited information about the role of cystatins in plant alkali stress response, especially in wild soybean. Here, in this study, we focused on the biological characterization of a novel Glycine soja cystatin protein GsCPI14, which interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and positively regulated plant alkali stress tolerance. The protein-protein interaction between GsCBRLK and GsCPI14 was confirmed by using split-ubiquitin based membrane yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Expression of GsCPI14 was greatly induced by salt, ABA and alkali stress in G. soja, and GsCBRLK overexpression (OX) in Glycine max promoted the stress induction of GmCPI14 expression under stress conditions. Furthermore, we found that GsCPI14-eGFP fusion protein localized in the entire Arabidopsis protoplast and onion epidermal cell, and GsCPI14 showed ubiquitous expression in different tissues of G. soja. In addition, we gave evidence that the GST-GsCPI14 fusion protein inhibited the proteolytic activity of papain in vitro. At last, we demonstrated that OX of GsCPI14 in Arabidopsis promoted the seed germination under alkali stress, as evidenced by higher germination rates. GsCPI14 transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings also displayed better growth performance and physiological index under alkali stress. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the G. soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14 interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

  17. Multiple and independent origins of short seeded alleles of GS3 in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano-Kai, Noriko; Jiang, Hui; Powell, Adrian; McCouch, Susan; Takamure, Itsuro; Furuya, Naruto; Doi, Kazuyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    GRAIN SIZE 3 (GS3) is a cloned gene that is related to seed length. Here we report the discovery of new deletion alleles at the GS3 locus, each of which confer short seed. We selected ten short seeded cultivars from a collection of 282 diverse cultivars. Sequence analysis across the GS3 gene in these ten cultivars identified three novel alleles and a known allele that contain several independent deletion(s) in the fifth exon of GS. These independent deletion variants each resulted in a frameshift mutation that caused a premature stop codon, and they were functionally similar to one another. Each coded for a truncated gene product that behaved as an incomplete dominant allele and conferred a short seeded phenotype. Haplotype analysis of these sequence variants indicated that two of the variants were of japonica origin, and two were from indica. Transformation experiments demonstrated that one of the deletion alleles of GS3 decrease the cell number in the upper epidermis of the glume, resulting in a significant reduction in seed length. The multiple and independent origins of these short seeded alleles indicate that farmers and early breeders imposed artificial selection favoring short seeds. PMID:23641184

  18. Mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo2 is inhibited by D-GsMTx4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaino, Constanza; Knutson, Kaitlyn; Gottlieb, Philip A; Farrugia, Gianrico; Beyder, Arthur

    2017-01-13

    Enterochromaffin (EC) cells are the primary mechanosensors of the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium. In response to mechanical stimuli EC cells release serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The molecular details of EC cell mechanosensitivity are poorly understood. Recently, our group found that human and mouse EC cells express the mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo2. The mechanosensitive currents in a human EC cell model QGP-1 were blocked by the mechanosensitive channel blocker D-GsMTx4. In the present study we aimed to characterize the effects of the mechanosensitive ion channel inhibitor spider peptide D-GsMTx4 on the mechanically stimulated currents from both QGP-1 and human Piezo2 transfected HEK-293 cells. We found co-localization of 5-HT and Piezo2 in QGP-1 cells by immunohistochemistry. QGP-1 mechanosensitive currents had biophysical properties similar to dose-dependently Piezo2 and were inhibited by D-GsMTx4. In response to direct displacement of cell membranes, human Piezo2 transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells produced robust rapidly activating and inactivating inward currents. D-GsMTx4 reversibly and dose-dependently inhibited both the potency and efficacy of Piezo2 currents in response to mechanical force. Our data demonstrate an effective inhibition of Piezo2 mechanosensitive currents by the spider peptide D-GsMTx4.

  19. Osteoblastic regulation of B lymphopoiesis is mediated by Gsα-dependent signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy Y.; Purton, Louise E.; Rodda, Stephen J.; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Scadden, David T.; Kronenberg, Henry M.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoblasts play an increasingly recognized role in supporting hematopoietic development and recently have been implicated in the regulation of B lymphopoiesis. Here we demonstrate that the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit Gsα is required in cells of the osteoblast lineage for normal postnatal B lymphocyte production. Deletion of Gsα early in the osteoblast lineage results in a 59% decrease in the percentage of B cell precursors in the bone marrow. Analysis of peripheral blood from mutant mice revealed a 67% decrease in the number of circulating B lymphocytes by 10 days of age. Strikingly, other mature hematopoietic lineages are not decreased significantly. Mice lacking Gsα in cells of the osteoblast lineage exhibit a reduction in pro-B and pre-B cells. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-7 expression is attenuated in Gsα-deficient osteoblasts, and exogenous IL-7 is able to restore B cell precursor populations in the bone marrow of mutant mice. Finally, the defect in B lymphopoiesis can be rescued by transplantation into a WT microenvironment. These findings confirm that osteoblasts are an important component of the B lymphocyte niche and demonstrate in vivo that Gsα-dependent signaling pathways in cells of the osteoblast lineage extrinsically regulate bone marrow B lymphopoiesis, at least partially in an IL-7-dependent manner. PMID:18957542

  20. 徕卡GS15-GPS RTK测量的应用研究%Study on the Application of RTK Surveying by Laika GS15 - GPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾涛

    2012-01-01

    文章通过实测控制网及工程放样,在静态观测数据的基准下,以某校园GPS控制网为例,利用徕卡GS15 - GPS接收机进行RTK模式测量控制点坐标,与静态观测数据进行对比分析;同时利用CORS的单基准站模式,测量控制点的坐标,与静态观测数据进行对比分析;通过一系列的实践和对比分析,不仅正确掌握了徕卡GS15 - GPS接收机的操作及应用,而且证明了其精度完全可以满足各项工程的要求.

  1. GS 氧化交联变性淀粉浆料的性能分析%Property analysis of GS oxidative crosslinking modified starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄河柳; 沈兰萍

    2014-01-01

    通过对GS氧化交联变性淀粉浆料的浆液和浆膜的各项性能指标进行系统的测试与分析,得到GS氧化交联变性淀粉的水溶性良好,浆液黏度值稳定,成膜完整,浆膜的吸湿性较小,耐屈曲性良好,断裂强力较大。分别将GS氧化交联变性淀粉浆料和PV A与变性淀粉、固体聚丙烯酸进行配伍,对比两组配方下的浆纱强力、毛羽和耐磨性能等。实验结果表明,GS氧化交联变性淀粉的浆纱性能良好,可满足纯棉纱上浆要求。%The size and size film properties of GS oxidative crosslinking modified starch were tested and analyzed .The result shows that the water solubility of GS oxidative crosslinking modified starch is good , size liquor viscosity is stable ,size film forming is complete ,moisture absorption of size film is small ,the resistance to buckling and breaking strength is high .GS oxidative crosslinking modified starch and PVA are respectively mixed with modified starch ,solid polyacrylate ,the strength ,hairiness and abrasion re-sistance of two kinds of size formula for cotton are compared .It is concluded that the sizing performance of GS oxidative crosslinking modified starch is good enough to meet the requirements of cotton sizing .

  2. Bioinformatics and protein modelling of the GS element of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and GS-encoded proteins as drugtargets and vaccine components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joe Sheridan; Tim Bull; Nazira Sumar; Jun Cheng; John Hermon-Taylor

    2000-01-01

    AIM To determine the function and cellular localization of GS-encoded proteins and to assess their potentialas drug targets and vaccine components.METHODS Bioinformatics software was used to predict the function of GS-encoded proteins and theirlocation within MAP. Protein modelling software was used to build protein structures.RESULTS The gene gsa is a truncated glycosyl transferase and probably non-functional. gsbA and gsbBproduce GDP-fucose which is methylated by gsc and acetylated by mpa. gsd is a fucosyl transferase whichattaches fucose to subterminal rhamnose on cell surface glycopeptidolipid. gsa, gsbA and gsbB and gsc arelocated within the cytoplasm. mpa is embedded in the plasma membrane with 10 transmembrane regions anda conspicuous extracellular loop. gsd is lipid-linked and predicted to localize to the microbial cell surface.CONCLUSION GS encodes the biosynthetic machinery to give MAP a surface coat of methylated andacetylated fucose which may contribute to its protease-resistant nature and ability to minimize immunerecognition. The gsbA/gsbB operon and gsd are promising drug targets and gsd is a good candidatecomponent of a new class of anti-MAP vaccines.

  3. Propiedades psicométricas del Maslach Burnout Inventory-GS en una muestra multiocupacional venezolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Constant Millán de Lange

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric properties of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-GS in a Venezuelan sampleThe assessment of work stress is one of the most important aspects in the current scope of occupational psychological health, especially when it comes to chronic levels of involvement.Here are the results of the Venezuelan psychometric validation of the Cuban version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS. Results show adequate reliability of the instrument and suggest the need to remove item 1 to ensure its construct validity.Some indicators reveal the divergent criterion validity of the MBI-GS on the degree of the participant’s psychological well-being.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 2-GS/s 6-bit self-calibrated flash ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtao, Zhang; Xiaopeng, Li; Min, Zhang; Ao, Liu; Chen, Chen

    2010-09-01

    A single channel 2-GS/s 6-bit ADC with cascade resistive averaging and self foreground calibration is demonstrated in 0.18-μm CMOS. The calibration method based on DAC trimming improves the linearity and dynamic performance further. The peak DNL and INL are measured as 0.34 and 0.22 LSB, respectively. The SNDR and SFDR have achieved 36.5 and 45.9 dB, respectively, with 1.22 MHz input signal and 2 GS/s. The proposed ADC, including on-chip track-and-hold amplifiers and clock buffers, consumes 570 mW from a single 1.8 V supply while operating at 2 GS/s.

  5. Ectopic expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa enhances plant alkaline stress tolerance and methionine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Chaoyue; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) and PEPC kinases (PPCKs) fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3) as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase), H(+)-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops.

  6. Ectopic expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa enhances plant alkaline stress tolerance and methionine content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs and PEPC kinases (PPCKs fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3 as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase, H(+-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops.

  7. 下垂体腺腫におけるGsα遺伝子変異の検討

    OpenAIRE

    大竹, 啓之; 三木, 伸泰; 小野, 昌美; 堀, 智勝; 高野, 加寿恵; OHTAKE, Hiroyuki; MIKI, Nobuhiro; ONO, Masami; HORI, Tomokatsu; TAKANO, Kazue

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations of the Gsα protein coupled to the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) receptor contribute to the genesis of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. However, the reported prevalence of these Gsα mutations in Japan varies considerably among institutions. We investigated the prevalence of the Gsα mutations in 133 pituitary adenomas, including 58 GH-secreting tumors, using RT-PCR and direct cDNA sequencing. Gsα mutations were present in 23 GH-secreting adenomas, ...

  8. [Isolation and functional analysis of GsTIFY11b relevant to salt and alkaline stress from Glycine soja].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Chen, Chao; An, Lin; Zhu, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Using homologous cloning and RT-PCR technology, we isolated a novel TIFY family gene, GsTIFY11b, from Glycine soja L. G07256, a species that is tolerant to saline and alkaline environments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GsTIFY11b was closely related to AtTIFY11a with 56% similarity in amino acid identity. Protein sequence analysis showed that GsTIFY11b protein also had conserved TIFY domain, N-terminal domain, and a C-terminal Jas motif. Quantitative realtime PCR analysis indicated that the expression of GsTIFY11b was induced by both saline and alkaline stresses. Two homozygous GsTIFY11b over-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis indicated that over-expressing GsTIFY11b in Arabidopsis did not enhance plant tolerance to saline and alkaline stresses, whereas it showed an increased sensitivity to saline stress during seed germination and seedling development. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in transgenic and wild-type plants under stress condition indicated that GsTIFY11b regulated the expression of RD29B, KIN1, and DREB. The transient expression of a GsTIFY11b-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells showed that GsTIFY11b was localized to the nucleus, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator in the saline stress response pathway.

  9. Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Søren G.F.; DeVree, Brian T; Zou, Yaozhong; Kruse, Andrew C; Chung, Ka Young; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Chae, Pil Seok; Pardon, Els; Calinski, Diane; Mathiesen, Jesper M; Shah, Syed T.A.; Lyons, Joseph A; Caffrey, Martin; Gellman, Samuel H; Steyaert, Jan; Skiniotis, Georgios; Weis, William I; Sunahara, Roger K; Kobilka, Brian K [Brussels; (Trinity); (Michigan); (Stanford-MED); (Michigan-Med); (UW)

    2011-12-07

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist-occupied receptor. The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) activation of Gs, the stimulatory G protein for adenylyl cyclase, has long been a model system for GPCR signalling. Here we present the crystal structure of the active state ternary complex composed of agonist-occupied monomeric β2AR and nucleotide-free Gs heterotrimer. The principal interactions between the β2AR and Gs involve the amino- and carboxy-terminal α-helices of Gs, with conformational changes propagating to the nucleotide-binding pocket. The largest conformational changes in the β2AR include a 14Å outward movement at the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) and an α-helical extension of the cytoplasmic end of TM5. The most surprising observation is a major displacement of the α-helical domain of Gαs relative to the Ras-like GTPase domain. This crystal structure represents the first high-resolution view of transmembrane signalling by a GPCR.

  10. The New Lexus Luxury Sports Sedan GS300 Limited Special Edition Comes to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Lexus China recently announced that the luxury sports sedan GS300 limited special edition will be launched in China’s market. Only 140 units will be sold in China, with a MSRP of 649,000 yuan ($98,333).

  11. Stellarator Microinstability and Turbulence Simulations Using Gyrofluid (GryfX) and Gyrokinetic (GS2) Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mike; Landreman, Matt; Mandell, Noah; Dorland, William

    2016-10-01

    GryfX is a delta-f code that evolves the gyrofluid set of equations using sophisticated nonlinear closures, with the option to evolve zonal flows (ky =0) kinetically. Since fluid models require less memory to store than a kinetic model, GryfX is ideally suited and thus written to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), yielding about a 1,200 times performance advantage over GS2. Here we present the first stellarator simulations using GryfX. Results compare linear growth rates of the Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) mode between GryfX and the gyrokinetic code, GS2, using stellarator geometries from the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7X). Strong agreement of <10% for maximum growth rates is observed between GS2 and GryfX for temperature gradients away from marginal stability for both NCSX and W7X geometries. Nonlinear stellarator results using GS2/GryfX are also presented.

  12. Effects of glutamine and asparagine on recombinant antibody production using CHO-GS cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Dai, Xiao-Ping; Graf, Erica; Martel, Richard; Russell, Reb

    2014-01-01

    A unique and nontraditional approach using glutamine and asparagine supplements for CHO-glutamine synthetase (GS) cell lines was studied. In our experiments, we found that a decrease in pH and an increase in cell death occurred in production phase of a GS cell line, leading to reduced antibody expression and lower antibody yields. The experimental results and the statistical analysis (ANOVA) indicated that additions of glutamine and asparagine in the basal and feed media were effective to buffer the cell culture pH, reduce lactate generation, maintain a higher cell viability profile, and improve antibody productivity. In bench-top bioreactors, glutamine and asparagine supplementation helped to prevent cell death, improve antibody yield, and reduce base usage. Glutamine is normally excluded from culture media for GS cell lines to prevent the bypass of selection pressure. In this study, however, the addition of glutamine did not affect cell population homogeneity, protein quality, or decrease antibody yield of two GS cell lines.

  13. The 2015 hard-state only outburst of GS 1354-64

    CERN Document Server

    Stiele, H

    2016-01-01

    Since its outburst in 1997 GS 135-64 stayed in quiescence. In June 2015 renewed activity of GS 1354-64 was observed. Based on our analysis of energy spectra and timing properties obtained from Swift/XRT monitoring data we found that GS 1354-64 stayed in the hard state during the entire outburst. Such a hard state only (or "failed" outburst) has also been observed in 1997. In addition, we analysed an XMM-Newton observation taken on August 6th. We compared variability on long and short time scales using covariance ratio and found that the ratio showed a decrease towards lower energies instead of the increase that has been found in other black hole X-ray binaries. There are now two sources (H 1743-322 and GS 1354-64) that do not show an increase towards lower energies in their covariance ratio. Both sources have been observed during "failed" outbursts and showed photon indices much harder than what is usually observed in black hole X-ray binaries.

  14. Anti-amyloidogenic Activity of IgGs Contained in Normal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans P.; Solomon, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a subpopulation of naturally occurring human IgGs has therapeutic potential for the amyloid-associated disorders. These molecules cross-react with conformational epitopes on amyloidogenic assemblies, including amyloid beta (Aβ) protein fibrils that are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods Using our europium-linked immunosorbant assay, we established that ∼95% of 260 screened donor plasma samples had amyloid fibril-reactive IgGs and Aβ conformer-reactive IgGs with minimal binding to Aβ monomers. Anti-amyloidogenic reactivity was diverse and attributed to Aβ targeting multiple fibril-related binding sites and/or variations in multidentate binding. Results and Discussion There was no correlation between anti-fibril and anti-oligomer reactivity and donor age (19 to 60 years old) or gender. These findings demonstrate the inherent but diverse anti-amyloidogenic activity of natural IgGs contained in normal plasma. Conclusion Our studies provide support for investigating the clinical significance and physiological function of this novel class of antibodies. PMID:20405179

  15. 5 CFR 531.217 - Special conversion rules for certain non-GS employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special conversion rules for certain non... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.217 Special conversion rules for certain non-GS employees. When...

  16. Smit Textile GS900 Rapier Loom Weaves the Future%Smit Textile GS900剑杆织机编织未来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    作为织机技术的领导者,Smit Textile集多年的丰富经验,精心打造出GS900剑杆织机。这种新型织机备有动态控制的挠性剑带.并采用了降低纬纱和经纱受力的多项科研成果.使得织机可以高品质、高效率织造众多种类和支数的纱线。

  17. Non-apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 IgGs from Malian children interfere with functional activity of AMA1 IgGs as judged by growth inhibition assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Miura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is one of the best-studied blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. When an AMA1 vaccine was tested in a malaria naïve population, it induced functionally active antibodies judged by Growth Inhibition Assay (GIA. However, the same vaccine failed to induce higher growth-inhibitory activity in adults living in a malaria endemic area. Vaccination did induce functionally active antibodies in malaria-exposed children with less than 20% inhibition in GIA at baseline, but not in children with more than that level of baseline inhibition. METHODS: Total IgGs were purified from plasmas collected from the pediatric trial before and after immunization and pools of total IgGs were made. Another set of total IgGs was purified from U.S. adults immunized with AMA1 (US-total IgG. From these total IgGs, AMA1-specific and non-AMA1 IgGs were affinity purified and the functional activity of these IgGs was evaluated by GIA. Competition ELISA was performed with the U.S.-total IgG and non-AMA1 IgGs from malaria-exposed children. RESULTS: AMA1-specific IgGs from malaria-exposed children and U.S. vaccinees showed similar growth-inhibitory activity at the same concentrations. When mixed with U.S.-total IgG, non-AMA1 IgGs from children showed an interference effect in GIA. Interestingly, the interference effect was higher with non-AMA1 IgGs from higher titer pools. The non-AMA1 IgGs did not compete with anti-AMA1 antibody in U.S.-total IgG in the competition ELISA. CONCLUSION: Children living in a malaria endemic area have a fraction of IgGs that interferes with the biological activity of anti-AMA1 antibody as judged by GIA. While the mechanism of interference is not resolved in this study, these results suggest it is not caused by direct competition between non-AMA1 IgG and AMA1 protein. This study indicates that anti-malaria IgGs induced by natural exposure may interfere with the biological effect of antibody induced by an AMA1

  18. Origin of $\\gamma$ Ray Bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, P

    1999-01-01

    The successful discovery of X-ray, optical and radio afterglows of GRB hasmade possible the identification of host galaxies at cosmological distances.The energy release inferred in these outbursts place them among the mostenergetic and violent events in the Universe. They are thought to be theoutcome of a cataclysmic stellar collapse or compact stellar merger, leading toa relativistically expanding fireball, in which particles are accelerated atshocks and produce nonthermal radiation. The substantial agreement betweenobservations and the theoretical predictions of the fireball shock modelprovide confirmation of the basic aspects of this scenario. Among recent issuesare the collimation of the outflow and its implications for the energetics, theproduction of prompt bright flashes at wavelenghts much longer than gamma-rays,the time structure of the afterglow, its dependence on the central engine orprogenitor system behavior, and the role of the environment on the afterglow.

  19. 高清诱惑:WinFast PX×7900GS TDH显卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    想体验1080P的高清视频的用户一定别错过丽台PX7900GS TDH显卡。它通过了HDCP官方认证.是目前少有的真正通过HDCP认证的产品。PX7900GS TDH能为播放蓝光加密光盘提供优化.对于高清玩家来说.它是一个高品质的新选择。这款显卡采用超薄设计.所以并不会占用其他PCI-E插槽的位置,

  20. BeppoSAX observation of the transient X-ray pulsar GS 1843+00

    CERN Document Server

    Piraino, S; Segreto, A; Giarrusso, S; Cusumano, G; Del Sordo, S; Robba, N R; Dal Fiume, D; Orldini, M; Oosterbroek, T; Parmar, A N; Palermo, DSFA

    2000-01-01

    We present the results from both the timing and spectroscopic analysis of the transient X-ray pulsar GS 1843+00 observed by the BeppoSAX satellite on 1997 April 4, when the source was at a luminosity of ~10^{37} erg s^{-1}. GS 1843+00 shows a very hard spectrum that is well fitted by an absorbed power law (N_H \\~2.3 10^{22} cm^{-2}) modified by a high energy cut-off above 6 keV. The source shows a small pulse amplitude in the whole energy band. The pulse profile evolves with energy from a double-peaked to single-peaked shape. The barycentric pulse period is 29.477+/-0.001 s.

  1. Digital post-calibration of a 5-bit 1.25 GS/s flash ADC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 赵显利; 仲顺安; 李国峰

    2012-01-01

    We report a high-speed flash analog to digital converter (ADC) linearization technique employing the inverse Volterra model and digital post processing.First,a 1.25 GS/s 5-bit flash ADC is designed using a 0.18μm CMOS,and the signal is quantized by a distributed track-and-hold circuit.Second,based on the Volterra series,a proposed digital post-calibration model is introduced.Then,the model is applied to estimate and compensate the nonlinearity of the high-speed flash ADC.Simulation results indicate that the distortion is reduced effectively.Specifically,the ADC achieves gains of 4.83 effective bits for a 117.1 MHz frequency input and 4.74 effective bits for a Nyquist input at 1.25 GS/s.

  2. The Research of Petroleum Enterprise Information System Architecture Based on the G/S Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liu; Xirong, Guo; Fang, Miao

    This paper explains the petroleum engineering technologies of petroleum enterprise supported by G/S model, which combine process of exploring, developing, and transporting of petroleum enterprise, these key technologies with spatial information technology supported by Digital Earth Platform, resulting in the improvement of the scientificity, accuracy, and rationality of the petroleum engineering technologies and the reduction of the cost and the increase of the benefits.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans GS-5, a serotype c strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

    2012-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, is considered to be the most cariogenic among all oral streptococci. Of the four S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k), serotype c strains predominate in the oral cavity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. mutans GS-5, a serotype c strain originally isolated from human carious lesions, which is extensively used as a laboratory strain worldwide.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mutans GS-5, a Serotype c Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, is considered to be the most cariogenic among all oral streptococci. Of the four S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k), serotype c strains predominate in the oral cavity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. mutans GS-5, a serotype c strain originally isolated from human carious lesions, which is extensively used as a laboratory strain worldwide.

  5. Further evidence supporting a role for gs signal transduction in severe malaria pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Auburn

    Full Text Available With the functional demonstration of a role in erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites, implications in the aetiology of common conditions that prevail in individuals of African origin, and a wealth of pharmacological knowledge, the stimulatory G protein (Gs signal transduction pathway presents an exciting target for anti-malarial drug intervention. Having previously demonstrated a role for the G-alpha-s gene, GNAS, in severe malaria disease, we sought to identify other important components of the Gs pathway. Using meta-analysis across case-control and family trio (affected child and parental controls studies of severe malaria from The Gambia and Malawi, we sought evidence of association in six Gs pathway candidate genes: adenosine receptor 2A (ADORA2A and 2B (ADORA2B, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1, adenylyl cyclase 9 (ADCY9, G protein beta subunit 3 (GNB3, and regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2. Our study amassed a total of 2278 cases and 2364 controls. Allele-based models of association were investigated in all genes, and genotype and haplotype-based models were investigated where significant allelic associations were identified. Although no significant associations were observed in the other genes, several were identified in ADORA2A. The most significant association was observed at the rs9624472 locus, where the G allele (approximately 20% frequency appeared to confer enhanced risk to severe malaria [OR = 1.22 (1.09-1.37; P = 0.001]. Further investigation of the ADORA2A gene region is required to validate the associations identified here, and to identify and functionally characterize the responsible causal variant(s. Our results provide further evidence supporting a role of the Gs signal transduction pathway in the regulation of severe malaria, and request further exploration of this pathway in future studies.

  6. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif;

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. ....... The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations....

  7. OptGS: An R Package for Finding Near-Optimal Group-Sequential Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wason

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A group-sequential clinical trial design is one in which interim analyses of the data are conducted after groups of patients are recruited. After each interim analysis, the trial may stop early if the evidence so far shows the new treatment is particularly effective or ineffective. Such designs are ethical and cost-effective, and so are of great interest in practice. An optimal group-sequential design is one which controls the type-I error rate and power at a specified level, but minimizes the expected sample size of the trial when the true treatment effect is equal to some specified value. Searching for an optimal group- sequential design is a significant computational challenge because of the high number of parameters. In this paper the R package OptGS is described. Package OptGS searches for near-optimal and balanced (i.e., one which balances more than one optimality criterion group-sequential designs for randomized controlled trials with normally distributed outcomes. Package OptGS uses a two-parameter family of functions to determine the stopping boundaries, which improves the speed of the search process whilst still allow- ing flexibility in the possible shape of stopping boundaries. The resulting package allows optimal designs to be found in a matter of seconds much faster than a previous approach.

  8. Geoacoustic inversion techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 global search (GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter; Muncill, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Geoacoustic Inversion Techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 is a PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 funded product that accepts measured acoustic data and produces an optimized estimate of the bottom environment that produced the observed acoustic data. The Global Search (GS) segment of GAIT pairs the Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) algorithm with a variety of Navy standard propagation loss models (PE, ASTRAL and Nautilus) and an active sonar performance prediction model (ASPM). The goal of the GS segment of GAIT is to provide a best estimate of the geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom that, when paired with a selected model, result in the observed acoustic data. An overview of the GS segment of GAIT 1.0 will be presented with details on the ASA algorithm, component models, cost functions and geoacoustic parametrizations. Inversion results will be shown for synthetic test cases from the Inversion Technique Workshop (ITW) held in May 2001 and from both narrowband and broadband measured data test cases. [Work supported by PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 and uses the products of a Phase I and II SBIR from the ONR (Code 321US).

  9. Myelopoiesis is regulated by osteocytes through Gsα-dependent signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulzele, Keertik; Krause, Daniela S.; Panaroni, Cristina; Saini, Vaibhav; Barry, Kevin J.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Bonewald, Lynda; Feng, Jian Q.; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.; Wu, Joy Y.; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Scadden, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic progenitors are regulated in their respective niches by cells of the bone marrow microenvironment. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of a variety of cell types, and the relative contribution of each of these cells for hematopoietic lineage maintenance has remained largely unclear. Osteocytes, the most abundant yet least understood cells in bone, are thought to initiate adaptive bone remodeling responses via osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Here we report that these cells regulate hematopoiesis, constraining myelopoiesis through a Gsα-mediated mechanism that affects G-CSF production. Mice lacking Gsα in osteocytes showed a dramatic increase in myeloid cells in bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood. This hematopoietic phenomenon was neither intrinsic to the hematopoietic cells nor dependent on osteoblasts but was a consequence of an altered bone marrow microenvironment imposed by Gsα deficiency in osteocytes. Conditioned media from osteocyte-enriched bone explants significantly increased myeloid colony formation in vitro, which was blocked by G-CSF–neutralizing antibody, indicating a critical role of osteocyte-derived G-CSF in the myeloid expansion. PMID:23160461

  10. Behind the scenes of GS: each to his own lock and key

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The GS-ASE team in charge of access control has an access solution for every type of premises, from radiation-controlled areas to simple administrative offices.   Although CERN is unquestionably open to the world, some of its doors must remain closed for a simple reason: as an industrial site, it must put safety and security at the top of its priorities and control access to certain areas in order to protect people and property from hazards. The AC (Access Control) section of the GS-ASE group uses a range of access control tools as the type of restrictions varies considerably according to the type of premises or area concerned: the requirements at the entrances to the different CERN sites may be quite different, for example, to those at the entrances to a specific building, a storage area, a workshop or an experiment hall within the fenced part of the CERN site. “We use different types of access systems at CERN”, explains Rui Nunes, head of the GS-ASE-AC section. &ldq...

  11. A novel Fe(III) dependent bioflocculant from Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08: culture conditions optimization and flocculation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Tang, Qing-wen; Zhang, Yu-jia; Chen, Rong-ping; Liu, Xin; Qiao, Wei-chuan; Li, Wen-wei; Ruan, Hong-hua; Song, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effect of cultivation factors on the flocculation efficiency (FE) of bioflocculant P-GS408 from Klebsiella oxytoca was optimized by the response surface methodology. The most significant factor, i.e. culture time, was determined by gray relational analysis. A total of 240 mg of purified P-GS408 was prepared from 1 liter of culture solution under the optimal conditions. GC-MS analysis results indicated that the polysaccharide of P-GS408 mainly contains Rhamnose and Galactose, and the existence of abundant hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups was evidenced by FTIR and XPS analyses. With the aid of Fe3+, the FE of kaolin solution by P-GS408 could achieve 99.48% in ten minutes. Functional groups of polysaccharide were involved in the first adsorption step and the zeta potential of kaolin solution changed from −39.0 mV to 43.4 mV in the presence of Fe3+ and P-GS408. Three-dimensional excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectra demonstrates that the trivalent Fe3+ and Al3+ can bind efficiently with P-GS408, while those univalent and divalent cations cannot. With the help of SEM images, FTIR, zeta potential and EEM spectra, we proposed the P-GS408 flocculation mechanism, which consists of coordination bond combination, charge neutrality, adsorption and bridging, and net catching. PMID:27713559

  12. The Beneficial Effects of ETS-GS, a Novel Vitamin E Derivative, on a Rat Model of Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Junichiro; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nakane, Yuko; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Yamada, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hisatake; Shimazaki, Junya; Imamura, Yukio; Ogura, Hiroshi; Jin, Takashi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    Crush syndrome is a devastating condition leading to multiple organ failure. The mechanisms by which local traumatic injuries affect distant organs remain unknown. ETS-GS is a novel water-soluble, stable anti-oxidative agent composed of vitamin E derivative. Given that one of the main pathophysiological effects in crush syndrome is massive ischemia-reperfusion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from the injured extremities would be systemically involved in distant organ damage. We investigated whether ETS-GS could suppress inflammatory response and improve mortality in a rat model of crush injury. Crush injury was induced by compression of bilateral hindlimbs for 6 h followed by release of compression. Seven-day survival was significantly improved by ETS-GS treatment. To estimate anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ETS-GS, serum was collected 6 and 20 h after the injury. ETS-GS treatment significantly dampened the up-regulation of malondialdehyde and reduction of superoxide dismutase in the serum, which were induced by crush injury. Serum levels of interleukin 6 and high mobility group box 1 were significantly decreased in the ETS-GS group compared with those in the control group. Lung damage shown by hematoxylin-eosin staining at 20 h after the injury was ameliorated by the treatment. Ex vivo imaging confirmed that ETS-GS treatment reduced ROS generation in both the lung and the muscle following crush injury. The administration of ETS-GS could suppress ROS generation, systemic inflammation, and the subsequent organ damage, thus improving survival in a rat model of crush injury. These findings suggest that ETS-GS can become a novel therapeutic agent against crush injury.

  13. Genome sequencing and annotation of Laceyella sacchari strain GS 1-1, isolated from hot spring, Chumathang, Leh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 3.3-Mb draft genome of Laceyella sacchari strain GS 1-1, isolated from hot spring water sample, Chumathang, Leh, India. Draft genome of strain GS 1-1 consists of 3, 324, 316 bp with a G + C content of 48.8% and 3429 predicted protein coding genes and 75 RNAs. Geobacillus thermodenitrificans strain NG80-2, Geobacillus kaustophilus strain HTA426 and Geobacillus sp. Strain G11MC16 are the closest neighbors of the strain GS 1-1.

  14. CPP5Gs 全自动倾点浊点测试仪故障分析与维护%Faults analysis and maintenance of CPP5Gs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建辉; 赵亮; 范晓兰; 张江峰

    2015-01-01

    介绍了 CPP5Gs 工作原理、操作条件,并对在使用过程出现的光学检测等问题进行了分析和应对,对温度探头校正进行了阐述。%This paper introduced CPP5Gs work principle,operation condition,analyzed the common faults and discussed the maintence.

  15. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating;

    2009-01-01

    An animal component-free and chemically defined fed-batch process for GS-engineered cell lines producing recombinant antibodies has been developed. The fed-batch process relied on supplying sufficient nutrients to match their consumption, simultaneously minimizing the accumulation of byproducts....... This generic and high-yielding fed-batch process would shorten development time, and ensure process stability, thereby facilitating the manufacture of therapeutic antibodies by GS-engineered cell lines....

  16. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  17. Influence of induction hardening parameters on the GS30Mn5 weld properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marušić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines parameters of post-weld heat treatment on the test specimens made of cast steel GS30Mn5. The welding is performed with shielded metal arc welding (SMAW process. The aim is to obtain the surface without illicit cracks, with hardness ranging from 320 up to 400 HB. After induction heating, the specimens are cooled alternately with air and water. Decreased speed of quenching results in avoiding the occurrence of illicit splashes, while the hardness is maintained within the prescribed limits.

  18. 不同基因型大豆GS1基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of GS1 genes from different soybean varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽华; 刘丽君; 刘页丽; 裴宇峰; 祖伟

    2011-01-01

    GS1 genes from six different soybean varieties were cloned. The compare analysis of gene sequence showed that: sequence of GS1 genes from different soybean varieties were very identical. GS1 gene sequence from different soybean varieties still existed distinct difference which site mostly in non-coding region. Molecular evolutionary tree showed that evolution distance of GS1 genes sequence from DN42 and G.gracili were relatively near, they all had two conserved domains, catalyse domain (Gln-synt_N)and combine domain (Gln-synt_C), and showed that they all had function of catalyse. Molecular evolution tree showed that evolution distance of GS, protein sequence of DN42 and DN46 was near, KF9 and HN35 was near. GSl genome sequence of DN42 was cloned. The forecast result through NetGene2 software, Dot metrix function of DNAMan software and NCBI online spidey software showed that this gene had 12 exons and 11 introns, the flank sequence of exon were all accord with GT, AG rule.%克隆了6个不同基因型大豆的GS1基因,序列比对分析结果表明,不同基因型大豆的GS1基因序列相似性较高.不同基因型大豆GS1基因序列间仍存在显著的差异,主要集中在非编码区.GS1基因分子进化树显示东农42、半野生大豆基因序列进化距离较近.不同基因型大豆GS1蛋白质序列具有很高的相似性,并且都具有两个保守的结构域、催化结构域(Gln-synt_N)和结合结构域(Gln-synt_C),说明它们都具有催化功能.GS1蛋白质序列的分子进化树显示东农46和东农42 GS1蛋白质序列进化距离较近,垦丰9和黑农35 GS1蛋白质序列进化距离较近.克隆了东农42 GS1基因的基因组序列,NetGene2软件、DNAMan软件的Dot metrix功能和NCBI在线spidey软件预测和分析结果表明,该基因具有12个外显子和11个内含子,外显子侧翼序列都符合GT、AG规则.

  19. 一种基于NP4GS3的增强SRED算法%An Enhanced SRED Algorithm Based on NP4GS3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文宏; 王润云; 李仲宇; 唐玉华

    2006-01-01

    作为一种典型的AQM算法,SRED采用一种负载相关的概率来丢弃报文,使得路由器队列长度处于一个较低的稳定值,从而获得相对稳定的网络延时.但SRED算法在设计初始丢弃概率函数时不能保证函数曲线的平稳过渡,这将导致路由器队列长度不稳定以及不必要地丢弃报文.对SRED算法的缺陷进行了理论分析,在此基础上设计了一种增强的SRED算法:E-SRED;同时,分析了AQM机制在IBM的网络处理器NP4GS3中的实现机制,提出了E-SRED算法在NP上的实现方案,给出了方案实现的完整伪码描述.图4,参11.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a GS2 gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and its expression patterns under the fertilization of different forms of N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Dong; Chen, Yi; Wang, Shu; Tang, Dong-Mei; Huang, Dan-Feng

    2010-01-01

    We isolated a novel glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) gene M-GS2 (accession: AY773090) by the RACE approach from melon. The full-length cDNA of M-GS2 is 1807 bp and contains a 1296 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 432 amino acids. The deduced protein contains conserved structural domains among plant GS2 proteins and shares extensive sequence homology with GS2 enzymes from other higher plants. M-GS2 expresses with specificity in leaf, and identification of a chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) in M-GS2 suggests that it localizes to the chloroplast. As shown by real-time quantitative PCR, distinct forms of nitrogen (N) found in fertilizers transcriptionally regulated M-GS2 differently. Ammonium and nitrate feeding only significantly regulated M-GS2 transcripts in leaf; starving (0.75 mM) or moderate (3.75 mM) N levels dramatically increased M-GS2 transcripts for 1 day, decreasing to a constant low level after 2-3 days, while sufficient N level (7.5 mM) had a minor effect throughout 3 days compared to controls. Glutamate feeding, however, not only significantly regulated M-GS2 transcripts in leaf (decreased initially then increased to higher levels than controls), but also in root, where it was up-regulated continuously. Our results suggested that M-GS2 is the first GS gene cloned and characterized in melon and melon responds to the variations in N fertilization by differentially expressing M-GS2.

  1. GS3: A Knowledge Management Architecture for Collaborative Geologic Sequestration Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian; Black, Gary D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Wurstner, Signe K.; Hui, Peter SY

    2010-01-10

    Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. In general, scientific studies in domains such as groundwater, climate, and other environmental modeling as well as fundamental research in chemistry, physics, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data in order to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations must then be analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and further simulations. In this paper we describe our efforts in creating a knowledge management platform to support collaborative, wide-scale studies in the area of geologic sequestration. The platform, known as GS3 (Geologic Sequestration Software Suite), exploits and integrates off-the-shelf software components including semantic wikis, content management systems and open source middleware to create the core architecture. We then extend the wiki environment to support the capture of provenance, the ability to incorporate various analysis tools, and the ability to launch simulations on supercomputers. The paper describes the key components of GS3 and demonstrates its use through illustrative examples. We conclude by assessing the suitability of our approach for geologic sequestration modeling and generalization to other scientific problem domains

  2. PeGS: Perturbed Gibbs Samplers that Generate Privacy-Compliant Synthetic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubin Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a categorical data synthesizer algorithm that guarantees a quantifiable disclosure risk. Our algorithm, named Perturbed Gibbs Sampler (PeGS, can handle high-dimensional categorical data that are intractable if represented as contingency tables. PeGS involves three intuitive steps: 1 disintegration, 2 noise injection, and 3 synthesis. We first disintegrate the original data into building blocks that (approximately capture essential statistical characteristics of the original data. This process is efficiently implemented using feature hashing and non-parametric distribution approximation. In the next step, an optimal amount of noise is injected into the estimated statistical building blocks to guarantee differential privacy or l-diversity. Finally, synthetic samples are drawn using a Gibbs sampler approach. California Patient Discharge data are used to demonstrate statistical properties of the proposed synthetic methodology. Marginal and conditional distributions as well as regression coefficients obtained from the synthesized data are compared to those obtained from the original data. Intruder scenarios are simulated to evaluate disclosure risks of the synthesized data from multiple angles. Limitations and extensions of the proposed algorithm are also discussed.

  3. Glycation of polyclonal IgGs: Effect of sugar excipients during stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Y; Bihoreau, N; Jube, M; Andre, M-H; Tellier, Z; Chevreux, G

    2016-05-01

    A number of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations are stabilized with sugar additives that may lead over time to undesirable glycation reactions especially in liquid formulation. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of sugar excipients on such preparations in condition of temperature, formulation and concentration commonly used for pharmaceutical products. Through an innovative LC-MS method reported to characterize post-translational modifications of IgGs Fc/2 fragments, a stability study of IVIg formulated with reducing and non-reducing sugars has been undertaken. The rate of polyclonal IgGs glycation was investigated during 6months at 5, 25, 30 and 40°C. High levels of glycation were observed with reducing sugars such as glucose and maltose in the first months of the stability study from 25°C. Non-reducing sugars presented a low reactivity even at the highest tested temperature (40°C). Furthermore, a site by site analysis was performed by MS/MS to determine the glycation sites which were mainly identified at Lys246, Lys248 and Lys324. This work points out the high probability of glycation reactions in some commercialized products and describes a useful method to characterize IVIg glycated products issued from reducing sugar excipients.

  4. The HI supershell GS 118+01-44 and its role in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Suad, L A; Noriega-Crespo, A; Arnal, E M; Testori, J C; Flagey, N

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a multiwavelength study to characterize the HI supershell designated GS 118+01-44, and to analyse its possible origin. A multiwavlength study has been carried out to study the supershell and its environs. We performed an analysis of the HI, CO, radio continuum, and infrared emission distributions. The Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) HI data reveals that GS 118+01-44 is centred at (l, b) = (117.7, 1.4) with a systemic velocity of -44.3 km/s. According to Galactic rotation models this structure is located at 3.0 +- 0.6 kpc from the Sun. There are several HII regions and three supernova remnants (SNRs) catalogued in the region. On the other hand, the analysis of the temperature spectral index distribution shows that in the region there is a predominance of non-thermal emission. Infrared emission shows that cool temperatures dominate the area of the supershell. Concerning the origin of the structure, we found that even though several OB stars belonging to Cas OB5 are located in the interior of ...

  5. Behind the scenes of GS: a long-term urban planning vision

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    The GS Department is working on a long-term plan for the urban planning of the CERN sites, ensuring that their development takes place using a coherent approach and keeping in mind the need for harmonious integration in the surrounding area.   Visitors are often bemused by CERN’s buildings, with their 1950s style and a layout that seems to defy all logic. Up until the 90s, buildings were erected as accelerators were built, with no apparent concern for harmony. But now, with a much larger number of users and installations, space is at a premium, getting around the site is difficult and urban planners are needed more than ever. "Over 9,000 people enter the CERN sites every day and we have 7,500 workstations," says Frédéric Magnin, Civil Engineering and Buildings Section Leader in the GS Department. For this reason, specialists in the department have been working on the development of the sites for five years. It is especially important that the...

  6. Effect of HMW-GS 5+10 on Quality Parameters in Four Leading Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-bin; SUN Lian-fa; XIN Wen-li; SONG Qin-jie; ZHANG Chun-li; ZHAO Hai-bin; XIAO Zhi-min; QI Shi-yu

    2003-01-01

    HMW-GS 5+ 10 was introduced to four major wheat cultivars Kehan9, Kefeng3, Longmai20and Kenda4 through 5 or 6 consecutive backcrosses. No significant difference in protein content and dry glutencontent was observed between cultivars containing 5+ 10 and 2+ 12 or 3+12 (P>0. 1). In cuitivars contai-ning HMW-GS 5 +10, the ratio of wet gluten content to dry gluten content was 2.9 -5.0 % (P<0.01) lowerthan the ratio from the cultivars containing 2+ 12 or 3+12, the ratio of Zeleny sedimentation volume to drygluten content was 4.5 - 13.4% (P<0. 05) higher. The degree of softening in cuitivars having 5+10 was 15- 25 FU (P<0.01) lower, while the maximum resistance was 82 - 193 EU (P<0.05) higher. Backcrosseswith biochemical marker assisted selection in the improvement of quality in wheat cultivars was discussed.

  7. Overexpression of GsZFP1 enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lili; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xuedong; Cui, Lin; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yanming; Bai, Xi

    2013-10-01

    GsZFP1 encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. In our previous study, when GsZFP1 was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced drought and cold tolerance. However, it is still unknown whether GsZFP1 is also involved in salt stress. GsZFP1 is from the wild legume Glycine soja. Therefore, the aims of this study were to further elucidate the functions of the GsZFP1 gene under salt and drought stress in the forage legume alfalfa and to investigate its biochemical and physiological functions under these stress conditions. Our data showed that overexpression of GsZFP1 in alfalfa resulted in enhanced salt tolerance. Under high salinity stress, greater relative membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed and more free proline and soluble sugars accumulated in transgenic alfalfa than in the wild-type (WT) plants; in addition, the transgenic lines accumulated less Na(+) and more K(+) in both the shoots and roots. Overexpression of GsZFP1 also enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa. The fold-inductions of stress-responsive marker gene expression, including MtCOR47, MtRAB18, MtP5CS, and MtRD2, were greater in transgenic alfalfa than those of WT under drought stress conditions. In conclusion, the transgenic alfalfa plants generated in this study could be used for farming in salt-affected as well as arid and semi-arid areas.

  8. Score System Study for Hand-Extended Noodle Quality Based on HMW-GS Index in Wheat Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Zhi-yu; WANG Jian-jun; SHANG Xun-wu

    2007-01-01

    Hand-extended noodle, a special kind of noodle, requires particular quality flour to make it. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in wheat are important protein subunits, which affect flour quality. To improve breeding and selection efficiency of wheat varieties which are used in making hand-extended noodle, 100 spring wheat varieties were selected to study the importance of HMW-GS on noodle quality score indexes such as color, appearance, taste agreeability, toughness, stickiness, smoothness, taste, and total score, through methods of quantity theory and statistic evaluation. It was shown that the hand-extended noodle quality score of HMW-GS 1, 2*, N, 7, 7 + 8, 17 + 18, 22, 2 + 10, 2 +11, 2+ 12, 5 + 10, and 10 was 5.40, 5.35, 0, 2.55, 2.56, 9.19, 0.05, 0.15, 1.49, 1.14, 10.00, and 5.14, respectively. The score system for hand-extended noodle quality based on HMW-GS index included eight multiple linear regression equations (R2 > 0.98).Hence, using the HMW-GS composition, the eight hand-extended noodle quality indexes would be forecasted exactly.Results indicated that ideal subunit compositions of HMW-GS for this special usage were composition 1, 17 + 18, 5 + 10, or composition 2*, 17 + 18, 5 + 10. This standard could be used on variety selection in the early generation of breeding crosses. HMW-GS 2 + 10, 2 + 11, and 2 + 12 were the least desirable subunits for hand-extended noodle, which should be avoided in wheat variety selection aimed for hand-extended noodle flour use.

  9. Draft genome sequencing of giardia intestinalis assemblage B isolate GS: is human giardiasis caused by two different species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Franzén

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage of the assemblage B isolate GS, the only Giardia isolate successfully used to experimentally infect animals and humans. The two genomes show 77% nucleotide and 78% amino-acid identity in protein coding regions. Comparative analysis identified 28 unique GS and 3 unique WB protein coding genes, and the variable surface protein (VSP repertoires of the two isolates are completely different. The promoters of several enzymes involved in the synthesis of the cyst-wall lack binding sites for encystation-specific transcription factors in GS. Several synteny-breaks were detected and verified. The tetraploid GS genome shows higher levels of overall allelic sequence polymorphism (0.5 versus <0.01% in WB. The genomic differences between WB and GS may explain some of the observed biological and clinical differences between the two isolates, and it suggests that assemblage A and B Giardia can be two different species.

  10. Gsα enhances commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to the osteoblast lineage but restrains osteoblast differentiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy Y; Aarnisalo, Piia; Bastepe, Murat; Sinha, Partha; Fulzele, Keertik; Selig, Martin K; Chen, Min; Poulton, Ingrid J; Purton, Louise E; Sims, Natalie A; Weinstein, Lee S; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2011-09-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα stimulates cAMP-dependent signaling downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. In this study, we set out to determine the role of Gsα signaling in cells of the early osteoblast lineage in vivo by conditionally deleting Gsα from osterix-expressing cells. This led to severe osteoporosis with fractures at birth, a phenotype that was found to be the consequence of impaired bone formation rather than increased resorption. Osteoblast number was markedly decreased and osteogenic differentiation was accelerated, resulting in the formation of woven bone. Rapid differentiation of mature osteoblasts into matrix-embedded osteocytes likely contributed to depletion of the osteoblast pool. In addition, the number of committed osteoblast progenitors was diminished in both bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and calvarial cells of mutant mice. In the absence of Gsα, expression of sclerostin and dickkopf1 (Dkk1), inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling, was markedly increased; this was accompanied by reduced Wnt signaling in the osteoblast lineage. In summary, we have shown that Gsα regulates bone formation by at least two distinct mechanisms: facilitating the commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to the osteoblast lineage in association with enhanced Wnt signaling; and restraining the differentiation of committed osteoblasts to enable production of bone of optimal mass, quality, and strength.

  11. Identification of calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK-interactive proteins using yeast two-hybrid system%酵母双杂交筛选与GsCBRLK相互作用的蛋白质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姗姗; 孙晓丽; 于洋; 才华; 纪巍; 柏锡; 朱延明

    2013-01-01

    GsCBRLK(calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase from Glycine soja)在ABA及盐胁迫诱导的钙离子信号通路中起到关键的调节作用.为深入研究GsCBRLK蛋白的作用机制,文章采用膜酵母双杂交系统,以GsCBRLK为诱饵蛋白,筛选与其相互作用的蛋白质.通过构建野生大豆盐胁迫条件下的cDNA文库、膜酵母双杂交系统筛选、复筛、回转验证、生物信息学分析以及酵母体内互作验证等手段,最终获得2个(SNARE和14-3-3蛋白)与GsCBRLK诱饵蛋白相互作用的蛋白质.%GsCBRLK (calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase from Glycine soja) links ABA (abscisic acid)-and salt-induced calcium/calmodulin signal in plant cells. In order to study the molecular mechanismes of GsCBLRK, the salt-treated Glycine soja cDNA library was screened with pB73-STE-CBRLK as bait plasmid using yeast two hybrid system. Two positive clones (SNARE and 14-3-3 protein) were identified by constructing cDNA library of wild soybean under salt treatment, membrane system yeast two hybrid screening, multiple screen, rotary validation, bioinformatic analysis and interaction identification in yeast.

  12. Study on forest landscape diversity based on ArcGIS and GS +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Qu, Jianguang; Liu, Dandan; Yang, Jinling; Li, Dan

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses the forest landscape diversity of the study area with the help of ArcGIS10 and GS+ software. The forest landscape diversity and spatial interpolation and spatial differentiation are also carried out. The result shows that the maximum value of SHDI in 1997is 2.0463 and the minimum value is 0.2544 , which are 1.9722 and 0.2418 in the year of 2009. The advantage religion of SHDI mainly distributes in the middle of the study region , showing a band region from southwest to northeast . The forest landscape diversity and the space location have a moderate spatial correlation and a obvious structural under a forest level.

  13. Anaerobic oxidation of toluene, phenol, and p-cresol by the dissimilatory iron-reducing organism, GS-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Lonergan, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The dissimilatory Fe(III) reducer, GS-15, is the first microorganism known to couple the oxidation of aromatic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) and the first example of a pure culture of any kind known to anaerobically oxidize an aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene. In this study, the metabolism of toluene, phenol, and p-cresol by GS-15 was investigated in more detail. GS-15 grew in an anaerobic medium with toluene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor. Growth coincided with Fe(III) reduction. [ring-14C]toluene was oxidized to 14CO2, and the stoichiometry of 14CO2 production and Fe(III) reduction indicated that GS-15 completely oxidized toluene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. Magnetite was the primary iron end product during toluene oxidation. Phenol and p-cresol were also completely oxidized to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor, and GS-15 could obtain energy to support growth by oxidizing either of these compounds as the sole electron donor. p-Hydroxybenzoate was a transitory extracellular intermediate of phenol and p-cresol metabolism but not of toluene metabolism. GS-15 oxidized potential aromatic intermediates in the oxidation of toluene (benzylalcohol and benzaldehyde) and p-cresol (p-hydroxybenzylalcohol and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde). The metabolism described here provides a model for how aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols may be oxidized with the reduction of Fe(III) in contaminated aquifers and petroleum-containing sediments.

  14. Do adenocarcinomas of the prostate with Gleason score (GS) ≤6 have the potential to metastasize to lymph nodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hillary M; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Cowan, Janet E; Simko, Jeffry P; Wheeler, Thomas M; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2012-09-01

    Although rare, there are cases within reported series of men with Gleason score (GS) ≤6 on radical prostatectomies that show pelvic lymph node (LN) metastases. However, there are no studies on whether pelvic LN metastases occur in tumors with GS ≤6 using the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) updated GS system. We performed a search of the radical prostatectomy databases at 4 large academic centers for cases of GS ≤6. Only prostatectomies submitted and embedded in entirety with pelvic LN dissections were included. A combined total of 14,123 cases were identified, of which 22 cases had a positive LN. Histopathologic review of 19 cases (3 cases unavailable for review) showed higher grade than originally reported by the pathologists in all cases. Of the 17 pre-ISUP reviewed cases, 2 were upgraded to 4+3=7 with both cribriform and poorly formed glands. One case was upgraded to 4+3=7 with tertiary pattern 5 displaying cribriform glands, poorly formed glands, and cords of single cells. Eleven cases were upgraded to 3+4=7 with glomeruloid structures and small to large cribriform glands (1 of these also had features of ductal adenocarcinoma). Two cases had tertiary pattern 4 with small cribriform glands. One case had a prominent colloid component that would currently be graded as 4+5=9 because of large cribriform glands and solid sheets of cells within the mucin. Of the 2 post-ISUP cases, 1 demonstrated tertiary pattern 4, and the other showed GS 3+4=7 with irregular cribriform glands. Undergrading is the primary reason for LN positivity with GS ≤6, which has decreased significantly since the adoption of the ISUP grading system in 2005. Of over 14,000 totally embedded radical prostatectomies from multiple institutions, there was not a single case of a GS ≤6 tumor with LN metastases. In contrast to prevailing assumptions, GS ≤6 tumors do not appear to metastasize to LNs. Rather, Gleason pattern 4 or 5, as better defined by the current ISUP

  15. The better growth phenotype of DvGS1-transgenic arabidopsis thaliana is attributed to the improved efficiency of nitrogen assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chenguang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of the algal glutamine synthetase (GS gene DvGS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in higher plant biomass and better growth phenotype. The purpose of this study was to recognize the biological mechanism for the growth improvement of DvGS1-transgenic Arabidopsis. A series of molecular and biochemical investigations related to nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the DvGS1-transgenic line was conducted. Analysis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE-related gene transcription and enzymatic activity revealed that the transcriptional level and enzymatic activity of the genes encoding GS, glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly upregulated, especially from leaf tissues of the DvGS1-transgenic line under two nitrate conditions. The DvGS1-transgenic line showed increased total nitrogen content and decreased carbon: nitrogen ratio compared to wild-type plants. Significant reduced concentrations of free nitrate, ammonium, sucrose, glucose and starch, together with higher concentrations of total amino acids, individual amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, methionine, soluble proteins and fructose in leaf tissues confirmed that the DvGS1-transgenic line demonstrated a higher efficiency of nitrogen assimilation, which subsequently affected carbon metabolism. These improved metabolisms of nitrogen and carbon conferred the DvGS1-transgenic Arabidopsis higher NUE, more biomass and better growth phenotype compared with the wild-type plants.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Management Standard Systems IAEA GS-R-3, ISO9000 and PMBOK%IAEA GS-R-3、ISO9000和PMBOK三大管理标准体系的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁乐天

    2012-01-01

    对比分析了IAEA GS-R-3、ISO9000和PMBOK三大管理标准体系的目的、范围、过程性质、管理方法和过程模型,明确了系统方法应是管理改进的目标,揭示了核电全寿期过程的项目特征,建立了实用性核电过程模型,提出了GS-R-3标准体系的框架模型。%Comparative analysis of the purpose, extent, process property and management method of three management standard systems-IAEA GS-R-3, ISO9000 and PMBOK, indicates that system ap-proach is the goal of management improvement, reveals the project feature of nuclear power lifecycle process. Practical applicability process model for nuclear power plant is established. Frame model of GS-R-3 standard system is presented.

  17. Influence of Nitrogen Availability on Growth of Two Transgenic Birch Species Carrying the Pine GS1a Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Lebedev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens and silver birch (B. pendula were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM for one growing season. The transfer of the GS1a gene led to a significant increase in the height of only two transgenic lines of nine B. pubescens, but three of five B. pendula transgenic lines were higher than the controls. In general, nitrogen supply reduced the positive effect of the GS gene on the growth of transgenic birch plants. No differences in leaf pigment levels between control and transgenic plants were found. Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf chlorophyll content in untransformed plants but its effect on most of the transgenic lines was insignificant. The results suggest that birch plants carrying the GS gene use nitrogen more efficiently, especially when growing in nitrogen deficient soil. Transgenic lines were less responsive to nitrogen supply in comparison to wild-type plants.

  18. Influence of Nitrogen Availability on Growth of Two Transgenic Birch Species Carrying the Pine GS1a Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Vadim G.; Kovalenko, Nina P.; Shestibratov, Konstantin A.

    2017-01-01

    An alternative way to increase plant productivity through the use of nitrogen fertilizers is to improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization via genetic engineering. The effects of overexpression of pine glutamine synthetase (GS) gene and nitrogen availability on growth and leaf pigment levels of two Betula species were studied. Untransformed and transgenic plants of downy birch (B. pubescens) and silver birch (B. pendula) were grown under open-air conditions at three nitrogen regimes (0, 1, or 10 mM) for one growing season. The transfer of the GS1a gene led to a significant increase in the height of only two transgenic lines of nine B. pubescens, but three of five B. pendula transgenic lines were higher than the controls. In general, nitrogen supply reduced the positive effect of the GS gene on the growth of transgenic birch plants. No differences in leaf pigment levels between control and transgenic plants were found. Nitrogen fertilization increased leaf chlorophyll content in untransformed plants but its effect on most of the transgenic lines was insignificant. The results suggest that birch plants carrying the GS gene use nitrogen more efficiently, especially when growing in nitrogen deficient soil. Transgenic lines were less responsive to nitrogen supply in comparison to wild-type plants. PMID:28067821

  19. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα-encoding (GNAS genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486 were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646 was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656 was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646 is associated (P ≤ 0.05 with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01 with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size was also observed at the rs

  20. Behind the scenes of GS: a professional fire and rescue service like no other

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Meet the professionals at the top of their game working hard for the well-being of the CERN community. Meet the CERN Fire Brigade.   Highly-qualified professional firefighters CERN’s Fire and Rescue Service (FRS, GS-FB Group) currently consists of 58 professionals. These are highly sought-after positions: for just a handful of vacancies, hundreds of applications are submitted from all over Europe. And bear in mind that only professional firefighters with at least five years’ experience at a centre with high levels of operational activity may apply… and they must also have a good command of at least one of the Organization's two official languages. Once the pre-selection process is over, around twenty candidates progress to the next stage, where they are really put through their paces with language tests, theory exams and exercises on real fires. “For the practical part, all candidates are evaluated on their responses to a real fire," ...

  1. Behind the scenes of GS: Did you say “grey”?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Walking around the CERN site, what we tend to notice are the buildings, roads, and car parks. At first glance, any “green” seems to be in the minority. The reality is quite different, as developed land takes up only 40 of the almost 650 hectares made available to the Organization by its Host States.   1,300 trees in CERN's enclosed areas, 250 hectares of cultivated fields and meadows, 140 hectares of woodland, and three wetlands: CERN clearly deserves its “green” certification from the Swiss conservation foundation Nature et économie that it has held since 2009. "We maintain every site, but each site is different and has its own conservation criteria," says Mathieu Fontaine, head of Green Spaces in the Civil Engineering and Buildings section of the GS Department. At CERN, an external company takes care of the day-to-day upkeep, but more complex operations are often necessary. The various projects to fell diseased or ...

  2. GS-1101: a delta-specific PI3K inhibitor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Perez, Ines M; Flinn, Ian W

    2013-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable B-cell malignancy with many unanswered questions. While the cell of origin and etiology are still unknown, significant scientific progress has revealed numerous molecular targets for novel therapeutic interventions. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) regulate key cellular functions, including growth, survival and migration, by integrating and transmitting signals from diverse surface molecules including the B-cell receptor (BCR). In lymphocytes, the PI3Kδ isoform plays a critical role in B-cell homeostasis and function. In CLL, the PI3K pathway is constitutively active and dependent on PI3Kδ. GS-1101 is a highly selective PI3Kδ inhibitor that in CLL patients causes a rapid and sustained reduction in lymphadenopathy, accompanied by transient lymphocytosis. This article will review new insights into the pathophysiology of CLL, the preclinical rationale of a PI3Kδ inhibitor in CLL, and the clinical evidence supporting this first-in-class therapeutic target for CLL patients.

  3. High-throughput microsatellite isolation through 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of enriched DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malausa, Thibaut; Gilles, André; Meglécz, Emese; Blanquart, Hélène; Duthoy, Stéphanie; Costedoat, Caroline; Dubut, Vincent; Pech, Nicolas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Délye, Christophe; Feau, Nicolas; Frey, Pascal; Gauthier, Philippe; Guillemaud, Thomas; Hazard, Laurent; Le Corre, Valérie; Lung-Escarmant, Brigitte; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Martin, Jean-François

    2011-07-01

    Microsatellites (or SSRs: simple sequence repeats) are among the most frequently used DNA markers in many areas of research. The use of microsatellite markers is limited by the difficulties involved in their de novo isolation from species for which no genomic resources are available. We describe here a high-throughput method for isolating microsatellite markers based on coupling multiplex microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing on 454 GS-FLX Titanium platforms. The procedure was calibrated on a model species (Apis mellifera) and validated on 13 other species from various taxonomic groups (animals, plants and fungi), including taxa for which severe difficulties were previously encountered using traditional methods. We obtained from 11,497 to 34,483 sequences depending on the species and the number of detected microsatellite loci ranged from 199 to 5791. We thus demonstrated that this procedure can be readily and successfully applied to a large variety of taxonomic groups, at much lower cost than would have been possible with traditional protocols. This method is expected to speed up the acquisition of high-quality genetic markers for nonmodel organisms.

  4. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  5. The Spin of the Black Hole GS 1124-683: Observation of a Retrograde Accretion Disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Morningstar, Warren R; Reis, Rubens C; Ebisawa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine archival Ginga data for the black hole binary system GS 1124-683, obtained when the system was undergoing its 1991 outburst. Our analysis estimates the dimensionless spin parameter a=cJ/GM^2 by fitting the X-ray continuum spectra obtained while the system was in the "Thermal Dominant" state. For likely values of mass and distance, we find the spin to be a=-0.25 (-0.64, +0.05) (90% confidence), implying that the disk is retrograde (i.e. rotating antiparallel to the spin axis of the black hole). We note that this measurement would be better constrained if the distance to the binary and the mass of the black hole were more accurately determined. This result is unaffected by the model used to fit the hard component of the spectrum. In order to be able to recover a prograde spin, the mass of the black hole would need to be at least 15.25 Msun, or the distance would need to be less than 4.5 kpc, both of which disagree with previous determinations of the black hole mass and distance. If we allow f_col ...

  6. Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas

    2013-04-02

    Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.

  7. On the model-based optimization of secreting mammalian cell (GS-NS0) cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparissides, A; Pistikopoulos, E N; Mantalaris, A

    2015-03-01

    The global bio-manufacturing industry requires improved process efficiency to satisfy the increasing demands for biochemicals, biofuels, and biologics. The use of model-based techniques can facilitate the reduction of unnecessary experimentation and reduce labor and operating costs by identifying the most informative experiments and providing strategies to optimize the bioprocess at hand. Herein, we investigate the potential of a research methodology that combines model development, parameter estimation, global sensitivity analysis, and selection of optimal feeding policies via dynamic optimization methods to improve the efficiency of an industrially relevant bioprocess. Data from a set of batch experiments was used to estimate values for the parameters of an unstructured model describing monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in GS-NS0 cell cultures. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted parameters with a strong effect on the model output and data from a fed-batch experiment were used to refine their estimated values. Model-based optimization was used to identify a feeding regime that maximized final mAb titer. An independent fed-batch experiment was conducted to validate both the results of the optimization and the predictive capabilities of the developed model. The successful integration of wet-lab experimentation and mathematical model development, analysis, and optimization represents a unique, novel, and interdisciplinary approach that addresses the complicated research and industrial problem of model-based optimization of cell based processes.

  8. Behind the scenes of GS: there’s only one way to go

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, all of the Laboratory’s imports and exports are routed in the same way: through the Logistics Service. This GS-IS Group service is responsible for receiving, inspecting and distributing all goods sent to the Organization.   Whether products for the CERN Stores, components for the experiments, tools, machinery and materials for the workshops or equipment for users and members of the personnel, nothing escapes the attention of CERN’s Logistics Service, which every year processes nearly 70,000 incoming deliveries, 7,500 shipments and 160,000 distributed items. “The vast majority of our imports come from CERN Member States,” says imports and customs procedures manager Laurence Planque, “but we are receiving more and more goods for collaborators working at CERN from non-Member States such as China, India and Pakistan. All these imports are entitled to diplomatic exemption, so every day we have to manage the customs clearance procedures wit...

  9. The 3' untranslated region of the two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS(1)) genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) regulates transcript stability in response to glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bindu; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2010-10-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to produce glutamine. The GS enzyme is located either in the chloroplast (GS(2)) or in the cytoplasm (GS(1)). GS(1) is encoded by a small gene family and the members exhibit differential expression pattern mostly attributed to transcriptional regulation. Based on our recent finding that a soybean GS(1) gene, Gmglnβ ( 1 ) is subject to its 3'UTR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation as a transgene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) we have raised the question of whether the 3'UTR-mediated transcript destabilization is a more universal phenomenon. Gene constructs consisting of the CaMV35S promoter driving the reporter gene, GUS, followed by the 3'UTRs of the two alfalfa GS(1) genes, MsGSa and MsGSb, were introduced into alfalfa and tobacco. The analysis of these transformants suggests that while both the 3'UTRs promote transcript turnover, the MsGSb 3'UTR is more effective than the MsGSa 3'UTR. However, both the 3'UTRs along with Gmglnβ ( 1 ) 3'UTR respond to nitrate as a trigger in transcript turnover. More detailed analysis points to glutamine rather than nitrate as the mediator of transcript turnover. Our data suggests that the 3'UTR-mediated regulation of GS(1) genes at the level of transcript turnover is probably universal and is used for fine-tuning the expression in keeping with the availability of the substrates.

  10. GsSKP21, a Glycine soja S-phase kinase-associated protein, mediates the regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailin; Yu, Yang; Duan, Xiangbo; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Plant SKP1-like family proteins, components of the SCF complex E3 ligases, are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Little is known about the precise function of SKP genes in plant responses to environmental stresses. GsSKP21 was initially identified as a potential stress-responsive gene based on the transcriptome sequencing of Glycine soja. In this study, we found that GsSKP21 protein contains highly conserved SKP domains in its N terminus and an extra unidentified domain in its C terminus. The transcript abundance of GsSKP21, detected by quantitative real-time PCR, was induced under the treatment of alkali and salt stresses. Overexpression of GsSKP21 in Arabidopsis dramatically increased plant tolerance to alkali stress. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsSKP21 resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity during both the seed germination and early seedling growth stages. GsSKP21 mediated ABA signaling by altering the expression levels of the ABA signaling-related and ABA-induced genes. We also investigated the tissue expression specificity and subcellular localization of GsSKP21. These results suggest that GsSKP21 is important for plant tolerance to alkali stress and plays a critical regulatory role in the ABA-mediated stress response.

  11. Análisis estructural e invarianza de medición del MBI-GS en trabajadores peruanos (Structural Analysis and Measurement Invariance of MBI-GS in Peruvian Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández-Arata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La medición del burnout ha evolucionado con la creación de varios instrumentos y modelos. El Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS es uno de estos instrumentos para medir tres constructos definicionales del burnout: (1 agotamiento emocional, (2 eficacia profesional y (3 indiferencia. Fue creado para un amplio rango de ocupaciones, pero pocas veces se ha verificado su estructura latente e invarianza de medición en Latinoamérica. El presente estudio analiza esta estructura latente y la invarianza de medición del MBI-GS en una muestra de 940 trabajadores peruanos de varias ocupaciones. Se aplicó la metodología de ecuaciones estructurales mediante el análisis factorial confirmatorio, así como la invarianza de medición entre varones y mujeres, imponiendo restricciones sucesivamente más estrictas. Los resultados verificaron satisfactoriamente la estructura de tres dimensiones latentes del MBI-GS, y la invarianza de sus parámetros entre hombres y mujeres. Se discute las implicaciones de los resultados. Abstract The measurement of burnout has evolved into the creation of various tools and models. The Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS is one of these instruments used to measure three definitional constructs of burnout: (1 emotional exhaustion, (2 professional efficiency, and (3 indifference. It was created for a wide range of occupations, but its latent structure and invariance of measurement in Latin America has rarely been verified. The present study analyzes the latent structure and the invariance of measurement of MBI-GS in a sample of 940 Peruvian workers in various occupations. The methodology of structural equations was applied through the confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the invariance of measurement between men and women, imposing restrictions successively more strict. The results satisfactorily verified the structure of three-dimensional latent MBI-GS, and the invariance of its

  12. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

  13. Cloning of Glutamine Synthetase BnGS2 Allele Genes from Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) and Study on Gene-Transforming Tobacco%苎麻谷氨酰胺合成酶BnGS2等位基因的克隆及其转基因烟草特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建树; 段叶辉; 熊和平; 喻春明; 陈平; 王延周; 谭龙涛; 陈继康; 朱涛涛; 卢凌霄; 朱娟娟

    2014-01-01

    【目的】克隆谷氨酰胺合成酶BnGS2等位基因,分别构建其超量表达载体,并探讨其在转基因烟草中对氮代谢的影响。【方法】依据苎麻转录组unigenes和RT-PCR技术克隆苎麻BnGS2等位基因,利用内切酶TaqⅠ对目的等位基因在中苎1号自交 F1和亲本中进行酶切鉴定,并利用生物信息学对基因序列和结构特征进行分析;通过同源重组技术分别构建 BnGS2等位基因的超量表达载体,并在农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)LBA4404的介导下,通过叶盘法将超量表达载体转入烟草中,通过Kan筛选、转化植株基因组DNA PCR验证获得转基因T0植株;利用qRT-PCR分析BnGS2等位基因在转基因T1植株中的相对表达水平,并测定植株叶片中的GS活性、株高、鲜重、可溶蛋白及总氮含量。【结果】首次从苎麻中克隆了一对GS2等位基因,命名为BnGS2-1和BnGS2-2,等位基因序列全长1340 bp,含有一个1293 bp的ORF区,编码430个氨基酸残基多肽;等位基因核苷酸序列在11个位点上存在差异,导致编码的多肽在195、382位点上的氨基酸残基存在替换现象(BnGS2-1为脯氨酸和天冬酰胺,BnGS2-2为苏氨酸和丝氨酸);NCBI BLASTP分析表明苎麻BnGS2与Pisum sativum、Vigna radiata、Glycine max、Phaseolus vulgaris、Medicago truncatula具有很近的亲缘关系;构建了能分别超量表达BnGS2-1和BnGS2-2的载体,并获得能分别超量表达BnGS2-1和BnGS2-2转基因烟草植株;与野生型烟草植株相比,超量表达BnGS2等位基因(BnGS2-1和BnGS2-2)都能显著性提高转基因植株叶片GS活性、鲜重和可溶性蛋白的含量,株高和总氮含量也有增加,但没有达到显著性水平。另外,超量表达不同BnGS2等位基因(BnGS2-1和BnGS2-2)的转基因烟草植株,在株高、鲜重、叶片可溶性蛋白及总氮含量上并没有显著性差异。【结论】在烟草中分

  14. Human milk IgGs contain various combinations of different antigen-binding sites resulting in multiple variants of their bispecificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey E Sedykh

    Full Text Available In the classic paradigm, immunoglobulins represent products of clonal B cell populations, each producing antibodies (Abs recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, human milk IgGs to different antigens undergo extensive half-molecule exchange. In the IgGs pool, only 33 ± 5% and 13 ± 5% of Abs contained light chains exclusively of kappa- or lambda-type, respectively, while 54 ± 10% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda- light chains. All Ab preparations contained different amounts of IgGs of all four subclasses. Interestingly, lambda-IgGs contained an increased amount of IgG2 (87% and only 3-6% of each of IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4, while kappa-IgGs consisted of comparable (17-32% amounts of all IgG subtypes. Chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of ~74% IgG1, ~16% IgG2, ~5% IgG3 and ~5% IgG4. As the result of the exchange, all IgG fractions eluted from several specific affinity sorbents under the conditions destroying strong immunocomplexes demonstrated high catalytic activities in hydrolysis of ATP, DNA, oligosaccharides, phosphorylation of proteins, lipids, and oligosaccharides. In vitro, an addition of reduced glutathione and milk plasma to two IgG fractions with different affinity for DNA-cellulose led to a transition of 25-60% of Ab of one fraction to the other fraction. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between milk IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens (including abzymes, which explains the polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of these IgGs.

  15. A Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o participates in stomatal and root hair development and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Mingzhe; Chen, Chao; Ding, Xiaodong; Wang, Xuedong; Yang, Shanshan; Yu, Qingyue; Jia, Bowei; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.

  16. Structure determination and biochemical characterization of a putative HNH endonuclease from Geobacter metallireducens GS-15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-yong Xu

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of a putative HNH endonuclease, Gmet_0936 protein from Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, has been determined at 2.6 Å resolution using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method. The structure contains a two-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet that are surrounded by two helices on each face, and reveals a Zn ion bound in each monomer, coordinated by residues Cys38, Cys41, Cys73, and Cys76, which likely plays an important structural role in stabilizing the overall conformation. Structural homologs of Gmet_0936 include Hpy99I endonuclease, phage T4 endonuclease VII, and other HNH endonucleases, with these enzymes sharing 15-20% amino acid sequence identity. An overlay of Gmet_0936 and Hpy99I structures shows that most of the secondary structure elements, catalytic residues as well as the zinc binding site (zinc ribbon are conserved. However, Gmet_0936 lacks the N-terminal domain of Hpy99I, which mediates DNA binding as well as dimerization. Purified Gmet_0936 forms dimers in solution and a dimer of the protein is observed in the crystal, but with a different mode of dimerization as compared to Hpy99I. Gmet_0936 and its N77H variant show a weak DNA binding activity in a DNA mobility shift assay and a weak Mn²⁺-dependent nicking activity on supercoiled plasmids in low pH buffers. The preferred substrate appears to be acid and heat-treated DNA with AP sites, suggesting Gmet_0936 may be a DNA repair enzyme.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Human-Pathogenic Lactococcus garvieae LG-ilsanpaik-gs201105 That Caused Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kang, Do-Hyung; Park, Se Chang

    2015-06-04

    Lactococcus garvieae, which is generally known as a marine and freshwater fish pathogen, is now considered to be an emerging zoonotic pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, we have reported the infection of L. garvieae LG-ilsanpaik-gs201105 in the gallbladder of an old fisherman. In this study, we present the draft genome sequence of L. garvieae LG-ilsanpaik-gs201105, with a total genome size of 1,960,261 bp in 53 contigs and a 38.1% average G+C content. Interestingly, the capsule gene cluster, which was known as one of the crucial virulence factors in L. garvieae, was not detected in our isolate. This is the first genome sequence of human-pathogenic L. garvieae, which caused acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  18. Procedure for Calculation of Potency and Efficacy for Ligands Acting on G(s)- and G (i)-Coupled Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Eddi; Schousboe, Arne; Belhage, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Structure activity relationship (SAR) analyses of pharmacological data of compounds constitute an important part of the discovery process in the design of new drug candidates with improved pharmacological properties. In particular G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) associated with the cAMP second...... messenger systems G(s) and G(i) have constituted one of the most widely used basis for pharmacological in vitro assays for assessing functional receptor effects. Such assays are based on Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) analysis to measure the cellular cAMP concentration as readout of receptor activation....... It appears, however, to be a common practice to omit the use of cAMP standard curves to transform the measured signals (cpm or cps) into cAMP concentrations on which estimations of potencies (EC(50) values) and efficacies (E(MAX) values) in G(s) and G(i) coupled receptor stimulation are based. Such practice...

  19. Transgene inheritance and quality improvement by expressing novel HMW glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes in winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The expression vector pBPC30, which carries the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes, was transferred into hexaploid winter wheat cv. Jinghua No. 1, Jing411 and Jingdong No. 6 explants of immature embryos and immature inflorescence by particle bombardment. A large number of resistant transgenic plants were obtained under the selection of herbicide bialaphos or phosphinothricin (PPT). Confirmed transgenic plants of T0 generation showed successful integration of HMW-GS genes and bar gene into the wheat genome. T1 generation of transgenic plants can resist 20-150 mg/L PPT. Protein analysis of T2 seed by SDS-PAGE showed that HMW-GS 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes were well expressed in offspring seed of transgenic lines by co-expression with or substitution of endogenous 1Dx2 or 1Dy10. In one transgenic line, TG3-74, a new protein band between endogenous protein subunits 7 and 8 (marked as 8*) of glutenin appeared, but endogenous subunit 8 (encoded by 1By8 gene) was absent. Analysis of gluten rheological quality on seed proteins of 102 T3 plants showed that the sedimentation value of 5 transgenic lines (44.2-49.0 mL) was remarkably improved, 59.6%-64.3% higher than that of wild type Jinghua No. 1 and Jingdong No. 6, similar to bread wheat Cheyenne (48.0 mL). Analysis of dough rheological properties of transgenic lines showed that the dough stable time of 5 transgenic lines range from 16 to 30 min, whereas the dough stable time of wild type was only between 3-7 min. Our research suggests that introducing novel HMW-GS genes into wheat is an efficient way to improve its bread-making quality.

  20. Quality differences between NILs of wheat variety Long 97-586 possessing HMW-GS 7+8 and 7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) 7+8 were introduced into the Long 97–586 (1,7,2+12) wheat variety (Triticum aestivum) by 5 consecutive backcrosses with biochemical marker–assisted selection.Nearly isogenic lines (NILs) of HMW-GS 7 and 7+8 were obtained,and the NILs were planted in the experimental field at the Crop Breeding Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science in 2004–2006.The field experiments were designed using the two-column contrast arrangement method with six replicates in 2004–2005 and four replicates in 2006.The result of three years experiments showed that the differences between NILs of Long 97–586 with subunit 7 and those with subunits 7+8 in the quality parameters of flour protein content and dry gluten content were negligible (P>0.1).However,the differences in some of the quality parameters were remarkably significant (P<0.01),including wet gluten content,ratio of wet gluten/dry gluten,gluten index,Zeleny sedimentation,ratio of sedimentation/dry gluten,and the farinogram parameters of water absorption,development time,stability,breakdown time and degree of softening.The difference between NILs with subunits 7+8 and subunit 7 was significant (P<0.05) on the alveogram W value and had a critical value (P=0.05) on the alveogram P value in 2006.The results show that HMW-GS 7+8 is far superior to HMW-GS 7 in terms of baking quality.The possibilities of using subunits 7+8 and subunit 7 in breeding strong and weak gluten wheat varieties are discussed in this paper.

  1. 研扬发布一款全新的COM Express模块——COM-45GS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    研扬近期发布了一款全新的基于Intel GS45芯片组的TypeⅡCOM Express模块一COM-45GS。COM-45GS是为了满足市场对低功耗高性能产品的需求而设计的。COM-45GS可缩短开发时间。

  2. SUZUKI GS1000的延续——改装纪念版SUZUKI GSX400S Impulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海笑; 安李楠

    2004-01-01

    SUZUKI GSX400S Impulse是一款非常大众化的400NK,在车友中的保有率很高,到处都有Impulse的身影,这次改装的Impulse是一台2000年出厂的GS1000纪念版刺激,有很高的收藏价值。

  3. GS/DBM/PLA porous composite biomaterial for the treatment of infective femoral condyle defect in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yuming; Xu, Weijun; Ren, Yan; LIU, BIWANG; Yang, Biao; LI, BAOXING

    2016-01-01

    A bone defect resulting from open bone trauma may easily become infected; however, the administration of efficacious systemic antibiotics cannot be performed at safe levels. Previous studies have investigated anti-infective biomaterials that incorporate into bone and facilitate the direct application of high-concentration local antibiotics. In the present study, the effect of a novel porous composite with gentamicin sulfate (GS) in treating infected femoral condyle defects was investigated us...

  4. Evaluation of 454 GS Junior Sequencing Platform Using in Bacterial Genome de novo Sequencing%454 GS Junior测序平台用于细菌基因组de novo测序的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 张媛媛; 王海印

    2013-01-01

      目的评价454 GS Junior 测序平台在细菌基因组测序中的应用价值。方法利用454 GS Junior 测序平台测定1株霍乱弧菌的基因组序列,组装注释后,与参考序列霍乱弧菌 O1埃尔托生物型菌株 N16961基因组序列进行比对。结果共获得37Mbp 数据,平均读长为322bp。数据组装后,得到170个序列重叠群,总长为3.96Mbp。与参考序列相比,测定序列对于参考序列的覆盖度达到99.49%,参考序列96.76%的基因被完整测出同源基因。结论454 GS Junior 测序平台可以用于细菌基因组的快速测定。%  Objective To investigate the application value of 454 GS Junior Sequencing Platform in bacterial genome sequencing. Methods Genome sequencing of Vibrio Cholera was performed using 454 pyrosequencing, and the genome was compared with the reference sequence of N16961 after assembling and annotation. Results Totally, 37 Mbp raw data were obtained and the average reads length is 322 bps. 170 contigs were assembled and the whole genome is 3.96 Mbp. Comparing with strain N16961, the sequenced genome covered 99.49% of the reference genome and 96.76% genes of N16961 got orthologous in the sequenced genome. Conclusion The 454 GS Junior Sequencing Platform is suitable for the fast sequencing of bacterial genome.

  5. Amperometric Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-Antibody Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyou Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  6. Amperometric immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-antibody conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Wang, Xiangyou

    2013-04-19

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au) nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE) via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab) and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  7. Acidosis Mediates the Switching of Gs-PKA and Gi-PKCε Dependence in Prolonged Hyperalgesia Induced by Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Yu; Dai, Shih-Ping; Chang, Yan-Ching; Sun, Wei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory pain, when not effectively treated, is a costly health problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Previous studies suggested that in male Sprague Dawley rats, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced short-term hyperalgesia depends on protein kinase A (PKA) activity, whereas long-lasting hyperalgesia induced by PGE2 with carrageenan pre-injection, requires protein kinase Cε (PKCε). However, the mechanism underlying the kinase switch with short- to long-term hyperalgesia remains unclear. In this study, we used the inflammatory agents carrageenan or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce long-term hyperalgesia, and examined PKA and PKCε dependence and switching time. Hyperalgesia induced by both agents depended on PKA/PKCε and Gs/Gi-proteins, and the switching time from PKA to PKCε and from Gs to Gi was about 3 to 4 h after inflammation induction. Among the single inflammatory mediators tested, PGE2 and 5-HT induced transient hyperalgesia, which depended on PKA and PKCε, respectively. Only acidic solution-induced hyperalgesia required Gs-PKA and Gi-PKCε, and the switch time for kinase dependency matched inflammatory hyperalgesia, in approximately 2 to 4 h. Thus, acidosis in inflamed tissues may be a decisive factor to regulate switching of PKA and PKCε dependence via proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors.

  8. Acidosis Mediates the Switching of Gs-PKA and Gi-PKCε Dependence in Prolonged Hyperalgesia Induced by Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu Huang

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory pain, when not effectively treated, is a costly health problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Previous studies suggested that in male Sprague Dawley rats, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2-induced short-term hyperalgesia depends on protein kinase A (PKA activity, whereas long-lasting hyperalgesia induced by PGE2 with carrageenan pre-injection, requires protein kinase Cε (PKCε. However, the mechanism underlying the kinase switch with short- to long-term hyperalgesia remains unclear. In this study, we used the inflammatory agents carrageenan or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA to induce long-term hyperalgesia, and examined PKA and PKCε dependence and switching time. Hyperalgesia induced by both agents depended on PKA/PKCε and Gs/Gi-proteins, and the switching time from PKA to PKCε and from Gs to Gi was about 3 to 4 h after inflammation induction. Among the single inflammatory mediators tested, PGE2 and 5-HT induced transient hyperalgesia, which depended on PKA and PKCε, respectively. Only acidic solution-induced hyperalgesia required Gs-PKA and Gi-PKCε, and the switch time for kinase dependency matched inflammatory hyperalgesia, in approximately 2 to 4 h. Thus, acidosis in inflamed tissues may be a decisive factor to regulate switching of PKA and PKCε dependence via proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors.

  9. PI3Kδ inhibitor, GS-1101 (CAL-101), attenuates pathway signaling, induces apoptosis, and overcomes signals from the microenvironment in cellular models of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah A; Vega, Francisco; Kashishian, Adam; Johnson, Dave; Diehl, Volker; Miller, Langdon L; Younes, Anas; Lannutti, Brian J

    2012-02-23

    GS-1101 (CAL-101) is an oral PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor that has shown preclinical and clinical activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. To investigate the potential role of PI3Kδ in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), we screened 5 HL cell lines and primary samples from patients with HL for PI3Kδ isoform expression and constitutive PI3K pathway activation. Inhibition of PI3Kδ by GS-1101 resulted in the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Cocultures with stroma cells induced Akt activation in HL cells, and this effect was blocked by GS-1101. Conversely, production of the stroma-stimulating chemokine, CCL5, by HL cells was reduced by GS-1101. GS-1101 also induced dose-dependent apoptosis of HL cells at 48 hours. Reductions in cell viability and apoptosis were enhanced when combining GS-1101 with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Our findings suggest that excessive PI3Kδ activity is characteristic in HL and support clinical evaluation of GS-1101, alone and in combination, as targeted therapy for HL.

  10. The new 4-O-methylhonokiol analog GS12021 inhibits inflammation and macrophage chemotaxis: role of AMP-activated protein kinase α activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Kim

    Full Text Available Preventing pathologic tissue inflammation is key to treating obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previously, we synthesized a series of methylhonokiol analogs and reported that compounds with a carbamate structure had inhibitory function against cyclooxygenase-2 in a cell-free enzyme assay. However, whether these compounds could inhibit the expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages has not been investigated. Here, we found that a new 4-O-methylhonokiol analog, 3',5-diallyl-4'-methoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl morpholine-4-carboxylate (GS12021 inhibited LPS- or TNFα-stimulated inflammation in macrophages and adipocytes, respectively. LPS-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB/p65 was significantly decreased, whereas NF-κB luciferase activities were slightly inhibited, by GS12021 treatment in RAW 264.7 cells. Either mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or AP-1 luciferase activity was not altered by GS12021. GS12021 increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK α and the expression of sirtuin (SIRT 1. Inhibition of mRNA expression of inflammatory genes by GS12021 was abolished in AMPKα1-knockdown cells, but not in SIRT1 knockout cells, demonstrating that GS12021 exerts anti-inflammatory effects through AMPKα activation. The transwell migration assay results showed that GS12021 treatment of macrophages prevented the cell migration promoted by incubation with conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes. GS12021 suppression of p65 phosphorylation and macrophage chemotaxis were preserved in AMPKα1-knockdown cells, indicating AMPK is not required for these functions of GS12021. Identification of this novel methylhonokiol analog could enable studies of the structure-activity relationship of this class of compounds and further evaluation of its in vivo potential for the treatment of insulin-resistant states and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  11. Our trial to develop a risk assessment tool for CO2 geological storage (GERAS-CO2GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    We will introduce our researches about to develop a risk assessment tool named 'GERAS-CO2GS' (Geo-environmental Risk Assessment System, CO2 Geological Storage Risk Assessment System) for 'Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage (Geological CCS)'. It aims to facilitate understanding of size of impact of risks related with upper migration of injected CO2. For gaining public recognition about feasibility of Geological CCS, quantitative estimation of risks is essential, to let public knows the level of the risk: whether it is negligible or not. Generally, in preliminary hazard analysis procedure, potential hazards could be identified within Geological CCS's various facilities such as: reservoir, cap rock, upper layers, CO2 injection well, CO2 injection plant and CO2 transport facilities. Among them, hazard of leakage of injected C02 is crucial, because it is the clue to estimate risks around a specific injection plan in terms of safety, environmental protection effect and economy. Our risk assessment tool named GERAS-CO2GS evaluates volume and rate of retention and leakage of injected CO2 in relation with fractures and/or faults, and then it estimates impact of seepages on the surface of the earth. GERAS-CO2GS has four major processing segments: (a) calculation of CO2 retention and leakage volume and rate, (b) data processing of CO2 dispersion on the surface and ambient air, (c) risk data definition and (d) evaluation of risk. Concerning to the injection site, we defined a model, which is consisted from an injection well and a geological strata model: which involves a reservoir, a cap rock, an upper layer, faults, seabed, sea, the surface of the earth and the surface of the sea. For retention rate of each element of CO2 injection site model, we use results of our experimental and numerical studies on CO2 migration within reservoirs and faults with specific lithological conditions. For given CO2 injection rate, GERAS-CO2GS calculates CO2 retention and leakage of each segment

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonist GS-9620 Induces HIV Expression and HIV-Specific Immunity in Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Angela; Irrinki, Alivelu; Kaur, Jasmine; Cihlar, Tomas; Kukolj, George

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs). In this study, we show that the selective TLR7 agonist GS-9620 induced HIV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. GS-9620 increased extracellular HIV RNA 1.5- to 2-fold through a mechanism that required type I IFN signaling. GS-9620 also activated HIV-specific T cells and enhanced antibody-mediated clearance of HIV-infected cells. Activation by GS-9620 in combination with HIV peptide stimulation increased CD8 T cell degranulation, production of intracellular cytokines, and cytolytic activity. T cell activation was again dependent on type I IFNs produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. GS-9620 induced phagocytic cell maturation and improved effector-mediated killing of HIV-infected CD4 T cells by the HIV envelope-specific broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121. Collectively, these data show that GS-9620 can activate HIV production and improve the effector functions that target latently infected cells. GS-9620 may effectively complement orthogonal therapies designed to stimulate antiviral immunity, such as therapeutic vaccines or broadly neutralizing antibodies. Clinical studies are under way to determine if GS-9620 can target HIV reservoirs. IMPORTANCE Though antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress viral replication, they do not eliminate integrated proviral DNA. This stable intermediate of viral infection is

  13. A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, XiaoLi; Sun, Mingzhe; Luo, Xiao; Ding, XiaoDong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Liu, XiaoFei; Zhu, YanMing

    2013-06-01

    Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.

  14. All-oral therapy with nucleotide inhibitors sofosbuvir and GS-0938 for 14 days in treatment-naive genotype 1 hepatitis C (nuclear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawitz, E J; Rodriguez-Torres, M; Denning, J; Mathias, A; Mo, H; Gao, B; Cornpropst, M T; Berrey, M M; Symonds, W T

    2013-10-01

    Sofosbuvir and GS-0938 are distinct nucleotide analogues with activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in vitro. We evaluated the antiviral activity and safety of sofosbuvir and GS-0938 alone and in combination in HCV genotype 1 patients. In this double-blind study, 40 treatment-naïve patients were randomly assigned to 4 treatment cohorts: (i) GS-0938 for 14 days, (ii) GS-0938 for 7 days followed by GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 7 days, (iii) sofosbuvir for 7 days followed by GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 7 days and (iv) GS-0938 plus sofosbuvir for 14 days. In each arm, 8 patients received active drug and 2 placebo. After 7 days of dosing, patients in all 4 dose groups experienced substantial reductions in HCV RNA, with median declines (Q1, Q3) of -4.50 (-4.66, -4.24) in Cohort 1, -4.55 (-4.97, -4.13) in Cohort 2, -4.65 (-4.78, -4.17) in Cohort 3 and -4.43 (-4.81, -4.13) in Cohort 4; patients receiving placebo had essentially no change in HCV RNA (+0.07 log(10) IU/mL). Seven days after the end of treatment, the proportions of patients with HCV RNA Sofosbuvir and GS-0938-alone and in combination--were well tolerated and led to substantial reductions in viral load. Sofosbuvir is undergoing further investigation as a possible backbone of an all-oral regimen for chronic HCV.

  15. Coexistence of two different pseudohypoparathyroidism subtypes (Ia and Ib) in the same kindred with independent Gsα coding mutations and GNAS imprinting defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecumberri, B; Fernández-Rebollo, E; Sentchordi, L; Saavedra, P; Bernal-Chico, A; Pallardo, L F; Jiménez Bustos, J M; Castaño, L; de Santiago, M; Hiort, O; Pérez de Nanclares, G; Bastepe, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) defines a rare group of disorders whose common feature is resistance to the parathyroid hormone. Patients with PHP-Ia display additional hormone resistance, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and reduced Gsα activity in easily accessible cells. This form of PHP is associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations in Gsα-coding exons of GNAS, an imprinted gene locus on chromosome 20q13.3. Patients with PHP-Ib typically have isolated parathyroid hormone resistance, lack AHO features and demonstrate normal erythrocyte Gsα activity. Instead of coding Gsα mutations, patients with PHP-Ib display imprinting defects of GNAS, caused, at least in some cases, by genetic mutations within or nearby this gene. Patients Two unrelated PHP families, each of which includes at least one patient with a Gsα coding mutation and another with GNAS loss of imprinting, are reported here. Results One of the patients with GNAS imprinting defects has paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 20q, explaining the observed imprinting abnormalities. The identified Gsα coding mutations include a tetranucleotide deletion in exon 7, which is frequently found in PHP-Ia, and a novel single nucleotide change at the acceptor splice junction of intron 11. Conclusions These molecular data reveal an interesting mixture, in the same family, of both genetic and epigenetic mutations of the same gene. PMID:19858129

  16. B. subtilis GS67 protects C. elegans from Gram-positive pathogens via fengycin-mediated microbial antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatsenko, Igor; Yim, Joshua J; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-11-17

    Studies on Caenorhabditis elegans have provided detailed insight into host-pathogen interactions. Usually, the E. coli strain OP50 is used as food source for laboratory studies, but recent work has shown that a variety of bacteria have dramatic effects on C. elegans physiology, including immune responses. However, the mechanisms by which different bacteria impact worm resistance to pathogens are poorly understood. Although pathogen-specific immune priming is often discussed as a mechanism underlying such observations, interspecies microbial antagonism might represent an alternative mode of action. Here, we use several natural Bacillus strains to study their effects on nematode survival upon pathogen challenge. We show that B. subtilis GS67 persists in the C. elegans intestine and increases worm resistance to Gram-positive pathogens, suggesting that direct inhibition of pathogens might be the primary protective mechanism. Indeed, chemical and genetic analyses identified the lipopeptide fengycin as the major inhibitory molecule produced by B. subtilis GS67. Specifically, a fengycin-defective mutant of B. subtilis GS67 lost inhibitory activity against pathogens and was unable to protect C. elegans from infections. Furthermore, we found that purified fengycin cures infected worms in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that it acts as an antibiotic. Our results reveal a molecular mechanism for commensal-mediated C. elegans protection and highlight the importance of interspecies microbial antagonism for the outcome of animal-pathogen interactions. Furthermore, our work strengthens C. elegans as an in vivo model to reveal protective mechanisms of commensal bacteria, including those relevant to mammalian hosts.

  17. Observations of X-ray transient source GS2023+338 with the TTM coded mask telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H. C.; in 't Zand, J. J. M.; Skinner, G. K.; Borozdin, K. N.; Gil'Fanov, M. R.; Siuniaev, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    TTM observations in which the bright X-ray transient source GS2023+338 (=V404 Cyg) in the period June-August 1989 are reported. The observed spectral structure can be modeled using a model of a power-law source with a photon index of about 1.5, surrounded by partially ionized material. The observed X-rays consist of a component from the power-law source and those reflected (down-scattered) by the partially ionized material. Varying the clumpy structure or changing the ionization state of the circumstellar matter will cause the low-energy absorption to fluctuate.

  18. Linking differential domain functions of the GS3 protein to natural variation of grain size in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Hailiang; Sun, Shengyuan; Yao, Jialing; Wang, Chongrong; Yu, Sibin; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-01-01

    Grain yield in many cereal crops is largely determined by grain size. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of GS3, a major quantitative trait locus for grain size. It functions as a negative regulator of grain size and organ size. The wild-type isoform is composed of four putative domains: a plant-specific organ size regulation (OSR) domain in the N terminus, a transmembrane domain, a tumor necrosis factor receptor/nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR/NGFR) family cysteine-...

  19. A minimal set of tissue-specific hypomethylated CpGs constitute epigenetic signatures of developmental programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Colaneri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell specific states of the chromatin are programmed during mammalian development. Dynamic DNA methylation across the developing embryo guides a program of repression, switching off genes in most cell types. Thus, the majority of the tissue specific differentially methylated sites (TS-DMS must be un-methylated CpGs. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparison of expanded Methyl Sensitive Cut Counting data (eMSCC among four tissues (liver, testes, brain and kidney from three C57BL/6J mice, identified 138,052 differentially methylated sites of which 23,270 contain CpGs un-methylated in only one tissue (TS-DMS. Most of these CpGs were located in intergenic regions, outside of promoters, CpG islands or their shores, and up to 20% of them overlapped reported active enhancers. Indeed, tissue-specific enhancers were up to 30 fold enriched in TS-DMS. Testis showed the highest number of TS-DMS, but paradoxically their associated genes do not appear to be specific to the germ cell functions, but rather are involved in organism development. In the other tissues the differentially methylated genes are associated with tissue-specific physiological or anatomical functions. The identified sets of TS-DMS quantify epigenetic distances between tissues, generated during development. We applied this concept to measure the extent of reprogramming in the liver of mice exposed to in utero or early postnatal nutritional stress. Different protocols of food restriction reprogrammed the liver methylome in different but reproducible ways. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, each identified set of differentially methylated sites constituted an epigenetic signature that traced the developmental programing or the early nutritional reprogramming of each exposed mouse. We propose that our approach has the potential to outline a number of disease-associated epigenetic states. The composition of differentially methylated CpGs may vary with each situation, behaving

  20. NuSTAR detection of 4s Hard X-ray Lags from the Accreting Pulsar GS 0834-430

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona;

    2014-01-01

    The NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834􀀀430 during its 2012 outburst. The source is detected between 3 – 79 keV with high statistical significance, and we were able to perform very accurate spectral and timing analysis. The phase-averaged spectrum i...... significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low-energies (Emechanisms that might produce such lags. We find the most likely explanation for this eect to be a complex beam geometry....

  1. Evaluation of tourism industry based on C2 R and C2 GS2 model%基于C2R和C2GS2模型的省域旅游业绩效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志平; 顾平

    2011-01-01

    Considering the development of tourism industry as a business input-output system, the C2R and C2GS2 model of data envelopment analysis (DEA) methods are used to study the tourism industry. From the comprehensive efficiency, scale efficiency, technical efficiency and returns to scale, comparative evaluation of various regions tourism industry are done. The way to improve the performance of tourism industry is proposed. It may provide guidance for tourism policy.%通过将旅游业的发展视为一个投入产出系统,运用数据包络分析方法中的C2R模型和C2GS2模型对旅游业进行研究,从综合效率、规模效率、技术效率、规模收益等方面对我国省域旅游业进行比较评价,进而提出寻求提升旅游业经营绩效的途径,为旅游业决策提供指导.

  2. 非均匀三次B样条曲线插值的GS-PIA算法%Non-uniform Cubic B-spline Curve Interpolation Algorithm of GS-PIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳; 邓重阳

    2015-01-01

    提出了非均匀三次B样条曲线插值的GS-PIA算法。该算法与解线性方程组的高斯-赛德尔迭代法有同样的优点,即把已经更新的点参与到迭代过程来优化迭代过程;同时也具有渐进迭代逼近方法的优点,即有明确的几何意义,并能得到一系列逐次逼近插值点的非均匀三次 B样条曲线。%This paper presents a non-uniform cubic B-spline curve interpolation algorithm of GS-PIA.The algorithm and the Gauss-Seidel iterative method of solving linear equations have the same advantages , namely the points involved in the iterative process which has been updated to optimize the iterative process .At the same time, the algorithm also has the advantage of progressive iterative approximation method , namely, there is a clear geometric significance , and can make a series of non-uniform cubic B-spline curve approximation interpolation points .

  3. 大豆谷氨酰胺合成酶基因的分类及根瘤特异表达GmGS1β2基因功能的初步分析%Classification of Glutamine Synthetase Gene and Preliminary Functional Analysis of the Nodule-Predominantly Expressed Gene GmGS1β2 in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓波; 滕婉; 何雪; 童依平

    2013-01-01

    从Phytozome数据库中获得包括大豆在内的12种植物的谷氨酰胺合成酶(glutamine synthetase,GS)氨基酸序列,利用MEGA5.10软件进行多序列比对、构建进化树.进化分析表明,植物GS可以分成胞质型(GS1)和质体型(GS2)两大类,GS1可进一步分成分5个亚类,包括双子叶植物为主的Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ亚类、低等植物类(Ⅳ)和单子叶植物类(Ⅴ).这5亚类中,第Ⅱ类是豆科植物特有的一类,大豆的4个GS1 (GmGS1β1/2和GmGS1γ1/2)属于该亚类;利用qPCR在大豆盛花期分析GS1基因的组织表达特异性,结果表明不同类型GmGS1基因在表达部位和表达丰度上存在较大差异,而同一类基因之间具有相似的表达规律;4个豆科植物特有的GS1基因在大豆根瘤中都有较高的表达量,其中位于大豆第18染色体上的GmGS1β2基因表达丰度最高;利用原核表达系统体外表达GmGS 1β2蛋白,诱导出分子量大小与理论预测值一致的目标蛋白,酶活性分析表明GmGS 1β2可以与底物发生催化反应,具有谷氨酰胺合成酶活性,推测该基因在大豆根瘤氮素同化代谢中具有重要作用.

  4. Complex phase dynamics in coupled bursters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Malova, S.Y.;

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of phase multistability in the synchronization of two coupled oscillatory systems typically arises when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components. Alternatively, phase multistability can be caused...

  5. Likelihood methods and classical burster repetition

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, C; Graziani, Carlo; Lamb, Donald Q

    1995-01-01

    We develop a likelihood methodology which can be used to search for evidence of burst repetition in the BATSE catalog, and to study the properties of the repetition signal. We use a simplified model of burst repetition in which a number N_{\\rm r} of sources which repeat a fixed number of times N_{\\rm rep} are superposed upon a number N_{\\rm nr} of non-repeating sources. The instrument exposure is explicitly taken into account. By computing the likelihood for the data, we construct a probability distribution in parameter space that may be used to infer the probability that a repetition signal is present, and to estimate the values of the repetition parameters. The likelihood function contains contributions from all the bursts, irrespective of the size of their positional errors --- the more uncertain a burst's position is, the less constraining is its contribution. Thus this approach makes maximal use of the data, and avoids the ambiguities of sample selection associated with data cuts on error circle size. We...

  6. Complex phase dynamics in coupled bursters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Malova, S Y

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of phase multistability in the synchronization of two coupled oscillatory systems typically arises when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components. Alternatively, phase multistability can be caused...... the number of spikes per train and the proximity of a neighboring equilibrium point can influence the formation of coexisting regimes....

  7. Linking differential domain functions of the GS3 protein to natural variation of grain size in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hailiang; Sun, Shengyuan; Yao, Jialing; Wang, Chongrong; Yu, Sibin; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-11-09

    Grain yield in many cereal crops is largely determined by grain size. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of GS3, a major quantitative trait locus for grain size. It functions as a negative regulator of grain size and organ size. The wild-type isoform is composed of four putative domains: a plant-specific organ size regulation (OSR) domain in the N terminus, a transmembrane domain, a tumor necrosis factor receptor/nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR/NGFR) family cysteine-rich domain, and a von Willebrand factor type C (VWFC) in the C terminus. These domains function differentially in grain size regulation. The OSR domain is both necessary and sufficient for functioning as a negative regulator. The wild-type allele corresponds to medium grain. Loss of function of OSR results in long grain. The C-terminal TNFR/NGFR and VWFC domains show an inhibitory effect on the OSR function; loss-of-function mutations of these domains produced very short grain. This study linked the functional domains of the GS3 protein to natural variation of grain size in rice.

  8. MBI-GS: APLICAÇÃO E VERIFICAÇÃO PSICOMÉTRICA NA REALIDADE BRASILEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo da Silva Schuster

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo verificar a aplicação da escala MBI-GS (Maslach Burnout Inventory e suas três dimensões (exaustão, cinismo e eficácia no trabalho em um hospital público brasileiro com uma população de servidores da área médica e administrativa, caracterizando assim o uso da versão General Survey. A amostra considerada para efeito das análises realizadas foi de 173 profissionais, através da aplicação de questionário estruturado. Os dados foram submetidos a análises quantitativas (análise fatorial exploratória, confiabilidade, teste de correlação e regressão. Os resultados apontam para a aplicabilidade da escala, após procedimentos fatoriais, a escala ficou com 15 variáveis permanecendo com três fatores, apresentando uma confiabilidade de 0,87. A síndrome Burnout correlacionou-se a percepção de Saúde dos trabalhadores, confirmando relação causal na saúde dos trabalhadores. O estudo contribui para o estudo de Burnout no Brasil com a aplicação da MBI-GS de forma inédita em um Hospital Público.

  9. A 4.2 GS/sec. Synchronized Vertical Excitation System for SPS Studies - Steps Toward Wideband Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, John

    2012-07-10

    A 4.2 GS/sec. beam excitation system with accelerator synchronization and power stages is described. The system is capable of playing unique samples (32 samples/bunch) for 15,000 turns on selected bunch(es) in the SPS in syn- chronism with the injection and acceleration cycle. The purpose of the system is to excite internal modes of single-bunch vertical motion, and study the bunch dynamics in the presence of developing Electron cloud or TMCI effects. The system includes a synchronized master oscillator, SPS timing functions, an FPGA based arbitrary waveform generator, 4.2 GS/sec. D/A system and four 80W 20-1000 MHz amplifiers driving a tapered stripline pickup/kicker. A software GUI allows specification of various modulation signals, selection of bunches and turns to excite, while a remote control interface allows simple control/monitoring of the RF power stages located in the tunnel. The successful use of this system for SPS MD measurements in 2011 is a vital proof-of-principle for wideband feedback using similar functions to correct the beam motion.

  10. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brut

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001–2003. A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the interannual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and two products are based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal or to uncertainties in model parameters. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for C3 crops and mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  11. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brut

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001–2003. A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the inter-annual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with two satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and the second is based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the two satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops and coniferous trees than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  12. GS 455534 selectively suppresses binge eating of palatable food and attenuates dopamine release in the accumbens of sugar-bingeing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Paredes, Daniel; von Loga, Isabell; Murray, Susan M; Wang, Miaoyuan; Arolfo, Maria P; Yao, Lina; Diamond, Ivan; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating palatable foods has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug addiction. GS 455534 is a highly selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitor that has been shown to reduce alcohol and cocaine intake in rats. Given the overlaps between binge eating and drug abuse, we examined the effects of GS 455534 on binge eating and subsequent dopamine release. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a sugar (experiment 1) or fat (experiment 2) binge eating diet. After 25 days, GS 455534 was administered at 7.5 and 15 mg/kg by an intraperitoneal injection, and food intake was monitored. In experiment 3, rats with cannulae aimed at the nucleus accumbens shell were maintained on the binge sugar diet for 25 days. Microdialysis was performed, during which GS 455534 15 mg/kg was administered, and sugar was available. Dialysate samples were analyzed to determine extracellular levels of dopamine. In experiment 1, GS 455534 selectively decreased sugar intake food was made available in the Binge Sugar group but not the Ad libitum Sugar group, with no effect on chow intake. In experiment 2, GS 455534 decreased fat intake in the Binge Fat group, but not the Ad libitum Fat group, however, it also reduced chow intake. In experiment 3, GS 455534 attenuated accumbens dopamine release by almost 50% in binge eating rats compared with the vehicle injection. The findings suggest that selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors may have the therapeutic potential to reduce binge eating of palatable foods in clinical populations.

  13. A mutational analysis of residues in cholera toxin A1 necessary for interaction with its substrate, the stimulatory G protein Gsα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Michael G; Gotow, Lisa F; Yang, Zhijie; Holmes, Randall K

    2015-03-18

    Pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea requires cholera toxin (CT)-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of stimulatory G protein (Gsα) in enterocytes. CT is an AB5 toxin with an inactive CTA1 domain linked via CTA2 to a pentameric receptor-binding B subunit. Allosterically activated CTA1 fragment in complex with NAD+ and GTP-bound ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6-GTP) differs conformationally from the CTA1 domain in holotoxin. A surface-exposed knob and a short α-helix (formed, respectively, by rearranging "active-site" and "activation" loops in inactive CTA1) and an ADP ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) motif, all located near the CTA1 catalytic site, were evaluated for possible roles in recognizing Gsα. CT variants with one, two or three alanine substitutions at surface-exposed residues within these CTA1 motifs were tested for assembly into holotoxin and ADP-ribosylating activity against Gsα and diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)-guanidine (DEABAG), a small substrate predicted to fit into the CTA1 active site). Variants with single alanine substitutions at H55, R67, L71, S78, or D109 had nearly wild-type activity with DEABAG but significantly decreased activity with Gsα, suggesting that the corresponding residues in native CTA1 participate in recognizing Gsα. As several variants with multiple substitutions at these positions retained partial activity against Gsα, other residues in CTA1 likely also participate in recognizing Gsα.

  14. The Populus superoxide dismutase gene family and its responses to drought stress in transgenic poplar overexpressing a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Molina-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutamine synthetase (GS plays a central role in plant nitrogen assimilation, a process intimately linked to soil water availability. We previously showed that hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba, INRA 717-1B4 expressing ectopically a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a display enhanced tolerance to drought. Preliminary transcriptome profiling revealed that during drought, members of the superoxide dismutase (SOD family were reciprocally regulated in GS poplar when compared with the wild-type control, in all tissues examined. SOD was the only gene family found to exhibit such patterns. RESULTS: In silico analysis of the Populus genome identified 12 SOD genes and two genes encoding copper chaperones for SOD (CCSs. The poplar SODs form three phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their distinct metal co-factor requirements and gene structure. Nearly all poplar SODs and CCSs are present in duplicate derived from whole genome duplication, in sharp contrast to their predominantly single-copy Arabidopsis orthologs. Drought stress triggered plant-wide down-regulation of the plastidic copper SODs (CSDs, with concomitant up-regulation of plastidic iron SODs (FSDs in GS poplar relative to the wild type; this was confirmed at the activity level. We also found evidence for coordinated down-regulation of other copper proteins, including plastidic CCSs and polyphenol oxidases, in GS poplar under drought conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Both gene duplication and expression divergence have contributed to the expansion and transcriptional diversity of the Populus SOD/CCS families. Coordinated down-regulation of major copper proteins in drought-tolerant GS poplars supports the copper cofactor economy model where copper supply is preferentially allocated for plastocyanins to sustain photosynthesis during drought. Our results also extend previous findings on the compensatory regulation between chloroplastic CSDs and FSDs, and suggest that this

  15. A Mutational Analysis of Residues in Cholera Toxin A1 Necessary for Interaction with Its Substrate, the Stimulatory G Protein Gsα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Jobling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea requires cholera toxin (CT-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP-ribosylation of stimulatory G protein (Gsα in enterocytes. CT is an AB5 toxin with an inactive CTA1 domain linked via CTA2 to a pentameric receptor-binding B subunit. Allosterically activated CTA1 fragment in complex with NAD+ and GTP-bound ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6-GTP differs conformationally from the CTA1 domain in holotoxin. A surface-exposed knob and a short α-helix (formed, respectively, by rearranging “active-site” and “activation” loops in inactive CTA1 and an ADP ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT motif, all located near the CTA1 catalytic site, were evaluated for possible roles in recognizing Gsα. CT variants with one, two or three alanine substitutions at surface-exposed residues within these CTA1 motifs were tested for assembly into holotoxin and ADP-ribosylating activity against Gsα and diethylamino-(benzylidineamino-guanidine (DEABAG, a small substrate predicted to fit into the CTA1 active site. Variants with single alanine substitutions at H55, R67, L71, S78, or D109 had nearly wild-type activity with DEABAG but significantly decreased activity with Gsα, suggesting that the corresponding residues in native CTA1 participate in recognizing Gsα. As several variants with multiple substitutions at these positions retained partial activity against Gsα, other residues in CTA1 likely also participate in recognizing Gsα.

  16. Appraisement on Contributive Ratio of Scientific and Technical Progresses in Milk Productive Enterprises by Model C2GS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Futian; SUN Liqun; YANG Guanglin

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technical progress has been the driving forces of enterprises development. Milk productive enterprises are developing faster and growing better. It is very important to measure the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises. And the appraisement could help to develop milk productive enterprises. The model C2GS2 was established to appraise the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises in the research. And the appraisement on the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises was made by the model. In the results of appraisement, science and technology play a main role in milk productive enterprises. It is shown that our milk productive enterprises are developed by scientific and technical progress while not by input of productive factors.

  17. GS118+0144: una supercáscara de H I con contrapartida en el IR medio y lejano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suad, L. A.; Cichowolski, S.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Arnal, E. M.; Testori, J. C.; Flagey, N.

    2016-08-01

    GS118+0144 is a supershell detected in the neutral hydrogen (H i) emission distribution, centred at ()=(117.7, 1.4) with a systemic velocity of kms, an effective radius of pc, and it is located at a distance of kpc from the Sun. The total gaseous mass associated with the supershell is M, and its kinetic energy is erg. Using mid- and far-infrared data a good morphological coincidence with the H i structure was detected indicating that the dust components coexist with the gas. Carrying out infrared fluxes measurements at different far-infrared bands the dust associated with this structure could be characterized and it was concluded that cool temperatures dominate the area of the supershell.

  18. PSD-95 regulates D1 dopamine receptor resensitization, but not receptor-mediated Gs-protein activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peihua Sun; Jingru Wang; Weihua Gu; Wei Cheng; Guo-zhang Jin; Eitan Friedman; Jie Zheng; Xuechu Zhen

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to define the role of postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 in the regulation of dopamine (DA) receptor function. We found that PSD-95 physically associates with either D1 or D2 DA receptors in co-transfected HEK-293 cells. Stimulation of DA receptors altered the association between D1 receptor and PSD-95 in a time-depen-dent manner. Functional assays indicated that PSD-95 co-expression did not affect D1 receptor-stimulated cAMP pro-duction, Gs-protein activation or receptor desensitization. However, PSD-95 accelerated the recovery of internalized membrane receptors by promoting receptor recycling, thus resulting in enhanced resensitization of internalized D1 receptors. Our results provide a novel mechanism for regulating DA receptor recycling that may play an important role in postsynaptic DA functional modulation and synaptic neuroplasticity.

  19. Error de medición alrededor de los puntos de corte en el MBI-GS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández Arata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En la calificación de los resultados del MBI-GS (Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey como de sus antecesores, se usan interpretaciones dimensionales, pero también puntos de corte para clasificar a los sujetos y diferenciarlos con respecto a la presencia del síndrome de burnout. Sin embargo, este uso está orientado al tipo de tests referidos a criterios, por lo que la estimación de la confiabilidad debe converger con este tipo de uso. El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar la confiabilidad alrededor de varios puntos de corte en el MBI-GS (agotamiento emocional, eficacia profesional y cinismo, mediante el coeficiente K2 de Livingston. Los participantes fueron 741 sujetos de varias ocupaciones, provenientes de instituciones públicas y privadas de Lima y de otras ciudades. Previo a la obtención de la confiabilidad criterial, se verificó la unidimensionalidad, el modelo equivalente tau, la distribución y la bimodalidad de los puntajes. Se halló que los puntos de corte más extremos muestran mayor confiabilidad; que la confiabilidad se incrementa en relación al grado de extremidad de los puntajes; que el puntaje de agotamiento emocional obtiene mayor confiabilidad criterial y que cinismo obtiene la menor, pero todos los puntajes generalmente muestran buenas confiabilidades. Se discute el uso de los puntos de corte en relación a su validez y confiabilidad. Abstract In the rating of the MBI-GS results (Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey as its predecessors, we used dimensional interpretations, but also cut-off points for classifying and differentiating the subjects with respect to the presence of the burnout syndrome. However, this use is oriented to the type of tests relating to criteria so that the estimate of the reliability must converge with this type of use. The objective of this study was to estimate the reliability around various cutting points in the MBI-GS (emotional exhaustion, professional

  20. NuSTAR observations of the black holes GS 1354-645: Evidence of rapid black hole spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal...... a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cf/GM(2) >= 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: 0 similar or equal to 75 (2)degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources...... in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates....

  1. Control of intrabunch dynamics at CERN SPS ring using 3.2 GS/s digital feedback channel

    CERN Document Server

    Rivetta, C; Cesaratto, J M; Dusatko, J; Pivi, M; Pollock, K; Turgut, O; Bartosik, H; Hofle, W; Kotzian, G; Li, K

    2013-01-01

    The feedback control of intra-bunch instabilities driven by electron-cloud or strong head-tail interaction requires bandwidth sufficient to sense the vertical position and apply correction fields to multiple sections of a nanosecondscale bunch. These requirements impose challenges and limits in the design of the feedback channel. We present experimental measurements taken from the CERN SPS machine development studies with an intrabunch feedback channel prototype. The performance of a 3.2 GS/s digital processing system is evaluated, quantifying the effect of noise and limits of the feedback channel in the bunch stability as well as transient and steady state motion of the bunch. The controllers implemented are general purpose 16 tap FIR filters and the impact on the bunch stability of controller parameters are analyzed and quantified. These studies, based on the limited feedback prototype, are crucial to validate reduced models of the system and macroparticle simulation codes, including the feedback channel. T...

  2. 野生大豆根瘤GmGS1γ基因序列分析及原核表达%Sequence Analysis and Prokaryotic Expression of GmGS1γGene from Nodules of Glycine soja

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美英; 岳胜天; 韩红; 孙合美; 刘晶晶; 卢冬雪

    2016-01-01

    In order to clarify the structures and functions of the members of the glutamine synthetase(GS)gene family,the GmGS1 gene was cloned from Glycine soja by homologous cloning. The bioinformatics analysis showed that,the ORF was 1 071 bp,and the similarity was 100%and 99%with the partial sequence of soybean GS1γ(AF363022.1)and X81700.1,respectively. The sequence had two conserved domains of plant GS,beta-Grasp GS functional area(17-97 aa),and GS catalytic functional area(103-350 aa). Phylogenetic tree showed that GS encoded by the gene GmGS1 probably belonged to glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozyme 2. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli DE3.0,and the molecular weight of the protein was 44 kD.%旨在明确大豆谷氨酰胺合成酶(Glutamine synthetase,GS)基因家族各成员的结构特点及功能。利用同源克隆的方法从野生大豆根瘤克隆GmGS1γ基因。生物信息学分析表明,ORF为1071 bp,与大豆GS1γ(AF363022.1)部分序列的相似性为100%,与序列号为X81700.1相似性为99%。该序列具备植物GS的两个保守结构域,GS beta-Grasp功能区(17-97 aa)和GS催化功能区(103-350 aa)。系统发生树表明该基因编码的GS可能属于胞质2型同工酶。该基因可以在大肠杆菌DE3.0中表达,蛋白分子量为44 kD。

  3. Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in the area postrema of the cat. Light and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Fernando E.; Mehler, William R.; Gibbs, Michael A.; Eng, Lawrence F.; Wu, Jang-Yen

    1987-01-01

    Morphological evidence is presented of the existence of the putative neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in axon terminals and of glutamine synthetase (GS) in ependymoglial cells and astroglial components of the area postrema (AP) of the cat. Purified antiserum directed against the GABA biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GS antiserum were used. The results showed that punctate structures of variable size corresponding to axon terminals exhibited GAD-immunoreactivity and were distributed in varying densities. The greatest accumulation occurred in the caudal and middle segment of the AP and particularly in the area subpostrema, where the aggregation of terminals was extremely dense. The presence of both GAD-immunoreactive profiles and GS-immunostained ependymoglial cells and astrocytes in the AP provide further evidence of the functional correlation between the two enzymes.

  4. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  5. Identification of two novel deletion mutations within the Gs alpha gene (GNAS1) in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Yu, S; Schuster, V; Kruse, K; Clericuzio, C L; Weinstein, L S

    1999-09-01

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is a genetic disorder characterized by short stature, skeletal defects, and obesity. Within AHO kindreds, some affected family members have only the somatic features of AHO [pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP)], whereas others have these features in association with resistance to multiple hormones that stimulate adenylyl cyclase within their target tissues [pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia)]. Affected members of most AHO kindreds (both those with PPHP and those with PHP Ia) have a partial deficiency of Gs alpha, the alpha-subunit of the G protein that couples receptors to adenylyl cyclase stimulation, and in a number of cases heterozygous loss of function mutations within the Gs alpha gene (GNAS1) have been identified. Using PCR with the attachment of a high melting domain (GC-clamp) and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, two novel heterozygous frameshift mutations within GNAS1 were found in two AHO kindreds. In one kindred all affected members (both PHP Ia and PPHP) had a heterozygous 2-bp deletion in exon 8, whereas in the second kindred a heterozygous 2-bp deletion in exon 4 was identified in all affected members examined. In both cases the frameshift encoded a premature termination codon several codons downstream of the deletion. In the latter kindred affected members were previously shown to have decreased levels of GNAS1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression. These results further underscore the genetic heterogeneity of AHO and provides further evidence that PHP Ia and PPHP are two clinical presentations of a common genetic defect. Serial measurements of thyroid function in members of kindred 1 indicate that TSH resistance progresses with age and becomes more evident after the first year of life.

  6. 基于0.18 μm CMOS工艺的2 GS/s 6 bit数模转换器%2 GS/s 6 bit DAC in 0.18 μm CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼; 孟桥; 李小梅; 唐凯

    2012-01-01

    根据现代通信越来越高的传输速率和宽带要求,设计了一个可用于超宽带系统的无修正2GS/s,6 bit数模转换器.该转换器采用4+2的分段译码电流舵结构,其中高4位采用温度计码,低2位采用二进制码.在对关键单元电路进行了设计和分析之后,在中芯国际0.18 μmCMOS工艺下完成电路的版图设计和流片,芯片面积为975 μm×775 μm.对芯片进行的键合测试表明,其微分非线性为0.11 LSB,积分非线性为0.25 LSB;当采样时钟频率为2 GHz,输入信号频率为13.3 MHz时,无杂散动态范围为52.1 dB,功耗为79 mW.%According to the higher and higher transmission rate and broadband requirement of modern communication, the design and implementation of a 2 GS/s, 6 bit DAC ( digital-to-analog converter) without calibration used for the ultra-wideband (UWB) system is presented. This DAC is based on current steering architecture, and is segmented with a 4 bit unary and 2 bit binary. After a design and analysis of key cell circuit, the layout was designed and taped out in SMIC (semiconductor manufacturing international corporation) 0. 18 μm CMOS process, and the chip area is 975 μm x775 μm. The wafer bonding test results show that the DNL (differential nonlinearity) is 0. 11 LSB, INL( integral nonlinearity) is 0.25 LSB. The DAC can achieve an SFDR(spurious free dynamic range) of 52. 1 dB under a clock frequency of 2 GHz with an input signal frequency of 13. 3 MHz, while the power consumption is 79 mW.

  7. The PI3K inhibitor GS-1101 synergistically potentiates HDAC inhibitor-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through the inactivation of PI3K and ERK pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, Juraj; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Sharma, Arishya; Hill, Brian T.; Portell, Craig A.; Lannutti, Brian J.; Almasan, Alexandru; Hsi, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we showed that inhibition of the protein kinase C β (PKCβ)/AKT pathway augments engagement of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI)-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death induced by the delta isoform-specific phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, GS-1101, in combination with the HDI, panobinostat (LBH589) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Lymphoma cell lines and primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells were simultaneously treated with the HDI, LBH589 and GS-1101. An interaction of the LBH589/GS-1101 combination was formally examined by using various concentrations of LBH589 and GS-1101. Combined treatment resulted in a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and showed synergistic effect on apoptotic induction in all tested cell lines and primary NHL and CLL cells. This study indicates that interference with PI3K signalling dramatically increases HDI-mediated apoptosis in malignant haematopoietic cells, possibly through both AKT-dependent or AKT- independent mechanisms. Moreover, the increase in HDI-related apoptosis observed in PI3K inhibitor-treated cells appears to be related to the disruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway. This study provides a strong rational for testing the combination of PI3K inhibitors and HDI in the clinic. PMID:23889282

  8. Impacts of high β-galactosidase expression on central metabolism of recombinant Pichia pastoris GS115 using glucose as sole carbon source via (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yongsheng; Huang, Mingzhi; Lu, Junjie; Qian, Jiangchao; Lin, Weilu; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2014-10-10

    The yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 is a widely used microbial cell factory for the production of heterologous protein. In order to reveal the impacts of high heterologous protein expression on the central metabolism of Pichia pastoris GS115 using glucose as sole carbon source, we engineered a high β-galactosidase expression strain P. pastoris G1HL and a low expression control strain P. pastoris GHL through controlling the initiation strength of constitutive promoter pGAP. The carbon flux distributions in these two strains were quantified via (13)C metabolic flux analysis. Compared to the control strain, G1HL showed a lower growth rate, a higher flux through glycolysis pathway, a higher flux through pentose phosphate pathway, and a lower flux through by-products secretion pathway. The metabolic flux redistribution in G1HL was thought to compensate the increased redox cofactors and energy demands caused by the high protein expression. Although the fluxes through Krebs cycle in two engineered strains were almost the same, they were significantly lower than those in wild strain. The enhanced expression of β-galactosidase by glutamate supplementation demonstrated the potential of P. pastoris GS115 to catabolize more carbon through the Krebs cycle for even higher protein expression. In conclusion, our work indicates that P. pastoris GS115 can readjusts the central metabolism for higher heterologous protein expression and provides strategies for strain development or process optimization for enhancing production of heterologous protein.

  9. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition. Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia. In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  10. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberle, Johannes; Shahbeck, Noora; Ibrahim, Khalid; Schmitt, Bernhard; Scheer, Ianina; O'Gorman, Ruth; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2012-07-25

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition.Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia.In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  11. Non Destructive Application of Radioactive Tracer Technique for Characterization of Industrial Grade Anion Exchange Resins Indio GS-300 and Indion-860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singare, P. U. [Bhavan' s College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-02-15

    The paper deals with the application of radio isotopic non-destructive technique in the characterization of two industrial grade anion exchange resins Indion GS-300 and Indion-860. For the characterization of the two resins, {sup 131}I and {sup 82}Br were used as tracer isotopes to trace the kinetics of iodide and bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions. It was observed that the values of specific reaction rate (min{sup -1}), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K{sub d} were calculated as 0.328, 0.577, 0.189 and 19.7 respectively for Indion GS-300 resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.180, 0.386, 0.070 and 17.0 calculated for Indion-860 resins when measured under identical experimental conditions. Also at a constant temperature of 40.0 .deg. C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases 0.001 M to 0.004 M, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 75.16 % to 78.36 % for Indion GS-300 resins, which was higher than the increases from 49.65 % to 52.36 % compared to that obtained for Indion-860 resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Indion GS-300 resins show superior performance over Indion-860 resins.

  12. Production of a monoclonal antibody specific for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in wheat and its antigenic determinant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hanqian; ZHANG Xueyong; WANG Hongmei; PANG Binshuang

    2005-01-01

    Wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) 1Bx14 and 1By15 isolated by preparative SDS-PAGE are used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice. Subcutaneous inoculation of the antigen is performed. The intra-peritoneal injection is completed 3 days before fusion with myeloma cell (SP2/0) via PEG-1500. The fusion cells are selected by indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Positive hybrid cells are further verified three times by limit dilution of the culture cells. A hybridoma cell line is successfully obtained. The monoclonal antibody belongs to IgG1 subclass. In immunoblotting, the antibody binds to all HMW-GS of T.aestivum cultivars, but does not bind to other storage proteins in seeds of wheat. This result is consisting with the high homology in amino acid sequences among the HMW glutenin subunits in wheat. The antibody also binds to HMW-GS storage proteins in Aegilops squarrosa and T. durum (durum wheat). Furthermore, it also binds to HMW storage proteins in Secale cereale (rye),Hordeum vulgare (barley). However, it never binds seed storage proteins in other cereals such as maize, oat, rice, foxtail millet, sorghum etc. The antigen determinant recognized by the antibody has been located within hexapeptide [PGQGQQ] or / and nonapeptide [GYYPTSPQQ] in the central repetitive region of HMW-GS.

  13. Expression Analysis of HMW-GS 1Bx14 and 1By15 in Wheat Varieties and Transgenic Research of 1By15 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHANG Xue-yong; DONG Yu-shen

    2006-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), one class of seed storage proteins in wheat, play an important role in determining bread-making quality of flour. More and more proves support that HMW-GS-1Bx14 and -1Bx15 subunits are strongly positively associated with good bread-making and excellent noodle-making quality. The two subunits are encoded by two genes, Glu-1Bx14 and Glu-1Bx15, which are tightly linked and located on the 1BL. Protein assay by SDS-PAGE indicated that the expression of Glu-1Bx14 gene was always much stronger than that of Glu-1By15 in the same variety. But, variation of expression level for Glu-1By15 gene existed among varieties, such as in Xiaoyan 54,Xiaoyan 6, Yanzhan 1 and Shanyou 225. We also investigated the transcription difference of Glu-1By14 and Glu-1By15 genes in Xiaoyan 54 and Shanyou 225 by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. The Glu-1By14 always transcripts much more than the Glu-1By15. This was basically consistent with the translation difference between the two genes. Promoters of 1Bx14, 1By15, 1By8, 1Dx2 and 1Dy12 were cloned from Xiaoyan 54, Chinese Spring and Aegilops tauschii. Sequence analysis indicated that the HMW-GS genes had high homology at their promoter regions. However, significant difference existed between sequence of 1Bx14 promoter and those of other HMW-GS genes. The transient expression experiment showed that the promoter of 1By15 has lower activity than that of 1Bx14, which was consistent with their transcription level of the two genes in varieties. In addition, transient expression of the gus driven by the promoter (P2) of HMW-GS 1Dx2 gene was higher than by other HMW-GS promoters. Therefore, we constructed 1By15 gene expression vector driven by the 1Dx2 promoter, and transformed the 1By15 gene into wheat commercial variety, Jimai 20 by pollen tube method. Of 45 independent transgenic lines identified by PCR, 3 were confirmed to contain the HMW-GS 1By15 gene via Southern hybridization. The delivered 1By15

  14. Analysis and Extracting Method for DVB-S2 GS%DVB-S2 GS流的分析与提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵永庆; 黄焱; 王翔宇

    2013-01-01

    随着卫星技术与互联网技术的进一步融合,通过数字广播电视(DVB-S)信道传输的业务种类大幅增加。第一代系统难以应付快速增长的IP数据业务,为此,第二代数字卫星广播标准(DVB-S2)制定一种新的码流:一般传输流(GS)。针对现有卫星设备缺乏对GS流处理的现状,根据基带帧自身的格式、GS流在基带帧中的编排方式及GS流专用封装一般传输流封装(GSE)的特点,提出一种DVB-S2 GS流分析与提取的方法,对基带帧的封装方式及GS流的封装GSE进行分析,并用实际数据进行测试。实验结果证明,该方法能够快速准确地还原出应用层中的IP数据,实现对GS流的处理。%Along with the combination of satellite and Internet technology, business lines transmitted by satellite Digital Video Broadcasting-Satellite(DVB-S) channel increases rapidly. The first generation system can not meet the need of the fast increasing IP business, hence, an entirely new Generic Stream(GS) is introduced in DVB-S2 standard. Aiming at the problem that the existing satellite terminal equipment can not process GS very well, this paper presents a DVB-S2 GS extraction and analysis method according to the form of generic stream, the arrangement method of GS in base-band frame and feature of Generic Stream Encapsulation(GSE). It analyses the encapsulation mode of base-band frame and GSE of GS, and tests some actual data. Experimental result shows the method can restore IP data in application layer rapidly and accurately, and can realize the processing of GS.

  15. Attenuation of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum through an AHL Lactonase Produced by Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garge, Sneha S.; Nerurkar, Anuradha S.

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism in which Gram negative bacterial pathogens sense their population density through acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and regulate the expression of virulence factors. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs by lactonases, known as quorum quenching (QQ), is thus a potential strategy for attenuating QS regulated bacterial infections. We characterised the QQ activity of soil isolate Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 and explored its potential for controlling bacterial soft rot of crop plants. Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 inactivated AHL, which could be restored upon acidification, suggested that inactivation was due to the lactone ring hydrolysis of AHL. Heterologous expression of cloned gene for putative hydrolase (792 bp) designated adeH from Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 produced a ~29 kDa protein which degraded AHLs of varying chain length. Mass spectrometry analysis of AdeH enzymatic reaction product revealed that AdeH hydrolyses the lactone ring of AHL and hence is an AHL lactonase. Multiple sequence alignment of the amino acid sequence of AdeH showed that it belongs to the metallo- β- lactamase superfamily, has a conserved “HXHXDH” motif typical of AHL lactonases. KM for AdeH for C6HSL was found to be 3.089 μM and the specific activity was 0.8 picomol min-1μg-1. AdeH has not so far been reported from any Lysinibacillus sp. and has less than 40% identity with known AHL lactonases. Finally we found that Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 can degrade AHL produced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), a common cause of soft rot. This QQ activity causes a decrease in production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes of Pcc and attenuates symptoms of soft rot in experimental infection of potato, carrot and cucumber. Our results demonstrate the potential of Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 as a preventive and curative biocontrol agent. PMID:27911925

  16. Evaluation of GS Junior and MiSeq next-generation sequencing technologies as an alternative to Trugene population sequencing in the clinical HIV laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Daniela; Leshkowitz, Dena; Gonzalez, Dimitri; Forer, Relly; Levy, Itzchak; Chowers, Michal; Lorber, Margalit; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2015-02-01

    Population HIV-1 sequencing is currently the method of choice for the identification and follow-up of HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance. It has limited sensitivity and results in a consensus sequence showing the most prevalent nucleotide per position. Moreover concomitant sequencing and interpretation of the results for several samples together is laborious and time consuming. In this study, the practical use of GS Junior and MiSeq bench-top next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms as an alternative to Trugene Sanger-based population sequencing in the clinical HIV laboratory was assessed. DeepChek(®)-HIV TherapyEdge software was used for processing all the protease and reverse transcriptase sequences and for resistance interpretation. Plasma samples from nine HIV-1 carriers, representing the major HIV-1 subtypes in Israel, were compared. The total number of amino acid substitutions identified in the nine samples by GS Junior (232 substitutions) and MiSeq (243 substitutions) was similar and higher than Trugene (181 substitutions), emphasizing the advantage of deep sequencing on population sequencing. More than 80% of the identified substitutions were identical between the GS Junior and MiSeq platforms, most of which (184 of 199) at similar frequency. Low abundance substitutions accounted for 20.9% of the MiSeq and 21.9% of the GS Junior output, the majority of which were not detected by Trugene. More drug resistance mutations were identified by both the NGS platforms, primarily, but not only, at low abundance. In conclusion, in combination with DeepChek, both GS Junior and MiSeq were found to be more sensitive than Trugene and adequate for HIV-1 resistance analysis in the clinical HIV laboratory.

  17. A "high-hard" outburst of the black hole X-ray binary GS 1354-64

    CERN Document Server

    Koljonen, K I I; Corral-Santana, J M; Padilla, M Armas; Muñoz-Darias, T; Lewis, F; Coriat, M; Bauer, F E

    2016-01-01

    We study in detail the evolution of the 2015 outburst of GS 1354-64 (BW Cir) at optical, UV and X-ray wavelengths using Faulkes Telescope South, SMARTS and Swift. The outburst was found to stay in the hard X-ray state, albeit being anomalously luminous with a peak luminosity of L$_{X} >$ 0.15 L$_{Edd}$, which could be the most luminous hard state observed in a black hole X-ray binary. We found that the optical/UV emission is tightly correlated with the X-ray emission, consistent with accretion disc irradiation and/or a jet producing the optical emission. The X-ray spectra can be fitted well with a Comptonisation model, and show softening towards the end of the outburst. In addition, we detect a QPO in the X-ray lightcurves with increasing centroid frequency during the peak and decay periods of the outburst. The long-term optical lightcurves during quiescence show a statistically significant, slow rise of the source brightness over the 7 years prior to the 2015 outburst. This behaviour as well as the outburst ...

  18. GS-9219/VDC-1101 - a prodrug of the acyclic nucleotide PMEG has antitumor activity inspontaneous canine multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is an important human and canine cancer for which novel therapies remain necessary. VDC-1101 (formerly GS-9219), a novel double prodrug of the anti-proliferative nucleotide analog 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), possesses potent cytotoxic activity in vitro in human lymphoblasts and leukemia cell lines and in vivo in spontaneous canine lymphoma. Given the similarity in lineage between lymphoma and MM, we hypothesized that VDC-1101 would be active against MM. Results We evaluated the in vitro antiproliferative effects of VDC-1101 against 3 human MM cell lines, and we performed a phase-II clinical trial in 14 dogs with spontaneous MM. Each dog was treated with a maximum of 6 doses of VDC-1101 monotherapy over 10–15 weeks. Dose-dependent antiproliferative activity was observed in all evaluated cell lines. Major antitumor responses (reduction of serum paraprotein and resolution of hypercalcemia, peripheral cytopenias and bone marrow plasmacytosis) were observed in 9 of 11 evaluable dogs for a median of 172 days, including a durable stringent complete response (>1047 days) in a dog with melphalan-refractory disease. 2 dogs were euthanized due to presumed pulmonary fibrosis; there were no other dose-limiting toxicities encountered. Conclusions In conclusion, VDC-1101 has significant anti-tumor activity at well-tolerated doses in spontaneous canine MM. PMID:24460928

  19. Exploring salivary microbiota in AIDS patients with different periodontal statuses using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS are at high risk of opportunistic infections. Oral manifestations have been associated with the level of immunosuppression, these include periodontal diseases, and understanding the microbial populations in the oral cavity is crucial for clinical management. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary bacterial diversity in patients newly admitted to the AIDS ward of the Public Health Clinical Center (China. Saliva samples were collected from fifteen patients with AIDS who were randomly recruited between December 2013 and March 2014. Extracted DNA was used as template to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA. Sequencing of the amplicon library was performed using a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. Reads were optimized and clustered into operational taxonomic units for further analysis. A total of 10 bacterial phyla (106 genera were detected. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were preponderant in the salivary microbiota in AIDS patients. The pathogen, Capnocytophaga sp., and others not considered pathogenic such as Neisseria elongata, Streptococcus mitis and Mycoplasma salivarium but which may be opportunistic infective agents were detected. Dialister pneumosintes, Eubacterium infirmum, Rothia mucilaginosa and Treponema parvum were preponderant in AIDS patients with periodontitis. Patients with necrotic periodontitis had a distinct salivary bacterial profile from those with chronic periodontitis. This is the first study using advanced sequencing techniques focused on hospitalized AIDS patients showing the diversity of their salivary microbiota.

  20. SWIFT view of the 2015 outburst of GS 2023+338 (V404 Cyg): complex `spectro-temporal' evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Radhika, D; Agrawal, V K; Mandal, S

    2016-01-01

    Aims : We study the `spectro-temporal' characteristics of the source GS 2023+338 (V404 Cyg) during the initial phase of its June 2015 outburst, over the energy range of 0.5 - 150 keV. This is the first detailed study of the characteristics of this source based on SWIFT observations, being reported. We study the nature of soft as well as the hard emission of the energy spectra, and the temporal evolution of the source. We attempt to understand these characteristics with respect to the previous outburst of this source, and other Galactic black hole sources. Conclusions : This source is observed to exhibit spectral state transitions occupying the hard, intermediate and soft spectral states. The hardness intensity diagram do not show a `q-shape' which is usually observed in black hole transients. Dramatic changes in the `spectro-temporal' properties are also exhibited before the ejection of a radio jet suggesting it to be associated with coronal ejection. It seems that the ejected matter is obscuring the Kepleria...

  1. The distribution of deep source rocks in the GS Sag: joint MT-gravity modeling and constrained inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ling; Hu, Zu-Zhi; Huang, Wen-Hui; Wei, Qiang; Zhang, Sheng; Meng, Cui-Xian; Ji, Lian-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The coal-bearing strata of the deep Upper Paleozoic in the GS Sag have high hydrocarbon potential. Because of the absence of seismic data, we use electromagnetic (MT) and gravity data jointly to delineate the distribution of deep targets based on well logging and geological data. First, a preliminary geological model is established by using three-dimensional (3D) MT inversion results. Second, using the formation density and gravity anomalies, the preliminary geological model is modified by interactive inversion of the gravity data. Then, we conduct MT-constrained inversion based on the modified model to obtain an optimal geological model until the deviations at all stations are minimized. Finally, the geological model and a seismic profile in the middle of the sag is analysed. We determine that the deep reflections of the seismic profile correspond to the Upper Paleozoic that reaches thickness up to 800 m. The processing of field data suggests that the joint MT-gravity modeling and constrained inversion can reduce the multiple solutions for single geophysical data and thus improve the recognition of deep formations. The MT-constrained inversion is consistent with the geological features in the seismic section. This suggests that the joint MT and gravity modeling and constrained inversion can be used to delineate deep targets in similar basins.

  2. NuSTAR Observations of the Black Hole GS 1354-645: Evidence of Rapid Black Hole Spin

    CERN Document Server

    El-Batal, A M; Reynolds, M T; Boggs, S E; Chistensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fuerst, F; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Stern, D K; Tomsick, J; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cJ/GM^2 > 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: theta = 75(2) degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources viewed at such an angle; these are absent, perhaps indicating that dips correspond to flared disk structures that only manifest at higher accretion rates. In the lower-flux observation, there is evidence of radial truncation of the thin accretion disk. We discuss these results in the context of spin in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates.

  3. Evaluation of root water uptake in the ISBA-A-gs land surface model using agricultural yield statistics over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Canal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The interannual variability of cereal grain yield and permanent grassland dry matter yield is simulated over French sites by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs generic Land Surface Model (LSM. The two soil profile schemes available in the model are used to simulate the above-ground biomass (Bag of cereals and grasslands: a 2-layer force-restore (FR-2L bulk reservoir model and a multi-layer diffusion (DIF model. The DIF model is implemented with or without deep soil layers below the root-zone. The evaluation of the various root water uptake models is achieved by using the French agricultural statistics of Agreste over the 1994–2010 period at 45 cropland and 48 grassland sites, for a range of rooting depths. The number of sites where the simulated annual maximum Bag presents a significant correlation with the yield observations is used as a metric to benchmark the root water uptake models. Significant correlations (p value < 0.01 are found for up to 29% of the cereal sites and 77% of the grassland sites. It is found that modelling additional subroot zone base flow soil layers does not improve (and may even degrade the representation of the interannual variability of the vegetation above-ground biomass. These results are particularly robust for grasslands as calibrated simulations are able to represent the extreme 2003 and 2007 years corresponding to unfavourable and favourable fodder production, respectively.

  4. The Gs-linked receptor GPR3 inhibits the proliferation of cerebellar granule cells during postnatal development.

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    Shigeru Tanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During postnatal murine and rodent cerebellar development, cerebellar granule precursors (CGP gradually stop proliferating as they differentiate after migration to the internal granule layer (IGL. Molecular events that govern this program remain to be fully elucidated. GPR3 belongs to a family of Gs-linked receptors that activate cyclic AMP and are abundantly expressed in the adult brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of this orphan receptor in CGP differentiation, we determined that exogenous GPR3 expression in rat cerebellar granule neurons partially antagonized the proliferative effect of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, while endogenous GPR3 inhibition by siRNA stimulated Shh-induced CGP proliferation. In addition, exogenous GPR3 expression in CGPs correlated with increased p27/kip expression, while GPR3 knock-down led to a decrease in p27/kip expression. In wild-type mice, GPR3 expression increased postnatally and its expression was concentrated in the internal granular layer (IGL. In GPR3 -/- mice, the IGL was widened with increased proliferation of CGPs, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Cell cycle kinetics of GPR3-transfected medulloblastoma cells revealed a G0/G1 block, consistent with cell cycle exit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results thus indicate that GPR3 is a novel antiproliferative mediator of CGPs in the postnatal development of murine cerebellum.

  5. NuSTAR detection of 4s Hard X-ray Lags from the Accreting Pulsar GS 0834-430

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    Bachetti Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834–430 during its 2012 outburst. The source is detected between 3 – 79 keV with high statistical significance, and we were able to perform very accurate spectral and timing analysis. The phase-averaged spectrum is consistent with that observed in many other magnetized accreting pulsars. We fail to detect cyclotron resonance scattering features in either phase-averaged nor phase-resolved spectra that would allow us to constrain the pulsar’s magnetic field. We detect a pulse period of ~ 12:29 s in all energy bands. The pulse profile can be modeled with a double Gaussian and shows a strong and smooth hard lag of up to 0.3 cycles in phase, or about 4s between the pulse at ~ 3 and ≳ 30 keV. This is the first report of such a strong lag in high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low-energies (E<10 keV. We investigate the possible mechanisms that might produce such lags. We find the most likely explanation for this effect to be a complex beam geometry.

  6. An efficient procedure for plant organellar genome assembly, based on whole genome data from the 454 GS FLX sequencing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tongwu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Complete organellar genome sequences (chloroplasts and mitochondria provide valuable resources and information for studying plant molecular ecology and evolution. As high-throughput sequencing technology advances, it becomes the norm that a shotgun approach is used to obtain complete genome sequences. Therefore, to assemble organellar sequences from the whole genome, shotgun reads are inevitable. However, associated techniques are often cumbersome, time-consuming, and difficult, because true organellar DNA is difficult to separate efficiently from nuclear copies, which have been transferred to the nucleus through the course of evolution. Results We report a new, rapid procedure for plant chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequencing and assembly using the Roche/454 GS FLX platform. Plant cells can contain multiple copies of the organellar genomes, and there is a significant correlation between the depth of sequence reads in contigs and the number of copies of the genome. Without isolating organellar DNA from the mixture of nuclear and organellar DNA for sequencing, we retrospectively extracted assembled contigs of either chloroplast or mitochondrial sequences from the whole genome shotgun data. Moreover, the contig connection graph property of Newbler (a platform-specific sequence assembler ensures an efficient final assembly. Using this procedure, we assembled both chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of a resurrection plant, Boea hygrometrica, with high fidelity. We also present information and a minimal sequence dataset as a reference for the assembly of other plant organellar genomes.

  7. Nano-visualization of oriented-immobilized IgGs on immunosensors by high-speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masumi; Somiya, Masaharu; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2012-11-01

    Oriented immobilization of sensing molecules on solid phases is an important issue in biosensing. In case of immunosensors, it is essential to scrutinize not only the direction and shape of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in solution but also the real-time movement of IgGs, which cannot be achieved by conventional techniques. Recently, we developed bio-nanocapsules (BNCs) displaying a tandem form of the IgG Fc-binding Z domain derived from Staphylococcus aureus protein A (ZZ-BNC) to enhance the sensitivity and antigen-binding capacity of IgG via oriented-immobilization. Here, we used high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to reveal the fine surface structure of ZZ-BNC and observe the movement of mouse IgG3 molecules tethered onto ZZ-BNC in solution. ZZ-BNC was shown to act as a scaffold for oriented immobilization of IgG, enabling its Fv regions to undergo rotational Brownian motion. Thus, HS-AFM could decipher real-time movement of sensing molecules on biosensors at the single molecule level.

  8. CANGS: a user-friendly utility for processing and analyzing 454 GS-FLX data in biodiversity studies

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    Schlötterer Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies have substantially increased the sequence output while the costs were dramatically reduced. In addition to the use in whole genome sequencing, the 454 GS-FLX platform is becoming a widely used tool for biodiversity surveys based on amplicon sequencing. In order to use NGS for biodiversity surveys, software tools are required, which perform quality control, trimming of the sequence reads, removal of PCR primers, and generation of input files for downstream analyses. A user-friendly software utility that carries out these steps is still lacking. Findings We developed CANGS (Cleaning and Analyzing Next Generation Sequences a flexible and user-friendly integrated software utility: CANGS is designed for amplicon based biodiversity surveys using the 454 sequencing platform. CANGS filters low quality sequences, removes PCR primers, filters singletons, identifies barcodes, and generates input files for downstream analyses. The downstream analyses rely either on third party software (e.g.: rarefaction analyses or CANGS-specific scripts. The latter include modules linking 454 sequences with the name of the closest taxonomic reference retrieved from the NCBI database and the sequence divergence between them. Our software can be easily adapted to handle sequencing projects with different amplicon sizes, primer sequences, and quality thresholds, which makes this software especially useful for non-bioinformaticians. Conclusion CANGS performs PCR primer clipping, filtering of low quality sequences, links sequences to NCBI taxonomy and provides input files for common rarefaction analysis software programs. CANGS is written in Perl and runs on Mac OS X/Linux and is available at http://i122server.vu-wien.ac.at/pop/software.html

  9. A 2.5 GS/s 14-bit D/A converter with 8 to 1 MUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun'an, Zhang; Guangjun, Li; Ruitao, Zhang; Dongbing, Fu; Jiaoxue, Li; Yafeng, Wei; Bo, Yan; Jun, Liu; Ruzhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    A 2.5 GS/s 14-bit D/A converter (DAC) with 8 to 1 MUX is presented. This 14-bit DAC uses a “5+9” segment PMOS current-steering architecture. A bias circuit which ensures the PMOS current source obtains a larger output impedance under every PVT (process, source voltage and temperature) corner is also presented. The 8 to 1 MUX has a 3 stage structure, and a proper timing sequence is designed to ensure reliable data synthesis. A DEM function which is merged with a “5-31” decoder is used to improve the DAC's dynamic performance. This DAC is embedded in a 2.5 GHz direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDS) chip, and is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology, occupies 4.86 × 2. 28 mm2 including bond pads (DAC only), and the measured performance is SFDR > 40 dB (with and without DEM) for output signal frequency up to 1 GHz. Compared with other present published DACs with a non-analog-resample structure (means return-to-zero or quad-switch structure is unutilized), this paper DAC's clock frequency (2.5 GHz) and higher output frequency SFDR (> 40 dB, up to 1 GHz) has some competition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61006027, 61176030), the Research Foundation of Key Laboratory of Analog Integrated Circuit (Nos. 9140C0902120C09034, 9140c090204130c09042), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. ZYGX2012J003).

  10. Optimization and assessment of quantitative {sup 124}I imaging on a Philips Gemini dual GS PET/CT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Rebecca A.; Hooker, Claire A.; Partridge, Mike; Flux, Glenn D. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Quantitative {sup 124}I PET imaging is challenging as {sup 124}I has a complex decay scheme. In this study the performance of a Philips Gemini dual GS PET/CT system was optimized and assessed for {sup 124}I. The energy window giving the maximum noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and NEMA 2001-NU2 image quality were measured. The activity concentration (AC) accuracy of images calibrated using factors from {sup 18}F and {sup 124}I decaying source measurements were investigated. The energy window 455-588 keV gave the maximum NECR of 9.67 kcps for 233 MBq. {sup 124}I and {sup 18}F image quality was comparable, although {sup 124}I background variability was increased. The average underestimation in AC in {sup 124}I images was 17.9 {+-} 2.9% for nonuniform background and 14.7 {+-} 2.9% for single scatter simulation (SSS) subtraction scatter correction. At 224 MBq the underestimation was 10.8 {+-} 11.3%, which is comparable to 7.7 {+-} 5.3% for {sup 18}F, but increased with decreasing activity. The best {sup 124}I PET quantitative accuracy was achieved for the optimized energy window, using SSS scatter correction and calibration factors from decaying {sup 124}I source measurements. The quantitative accuracy for {sup 124}I was comparable to that for {sup 18}F at high activities of 224 MBq but diminishing with decreasing activity. Specific corrections for prompt {gamma}-photons may further improve the quantitative accuracy. (orig.)

  11. Half molecular exchange of IgGs in the blood of healthy humans: chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins containing HL fragments of antibodies of different subclasses (IgG1-IgG4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, Sergey E; Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Prince, Viktor V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-10-20

    In the classic paradigm, immunoglobulins represent products of clonal B cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen (monospecific). There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monospecific molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. But the issue concerning the possibility of exchange by HL-fragments between the antibody molecules in human blood is still unexplored. Different physico-chemical and immunological methods for analysis of half-molecule exchange between human blood IgGs were used. Using eighteen blood samples of healthy humans we have shown unexpected results for the first time: blood antibodies undergo extensive post-transcriptional half-molecule exchange and IgG pools on average consist of 62.4 ± 6.5% IgGs containing kappa light chains (kappa-kappa-IgGs), 29.8.6 ± 5.4% lambda light chains (lambda-lambda-IgGs), and 8.8 ± 2.7% (range 2.6-16.8%) IgGs containing both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained on average (%): IgG1 (36.0 and 32.3), IgG2 (50.9 and 51.4), IgG3 (9.7 and 9.9), and IgG4 (6.5 and 5.7), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 25.5 ± 4.2 IgG1, 50.8 ± 3.9 IgG2, 9.1 ± 2.1 IgG3, and 14.5 ± 2.2 IgG4. Our unexpected data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between blood IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens. The existence of blood chimeric bifunctional IgGs with different binding sites destroys the classic paradigm. Due to the phenomenon of polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of bifunctional IgGs containing HL-fragments of different types to different antigens, such IgGs may be important in human blood for widening their different biological functions.

  12. Discovery of triazolopyridinone GS-462808, a late sodium current inhibitor (Late INai) of the cardiac Nav1.5 channel with improved efficacy and potency relative to ranolazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, Dmitry O; Parkhill, Eric Q; Elzein, Elfatih; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Jiang, Robert H; Li, Xiaofen; Perry, Thao D; Avila, Belem; Wang, Wei-Qun; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Smith-Maxwell, Catherine; Wu, Lin; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Rajamani, Sridharan; Mollova, Nevena; Stafford, Brian; Tang, Jennifer; Belardinelli, Luiz; Zablocki, Jeff A

    2016-07-01

    Previously we disclosed the discovery of potent Late INa current inhibitor 2 (GS-458967, IC50 of 333nM) that has a good separation of late versus peak Nav1.5 current, but did not have a favorable CNS safety window due to high brain penetration (3-fold higher partitioning into brain vs plasma) coupled with potent inhibition of brain sodium channel isoforms (Nav1.1, 1.2, 1.3). We increased the polar surface area from 50 to 84Å(2) by adding a carbonyl to the core and an oxadiazole ring resulting in 3 GS-462808 that had lower brain penetration and serendipitously lower activity at the brain isoforms. Compound 3 has an improved CNS window (>20 rat and dog) relative to 2, and improved anti-ischemic potency relative to ranolazine. The development of 3 was not pursued due to liver lesions in 7day rat toxicology studies.

  13. Stimulation of a Gs-like G protein in the osteoclast inhibits bone resorption but enhances tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonga, B S; Pazianas, M; Alam, A S; Shankar, V S; Huang, C L; Zaidi, M

    1993-01-29

    Previous studies have demonstrated that G-protein agonists induce quiescence (Q effect) or retraction (R effect) in isolated osteoclasts. We now report the functional effects of such agonists on osteoclastic bone resorption and enzyme release. Exposure of osteoclasts to tetrafluoro-aluminate anions (AlF4-), a universal G protein stimulator, resulted in a marked concentration-dependent inhibition of bone resorption. This was associated with a dramatic increase in the secretion of the osteoclast-specific enzyme, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Cholera toxin, a Gs stimulator and a selective Q effect agonist, similarly abolished bone resorption and enhanced TRAP secretion. In contrast, pertussis toxin, a Gi inhibitor and a selective R effect agonist, inhibited bone resorption significantly, but slightly reduced enzyme release. The results suggest an involvement of a Gs-like G protein in TRAP secretion from the osteoclast, possibly through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism.

  14. Reassessment of the four yield-related genes Gn1a, DEP1, GS3 and IPA1 in rice using a CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiru eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR-associated (Cas systems have been successfully used as efficient tools for genome editing in a variety of species. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate the Gn1a (Os01g0197700, DEP1 (Os09g0441900, GS3 (Os03g0407400 and IPA1 (Os08g0509600 genes of rice cultivar Zhonghua 11, genes which have been reported to function as regulators of grain number, panicle architecture, grain size and plant architecture, respectively. Analysis of the phenotypes and frequencies of edited genes in the first generation of transformed plants (T0 showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was highly efficient in inducing targeted gene editing, with the desired genes being edited in 42.5% (Gn1a, 67.5% (DEP1, 57.5% (GS3 and 27.5% (IPA1 of the transformed plants. The T2 generation of the gn1a, dep1, and gs3 mutants featured enhanced grain number,dense erect panicles and larger grain size, respectively. Furthermore, semi-dwarf, and grain with long awn, phenotypes were observed in dep1 and gs3 mutants, respectively. The ipa1 mutants showed two contrasting phenotypes, having either fewer tillers or more tillers, depending on the changes induced in the OsmiR156 target region. In addition, we found that mutants with deletions occurred more frequently than previous reports had indicated and that off-targeting had taken place in highly similar target sequences. These results proved that multiple regulators of important traits can be modified in a single cultivar by CRISPR/Cas9, and thus facilitate the dissection of complex gene regulatory networks in the same genomic background and the stacking of important traits in cultivated varieties.

  15. vsp Gene Expression by Giardia lamblia Clone GS/M-83-H7 during Antigenic Variation In Vivo and In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Giardia lamblia infections are associated with antigenic variation of the parasite, which is generated by a continuous change of the variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs). Many investigations on the process of antigenic variation were based on the use of G. lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7, which expresses VSP H7 as its major surface antigen. In the present study, mice were infected with the aforementioned clonal line to investigate vsp gene expression during the complex process of antigenic varia...

  16. Construction of a multiplex mutation hot spot PCR panel: the first step towards colorectal cancer genotyping on the GS Junior platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péterfia, Bálint; Kalmár, Alexandra; Patai, Árpád V.; Csabai, István; Bodor, András; Micsik, Tamás; Wichmann, Barnabás; Egedi, Krisztina; Hollósi, Péter; Kovalszky, Ilona; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2017-01-01

    Background: To support cancer therapy, development of low cost library preparation techniques for targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) is needed. In this study we designed and tested a PCR-based library preparation panel with limited target area for sequencing the top 12 somatic mutation hot spots in colorectal cancer on the GS Junior instrument. Materials and Methods: A multiplex PCR panel was designed to amplify regions of mutation hot spots in 12 selected genes (APC, BRAF, CTNNB1, EGFR, FBXW7, KRAS, NRAS, MSH6, PIK3CA, SMAD2, SMAD4, TP53). Amplicons were sequenced on a GS Junior instrument using ligated and barcoded adaptors. Eight samples were sequenced in a single run. Colonic DNA samples (8 normal mucosa; 33 adenomas; 17 adenocarcinomas) as well as HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines with known mutation profiles were analyzed. Variants found by the panel on APC, BRAF, KRAS and NRAS genes were validated by conventional sequencing. Results: In total, 34 kinds of mutations were detected including two novel mutations (FBXW7 c.1740:C>G and SMAD4 c.413C>G) that have not been recorded in mutation databases, and one potential germline mutation (APC). The most frequently mutated genes were APC, TP53 and KRAS with 30%, 15% and 21% frequencies in adenomas and 29%, 53% and 29% frequencies in carcinomas, respectively. In cell lines, all the expected mutations were detected except for one located in a homopolymer region. According to re-sequencing results sensitivity and specificity was 100% and 92% respectively. Conclusions: Our NGS-based screening panel denotes a promising step towards low cost colorectal cancer genotyping on the GS Junior instrument. Despite the relatively low coverage, we discovered two novel mutations and obtained mutation frequencies comparable to literature data. Additionally, as an advantage, this panel requires less template DNA than sequence capture colon cancer panels currently available for the GS Junior instrument.

  17. DETERMINATION OF VIABILITY OF PEDIOCOCCUS SPP. GS4 AFTER STORAGE INTO HARD GELATIN CAPSULE AND ITS SURVIVAL UNDER IN VITRO SIMULATED GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagad Mayur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are regarded as panacea for modern life. Aim of the study was to formulate the capsule comprising probiotic strain, Pediococcus spp. GS4 isolated from fermented food, Khadi and to examine its viability with and without excipients by exposing to simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF at different time intervals. The empty hard gelatin capsule was filled with FDPP [Freeze dried powder of Pediococcus spp. GS4] aseptically adding excipients (lactose, ascorbic acid and inulin as Test and without excipients as Control. For stability studies both Test and Control capsules were stored at 4 ±1ºC for 28 days. In vitro viability of probiotic cells were studied using SGF and SIF respectively. The optimal composition of effective formula was found to be composed of 6% lactose, 2.5% ascorbic acid and 2% inulin which could protect maximum viability of cells. After 28 days, the viability of Test was improved by 3.73 logs (CFU/ml as compared to Control at 4 ±1º C (P < 0.05. Significant difference was observed between Test and Control when incubated sequentially in SGF (pH 2.5; 45 min and 90 min and SIF (pH 6.8; 150 min and 210 min. Hence, in vitro test showed that combination of suitable excipients have significant effect on the survival of Pediococcus spp. GS4 when exposed to gastrointestinal conditions (SGF, SIF.

  18. The discovery of the optical/IR counterpart of the 12s transient X-ray pulsar GS 0834-43

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Campana, S; Polcaro, V F; Roche, P; Stella, L; Di Paola, A; Lazzati, D; Mereghetti, S; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A; Verrecchia, P

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the optical/infra-red counterpart of the 12.3s transient X-ray pulsar GS0834-43. We re-analysed archival ROSAT PSPC observations of GS0834-43, obtaining two new refined positions, about 14" and 18" away from the previously published one, and a new spin period measurement. Within the new error circles we found a relatively faint (V=20.1) early type reddened star (V-R=2.24). The optical spectrum shows a strong Halpha emission line. The IR observations of the field confirm the presence of an IR excess for the Halpha-emitting star (K'=11.4, J-K'=1.94) which is likely surrounded by a conspicuous circumstellar envelope. Spectroscopic and photometric data indicate a B0-2 V-IIIe spectral-type star located at a distance of 3-5kpc and confirm the Be-star/X-ray binary nature of GS0834-43.

  19. Anti-tumor efficacy study of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ONO/GS-4059, in combination with the glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) demonstrates superior in vivo efficacy compared to ONO/GS-4059 in combination with rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhiro, Tomoko; Sawada, Wako; Klein, Christian; Kozaki, Ryohei; Hotta, Shingo; Yoshizawa, Toshio

    2017-03-01

    The activated B-cell diffuse large B-cell-like lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) correlates with poor prognosis. The B-cell receptor signaling pathway is known to be dysregulated in NHL/CLL and given BTK is a downstream mediator of BCR signaling, BTK constitutes an interesting and obvious therapeutic target. Given the high potency and selectivity of the BTK inhibitor, ONO/GS-4059, it was hypothesized that, the anti-tumor activity of ONO/GS-4059 could be further enhanced by combining it with the anti-CD20 Abs, rituximab (RTX) or obinutuzumab (GA101). ONO/GS-4059 combined with GA101 or RTX was significantly better than the respective monotherapy with tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 90% for the GA101 combination and 86% for the RTX combination. In contrast, ibrutinib (PCI-32765) combined with RTX did not result in improved efficacy compared with respective monotherapy. Taken together these data indicate that the combination of ONO/GS-4059 with rituximab and particularly obinutuzumab may be an effective treatment for ABC-DLBCL.

  20. 甲减影响新生期鼠脑梨状皮质Goα及Gsα的基因表达%Goα and Gsα Gene Expression in Piriform Cortex of Brain in Neonatal Rats with Hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东升; 陈源; 陈刚; 金群燕; 李果; 罗敏

    2000-01-01

    目的"研究甲状腺功能低下对新生期鼠脑梨状皮质Goα及Gsα mRNA表达的影响. 方法"采用地高辛标记寡核苷酸探针原位杂交技术,对围生期正常及甲减Wistar大鼠动物模型梨状皮质Goα及Gsα mRNA的表达状况进行研究. 结果"14d龄甲减鼠脑梨状皮质Goα mRNA的表达明显升高,但其Gsα mRNA与对照组无显著差异.结论"在鼠脑发育过程中,甲状腺激素对梨状皮质Goα基因的表达具有负调作用,而对该区Gsα基因的表达则不具备调节功能.

  1. INTERACCIÓN DE LA GLUTAMINA SINTETASA (GS Y EL PÉPTIDO β -AMILOIDE COMO UNA ESTRATEGIA DE PURIFICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Luz Albarracín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA esla forma de demencia más común en laedad adulta. Se manifiesta con la pérdidaprogresiva de la memoria a medida quelas neuronas en la corteza cerebral y elhipocampo mueren. En todas las formasde EA se evidencia aumento de la expresiónde diferentes proteínas, así comola presencia de agregados insolubles depéptido-β-amiloide (PBA. La glutaminasintetasa (GS es una enzima clave en elmetabolismo del glutamato y en la detoxificaciónde amonio (NH4+. Previamentese ha reportado una posible interacciónGS-PBA que puede estar asociada conEA. En este trabajo se realizó la purificaciónde la enzima cerebral de rata a partirde un extracto sometido a precipitaciónfraccionada con (NH42SO4 del 20-60 %de saturación y posteriormente a travésde cromatografías sucesivas de filtraciónen gel, intercambio iónico y afinidad. Elpeso molecular del complejo fue calculadoen 137 kDa por el orden de eluciónen la columna de filtración. Se identificóinteracción de la enzima con PBA1-40, lográndose la purificación de unasola banda de 45 kDa, correspondiente ala forma monomérica de la GS. En estetrabajo se presenta un nuevo método depurificación de la enzima y se demuestrala interacción de GS con el PBA. Se proponeque esta interacción GS-PBA puedeser uno de los procesos que se presentanen la enfermedad al explicar la reducciónde la actividad de la enzima en pacientes con EA, ya que podría alterar el cicloglutamato-glutamina y generar cambiosen el entorno celular que favorecen excitotoxicidadpor glutamato típica de losprocesos de neurodegeneración.

  2. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  3. Changes in El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) chronozone revealed by New Zealand tree-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Cook, Edward R.; Fenwick, Pavla; Thomas, Zoë; Helle, Gerhard; Jones, Richard; Clement, Amy; Hogg, Alan; Southon, John; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Staff, Richard; Muscheler, Raimund; Corrège, Thierry; Hua, Quan

    2016-12-01

    The warming trend at the end of the last glacial was disrupted by rapid cooling clearly identified in Greenland (Greenland Stadial 1 or GS-1) and Europe (Younger Dryas Stadial or YD). This reversal to glacial-like conditions is one of the best known examples of abrupt change but the exact timing and global spatial extent remain uncertain. Whilst the wider Atlantic region has a network of high-resolution proxy records spanning GS-1, the Pacific Ocean suffers from a scarcity of sub-decadally resolved sequences. Here we report the results from an investigation into a tree-ring chronology from northern New Zealand aimed at addressing the paucity of data. The conifer tree species kauri (Agathis australis) is known from contemporary studies to be sensitive to regional climate changes. An analysis of a 'historic' 452-year kauri chronology confirms a tropical-Pacific teleconnection via the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We then focus our study on a 1010-year sub-fossil kauri chronology that has been precisely dated by comprehensive radiocarbon dating and contains a striking ring-width downturn between ∼12,500 and 12,380 cal BP within GS-1. Wavelet analysis shows a marked increase in ENSO-like periodicities occurring after the downturn event. Comparison to low- and mid-latitude Pacific records suggests a coherency with ENSO and Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation change during this period. The driver(s) for this climate event remain unclear but may be related to solar changes that subsequently led to establishment and/or increased expression of ENSO across the mid-latitudes of the Pacific, seemingly independent of the Atlantic and polar regions.

  4. vsp gene expression by Giardia lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7 during antigenic variation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienz, M; Siles-Lucas, M; Wittwer, P; Müller, N

    2001-09-01

    Giardia lamblia infections are associated with antigenic variation of the parasite, which is generated by a continuous change of the variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs). Many investigations on the process of antigenic variation were based on the use of G. lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7, which expresses VSP H7 as its major surface antigen. In the present study, mice were infected with the aforementioned clonal line to investigate vsp gene expression during the complex process of antigenic variation of the parasite. Trophozoites collected from the intestines of individual animals at different time points postinfection (p.i.) were analyzed directly for their vsp gene expression patterns, i.e., without cultivating the recovered parasites in vitro. Because few trophozoites were recovered at late time points p.i., a combined 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends-reverse transcription-PCR approach was utilized. This allowed detection and subsequent sequence analysis of vsp gene transcripts upon generation of amplified cDNA analogues. The same PCR approach was applied for analysis of vsp gene expression in variants obtained after negative selection of axenic GS/M-83-H7 trophozoites by treatment with a cytotoxic, VSP H7-specific monoclonal antibody. In an overall view of the entire panel of in vivo- and in vitro-derived parasite populations, expression of 29 different vsp gene sequences could be demonstrated. In vivo antigenic variation of G. lamblia clone GS/M-83-H7 was shown to be a continuous process involving the consecutive appearance of relatively distinct sets of vsp transcripts. During the 42-day infection period investigated, this process activated at least 22 different vsp genes. Comparative molecular analyses of the amino acid level demonstrated that all cDNA segments identified encode structural elements typical of the terminal segment of Giardia VSP. The similarity of most of the GS/M-83-H7 VSP sequences identified in the present study supports previous

  5. Control por fosfodiesterasas de la función cardíaca activada por los receptores acoplados a la proteína Gs

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Los receptores ß-adrenérgicos (ßAR) y de serotonina (5-HT4) median sus efectos en tejidos cardiacos a través de la ruta receptor-Gs-AC-AMPc. Las fosfodiesterasas (PDE) son una amplia familia de enzimas cuya función es la degradación del AMPc. Se desconocía que isoenzimas de PDEs son responsables de la hidrólisis de AMPc en las diferentes regiones cardiacas. El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es investigar que isoenzimas de PDEs tienen actividad en el miocardio humano, porcino y de roedores. S...

  6. A cAMP Biosensor-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of Gs-Coupled GPCR Ligands and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff

    2015-01-01

    resulted in prolonged signaling and enabled detection of weak partial agonists and/or ligands with low potency, which is highly advantageous in large HTS settings and hit identification. In addition, the assay enabled detection of β2AR inverse agonists and PDE inhibitors. High signal-to-noise ratios were...... in living cells. We used the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) as a representative Gs-coupled receptor and characterized two cell lines with different expression levels. Low receptor expression allowed detection of desensitization kinetics and delineation of partial agonism, whereas high receptor expression...

  7. Biological Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolate GS8 and Identification of its cry-type Genes%苏云金芽胞杆菌GS8菌株的生物学特性及其cry基因型鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘廷辉; 郭巍; 申建茹

    2009-01-01

    采用桑叶浸渍法和饲料表面覆盖法测定发现,从土壤中分离的一株苏云金芽胞杆菌菌株GS8对家蚕Bombyx mori、甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigrua和棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera初孵幼虫均表现出较高的杀虫活性,经形态学和生理生化反应鉴定该菌株为东北亚种(Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.tohokuensis).聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分析结果表明,GS8菌株的杀虫蛋白晶体主要由分子质量为130、81和60 kDa的蛋白组成.聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)鉴定结果显示,GS8菌株含有cry1Aa、cry1Ab、cry1Ib、cry2Ab和cry9Ba等基因.

  8. Ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of thrombin based on dual signal amplification strategy of Au@GS and DNA-CoPd NPs conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoguang; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Tao; Fan, Dawei; Du, Bin; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin

    2016-06-15

    In this work, an ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of thrombin was developed based on Au nanoparticles decorated graphene sheet (Au@GS) and CoPd binary nanoparticles (CoPd NPs). A sulfydryl-labeled thrombin capture probe (Apt1) and a biotin-labeled thrombin reporter probe (Apt2) were designed to achieve a sandwich-type strategy. Au@GS was used as a sensing platform for the facile immobilization of Apt1 through Au-S bond, forming a sensing interface for thrombin. The specific recognition of thrombin induced the attachment of Apt2-CoPd NPs to the electrode. The labeled CoPd NPs showed good catalytic properties toward the reduction of H2O2, resulting in an amperometric signal. The amperometric response was correlated to the thrombin concentration in sample solutions. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed the successful fabrication of the aptasensor. A linear response to thrombin in the range of 0.01-2.00 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit (5 pg mL(-1)) was achieved. The proposed aptasensor showed good selectivity, good reproducibility and acceptable stability. This proposed strategy may find many potential applications in the detection of other biomolecules.

  9. Development of a sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of sofosbuvir and its metabolite, GS-331007, in human plasma: Application to a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Mamdouh R; Basalious, Emad B; Karim, Iman A

    2015-10-10

    A rapid and simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of sofosbuvir (SF) and its metabolite GS-331007 (GS) using famotidine as an internal standard (IS). The Xevo TQD LC-MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. Extraction with ethyl acetate was used in sample preparation. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC HSS C₁₈ (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) column by pumping 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. Method validation was performed as per the FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 10-2500 ng/ml for both SF and its metabolite. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A very short run time of 1.2 min made it possible to analyze more than 300 human plasma samples per day. The developed assay method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in human volunteers.

  10. Heterologous expression of type I antifreeze peptide GS-5 in baker's yeast increases freeze tolerance and provides enhanced gas production in frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero, Joaquin; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2005-12-28

    The demand for frozen-dough products has increased notably in the baking industry. Nowadays, no appropriate industrial baker's yeast with optimal gassing capacity in frozen dough is, however, available, and it is unlikely that classical breeding programs could provide significant improvements of this trait. Antifreeze proteins, found in diverse organisms, display the ability to inhibit the growth of ice, allowing them to survive at temperatures below 0 degrees C. In this study a recombinant antifreeze peptide GS-5 was expressed from the polar fish grubby sculpin (Myoxocephalus aenaeus) in laboratory and industrial baker's yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Production of the recombinant protein increased freezing tolerance in both strains tested. Furthermore, expression of the GS-5 encoding gene enhanced notably the gassing rate and total gas production in frozen and frozen sweet doughs. These effects are unlikely to be due to reduced osmotic damage during freezing/thawing, because recombinant cells showed growth behavior similar to that of the parent under hypermosmotic stress conditions.

  11. Sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFP based on Pd octahedral and APTES-M-CeO₂-GS as signal labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yicheng; Li, Yan; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Tao; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, an ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on a novel signal amplification strategy was designed for quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). Au nanoparticles with biocompatibility were electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which can effectively capture and immobilize primary anti-AFP (Ab1) to significantly amplify the electrochemical signal. Graphene Oxide and CeO2 mesoporous nanocomposite functionalized by the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane supported Pd octahedral nanoparticles (Pd/APTES-M-CeO2-GS) were utilized as labels of detection anti-AFP (Ab2). Pd octahedral nanoparticles presented good catalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. Due to the large specific surface area and good adsorption properties of APTES-CeO2-GS nanocomposite, large amount of Pd octahedral nanoparticles could be immobilized, which could amplify the electrochemical signal and improve the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited wide linear range from 0.1 pg/mL to 50 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.033 pg/mL (S/N=3) for AFP detection. In addition, high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, good reproducibility and stability were obtained for the immunosensor, which has a promising application for quantitative detection of other tumor markers in clinical diagnosis.

  12. Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis JE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available John E Lewis1, Stacey L Tannenbaum1, Jinrun Gao3, Angelica B Melillo1, Evan G Long1, Yaima Alonso2, Janet Konefal1, Judi M Woolger2, Susanna Leonard1, Prabjot K Singh1, Lawrence Chen1, Eduard Tiozzo1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3State Farm Insurance, Bloomington, IL, USA Background and purpose: The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1 ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; LD Technology, Miami, FL to assess body composition, (2 EIS-GS (Electro Interstitial Scan-Galvanic Skin; LD Technology to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3 ES Oxi (Electro Sensor Oxi; LD Technology to assess cardiac output. The objective of this study was to compare each to a standardized assessment: ES-BC to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, EIS-GS to heart rate variability, and ES Oxi to BioZ Dx Diagnostic System (BioZ Dx; SonoSite Inc, Bothell, WA. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in two waves. Fifty subjects were assessed for body composition and autonomic nervous system activity. Fifty-one subjects were assessed for cardiac output. Results: We found adequate relative and absolute agreement between ES-BC and DXA for fat mass (r = 0.97, P < 0.001 with ES-BC overestimating fat mass by 0.1 kg and for body fat percentage (r = 0.92, P < 0.001 with overestimation of fat percentage by 0.4%. For autonomic nervous system activity, we found marginal relative agreement between EIS-GS and heart rate variability by using EIS-GS as the predictor in a linear regression equation (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P = 0.03. For cardiac output, adequate relative and absolute agreement was found between ES Oxi and BioZ Dx at baseline (r = 0.60, P < 0.001, after the first exercise stage (r = 0.79, P < 0.001, and after the second exercise stage (r = 0.86, P

  13. Constitutive Overexpression of Myo-inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase Gene (GsMIPS2) fromGlycine soja Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance at Various Growth Stages inArabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaib-un-Nisa; Chen Chen; Yang Yu; Chao Chen; ALi Inayat Mallano; Duan Xiang-bo; Sun Xiao-li; Zhu Yan-ming

    2016-01-01

    The enzymemyo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS EC 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the first step ofmyo-inositol biosynthesis, a product that plays crucial roles in plants as an osmoprotectant, transduction molecule, cell wall constituent and production of stress related molecule. Previous reports highlighted an important role of MIPS family genes in abiotic stresses particularly under salt stress tolerance in several plant species; however, little is known about the cellular and physiological functions ofMIPS2 genes under abiotic conditions. In this study, a novel salt stress responsive gene designatedGsMIPS2 from wild soybean Glycine soja07256 was functionally characterized contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 533 bp coding a peptide sequence of 510 amino acids along with mass of 56 445 ku. Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed its 92%-99% similarity with other MIPS family members in legume proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated thatGsMIPS2 was induced by salt stress and expressed in roots of soybean. The positive function ofGsMIPS2 under salt response at different growth stages of transgenicArabidopsis was also elucidated. The results showed thatGsMIPS2 transgenic lines displayed increased tolerance as compared to WT andatmips2 mutant lines under salt stress. Furthermore, the expression levels of some salt stress responsive marker genes, including KIN1,RD29A, RD29B,P5CsandCOR47 were significantly up-regulated inGsMIPS2 overexpression lines than wild type andatmips2 mutant. Collectively, these results suggested thatGsMIPS2 gene was a positive regulator of plant tolerance to salt stress. This was the first report to demonstrate that overexpression ofGsMIPS2 gene from wild soybean improved salt tolerance in transgenicArabidopsis.

  14. Genome sequencing of Giardia lamblia genotypes A2 and B isolates (DH and GS) and comparative analysis with the genomes of genotypes A1 and E (WB and Pig).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rodney D; Dahlstrom, Eric W; Martens, Craig A; Bruno, Daniel P; Barbian, Kent D; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Hernandez, Matthew M; Narla, Nirmala P; Patel, Rima B; Porcella, Stephen F; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Giardia lamblia (syn G. intestinalis, G. duodenalis) is the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite of humans worldwide and is a frequent cause of endemic and epidemic diarrhea. G. lamblia is divided into eight genotypes (A-H) which infect a wide range of mammals and humans, but human infections are caused by Genotypes A and B. To unambiguously determine the relationship among genotypes, we sequenced GS and DH (Genotypes B and A2) to high depth coverage and compared the assemblies with the nearly completed WB genome and draft sequencing surveys of Genotypes E (P15; pig isolate) and B (GS; human isolate). Our results identified DH as the smallest Giardia genome sequenced to date, while GS is the largest. Our open reading frame analyses and phylogenetic analyses showed that GS was more distant from the other three genomes than any of the other three were from each other. Whole-genome comparisons of DH_A2 and GS_B with the optically mapped WB_A1 demonstrated substantial synteny across all five chromosomes but also included a number of rearrangements, inversions, and chromosomal translocations that were more common toward the chromosome ends. However, the WB_A1/GS_B alignment demonstrated only about 70% sequence identity across the syntenic regions. Our findings add to information presented in previous reports suggesting that GS is a different species of Giardia as supported by the degree of genomic diversity, coding capacity, heterozygosity, phylogenetic distance, and known biological differences from WB_A1 and other G. lamblia genotypes.

  15. Hyperthermia-triggered intracellular delivery of anticancer agent to HER2(+) cells by HER2-specific affibody (ZHER2-GS-Cys)-conjugated thermosensitive liposomes (HER2(+) affisomes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Lyakhov, Ilya; Loomis, Kristin; Needle, Danielle; Baxa, Ulrich; Yavlovich, Amichai; Capala, Jacek; Blumenthal, Robert; Puri, Anu

    2011-07-30

    We previously reported the formulation and physical properties of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-specific affibody (ZHER2:342-Cys) conjugated thermosensitive liposomes (HER2(+)affisomes). Here we examined localized delivery potential of these affisomes by monitoring cellular interactions, intracellular uptake, and hyperthermia-induced effects on drug delivery. We modified ZHER2:342-Cys by introducing a glycine-serine spacer before the C-terminus cysteine (called ZHER2-GS-Cys) to achieve accessibility to cell surface expressed HER2. This modification did not affect HER2-specific binding and ZHER2-GS-Cys retained its ability to conjugate to the liposomes containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline: DSPE-PEG2000-Malemide, 96:04 mole ratios (HER2(+)affisomes). HER2(+)affisomes were either (i) fluorescently labeled with rhodamine-PE and calcein or (ii) loaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Fluorescently labeled HER2(+) affisomes showed at least 10-fold increase in binding to HER2(+) cells (SK-BR-3) when compared to HER2(-) cells (MDA-MB-468) at 37°C. A competition experiment using free ZHER2-GS-Cys blocked HER2(+) affisome-SK-BR-3 cell associations. Imaging with confocal microscopy showed that HER2(+) affisomes accumulated in the cytosol of SK-BR-3 cells at 37°C. Hyperthermia-induced intracellular release experiments showed that the treatment of HER2(+) affisome/SK-BR-3 cell complexes with a 45°C (±1°C) pre-equilibrated buffer resulted in cytosolic delivery of calcein. Substantial calcein release was observed within 20min at 45°C, with no effect on cell viability under these conditions. Similarly, DOX-loaded HER2(+)affisomes showed at least 2- to 3-fold higher accumulation of DOX in SK-BR-3 cells as compared to control liposomes. DOX-mediated cytotoxicity was more pronounced in SK-BR-3 cells especially at lower doses of HER2(+)affisomes. Brief exposure of liposome-cell complexes at 45°C prior to the onset of incubations for cell

  16. A high cell density transient transfection system for therapeutic protein expression based on a CHO GS-knockout cell line: process development and product quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra, Yashas; Hougland, Maria D; Alam, Riazul; Morehead, Teresa A; Barnard, Gavin C

    2015-05-01

    Transient gene expression (TGE) is a rapid method for the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. While the volumetric productivity of TGE has improved significantly over the past decade, most methods involve extensive cell line engineering and plasmid vector optimization in addition to long fed batch cultures lasting up to 21 days. Our colleagues have recently reported the development of a CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line. By creating a bi-allelic glutamine synthetase knock out of the original CHOK1SV host cell line, they were able to improve the efficiency of generating high producing stable CHO lines for drug product manufacturing. We developed a TGE method using the same CHO K1SV GS-KO host cell line without any further cell line engineering. We also refrained from performing plasmid vector engineering. Our objective was to setup a TGE process to mimic protein quality attributes obtained from stable CHO cell line. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transfections were performed at high cell density (4 × 10(6) cells/mL) followed by immediate growth arrest at 32 °C for 7 days. Optimizing DNA and PEI concentrations proved to be important. Interestingly, found the direct transfection method (where DNA and PEI were added sequentially) to be superior to the more common indirect method (where DNA and PEI are first pre-complexed). Moreover, the addition of a single feed solution and a polar solvent (N,N dimethylacetamide) significantly increased product titers. The scalability of process from 2 mL to 2 L was demonstrated using multiple proteins and multiple expression volumes. Using this simple, short, 7-day TGE process, we were able to successfully produce 54 unique proteins in a fraction of the time that would have been required to produce the respective stable CHO cell lines. The list of 54 unique proteins includes mAbs, bispecific antibodies, and Fc-fusion proteins. Antibody titers of up to 350 mg/L were achieved with the simple 7-day process. Titers

  17. Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Meng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi, and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14, by 97 % in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of

  18. Discovery of Dihydrobenzoxazepinone (GS-6615) Late Sodium Current Inhibitor (Late INai), a Phase II Agent with Demonstrated Preclinical Anti-Ischemic and Antiarrhythmic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablocki, Jeff A; Elzein, Elfatih; Li, Xiaofen; Koltun, Dmitry O; Parkhill, Eric Q; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Martinez, Ruben; Corkey, Britton; Jiang, Haibo; Perry, Thao; Kalla, Rao; Notte, Gregory T; Saunders, Oliver; Graupe, Michael; Lu, Yafan; Venkataramani, Chandru; Guerrero, Juan; Perry, Jason; Osier, Mark; Strickley, Robert; Liu, Gongxin; Wang, Wei-Qun; Hu, Lufei; Li, Xiao-Jun; El-Bizri, Nesrine; Hirakawa, Ryoko; Kahlig, Kris; Xie, Cheng; Li, Cindy Hong; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Rajamani, Sridharan; Mollova, Nevena; Soohoo, Daniel; Lepist, Eve-Irene; Murray, Bernard; Rhodes, Gerry; Belardinelli, Luiz; Desai, Manoj C

    2016-10-03

    Late sodium current (late INa) is enhanced during ischemia by reactive oxygen species (ROS) modifying the Nav 1.5 channel, resulting in incomplete inactivation. Compound 4 (GS-6615, eleclazine) a novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of late INa, is currently in clinical development for treatment of long QT-3 syndrome (LQT-3), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and ventricular tachycardia-ventricular fibrillation (VT-VF). We will describe structure-activity relationship (SAR) leading to the discovery of 4 that is vastly improved from the first generation late INa inhibitor 1 (ranolazine). Compound 4 was 42 times more potent than 1 in reducing ischemic burden in vivo (S-T segment elevation, 15 min left anteriorior descending, LAD, occlusion in rabbits) with EC50 values of 190 and 8000 nM, respectively. Compound 4 represents a new class of potent late INa inhibitors that will be useful in delineating the role of inhibitors of this current in the treatment of patients.

  19. Optimization of cell line development in the GS-CHO expression system using a high-throughput, single cell-based clone selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are commonly produced by high-expressing, clonal and recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Currently, CHO cells dominate as a commercial production host because of their ease of use, established regulatory track record, and safety profile. CHO-K1SV is a suspension, protein-free-adapted CHO-K1-derived cell line employing the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene expression system (GS-CHO expression system). The selection of high-producing mammalian cell lines is a crucial step in process development for the production of therapeutic antibodies. In general, cloning by the limiting dilution method is used to isolate high-producing monoclonal CHO cells. However, the limiting dilution method is time consuming and has a low probability of monoclonality. To minimize the duration and increase the probability of obtaining high-producing clones with high monoclonality, an automated single cell-based clone selector, the ClonePix FL system, is available. In this study, we applied the high-throughput ClonePix FL system for cell line development using CHO-K1SV cells and investigated efficient conditions for single cell-based clone selection. CHO-K1SV cell growth at the pre-picking stage was improved by optimizing the formulation of semi-solid medium. The efficiency of picking and cell growth at the post-picking stage was improved by optimization of the plating time without decreasing the diversity of clones. The conditions for selection, including the medium formulation, were the most important factors for the single cell-based clone selection system to construct a high-producing CHO cell line.

  20. 樱桃叶片气孔导度动态模拟研究%Study on Dynamic Simulation of Stomatal Conductance( Gs ) of Cherry(Prunus avium L.' Hongdeng' ) Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高照全; 赵晨霞; 冯社章; 程建军

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to simulate the dynamic change law of cherry leaf s Gs under different weather by Gs model. [ Method] The experiment was conducted in a ' Hongdeng' cherry orchard. The parameters of the model were tested by the data observed in upper canopy from 2008 to 2011 during the growing seasons. [ Result] The diurnal course of Gs showed a double-peak curve on sunny days. And it reached the first peak of 240 mmol/(m2 · S) at mid-morning about 08:00 and the second at mid-afternoon about 16:00. The decline of Gs at noon was caused by lower RH and ψt. During a whole day (12 h) , average Gs was about 154. 36 mmol/( m2 · S) on sunny day. [ Conclusion] The study provides a scientific basis for using Gs model to simulate Gs of fruit tree leaf under different weather.%[目的]利用气孔导度(Gs)模型模拟红灯樱桃(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)叶片G,在不同气象条件下的动态变化规律.[方法]于2008~2011年在红灯樱桃园中,利用树冠上层叶片气体交换数据拟合相应参数.[结果]在晴天,樱桃上层叶片Gs呈双峰曲线,最大峰值出现在08:00左右,约240 mmol/( m2·s);第2峰值在16:00,气孔的“午休”现象主要与中午较低的RH和ψ1有关.晴天时,一天当中Gs的平均值为154.36 mmol/( m2·s).[结论]该研究为采用Gs模型来模拟不同气象条件下果树叶片G1提供了科学依据.

  1. Reseña: Abal Oliú, Alejandro: C.G.P. y conciliación previa en materia laboral, Editorial Universidad Ltda. Montevideo, 1992, 64 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    o. C. R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abal Oliú, Alejandro: C.G.P. y conciliación previa en materia laboral, Editorial Universidad Ltda. Montevideo, 1992, 64 págs. Editorial Universidad Ltda. Montevideo, 1992, 64 págs.El autor, profesor de Derecho Procesal y de Técnica Forense en nuestra Facultad, analiza en la presente obra las distintas fórmulas que es posible estab~ecer en cuanto a la tentativa de conciliación previa a la iniciación de los procesos laborales, luego de la entrada en vigencia del Código General del Proceso. (...

  2. Perform data envelopment analysis in MS Excel based on models of C2R and C2GS2%Excel VBA基于C2R和C2GS2模型实现数据包络分析的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章燕丽; 李显文; 高越明; 吕旭东

    2008-01-01

    数据包络分析用来评价具有多输入、多输出的决策单元之间的相对有效性.本文基于两个DEA数学模型C2R和C2GS2的等价线性规划模型,利用Fxcel 2003强大的数字处理分析功能并结合其线性规划求解工具,运用Excel VBA语言实现了一种使用简单方便的DEA分析方法.

  3. 低氮条件下木薯谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)酶活及GS家族基因表达分析%Enzyme Activity and Expression Analysis of Glutamine Synthetase GS Gene in Cassava under Low-nitrogen Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖急祥; 曾长英; 彭明

    2016-01-01

    谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)是植物氮代谢中的关键酶,在氨同化和谷氨酰胺生物合成中起着重要的作用.木薯中谷氨酰胺合成酶基因家族有四个基因,分别是细胞质型cassava4.1_008086m (MeG S1.1),cassava4.1_010581m (MeGS1.2),cassava4.1_010597m (MeGS1.3)和叶绿体型cassava4.1_008019m (MeGS2).实验采用qRT-PCR技术分析铵盐和硝酸盐两种不同的氮源低氮胁迫下耐低氮品种(双高CH16)和低氮敏感型品种(双低G16) GS基因的表达差异.结果表明,在低铵盐氮源处理下木薯两类品种的GS酶活在叶中要高于正常氮源处理,根中低于正常氮源处理,而低硝酸盐氮源处理下木薯两类品种的GS酶活在叶和根中要低于正常氮源.在不同低氮源处理下,两类材料叶绿体型GS表达量在叶中始终与GS酶活存在相反现象.因此,推测木薯叶片中叶绿体型GS表达量可能与GS酶活呈负相关关系.而细胞质型GS表达量差异较大,与叶绿体型GS共同影响GS酶活,影响着木薯的氮利用效率.

  4. 人工合成小麦 HMW-GS Dtx1.5亚基的 AS-PCR 鉴定程序优化及遗传分析%Optimization of AS-PCR Identification System for HMW-GS Dtx1.5 of Wheat Syndeme Developed with Durum Wheat and Aegilops tauschii and Its Genetic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万洪深; 温雯; 李俊; 杨武云

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids have gradually been used as a bridge-tool for common wheat improvement to introduce elite gene sources from its wild relatives with strong resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses, increased yield potential and good making quality. The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) Dtx1.5 from Aegilops tauschii is thought to be associated with fine making quality. In this study, the reaction condition of the Dtx1.5 AS-PCR system has been optimized step by step, and the distribution of the HMW-GS Dtx1.5 in the F2 and F9 RIL populations derived from Chuanyu 12 crossed with synthetic wheat Syn780 was also investigated using this AS-PCR system. The sharp and stable fragments amplified by this optimum AS-PCR system indicated its availability and convenience in the identification of HMW-GS Dtx1.5. And the observed distribution of Dtx1.5 obeyed Mendelian law of segregation in both low (F2) and advanced (F9) generation populations, suggesting the stable inheritance of Dtx1.5. Therefore, the Dtx1.5 from Aegilops tauschii could be used in common wheat breeding for quality and the optimum AS-PCR system could enhance the efficiency of selection by molecular markers.%人工合成小麦综合了自然界中现有四倍体小麦(Triticum turgidun)和粗山羊草(节节麦, Aegilops tauschii)的丰富遗传变异,是将野生祖先种中优异的抗病、抗逆基因成功利用到普通小麦育种中的重要桥梁。源于粗山羊草的高分子量谷蛋白(HMW-GS) Dtx1.5亚基,是一种新的优质亚基。本研究对 HMW-GS Dtx1.5亚基 AS-PCR 反应体系及扩增程序进行了逐步的优化,并利用普通小麦川育12与人工合成小麦 Syn780(含有Dtx1.5亚基)杂交 F2代(低代)和 F9重组自交系(高代)群体对 Dtx1.5亚基的遗传规律进行了分析。结果表明:优化后目的扩增条带清晰、稳定、可靠,可以用于 Dtx1.5亚基的分子鉴定;Dtx1.5亚基在普通小麦与人工合成小麦杂交的低代

  5. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor GS-1101 synergistically potentiates histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through the inactivation of PI3K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, Juraj; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Sharma, Arishya; Hill, Brian T; Portell, Craig A; Lannutti, Brian J; Almasan, Alexandru; Hsi, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    Previously, we showed that inhibition of the protein kinase C β (PKCβ)/AKT pathway augments engagement of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI)-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death induced by the delta isoform-specific phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, GS-1101, in combination with the HDI, panobinostat (LBH589) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Lymphoma cell lines, primary non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells were simultaneously treated with the HDI, LBH589 and GS-1101. An interaction of the LBH589/GS-1101 combination was formally examined by using various concentrations of LBH589 and GS-1101. Combined treatment resulted in a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and showed synergistic effect on apoptotic induction in all tested cell lines and primary NHL and CLL cells. This study indicates that interference with PI3K signalling dramatically increases HDI-mediated apoptosis in malignant haematopoietic cells, possibly through both AKT-dependent or AKT- independent mechanisms. Moreover, the increase in HDI-related apoptosis observed in PI3K inhibitor-treated cells appears to be related to the disruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway. This study provides a strong rational for testing the combination of PI3K inhibitors and HDI in the clinic.

  6. A 110mW, 0.04mm2, 11GS/s 9-bit interleaved DAC in 28nm FDSOI with >50dB SFDR across Nyquist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, Erik; Annema, Anne-Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    A 9-bit 11GS/s current-steering (CS) digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is designed in 28nm FDSOI. The DAC uses two-times interleaving to suppress the effects of the main error mechanisms of CS DACs while its clock timing can be tuned by the back gates bias voltage of the multiplexer transistors. The

  7. Structural requirements for the flavonoid-mediated modulation of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 and GS-X pump activity in MCF7 breast cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van J.J.; Geraets, L.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural requirements necessary for inhibition of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) and GS-X pump (MRP1 and MRP2) activity by structurally related flavonoids, in GSTP1-1 transfected MCF7 cells (pMTG5). The results reveal that GSTP1-1 activi

  8. A 0.45pJ/conv-step 1.2Gs/s 6b full-Nyquist non-calibrated flash ADC in 45nm CMOS and its scaling behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhorst, Paul; Goksun, George; Buter, Berry; Vertregt, Maarten; Annema, Anne-Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2009-01-01

    A 6-bit 1.2 Gs/s non-calibrated flash ADC in a standard 45nm CMOS process, that achieves 0.45pJ/conv-step at full Nyquist bandwidth, is presented. Power efficient operation is achieved by a full optimization of amplifier blocks, and by innovations in the comparator and encoding stage. The performanc

  9. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Liu

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS that synthesizes glutathione (GSH with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5 with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu, with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation.

  10. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dali; An, Zhigang; Mao, Zijun; Ma, Longbiao; Lu, Zhenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS) that synthesizes glutathione (GSH) with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5) with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC) levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu), with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation.

  11. Análisis de la semántica declarativa trivaluada GS para la programación en lógica rebatible básica

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchi, Laura; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un análisis del conjunto de las consecuencias de un programa lógico rebatible. Como resultado inmediato surge un teorema en el que se prueba que la semántica GS es sensata y completa con respecto a la semántica operacional.

  12. $\\gamma$-Ray Burster Counterparts HST Blue and Ultraviolet Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, B E; Hurley, K; Laros, J G; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cline, Thomas; Hurley, Kevin; Laros, John

    1997-01-01

    The surest solution of the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) mystery is to find an unambiguous low-energy quiescent counterpart. However, to date no reasonable candidates have been identified in the x-ray, optical, infrared, or radio ranges. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has now allowed for the first deep ultraviolet searches for quiescent counterparts. This paper reports on multiepoch ultraviolet searches of five GRB positions with HST. We found no sources with significant ultraviolet excesses, variability, parallax, or proper motion in any of the burst error regions. In particular, we see no sources similar to that proposed as a counterpart to the GRB970228. While this negative result is disappointing, it still has good utility for its strict limits on the no-host-galaxy problem in cosmological models of GRBs. For most cosmological models (with peak luminosity 6X10^50 erg/s), the absolute B magnitude of any possible host galaxy must be fainter than -15.5 to -17.4. These smallest boxes for some of the brightest burst...

  13. Ultrahigh wavelength range (300nm-2μm) polarization-independent 500gs/s single-shot pulse, all-optical real time oscilloscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Hocquet, Steve; Monnier Bourdin, Dominique; Le Boudec, Patrice; Arnaud, Romain; Chassagne, Bruno; Jolly, Alain; Penninckx, Denis

    2014-03-01

    The development of ultra-broadband oscilloscopes is mainly governed by the needs of future telecom networks. But other applications are requesting the availability of true real-time acquisition oscilloscopes. Systems able to be used in single-shot operation are of prime interest for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and for the related R&D for plasma physics. We previously demonstrate a single-shot, 100GHz design of an all-optical sampling oscilloscope at 1μm (MULO). This laboratory system has been improved in stability and compactness to make an all-in-one box prototype. More, by the addition of an opto-electro-optics (OEO) sub-system at the input, we developed the ability to use this oscilloscope to analyze an electrical input signal up to 60GHz. This new integrated subset also increases the range of wavelength for optical input signal, from 300nm up to 2μm. Furthermore, it allows the use of inexpensive opto-electronic components at telecom wavelength for this system regardless of the signal to be analysed. In parallel with these improvements, by optimizing the heart of the system, we get a very high sampling rate, up to 500Gs/s and more; this allows considering much higher bandwidths in the future. In this talk, we will present latest developments and integration of this system. It will also allow us to give more details on the innovative OEO sub-system.

  14. ICO amplicon NGS data analysis: a Web tool for variant detection in common high-risk hereditary cancer genes analyzed by amplicon GS Junior next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Doriga, Adriana; Feliubadaló, Lídia; Menéndez, Mireia; Lopez-Doriga, Sergio; Morón-Duran, Francisco D; del Valle, Jesús; Tornero, Eva; Montes, Eva; Cuesta, Raquel; Campos, Olga; Gómez, Carolina; Pineda, Marta; González, Sara; Moreno, Victor; Capellá, Gabriel; Lázaro, Conxi

    2014-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genomic research and is set to have a major impact on genetic diagnostics thanks to the advent of benchtop sequencers and flexible kits for targeted libraries. Among the main hurdles in NGS are the difficulty of performing bioinformatic analysis of the huge volume of data generated and the high number of false positive calls that could be obtained, depending on the NGS technology and the analysis pipeline. Here, we present the development of a free and user-friendly Web data analysis tool that detects and filters sequence variants, provides coverage information, and allows the user to customize some basic parameters. The tool has been developed to provide accurate genetic analysis of targeted sequencing of common high-risk hereditary cancer genes using amplicon libraries run in a GS Junior System. The Web resource is linked to our own mutation database, to assist in the clinical classification of identified variants. We believe that this tool will greatly facilitate the use of the NGS approach in routine laboratories.

  15. An optimally tuned ensemble of the "eb_go_gs" configuration of GENIE: parameter sensitivity and bifurcations in the Atlantic overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The key physical parameters of the "eb_go_gs" configuration of GENIE, an Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC, are tuned using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. An ensemble of 90 parameter sets is tuned using two ocean and two atmospheric state variables as targets. These are "Pareto-optimal", representing a range of trade-offs between the four tuning targets. For the leading five parameter sets, simulations are further evaluated alongside a simulation with untuned "default" parameters, comparing selected variables and diagnostics that describe the state of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice. One of these parameter sets is selected for further analysis of the objective function (error landscape in the vicinity of its tuned values. "Cliffs" along some dimensions motivate closer inspection of corresponding variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC. This reveals that bifurcations in the AMOC are highly sensitive to parameters that are not commonly associated with MOC stability. Specifically, the state of the AMOC is sensitive to parameters governing the wind-driven circulation and atmospheric heat transport. Five optimal parameter sets are recommended for future use of GENIE in the configuration presented here.

  16. Implementation of a 10.24 GS/s 12-bit Optoelectronics Analog-to- Digital Converter Based on a Polyphase Demultiplexing Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Villa-Angulo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the practical implementation of a high-speed polyphase sampling and demultiplexingarchitecture for optoelectronics analog-to-digital converters (OADCs. The architecture consists of a one-stage divideby-eight decimator circuit where optically-triggered samplers are cascaded to sample an analog input signal, anddemultiplex different phases of the sampled signal to yield low data rate for electronic quantization. Electrical-in toelectrical-out data format is maintained through the sampling, demultiplexing and quantization processes of thearchitecture thereby avoiding the need for electrical-to-optical and optical-to-electrical signal conversions. Weexperimentally demonstrate a 10.24 giga samples per second (GS/s, 12-bit resolution OADC system comprising theoptically-triggered sampling circuits integrated with commercial electronic quantizers. Measurements performed on theOADC yielded an effective bit resolution (ENOB of 10.3 bits, spurious free dynamic range (SFDR of -32 dB andsignal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR of 63.7 dB.

  17. Use of agricultural statistics to verify the interannual variability in land surface models: a case study over France with ISBA-A-gs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the interannual variability of the above-ground biomass of herbaceous vegetation simulated by the ISBA-A-gs land surface model, within the SURFEX modelling platform, French agricultural statistics for C3 crops and grasslands were compared with the simulations for the 1994–2008 period. While excellent correlations are obtained for grasslands, representing the interannual variability of crops is more difficult. It is shown that, the Maximum Available soil Water Capacity (MaxAWC has a large influence on the correlation between the model and the agricultural statistics. In particular, high values of MaxAWC tend to reduce the impact of the climate interannual variability on the simulated biomass. Also, high values of MaxAWC allow the simulation of a negative trend in biomass production, in relation to a marked warming trend, of about 0.12 Kyr−1 on average, affecting the daily maximum air temperature during the growing period (April–June. This trend is particularly acute in Northern France. The estimates of MaxAWC for C3 crops and grasslands, currently used in SURFEX, are about 129 mm and do not vary much. Therefore, more accurate grid-cell values of this parameter are needed.

  18. The decays of three top contributors to the reactor ve high-energy spectrum, 92Rb, 96gsY, and 142Cs, studied with total absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasco, Bertis; MTAS Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of 92Rb, 96gsY, and 142Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ve spectral shape in nuclear reactors. The measurements were performed with the NaI(Tl) based Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS). MTAS was constructed specifically to measure improved β-decay feeding patterns from neutron-rich nuclei, because it is difficult to measure β-decay feeding intensities with high energy precision γ-ray measurements due to the low efficiency of high precision detectors. Besides the impact to the high energy ve spectral shape in nuclear reactors, there are several other important applications of improved measurements of β-decay feeding patterns by total absorption spectroscopy; improve understanding of elemental abundances in the universe, help with stockpile stewardship, contribute to understanding of underlying nuclear structure, and improve measurements of decay heat. We will demonstrate some of the techniques for analyzing MTAS γ-decay data. This research was also sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, U. S. Department of Energy under Contracts DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG02-96ER40983, DE-FG02-96ER40978, and by the Polish National Science Center under Contract UMO-2013/08/T/ST2/00624.

  19. 火气系统在长输管道中的应用%The application of F & GS in pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕长达

    2014-01-01

    Fire and Gas Detection System which play a signiifcant role on the preventing and production safety includes the detection and ifre alarm and combustible gas. It is a critical component of the security system involved in the petrochemical equipments. This paper brielfy introduced the basic function, design demand and issues related to the detection and alarm devices in association of the application of F&GS in long petroleum pipeline construction.%火灾和气体报警系统简称火气系统(F&GS),包括火灾和可燃体检测报警两个部分,在防范火灾、确保安全生产方面发挥着重要的作用,是构成石油化工装置安全系统的重要组成部分。本文结合其在长输管道中的应用,简要介绍其基本功能、设计要求,以及检测器、报警器的设置等工程问题。

  20. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T Welzel

    Full Text Available Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  1. Human Anti-Aβ IgGs Target Conformational Epitopes on Synthetic Dimer Assemblies and the AD Brain-Derived Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T.; Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A.; Ehrlich, Hartmut J.; Schwarz, Hans P.; Walsh, Dominic M.; Solomon, Alan; O’Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ’s conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody’s nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody’s lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted. PMID:23209707

  2. Human anti-Aβ IgGs target conformational epitopes on synthetic dimer assemblies and the AD brain-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Alfred T; Williams, Angela D; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Blinder, Veronika; Mably, Alex; Bunk, Sebastian; Hermann, Corinna; Farrell, Michael A; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Schwarz, Hans P; Walsh, Dominic M; Solomon, Alan; O'Nuallain, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Soluble non-fibrillar assemblies of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and aggregated tau protein are the proximate synaptotoxic species associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising and advanced therapeutic strategy, but the precise Aβ species to target is not yet known. Previously, we and others have shown that natural human IgGs (NAbs) target diverse Aβ conformers and have therapeutic potential. We now demonstrate that these antibodies bound with nM avidity to conformational epitopes on plate-immobilized synthetic Aβ dimer assemblies, including synaptotoxic protofibrils, and targeted these conformers in solution. Importantly, NAbs also recognized Aβ extracted from the water-soluble phase of human AD brain, including species that migrated on denaturing PAGE as SDS-stable dimers. The critical reliance on Aβ's conformational state for NAb binding, and not a linear sequence epitope, was confirmed by the antibody's nM reactivity with plate-immobilized protofibrills, and weak uM binding to synthetic Aβ monomers and peptide fragments. The antibody's lack of reactivity against a linear sequence epitope was confirmed by our ability to isolate anti-Aβ NAbs from intravenous immunoglobulin using affinity matrices, immunoglobulin light chain fibrils and Cibacron blue, which had no sequence similarity with the peptide. These findings suggest that further investigations on the molecular basis and the therapeutic/diagnostic potential of anti-Aβ NAbs are warranted.

  3. Organellar genome, nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat unit, and microsatellites isolated from a small-scale of 454 GS FLX sequencing on two mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Forrest, Laura L; Bainard, Jillian D; Budke, Jessica M; Goffinet, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Recent innovations in high-throughput DNA sequencing methodology (next generation sequencing technologies [NGS]) allow for the generation of large amounts of high quality data that may be particularly critical for resolving ambiguous relationships such as those resulting from rapid radiations. Application of NGS technology to bryology is limited to assembling entire nuclear or organellar genomes of selected exemplars of major lineages (e.g., classes). Here we outline how organellar genomes and the entire nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat can be obtained from minimal amounts of moss tissue via small-scale 454 GS FLX sequencing. We sampled two Funariaceae species, Funaria hygrometrica and Entosthodon obtusus, and assembled nearly complete organellar genomes and the whole nuclear ribosomal DNA repeat unit (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-26S-IGS1-5S-IGS2) for both taxa. Sequence data from these species were compared to sequences from another Funariaceae species, Physcomitrella patens, revealing low overall degrees of divergence of the organellar genomes and nrDNA genes with substitutions spread rather evenly across their length, and high divergence within the external spacers of the nrDNA repeat. Furthermore, we detected numerous microsatellites among the 454 assemblies. This study demonstrates that NGS methodology can be applied to mosses to target large genomic regions and identify microsatellites.

  4. Differential cross section measurement of the {sup 12}C(e,e{sup '}pp){sup 10}Be{sub g.s.} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makek, M.; Bosnar, D.; Friscic, I. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia); Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Bernauer, J.C.; Boehm, R.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.O.; Merkel, H.; Mueller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanches Majos, S.; Schlimme, B.S.; Schwamb, M.; Walcher, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Barbieri, C. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Giusti, C. [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia (Italy); Collaboration: A1 Collaboration

    2016-09-15

    The differential cross section was measured for the {sup 12}C(e,e{sup '}pp){sup 10}Be{sub g.s.} reaction at energy and momentum transfers of 163 MeV and 198 MeV/c, respectively. The measurement was performed at the Mainz Microtron by using two high-resolution magnetic spectrometers of the A1 Collaboration and a newly developed silicon detector telescope. The overall resolution of the detector system was sufficient to distinguish the ground state from the first excited state in {sup 10}Be. We chose a super-parallel geometry that minimizes the effect of two-body currents and emphasizes the effect of nucleon-nucleon correlations. The obtained differential cross section is compared to the theoretical results of the Pavia reaction code in which different processes leading to two-nucleon knockout are accounted for microscopically. The comparison shows a strong sensitivity to nuclear-structure input and the measured cross section is seen to be dominated by the interplay between long- and short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. Microscopic calculations based on the ab initio self-consistent Green's function method give a reasonable description of the experimental cross section. (orig.)

  5. 嗜热菌Geobacillus Kaustophilus HTA426磷酸三酯酶在毕赤酵母GS115中的表达%Overexpression of Phosphotriesterase(PTE) Gene from thermophilic Geobacillus Kaustophilus HTA426 in Pichia pastoris GS115

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹冬玲; 林禹欣; 任玉雪; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    将嗜热菌Geobacillus Kaustophilus HTA426中的磷酸三酯酶基因转入毕赤酵母GS115中,整合到染色体DNA基因组上,并进行诱导表达.SDS-PAGE和Western-blot试验结果显示,重组蛋白是一个分子量约为50KD的磷酸三酯酶二聚体.酶活检测证明重组蛋白具有较高的磷酸三酯酶活性,其最适温度为70℃,最适pH为10.0.

  6. Papel da MRP1/bomba GS-X na regulação do potencial redox celular, e a influência do estado redox celular na expressão e atividade da MRP1/bomba GS-X

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Uma das complicações que levam o paciente terminal de câncer à morte é a imunossupressão. Por sua vez, a superprodução de prostaglandinas ciclopentenônicas (CP-PGs) no plasma desses indivíduos é um fator de risco para depressão imunológica já que as CP PGs bloqueiam inúmeras interações entre células imunológicas. Estudos de nosso grupo revelaram que células tumorais apresentam alta atividade da ATPase bomba GS X/MRP que exporta conjugados sulfidrila, inclusive CP PG na forma de S-conjugados d...

  7. The Geochemical Society(GS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seth M.Davis

    2007-01-01

    @@ Mission The Geochemical Society is an international nonprofit organization for scientists involved in the practice,study and teaching of geochemistry.0ur principal roles are to understand and meet the needs of our members so as to provide them with programs and services that will help them be better geochemists;to empower geochemists through information,education,relationships and resources that will enrich their professional development and careers;and to advance the thought and application of geochemistry.

  8. Solvarmeanlægs energibesparelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    /S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses...... azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. That is, yearly energy savings for new solar heating systems in one family houses are high, ranging from 300 kWh per m² solar collector to 2090 kWh per m² solar collector. If the existing energy system is used as the back up energy...

  9. The 5'-end transitional CpGs between the CpG islands and retroelements are hypomethylated in association with loss of heterozygosity in gastric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Eun-Joo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A loss of heterozygosity (LOH represents a unilateral chromosomal loss that reduces the dose of highly repetitive Alu, L1, and LTR retroelements. The aim of this study was to determine if the LOH events can affect the spread of retroelement methylation in the 5'-end transitional area between the CpG islands and their nearest retroelements. Methods The 5'-transitional area of all human genes (22,297 was measured according to the nearest retroelements to the transcription start sites. For 50 gastric cancer specimens, the level of LOH events on eight cancer-associated chromosomes was estimated using the microsatellite markers, and the 5'-transitional CpGs of 20 selected genes were examined by methylation analysis using the bisulfite-modified DNA. Results The extent of the transitional area was significantly shorter with the nearest Alu elements than with the nearest L1 and LTR elements, as well as in the extragenic regions containing a higher density of retroelements than in the intragenic regions. The CpG islands neighbouring a high density of Alu elements were consistently hypomethylated in both normal and tumor tissues. The 5'-transitional methylated CpG sites bordered by a low density of Alu elements or the L1 and LTR elements were hypomethylated more frequently in the high-level LOH cases than in the low-level LOH cases. Conclusion The 5'-transitional methylated CpG sites not completely protected by the Alu elements were hypomethylated in association with LOH events in gastric cancers. This suggests that an irreversible unbalanced decrease in the genomic dose reduces the spread of L1 methylation in the 5'-end regions of genes.

  10. An optimally tuned ensemble of the "eb_go_gs" configuration of GENIE: parameter sensitivity and bifurcations in the Atlantic overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The key physical parameters for the "eb_go_gs" configuration of version 2.7.4 of GENIE, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC, are tuned using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. An ensemble of 90 parameter sets is tuned using two ocean and two atmospheric state variables as targets. These are "Pareto-optimal", representing a range of trade-offs between the four tuning targets. For the leading five parameter sets, simulations are evaluated alongside a simulation with untuned "default" parameters, comparing selected variables and diagnostics that describe the state of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice. Further experiments are undertaken with these selected parameter sets to compare equilibrium climate sensitivities and transient climate responses. The pattern of warming under doubled CO2 is strongly shaped by changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC, while the pattern and rate of warming under rising CO2 is closely linked to changing sea ice extent. One of the five tuned parameter sets is identified as marginally optimal, and the objective function (error landscape is further analysed in the vicinity of the tuned values of this parameter set. "Cliffs" along some dimensions motivate closer inspection of corresponding variations in the AMOC. This reveals that bifurcations in the AMOC are highly sensitive to parameters that are not typically associated with MOC stability. Specifically, the state of the AMOC is sensitive to parameters governing the wind-driven circulation and atmospheric heat transport. For the GENIE configuration presented here, the marginally optimal parameter set is recommended for single simulations, although the leading five parameter sets may be used in ensemble mode to admit a constrained degree of parametric uncertainty in climate prediction.

  11. Assimilation of Soil Wetness Index and Leaf Area Index into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model: grassland case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barbu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the joint assimilation in a land surface model of a Soil Wetness Index (SWI product provided by an exponential filter together with Leaf Area Index (LAI is investigated. The data assimilation is evaluated with different setups using the SURFEX modeling platform, for a period of seven years (2001–2007, at the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France. The results obtained with a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter demonstrate the effectiveness of a joint data assimilation scheme when both SWI and Leaf Area Index are merged into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model. The assimilation of a retrieved Soil Wetness Index product presents several challenges that are investigated in this study. A significant improvement of around 13% of the root-zone soil water content is obtained by assimilating dimensionless root-zone SWI data. For comparison, the assimilation of in situ surface soil moisture is considered as well. A lower impact on the root zone is noticed. Under specific conditions, the transfer of the information from the surface to the root zone was found not accurate. Also, our results indicate that the assimilation of in situ LAI data may correct a number of deficiencies in the model, such as low LAI values in the senescence phase by using a seasonal-dependent error definition for background and observations. In order to verify the specification of the errors for SWI and LAI products, a posteriori diagnostics are employed. This approach highlights the importance of the assimilation design on the quality of the analysis. The impact of data assimilation scheme on CO2 fluxes is also quantified by using measurements of net CO2 fluxes gathered at the SMOSREX site from 2005 to 2007. An improvement of about 5% in terms of rms error is obtained.

  12. Glycyrrhetic acid synergistically enhances β₂-adrenergic receptor-Gs signaling by changing the location of Gαs in lipid rafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Shi

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhetic acid (GA exerts synergistic anti-asthmatic effects via a β₂-adrenergic receptor (β₂AR-mediated pathway. Cholesterol is an important component of the structure and function of lipid rafts, which play critical roles in the β₂AR-Gs-adenylate cyclase (AC-mediated signaling pathway. Owing to the structural similarities between GA and cholesterol, we investigated the possibility that GA enhances β₂AR signaling by altering cholesterol distribution. Azide-terminal GA (ATGA was synthesized and applied to human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells expressing fusion β₂AR, and the electron spin resonance (ESR technique was utilized. GA was determined to be localized predominantly on membrane and decreased their cholesterol contents. Thus, the fluidity of the hydrophobic region increased but not the polar surface of the cell membrane. The conformations of membrane proteins were also changed. GA further changed the localization of Gαs from lipid rafts to non-raft regions, resulting the binding of β₂AR and Gαs, as well as in reduced β₂AR internalization. Co-localization of β₂AR, Gαs, and AC increased isoproterenol-induced cAMP production and cholesterol reloading attenuated this effect. A speculation wherein GA enhances beta-adrenergic activity by increasing the functional linkage between the subcomponents of the membrane β₂AR-protein kinase A (PKA signaling pathway was proposed. The enhanced efficacy of β₂AR agonists by this novel mechanism could prevent tachyphylaxis.

  13. IgGs containing light chains of the lambda and kappa type and of all subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis hydrolyze DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, Taisiya A; Legostaeva, Galina A; Doronin, Boris M; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2010-01-01

    We present the first evidence demonstrating that small fractions of IgGs of all four subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) are catalytically active in the hydrolysis of DNA and on average their relative activity (nM supercoiled DNA/1mg IgG/1 h) increases in the order: IgG1 (0.58) light chains of the lambda-type are severalfold more active in the hydrolysis of DNA than IgGs with light chains of the kappa-type. Using different physicochemical methods of antibody analysis we have shown that the immune system of multiple sclerosis patients generates a variety of anti-DNA abzymes of different type and with different catalytic properties, which can play an important role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

  14. Expression and clinical significance of GS,E-cadherin and β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma%GS、E-cadherin和β-catenin在肝细胞癌中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新木; 陈丽荣

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨谷氨酰胺合成酶(glutamine synthetase GS)、E-钙粘蛋白(E-cadherin)和β-连环蛋白(β-catenin)在肝细胞癌中的表达及其与临床病理特征和预后的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学Envision法检测182例肝细胞癌和92例癌旁肝组织中GS、E-cadherin和β-catenin的表达情况,并分析其与临床病理特征和预后的关系.结果 GS在肝细胞癌阳性表达率为77.5%,明显高于癌旁肝组织(4.3%),差异显著(P<0.05);肝细胞癌E-cadherin和β-catenin异常表达率分别为59.3%和58.8%,亦高于癌旁肝组织(30.4%和26.1%),差异显著(P<0.05).肝细胞癌中GS的表达与TNM分期、转移和术后复发显著相关(P<0.05);E-cadherin和β-catenin异常表达与脉管内瘤栓、TNM分期、转移和术后复发显著相关(P<0.05).肝细胞癌中GS表达与E-cadherin、β-catenin异常表达正相关.结论 肝细胞癌中GS的高表达,与E-cadherin和β-catenin表达的下调,可能是肝细胞癌侵袭和转移的重要机制之一,联合检测GS、E-cadherin和β-catenin可能有助于判断肝细胞癌的恶性程度、转移潜能及预后分析.%Objective To investigate the expression of glutamine synthetase(GS), E-cadherin and β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma and its relation to clinicopathological characterisitics and prognosis. Methods With the method of immunohistochemical Envision, the expressions of GS, E-cadherin and β-catenin were examined in 182 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 92 cases of adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissue. We then analyzed their relations to the clinicopathological data of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results In the hepatocellular carcinoma group,77. 5% samples expressed GS, significantly higher than in surrounding liver tissue (4. 3% P<0. 05). The expression of GS was positively correlated with TNM stage, tumor metastasis and recur-rence(P<0. 05). In hepatocellular carcinoma, aberrant expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin was

  15. 基于GS算法的圆柱共形微带阵列自适应零点形成%Adaptive Null Forming of Cylindrical Conformal Microstrip Antennas Array Based on GS Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊鸣; 齐会来; 张子华; 陆磊; 韩云

    2011-01-01

    GS algorithm is applied to form a adaptive null of a cylindrical conformal microstrip antennas array in this paper. Firstly, the radiation pattern of each microstrip antenna element is analyzed by using cavity mode theory and adding the field one by one to form the array pattern. Then, GS algorithm is adopted to form the adaptive null of the cylindrical conformal microstrip antennas array. The simulation results have shown that, GS algorithm can form null exactly in the direction of the jammer.%运用GS算法研究了圆柱共形微带阵列天线的自适应零点形成.根据腔模理论和逐元法得到圆柱共形微带阵列天线的方向性函数,将GS算法运用于共形阵列进行自适应零点形成.仿真结果表明,采用GS算法的圆柱共形微带天线阵列能准确地在干扰方向形成零陷.

  16. Novel signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor employing Pd-Fe3O4-GS as the matrix and SiO2 as the label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulan; Ma, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaodong; Pang, Xuehui; Wu, Dan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-12-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on a novel signal amplification strategy was developed for the quantitative determination of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Pd nanocubes functionalized magnetic graphene sheet (Pd-Fe3O4-GS) was employed as the matrix to immobilize the primary antibodies (Ab1). Owing to the synergetic effect between Pd nanocubes and magnetic graphene sheet (Fe3O4-GS), Pd-Fe3O4-GS can provide an obviously increasing electrochemical signal by electrochemical catalysis towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Silicon dioxide (SiO2) was functionalized as the label to conjugate with the secondary antibodies (Ab2). Due to the larger steric hindrance of the obtained conjugate (SiO2@Ab2), the sensitive decrease of the electrochemical signal can be achieved after the specific recognition between antibodies and antigens. In this sense, this proposed immunosensor can achieve a high sensitivity, especially in the presence of low concentrations of IgG. Under optimum conditions, the proposed immunosensor offered an ultrasensitive and specific determination of IgG down to 3.2 fg/mL. This immunoassay method would open up a new promising platform to detect various tumor markers at ultralow levels for early diagnoses of different cancers.

  17. The interactive effects of transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 with various HMW-GS combinations on dough quality by introgression of exogenous subunits into an elite Chinese Wheat variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiang; Li, Yin; Zhao, Shasha; Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs.

  18. AD9520高速时钟发生器在5Gs/s数据采集系统中的应用%Application of high-speed clock generator AD9520 in the 5Gs/s data acquisition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春霞; 吴琼之

    2011-01-01

    随着高速数据采集系统的快速发展及其复杂性提高,其关键部分高速ADC(Analog to Digital Converter,模/数转换器)对时钟质量的要求也越来越高,为此提出了一种基于内部集成2.5 GHz VCO(压控振荡器)的低相位噪声锁相环时钟芯片AD9520[1]的高质量时钟电路设计,介绍了在5 Gs/s高速数据采集系统中AD9520的具体设计应用,包括其控制寄存器的参数配置以及初始化顺序等,给出了该高速数据采集系统的原理框图,并采用Xilinx公司ISE软件中的在线逻辑分析仪(ChipScope Pro)测试了时钟性能,实测表明整体指标达到设计要求。%As high-speed data acquisition system fast development and its complexity improved,the key part high-speed ADC requires for more stringent clock quality.For this reason,the paper introduced a high quality clock circuit design based on a low phase noise PLL chip AD9520 with integrated 2.5 GHz VCO.Introduced detail application of AD9520 in the 5 Gs/s high-speed data acquisition system,including its control registers' parameters configuration and initialization order etc,also proposed the block diagram of the high-speed signal acquisition system.And used the Xilinx Corporation ISE ChipScope Pro to test the clock performance,the practice proved the overall targets meet the design requirements.

  19. Métodos de coloração de Roeser (1972: modificado - e Kropp (1972 visando a substituição do azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX Staining methods of modified Roeser (1972 and Kropp (1972, aiming at substituing the astra blue by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Luque

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Em folhas de Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica e Nymphaea mexicana foram testados métodos de coloração baseados em Roeser (1972 modificado e Kropp (1972, visando a substituição do corante azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA, desidratadas em série butílica terciária e incluídas em parafina. Os cortes histológicos transversais foram corados segundo diferentes baterias de coloração, modificadas quanto ao tipo de corante usado, diferenciador e série de desidratação. As lâminas permanentes foram preparadas com bálsamo-do-canadá sintético. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o método de Roeser (1972 modificado é melhor que o de Kropp (1972, nas condições deste experimento. O azul de astra pode ser substituído por azul de alcião 8GX e a desidratação pode ser em série isopropílica ou etílica, sem grande diferença entre elas. São discutidos os resultados provenientes das diferentes colorações.Staining methods based on modified Roeser (1972 as well as that of Kropp (1972 were done with leaves of Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica and Nymphaea mexicana aiming at substituing the astra blue stain by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX. Samples were fixed in FAA, dehydrated in teit-butyl alcohol series and embedded in paraffin. The histological transversal sections were stained in different staining batteries, modified according to the type of stains and differentiators, and the series of dehydration. Permanent slides were prepared with synthetic Canada balsam. The results obtained indicate that the modified Roeser method (1972 is better than that of Kropp (1972 under present experimental conditions. The astra blue can be substituted by alcian blue 8GX and dehydration can be isopropylic or ethylic, with little difference between them. The results obtained with the different staining techniques used are discussed.

  20. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale forcing datasets to describe the climate, the surface characteristics (soil texture, vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation. This paper investigates the errors in these forcing variables and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs land surface model over a 12 year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing datasets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the Leaf Area Index (LAI cycles derived from the Ecoclimap-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional datasets which includes the ERA-Interim low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre dataset (GPCC and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The methodology consists in comparing the simulation achieved using large-scale forcing datasets with the simulation achieved using local observations for each forcing variable. The relative impacts of the forcing variables on simulated ET are compared with each other and with the model uncertainties triggered by errors in soil parameters. LAI and the lack of irrigation in the simulation generate the largest mean deviations in ET between the large-scale and the local-scale simulations (equivalent to 24 and 19 months of ET over 12 yr. The climate induces smaller mean deviations equivalent to 7–8 months of ET over 12 yr. The soil texture has the lowest impact (equivalent to 3 months of ET. However, the impact of errors in the forcing variables is smaller than the impact triggered by errors in the soil parameters (equivalent to 27 months of ET. The

  1. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-10-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale data sets to describe the climate, the soil properties, the vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the uncertainties in these drivers and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing data sets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN (Système d'Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie) high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the leaf area index (LAI) time courses derived from the ECOCLIMAP-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional data sets which include the ERA-Interim (ERA-I) low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data set (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The evaluation of the drivers indicates very low bias in daily downwelling shortwave radiation for ERA-I (2.5 W m-2) compared to the negative biases found for SAFRAN (-10 W m-2) and the MSG satellite (-12 W m-2). Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate downwelling longwave radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC rainfall are slightly biased at daily and longer timescales (1 and 0.5 % of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall is more precise than the ERA-I/GPCC estimate which shows larger inter-annual variability in yearly rainfall error (up to 100 mm). The ECOCLIMAP-II LAI climatology does not properly resolve Mediterranean crop phenology and underestimates the bare soil period which leads to an overall overestimation of LAI over the crop succession. The

  2. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanz Ana Leticia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg. High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20. Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI and the ER associated degradation (ERAD pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily indicating that potential

  3. X-ray variability with spectral state transitions in NS-LMXBs observed with MAXI/GSC and Swift/BAT

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, Kazumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions in bright low mass X-ray binaries containing a neutron star are investigated by using the one-day bin light curves of MAXI/GSC (Gas Slit Camera) and Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope). Four sources (4U 1636$-$536, 4U 1705$-$44, 4U 1608$-$52, and GS 1826$-$238) exhibited small-amplitude X-ray variabilities with spectral state transitions. Such "mini-outbursts" were characterized by smaller amplitudes (several times) and shorter duration (less than several tens of days) than those of "normal outbursts." Theoretical model of disk instability by Mineshige and Osaki (PASJ, 37, 1, 1985) predicts both large-amplitude outbursts and small-amplitude variabilities. We interpret the normal outbursts as the former prediction of this model, and the mini-outbursts as the latter. Here, we can also call the mini-outburst as "purr-type outburst" referring to theoretical work. We suggest that similar variabilities lasting for several tens of days without spectral state transiti...

  4. Possible hard X-ray shortages in bursts from KS 1731-260 and 4U 1705-44

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Long; Chen, YuPeng; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Kretschmar, Peter; Wang, Jian-Min; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Aims: A hard X-ray shortage, implying the cooling of the corona, was observed during bursts of IGR J17473-272, 4U 1636-536, Aql X-1, and GS 1826-238. Apart from these four sources, we investigate here an atoll sample, in which the number of bursts for each source is larger than 5, to explore the possible additional hard X-ray shortage during {\\it Rossi X-ray timing explorer (RXTE)} era. Methods: According to the source catalog that shows type-I bursts, we analyzed all the available pointing observations of these sources carried out by the {\\it RXTE} proportional counter array (PCA). We grouped and combined the bursts according to their outburst states and searched for the possible hard X-ray shortage while bursting. Results: We found that the island states of KS 1731-260 and 4U 1705-44 show a hard X-ray shortage at significant levels of 4.5 and 4.7 $\\sigma$ and a systematic time lag of $0.9 \\pm 2.1$ s and $2.5 \\pm 2.0$ s with respect to the soft X-rays, respectively. While in their banana branches and other s...

  5. Decays of the Three Top Contributors to the Reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} High-Energy Spectrum, ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs, Studied with Total Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasco, B C; Wolińska-Cichocka, M; Fijałkowska, A; Rykaczewski, K P; Karny, M; Grzywacz, R K; Goetz, K C; Gross, C J; Stracener, D W; Zganjar, E F; Batchelder, J C; Blackmon, J C; Brewer, N T; Go, S; Heffron, B; King, T; Matta, J T; Miernik, K; Nesaraja, C D; Paulauskas, S V; Rajabali, M M; Wang, E H; Winger, J A; Xiao, Y; Zachary, C J

    2016-08-26

    We report total absorption spectroscopy measurements of ^{92}Rb, ^{96gs}Y, and ^{142}Cs β decays, which are the most important contributors to the high energy ν[over ¯]_{e} spectral shape in nuclear reactors. These three β decays contribute 43% of the ν[over ¯]_{e} flux near 5.5 MeV emitted by nuclear reactors. This ν[over ¯]_{e} energy is particularly interesting due to spectral features recently observed in several experiments including the Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO Collaborations. Measurements were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by means of proton-induced fission of ^{238}U with on-line mass separation of fission fragments and the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer. We observe a β-decay pattern that is similar to recent measurements of ^{92}Rb, with a ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 91(3)%. We verify the ^{96gs}Y ground-state to ground-state β feeding of 95.5(20)%. Our measurements substantially modify the β-decay feedings of ^{142}Cs, reducing the β feeding to ^{142}Ba states below 2 MeV by 32% when compared with the latest evaluations. Our results increase the discrepancy between the observed and the expected reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} flux between 5 and 7 MeV, the maximum excess increases from ∼10% to ∼12%.

  6. MRP1/GS-X pump ATPase expression: is this the explanation for the cytoprotection of the heart against oxidative stress-induced redox imbalance in comparison to skeletal muscle cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Maurício S; Oliveira, Lino P; Silveira, Elza M S; Vianna, Damiana R; Rossato, Juliane S; Almeida, Bibiana S; Rodrigues, Mariana F; Fernandes, Augustus J M; Costa, João A Bonatto; Curi, Rui; de Bittencourt, Paulo I Homem

    2007-01-01

    Striated muscle activity is always accompanied by oxidative stress (OxStress): the more intense muscle work and/or its duration, the more a redox imbalance may be attained. In spite of cardiac muscle functioning continuously, it is well known that the heart does not suffer from OxStress-induced damage over a broad physiological range. Although the expression of antioxidant enzymes may be of importance in defending heart muscle against OxStress, a series of combined antioxidant therapeutic approaches have proved to be mostly ineffective in avoiding cellular injury. Hence, additional mechanisms may be involved in heart cytoprotection other than antioxidant enzyme activities. The strong cardiotoxic effect of doxorubicin-induced cancer chemotherapy shed light on the possible role for multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) in this context. Muscle activity-induced 'physiological' OxStress enhances the production of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) thus increasing the ratio of GSSG to glutathione (GSH) content inside the cells, which, in turn, leads to redox imbalance. Since MRP1 gene product (a GS-X pump ATPase) is a physiological GSSG transporter, adult Wistar rats were tested for MRP1 expression and activity in the heart and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius), in as much as the latter is known to be extremely sensitive to muscle activity-induced OxS. MRP1 expression was completely absent in skeletal muscle. In contrast, the heart showed an exercise training-dependent induction of MRP1 protein expression which was further augmented (2.4-fold) as trained rats were challenged with a session of acute exercise. On the other hand, inducible expression of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), a universal marker of cellular stress, was completely absent in the heart of sedentary and acutely exercised rats, whereas skeletal muscle showed a conspicuous exercise-dependent HSP70 expression, which decreased by 45% with exercise training. This effect was paralleled by a 58

  7. Discovery of triazolopyridine GS-458967, a late sodium current inhibitor (Late INai) of the cardiac NaV 1.5 channel with improved efficacy and potency relative to ranolazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, Dmitry O; Parkhill, Eric Q; Elzein, Elfatih; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Notte, Gregory T; Kalla, Rao; Jiang, Robert H; Li, Xiaofen; Perry, Thao D; Avila, Belem; Wang, Wei-Qun; Smith-Maxwell, Catherine; Dhalla, Arvinder K; Rajamani, Sridharan; Stafford, Brian; Tang, Jennifer; Mollova, Nevena; Belardinelli, Luiz; Zablocki, Jeff A

    2016-07-01

    We started with a medium throughput screen of heterocyclic compounds without basic amine groups to avoid hERG and β-blocker activity and identified [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine as an early lead. Optimization of substituents for Late INa current inhibition and lack of Peak INa inhibition led to the discovery of 4h (GS-458967) with improved anti-arrhythmic activity relative to ranolazine. Unfortunately, 4h demonstrated use dependent block across the sodium isoforms including the central and peripheral nervous system isoforms that is consistent with its low therapeutic index (approximately 5-fold in rat, 3-fold in dog). Compound 4h represents our initial foray into a 2nd generation Late INa inhibitor program and is an important proof-of-concept compound. We will provide additional reports on addressing the CNS challenge in a follow-up communication.

  8. On the possibility of two new 'elementary' particles with mass equal to m(k)=1.80339 MeV and m({alpha}-bar{sub gs})=26.180339 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S

    2004-05-01

    To sustain the global symplictic structure of the VAK of vacuum fluctuation, transfinite quantities of energy of the order of k=phi{sup 3}(1-phi{sup 3})=0.18033989 MeV and k{sub 0}=phi{sup 5}(1-phi{sup 5})=0.08203939 MeV must be added to it. In the ten dimensional core of the super string space this leads to the formation of particle masses of the order of m(k)=(10)(k)=1.8033989 MeV. Using {epsilon}{sup (}'{infinity}') theory and the M-dualities between high and low energy domains, one could make a second prediction regarding a unification-related particle m({alpha}-bar{sub gs})=10/2(m(k))(phi+1){sup 7}=26.18033989 MeV. The possible experimental ramifications of the theory are also discussed.

  9. 小麦WPBF与高分子量谷蛋白基因上游Prolamin-Like box的特异结合%Specific Binding of Wheat WPBF and Prolamin-Like box in Upstream of HMW-GS Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫晓彬; 王亚楠; 张超; 单丽伟; 唐如春; 范三红

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The endosperm-specific transcription factor gene WPBF was cloned from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an optimized prokaryotic expression system was established, and the specific binding between WPBF and Prolamin-Like boxes in upstream of HMW-GS genes was verified. These will be useful for further elucidating the regulation mechanism of HMW-GS.[Method] The coding region of WPBF was obtained by RT-PCR and inserted into the vector pET-21a-MBP. The recombinant vector was expressed in E. coli strains T7 Express and Origami B(DE3), the recombinant protein was purified by amylose and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and its DNA binding activity was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).[Result] Recombinant WPBF existed mainly in soluble form when it was expressed at 33°C in Origami B (DE3) strain, and the fusion protein accounted for 48% of the total cell protein. The purified recombinant protein could bind specifically to two kinds of Prolamin-Like boxes, however, the binding strength between WPBF and Prolamin-Like box "TGCAAAG" was higher than WPBF and Prolamin-Like box"TGCAAG". [Conclusion] An optimized prokaryotic expression system was established and the functional recombinant protein was obtained. The recombinant WPBF can bind specifically to two kinds of Prolamin-Like boxes in upstream of HMW-GS, and there is somewhat different in binding strength.%[目的]克隆普通小麦胚乳特异表达转录因子基因WPBF,对其原核表达条件进行优化,并验证其编码蛋白和小麦高分子量谷蛋白亚基基因(HMW-GS)上游Prolamin-Like box的结合特性,为小麦HMW-GS表达调控机制的阐明奠定基础.[方法]利用RT-PCR扩增得到WPBF编码区,将其连接到pET-21a-MBP载体中,并分别在E.coli T7 Express和Origami B(DE3)菌株中诱导表达.依次利用Amylose和Ni-NTA亲和层析柱纯化重组蛋白,最后通过凝胶迁移阻滞试验(EMSA)对重组蛋白的DNA结合特性进行分析.[结果]在33

  10. Validez factorial de la adaptación al español del Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey The Factorial Validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS Spanish Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R Gil-Monte

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Explorar la estructura factorial de una adaptación al castellano del "Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey" (MBI-GS. Material y métodos. La muestra la integraron 149 policías municipales de Tenerife, España, a quienes se les aplicó el cuestionario en 1999. Se realizó un análisis factorial mediante Componentes Principales y rotación Varimax. Resultados. Cuatro factores tuvieron eigenvalues mayores que 1. En el Factor I se agruparon los items de Eficacia Profesional, en el Factor II tres items de Cinismo, en el Factor III los items de Agotamiento, y en el Factor IV dos items de Cinismo. Posteriormente se realizó otro análisis ajustando a tres la extracción de factores. La solución factorial reprodujo la distribución de los items del manual. Conclusiones. A la luz de los resultados obtenidos el cuestionario se puede considerar válido y confiable en la versión adaptada al castellano.Objective. To explore the factorial structure of a Spanish version of the "Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey" (MBI-GS. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1999 among 149 municipal policemen in Tenerife, Spain. A questionnaire was applied to collect data on Professional Efficacy, Cynicism, and Burnout. Data were analyzed using factorial analysis and principal components with Varimax rotation. Results. Four factors had eigenvalues greater than 1; Factor 1 gouped Professional Efficacy items, Factor II grouped three Cynicism items. Further analysis was conducted to limit extraction to three factors. The factorial solution replicated the distribution of items in the questionnaire manual. Conclusions. Study results whow that the Spanish version of the questionnaire is valid and reliable.

  11. Lab-scale preparations of Candida albicans and dual Candida albicans-Candida glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC) perfusion tube using a modified gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Lu, KeQiao; Tian, Ge; Cui, YanYan; Yan, YuanYuan; Wang, TianMing; Zhang, XinLong; Wang, ChangZhong

    2015-02-01

    The assembly of a man-made gravity-supported free-flow biofilm incubator (GS-FFBI) was described, which was composed of a gas cushion injector and four incubators. The GS-FFBI had the characteristics of (i) a bottom-up flow direction, and (ii) lab-scale biofilm preparation without the use of a multichannel pump. Two opportunistic fungal strains, namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, were employed to incubate C. albicans and dual C. albicans-C. glabrata biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride perfusion tube. In terms of the results from {2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide} (XTT) assay, dry weight measurement, colony-forming unit counting, susceptibility test, and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that GS-FFBI could form both stable single and dual Candida biofilms with no significant variations among the four incubators or the three daily incubations within 21h, and could operate for at least 96h smoothly with no contamination of stock medium. The results also indicated, for the first time, that C. albicans and C. glabrata might be co-existent competitively and symbiotically in the dual biofilms with flowing media. GS-FFBI would be a useful device to study in vitro morphological and physiological features of microbial biofilms in the medical settings.

  12. [Smoļenskas-Rīgas aktis 13. gs.-14. gs. pirmā puse : kompleksa "Moscowitica-Ruthenica" dokumenti par Smoļenskas un Rīgas attiecībām = Смоленско-рижские акты XIII в.-первая половина XIV в. : документ�

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levans, Andris, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Smoļenskas-Rīgas aktis 13. gs.-14. gs. pirmā puse : kompleksa "Moscowitica-Ruthenica" dokumenti par Smoļenskas un Rīgas attiecībām = Смоленско-рижские акты XIII в.-первая половина XIV в. : документы комплекса Moscowitica-Ruthenica об отношениях Смоленска и Риги /koostajad Leksanders Ivanovs, Anatolijs Kuzņcovs. Vēstures avoti ; 6 (Riga: Latvijas Valsts vēstures arcīva izdevniecība, 2009)

  13. Cloning and Analysis of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase cDNA from Eichharnia crassipes%水葫芦胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶EcGS1全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽花; 傅明辉; 李园枚; 严国花; 郑李军; 陈肖丽; 彭进平

    2014-01-01

    以水葫芦根部总RNA逆转录得到的cDNA为模板,参照其他植物的胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS1)氨基酸保守序列设计简并引物,进行PCR扩增,以得到的产物为基础,采用RACE技术获得水葫芦胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶EcGS1全长cDNA。全长为1434 bp,开放阅读框为1071 bp,编码356个氨基酸,分子量为39.3 kD,等电点pI为5.52。序列相似性分析显示,该序列与其他植物的GS1氨基酸序列具有较高的相似性。通过亚细胞定位预测,确定EcGS1为胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶。%In this study, the template cDNA which was reversely transcribed from the total RNA of Eichharnia crassipes, was subjected to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)with the degenerate primers which was designed according to sequences of the Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase(GS1)from other plants. The full-length cDNA sequence was achieved with Rapid Amplification of cDNA End method(RACE) from the amplification product. It includes 1 434 bp with the open reading frame of 1 071 bp which encoded 356 coding amino acids with a predicted size of 39.3 kD and a calculated pI of 5.52. The result of sequence homology analysis showed that the deduced protein had relatively high amino acid identity with GS1s from other plants. The prediction of sub-cellular localization showed that EcGS1 is a cytosolic glutamine synthetase.

  14. 钩刺山羊草(Aegilops triuncialis)低分子量谷蛋白基因序列分析%Sequence Analysis of LMW-GS Genes from Aegilops triuncialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林娜; 颜泽洪; 魏育明; 郑有良

    2006-01-01

    根据低分子量谷蛋白亚基(LMW-GS)基因编码区保守序列设计引物,对钩刺山羊草(Aegilops triuncialis L,2n=4x=28,CCUU)PI483029总DNA进行PCR扩增,得到长度为900和1 065 bp的DNA片段,克隆测序后获得2个LMW-GS基因,GenBank登录号分别为AY841016和AY841017.它们具有小麦LMW-GS基因的典型结构特征.其中,AY841017具有完整编码区,长度为1 065 bp,可编码322个氨基酸残基的成熟蛋白,第一个半胱氨酸残基出现在重复区第13位.在重复区,AY841017的两个疏水单元为PⅢL和PVⅡL,重复区中还存在一个连续13个Q(谷氨酰胺)组成的短肽.AY841016由于编码区内存在提前终止密码子,为假基因.氨基酸序列比较发现,AY841017与普通小麦(Iriticum aestivum L.)Glu-D3位点编码的LMW-GS基因有很高的一致性.

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation on Nutritional and Healthy Effects of Peanut by Using BDI-GS System%用BDI-GS体系评价花生的营养健康效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德芝; 龙伟; 李卫红; 沈秀; 王浩; 周晓靓; 周则卫

    2015-01-01

    通过玉米饲料喂养的低营养动物模型,结合已建立的BDI-GS体系进行带衣花生营养健康效应的综合评价,用损益指数(BDI)及其累计积分(GS)考察花生对机体各重要脏器组织及微观血清生化指标的影响。以线性生长期健康的ICR小鼠为研究对象,分别设有玉米空白对照组,掺和8%、16%、24%带衣花生米组,喂养12天后解剖,完整剖取9项脏器组织,并进行血清生化指标的分析检测。结果显示,花生对机体胸腺、脾脏指标的营养功效显著,表现在3个剂量对全部脏器组织的重量BDI值均高于2.0;对其他脏器也具有良好的营养效应,表现在器官的重量BDI明显高于1.0。另外,花生对胸腺、脾脏、胰腺及性腺指标的健康存在显著有益效应;且综合营养、健康效应良好,体现在3个剂量花生实验组的累计GS均>9.0(9项指标)的基本积分。本研究表明,生理剂量下摄取花生对机体重要脏器组织具有很高的营养健康效应,对机体发育具有良好的促进效应。花生摄取对营养不良、亚健康及II型糖尿病会具有较好的预防及食疗保健功效,值得在日常饮食中特别重视,以及深入挖掘开发相关的健康食品。%Through low-nutritional mice model fed with maize diet combined the BDI-GS evaluation system established for food, nutritional and healthy effects of peanut with skin were evaluated comprehensively, observe the influences of its intake for functions of vital organs and/or tissues by using approach of benefit-damage index (BDI) and accumulative general scores (GS), as well as microscope serum biochemical parameters. The healthy ICR male mice during linear growth were used as subject. Including of maize fed control mice, 8%, 16%and 24%blending peanut kernel diets fed mice were designed in the study, respectively. After 12 days of breeding, recorded mice body weights and took blood samples

  16. Effect of low molecular gluten subunits (LMW-GS) on dough rheological properties%小麦低分子量麦谷蛋白亚基与面团流变学特性关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪刚; 尚勋武; 张改生; 路建龙; 尚立平

    2004-01-01

    采用十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙稀酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离方法,以牛血清蛋白(67 kD)和卵清蛋白(43 kD)为分子量标记,对甘肃河西灌区近几年选育的17个小麦品系以及大面积栽培的2个春小麦品种的低分子量麦谷蛋白亚基组成以及不同亚基对面团流变学特性(面团韧性P、延伸性L、面团筋力W)的影响进行分析.19个试验材料中共标记出从35.2~60.5 kD的LMW-GS共32条谱带;通过单因素方差分析(ANOVA)和逐步回归分析确定出对面团流变学特性P、L、W值影响显著的7个LMW-GS,分子量由高到低为:52.7 kD 、52 kD、49.3 kD、46.7 kD、44.8 kD、44.2 kD、35.2 kD.其中35.2 kD和46.7 kD亚基能显著地增加面团P值,44.8 kD亚基能显著地降低面团P值;44.2 kD和49.3 kD亚基显著增加面团L值,52.7 kD亚基降低面团L值;44.8 kD、52.7 kD亚基能显著降低面团的W值,52.0kD和46.7kD亚基能显著提高面团W值.

  17. 小偃系列小麦品种的HMW-GS和醇溶蛋白分析%Study on the HMW-GS and Gliadin of Xiaoyan Wheat Variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继新; 武军; 陈新宏; 刘淑会; 董剑; 魏芳勤; 杨群慧; 朱建楚

    2008-01-01

    为探讨小偃系列小麦品种的品质相关性状的遗传基础,为小麦品质改良和品种选育提供参考,采用SDS-PAGE和A-PAGE技术对14个小偃系列小麦品种的高分子量谷蛋白亚基(HMW-GS)和醇溶蛋白进行了研究.结果表明:14份小偃系列小麦品种共出现了7种亚基和5种亚基组合类型,G1u-A1位点,1亚基是主要亚基,其频率达85.7%;G1u-B1位点,7+9亚基是主要亚基,其频率为50%;Glu-D1位点,2+12是主要亚基,其频率高达92.9%.1,7+9,2+12是主要的亚基组合类型,其频率为35.7%;小偃系列小麦品种整体品质得分较高,为7.21.14个小偃系列小麦品种共检测到19条醇溶蛋白带型,平均13.6条;其遗传距离(GD)在0.23~0.59之间,当遗传距离为0.50时,14个品种可聚为4个大类,来源相同的品种,遗传相似性大,可以聚在一起.小偃系列小麦品种的高分子量谷蛋白亚基和醇溶蛋白的遗传变异较小,遗传基础较狭窄.

  18. Stripe rust resistance and dough quality of new wheat - Dasypyrum villosum translocation lines T1DL•1V#3S and T1DS•1V#3L and the location of HMW-GS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W C; Gao, X; Dong, J; Zhao, Z J; Chen, Q G; Chen, L G; Shi, Y G; Li, X Y

    2015-07-17

    The transfer of agronomically useful genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat is one of the most effective approaches to improvement of wheat varieties. To evaluate the transfer of genes from Dasypyrum villosum into Triticum aestivum, wheat quality and disease resistance was evaluated in two new translocation lines, T1DL•1V#3S and T1DS•1V#3L. We examined the levels of stripe rust resistance and dough quality in the two lines, and identified and located the stripe rust resistant genes and high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes Glu-V1 of D. villosum. Compared to the Chinese Spring (CS) variety, T1DL•1V#3S plants showed moderate resistance to moderate susceptibility to the stripe rust races CYR33 and Su11-4. However, T1DS•1V#3L plants showed high resistance or immunity to these stripe rusts. The genes for resistance to stripe rust were located on 1VL of D. villosum. In comparison to CS, the dough from T1DS•1V#3L had a significantly shorter developing time (1.45 min) and stable time (1.0 min), a higher weakness in gluten strength (208.5 FU), and a lower farinograph quality index (18). T1DL•1V#3S had a significantly longer developing time (4.2 min) and stable time (5.25 min), a lower weakness in gluten strength (53 FU) and a higher farinograph quality index (78.5). We also found that T1DS•1V#3L had reduced gluten strength and dough quality compared to CS, but T1DL•1V#3S had increased gluten strength and dough quality. The results of SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that Glu-V1 of D. villosum was located on short arm 1VS and long arm 1VL. These results prove that the new translocation lines, T1DS•1V#3L and T1DS•1V#3L, have valuable stripe rust resistance and dough quality traits that will be important for improving wheat quality and resistance in future wheat breeding programs.

  19. Swift follow-up of the newly discovered burster millisecond pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.;

    2009-01-01

    2.5 ks were accumulated in window timing (WT) mode. A thermonuclear type-I X-ray burst was discovered in the WT light curve of the source at 2009-09-14 00:51:37 UTC with an exponential decay time of ~12.5 s. This burst is most likely a He burst. The WT 0.5-10 keV X-ray spectrum is well described.......2+/-0.2. The absorbed 0.5-10 keV X-ray flux is 6.0e-10 ergs/cm^2/s....

  20. INTEGRAL observation of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    CERN Document Server

    De Cesare, G; Stratta, G; Santo, M D; Tarana, A; Ubertini, P

    2005-01-01

    KS 1741-293 was firstly detected in 1989 with the X-ray wide field camera TTM (3-10 keV) on board of the Rontgen-Kvant-Mir observatory. During these observations this source exhibited two X-ray bursts allowing to identify it as a neutron star in a Low mass X-ray Binary. During the BeppoSAX/WFC monitoring of the Galactic Centre Region, KS 1741-293 was also reported at a flux level of 6 mCrab in the 2-9 keV and 25 mCrab in the 9-25 keV energy range. Thanks to the deep and regular INTEGRAL observation of the Galactic Centre region, KS 1741-293 has been observed by the X-ray monitor JEM-X and the imager IBIS in a wide energy range, giving for the first time relevant information on its high energy behaviour. Furthermore, two X-ray bursts have been detected by JEM-X. We report on IBIS and JEM-X data analysis in terms of flux monitoring, spectral proprieties and bursts detection. The data reduction has been done with the most recent release of the standard analysis software (OSA 5.0).

  1. INTEGRAL observation of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    OpenAIRE

    De Cesare, G.; Bazzano, A.; Stratta, G.; del Santo, M.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2005-01-01

    KS 1741-293 was firstly detected in 1989 with the X-ray wide field camera TTM (3-10 keV) on board of the Rontgen-Kvant-Mir observatory. During these observations this source exhibited two X-ray bursts allowing to identify it as a neutron star in a Low mass X-ray Binary. During the BeppoSAX/WFC monitoring of the Galactic Centre Region, KS 1741-293 was also reported at a flux level of 6 mCrab in the 2-9 keV and 25 mCrab in the 9-25 keV energy range. Thanks to the deep and regular INTEGRAL obser...

  2. RXTE Confirms Persistent Activity of Burster IGR J17473-2721

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Altamirano, D.; Swank, J. H.; in't Zand, J.

    2008-04-01

    Following reports of bursting activity of IGR J17473-2721 (= XTE J1747-274) by the AGILE team (Del Monte et al., ATEL #1445) and from Swift (Altamirano et al., ATEL #1459), we note that RXTE PCA monitoring scans of the source also reveal persistent activity. Scans on 2008-03-28 at 18:50 UT and 2008-03-31 at 15:10 UT found 2-10 keV fluxes of about 13 and 18 mCrab, respectively. Previous scans are consistent with quiescent level (with 2-sigma upper limits ~6 mCrab).

  3. Radio emission from supernovae and gamma-ray bursters and the need for the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Panagia, Nino

    2004-12-01

    Study of radio supernovae (SNe) over the past 25 years includes two dozen detected objects and more than 100 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the stellar system, and to show clumpiness of the circumstellar material. Since 1997 the afterglow of γ-ray bursting sources (GRBs) has occasionally been detected in the radio, as well in other wavelength bands. In particular, the interesting and unusual γ-ray burst GRB 980425, almost certainly related to the radio supernova SN 1998bw, and the more recent SN 2003dh/GRB 030329 are links between the two classes of objects. Analyzing the extensive radio emission data available for SN 1998bw, one can describe its time evolution within the well established framework available for the analysis of radio emission from supernovae. This then allows relatively detailed description of a number of physical properties of the object. The radio emission can best be explained as the interaction of a mildly relativistic ( Γ ˜ 1.6) shock with a dense pre-explosion stellar wind-established circumstellar medium that is highly structured both azimuthally, in clumps or filaments, and radially, with observed density enhancements. From this we can support the conclusion that at least some members of the slow-soft class of GRBs are related to type Ib/c SNe and can be attributed to the explosion of a massive star in a dense, highly structured CSM that was presumably established by the pre-explosion stellar system. However, due to the lack of sensitivity of current radio telescopes, most supernovae cannot be studied if they are more distant than the Virgo Cluster (˜20 Mpc) or, for exceptionally luminous Type IIn supernovae, beyond ˜100 Mpc. While the GRBs are up to 4 orders-of-magnitude more radio luminous, they are also generally much more distant because of their small probability of detection in smaller volumes of space and most are at z ˜ 1. Those which are radio detected rarely exceed peak flux densities of ˜100 - 300 μJy. Such low flux densities mean that detailed study of their radio "light curves" and, derived from those light curves, the energetics and dynamics of the explosions and the properties of their progenitors and the circumburst medium is very difficult and severely limited in scope. The increased capability of the SKA to attack these problems will significantly advance the field.

  4. Intrinsic bursters increase the robustness of rhythm generation in an excitatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, L K; Smith, J C; Koizumi, H; Butera, R J

    2007-02-01

    The pre-Botzinger complex (pBC) is a vital subcircuit of the respiratory central pattern generator. Although the existence of neurons with pacemaker-like bursting properties in this network is not questioned, their role in network rhythmogenesis is unresolved. Modeling is ideally suited to address this debate because of the ease with which biophysical parameters of individual cells and network architecture can be manipulated. We modeled the parameter variability of experimental data from pBC bursting pacemaker and nonpacemaker neurons using a modified version of our previously developed pBC neuron and network models. To investigate the role of pacemakers in networkwide rhythmogenesis, we simulated networks of these neurons and varied the fraction of the population made up of pacemakers. For each number of pacemaker neurons, we varied the amount of tonic drive to the network and measured the frequency of synchronous networkwide bursting produced. Both excitatory networks with all-to-all coupling and sparsely connected networks were explored for several levels of synaptic coupling strength. Networks containing only nonpacemakers were able to produce networkwide bursting, but with a low probability of bursting and low input and output ranges. Our results indicate that inclusion of pacemakers in an excitatory network increases robustness of the network by more than tripling the input and output ranges compared with networks containing no pacemakers. The largest increase in dynamic range occurs when the number of pacemakers in the network is greater than 20% of the population. Experimental tests of our model predictions are proposed.

  5. Galactic gamma-ray bursters - an alternative source of cosmic rays at all energies

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dar; Plaga, R.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new hypothesis for the origin of the major part of non-solar hadronic cosmic rays (CRs) at all energies: highly relativistic, narrowly collimated jets from the birth or collapse of neutron stars (NSs) in our Galaxy accelerate ambient disk and halo matter to CR energies and disperse it in hot spots which they form when they stop in the Galactic halo. Such events are seen as cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in other galaxies when their beamed radiation happens to point towards ...

  6. Canards in a minimal piecewise-linear square-wave burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, M.; Fernández-García, S.; Krupa, M.

    2016-07-01

    We construct a piecewise-linear (PWL) approximation of the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuron model that is minimal, in the sense that the vector field has the least number of linearity zones, in order to reproduce all the dynamics present in the original HR model with classical parameter values. This includes square-wave bursting and also special trajectories called canards, which possess long repelling segments and organise the transitions between stable bursting patterns with n and n + 1 spikes, also referred to as spike-adding canard explosions. We propose a first approximation of the smooth HR model, using a continuous PWL system, and show that its fast subsystem cannot possess a homoclinic bifurcation, which is necessary to obtain proper square-wave bursting. We then relax the assumption of continuity of the vector field across all zones, and we show that we can obtain a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem. We use the recently developed canard theory for PWL systems in order to reproduce the spike-adding canard explosion feature of the HR model as studied, e.g., in Desroches et al., Chaos 23(4), 046106 (2013).

  7. A coupled chemical burster: The chlorine dioxide-iodide reaction in two flow reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnik, Milos; Epstein, Irving R.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of the chlorine dioxide-iodide reaction has been studied in a system consisting of two continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). The reactors are coupled by computer monitoring of the electrochemical potential in each reactor, which is then used to control the input into the other reactor. Two forms of coupling are employed: reciprocally triggered, exponentially decreasing stimulation, and alternating mass exchange. The reaction, which exhibits oscillatory and excitable behavior in a single CSTR, displays neuronlike bursting behavior with both forms of coupling. Reciprocal stimulation yields bursting in both reactors, while with alternating mass exchange, bursting is observed in one reactor and complex oscillation in the other. A simple model of the reaction gives good agreement between the experimental observations and numerical simulations.

  8. Shared inputs and desynchrony in elliptic bursters: from slow passage to discontinuous circle maps

    CERN Document Server

    Lajoie, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    What input signals will lead to synchrony vs. desynchrony in a group of biological oscillators? This question connects with both classical dynamical sys- tems analyses of entrainment and phase locking and with emerging studies of stimulation patterns for controlling neural network activity. Here, we focus on the response of a population of uncoupled, elliptically bursting neurons to a com- mon pulsatile input. We extend a phase reduction from the literature to capture inputs of varied strength, leading to a circle map with discontinuities of various orders. In a combined analytical and numerical approach, we apply our results to both a normal form model for elliptic bursting and to a biophysically-based model for neurons of the basal ganglia. We find that, depending on the period and amplitude of inputs, the response can either appear chaotic (with provably positive Lyaponov exponent for the associated circle maps), or periodic with a broad range of phase-locked periods. Throughout, we discuss the critical un...

  9. The Infrared Counterpart of the X-ray Burster KS 1731-260

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Mirabel, F; Mereghetti, S

    2002-01-01

    We present JK' infrared images of the X-ray transient KS 1731--260, obtained in 1997 and in 1998 with IRAC2b at the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. Using as a reference the recent Chandra position, we confirm the identification of the X-ray source with the previously proposed counterpart (Wijnands et al. 2001b), for which we measure J=17.32 +/- 0.2 and K' = 16.36 +/- 0.18. The source was entering a low X-ray state at the epoch of our observations, and the accretion disk was still dominating the infrared flux. Indeed, when compared with the only published magnitudes in the J-band (Orosz et al. 2001), obtained with the source in quiescence, our photometry confirms the fading of the counterpart during the decay of the RXTE/ASM lightcurve.

  10. Optical/infrared observations of the X-ray burster KS1731-260 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Zurita, C; Bandyopadhyay, R M; Cackett, E M; Groot, P J; Orosz, J A; Torres, M A P; Wijnands, R

    2010-01-01

    We performed an optical/infrared study of the counterpart of the low-mass X-ray binary KS1731-260 to test its identification and obtain information about the donor. Optical and infrared images of the counterpart of KS1731-260 were taken in two different epochs (2001 and 2007) after the source returned to quiescence in X-rays. We compared those observations with obtained when KS 1731-260 was still active. We confirm the identification of KS1731-260 with the previously proposed counterpart and improve its position to RA=17:34:13.46 and DEC=-26:05:18.60. The H-band magnitude of this candidate showed a decline of ~1.7 mags from outburst to quiescence. In 2007 April we obtained R=22.8+-0.1 and I=20.9+-0.1 for KS1731-260. Similar optical brightness was measured in June 2001 and July 2007. The intrinsic optical color R-I is consistent with spectral types from F to G for the secondary although there is a large excess over that from the secondary at the infrared wavelengths. This may be due to emission from the cooler...

  11. 专用小麦粉中高分子麦谷蛋白亚基的组成及含量对稳定时间的影响%Composition and content of HMW-GS and its correlation with the dough stability time of tailored wheat flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹易; 王晶; 肖安红

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The effects of composition and content of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW‐GS)of bread ,steamed bread flour and cake flour and its correlation with the dough stability time were studied .The composition and content of HMW‐GS of the flour were determined by SDS‐PAGE and gel imaging scanning ,and the stability time of dough were measured by Farinograph .The HMW‐GS of bread flour were1 ,7+8 ,2 ,7+9 and 5+10 ,of steamed bread flour were 1 ,7+8 ,2 ,7+9 ,8 ,5+10 and 2+12 ,and of cake flour were 1 ,7+8 ,2 ,7+9 ,8 ,9 ,5+10 ,2+1 2 and 14+15 .The order of HMW‐GS content from high to low were as :bread flour ,steamed bread flour ,cake flour .The dough stability time depended on the composition and content of the high quality HMW‐GS ,couples or groups of tailored wheat flour .%研究面包粉、馒头粉、蛋糕粉中高分子麦谷蛋白亚基组成及含量与其面团稳定时间的关系。采用十二烷基硫酸钠聚丙烯酰氨凝胶电泳及凝胶成像技术测定各种小麦粉高分子质量谷蛋白亚基的组成及其含量,并测定面团的稳定时间。组成面包粉的高分子质量谷蛋白亚基及亚基对为1、7+8、2、7+9、5+10,馒头粉为1、7+8、2、7+9、8、5+10、2+12,蛋糕粉1、7+8、2、7+9、8、9、5+10、2+12、14+15。在相同位点上含有相同亚基3种专用粉的亚基相对含量从高到低为:面包粉、馒头粉、蛋糕粉。专用小麦粉中优质亚基、亚基对和亚基组合及其含量对面团的稳定时间有重要影响。

  12. 水分胁迫对紫花苜蓿叶水势、蒸腾速率和气孔导度的影响%Impact of Water Stress on Leaf Water Potential, Transpiration Rate(Tr)and Stomatal Conductance (Gs) of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永忠; 成自勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the stomatal response of Alfalfa under water stress, leaf water potential, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and their relationship under water stress are studied by adopting pot-cultivation designs. Results show that the leaf water potential, Tr and Gs of alfalfa decreased with water stress increasing. The daily change of the leaf potential, Trand Gs display a bimodal curve pattern with the same mean value. The maximum is obtained under full water supply, followed by light water stress, moderate water stress and severe water stress. The lowest leaf water potential decreases with the decreasing of soil moisture, the peak appearing time of leaf potential and Trun der moderate and severe water stress is earlier than that of full water supply and light water stress. Under moderate and severe water stress, when the water potential was -4. 68 MPa, or Tr was 3.27 g · m-2 ·h-1 , the stomata begin to close. Under full water supply and light water stress, Tr increases with the decreasing water potential, and G, increases with the increasing of Tr. The leaf water potential changes not only related with the soil moisture, but also closely related with the leaf development.%采用盆栽水分试验,研究了不同土壤水分条件下紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)叶水势、蒸腾速率和气孔导度的变化规律及相互关系,以期揭示其对土壤水分胁迫的气孔响应机制.结果表明:苜蓿叶水势、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)均随水分胁迫加剧而降低,三者日变化均呈双峰曲线特征,日平均值表现为充分供水>轻度胁迫>中度胁迫>重度胁迫.最低叶水势随土壤水分降低而降低;在中度和重度胁迫下,叶水势和蒸腾速率日变化峰值出现的时间提前,当叶水势为-4.68 MPa或Tr为3.27 g·m-2·h-1时,气孔开始关闭;在充分供水和轻度胁迫下,Tr越高,叶水势越低,且G随着Tr增加而增加.叶水势的变化

  13. Evaluation on nutritional and healthy effects of dry-type red grape wine by BDI-GS system and food safety discussion%BDI-GS体系评价干红葡萄酒营养健康效应及食品安全性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵津津; 龙伟; 靳谨; 王倩; 吴红英; 王晨光; 周则卫

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the nutritional and healthy effects of dry-type red grape wine by novel BDI-GS evaluation system for food and discuss the relevant food safety problems.MethodsThe ICR mice during growth were selected as subject, assigned and given drinking water, 5%, 10% and 20% of dry-type red grape wine diluted solution, respectively, and simultaneously all mice were given with maize low-nutritional diets, fed for 12 d. The experimental mice were dissected, the weights of 9 organs or tissues were recorded and their indexes, benefit damage index (BDI) and general score (GS) values were statistically analyzed. The biochemical parameters of serum were tested. ResultsApart from pancreas, 3 doses of dry-type red wine showed some benefits effects for other organs or tissues in nutrition and health, and outstandingly expressed in weight and index BDI values of thymus, spleen and spermary, which were above 1.0 obviously. The integrated GSWvalues were all obviously above 9.0 basic score, but the integrated GSIvalues were relatively closed for each other in all dose groups, and also all above 9.0. Nevertheless, successive intake of dry-type red grape wine might elevateglucose level significantly (P<0.05), and slightly elevate lipid levels in blood.Conclusion Dry-type red grape wine is of better overall nutritional and healthy effects for organs or tissues, and without any obvious damage to the body. Compared to those of common sweet-type red grape wine, dry-type red grape wine possessed more highly nutritional and healthy effects, and better inherent quality and safety.%目的:通过食品BDI-GS新体系评价干型红葡萄酒的营养健康效应,探讨食品安全性问题。方法以生长期ICR小鼠为研究对象,分组给予饮用水、5%、10%和20%干红稀释液,同时均给予玉米低营养饲料,共喂食12 d。解剖并统计9项脏器组织重量、系数及其损益指数(benefit damage index, BDI)和累计积分(general score, GS),并进

  14. Behind the scenes of GS: CERN’s beating heart

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Founded at the same time as CERN, the library has followed, and sometimes even moved ahead of, the changes in the Organization. Today, far from being a simple book depository, the Scientific Information Service (SIS) that manages CERN's library is increasingly digitising its material and investing in innovative projects, such as Open Access.   Ever since it was set up in Building 52 on 1 September 1957, the library has played a vital role in the Organization.  “Our only official task is to provide a complete list of the publications by CERN researchers, but, in fact, this place is the memory bank of the whole Laboratory,” emphasises Tullio Basaglia, head of the Library Section within SIS.  “The role of the library and archives is to preserve, document and disseminate the knowledge produced at CERN.” Sixty years after its creation, the library today contains 90,000 books, two thirds of which are available in a digital ...

  15. Behind the scenes of GS: cross-platform

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The year was 1989: the dawn of administrative computing. In a laboratory filled to the rafters with paperwork, CERN's then Director-General Carlo Rubbia saw an opportunity for a complete administrative overhaul. He established the Advanced Information Systems (AIS) project to analyse CERN's administration, which in turn suggested the Electronic Document Handling (EDH) system. By 1992, EDH was up and running - the start of a new chapter in CERN history.   If you think you've never come accross EDH, think again. The system is an integral part of CERN life, handling everything from the purchase of materials to leave requests. EDH sees you through your entire CERN life: from your first CERN job application to your final retirement checklist. One platform, sixty-five functions What makes EDH so special is its solitary nature: it is one platform that carries out dozens of varied functions. "Most companies organise their administration in 'vertical' ...

  16. Behind the scenes of GS: Mapping the future of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Focus on the Future Accelerator Studies (FAS) section at CERN who carry out the civil engineering studies for the Laboratory’s future scientific facilities.   The Future Accelerator Studies (FAS) section co-ordinates the civil engineering and infrastructure studies for large-scale future physics projects. These include projects due to complete in a couple of years such as AWAKE, but also projects planned for ten years’ time such as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) or even longer term projects such as the Future Circular Collider (FCC), for which approval is still pending. “CERN needs to be able to study the feasibility and assess the risks of future projects, even though they are not all fully approved,” explains John Osborne, Head of the FAS section, which also includes two fellows and one technical student. “Our small team works closely with other groups across CERN and with external companies to provide studies from a civil engineering poin...

  17. Molecular Characterization of 2-Chlorobiphenyl Degrading Stenotrophomonas maltophilia GS-103

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somaraja, P.K.; Gayathri, D.; Ramaiah, N.

    The catabolic potential of transformer oil contaminated soil bacteria in aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were assessed. Transformer oil contaminated soil sample was subjected to microcosm enrichment experiments (PAS medium...

  18. Behind the scenes of GS: health in the workplace

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    CERN has had its own Medical Service since 1965. Open to members of the personnel, users and visitors, the team offers care and advice with professionalism and commitment.   The Medical Service team, currently consisting of three doctors, four nurses, a lab technician, a psychologist and two administrative assistants, provides an ever-increasing number of consultations. In 2013, around 7800 people were seen by the Medical Service, mainly at walk-in consultations, and more than 6665 further tests were performed (e.g. electrocardiograms, hearing tests, lung function tests, urine tests, blood tests). While its chief objective is to monitor the health of the CERN community in relation to their work through regular medical check-ups, the Medical Service also performs an important primary care function: “More than 10,000 people work in CERN’s offices, workshops, tunnels and worksites every day. As in any community of that size, sometimes certain situations arise that demand imme...

  19. ATel 7470: Optical identification of the X-ray burster EXO 1745-248 in Terzan 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Pallanca, C.; Lanzoni, B.; Cadelano, M.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Mucciarelli, A.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the identification of the optical counterpart to the neutron star transient EXO 1745-248 in the stellar system Terzan 5. The identification has been performed by exploiting a set of HST ACS/WFC images acquired in Director Discretionary Time on 2015 April 20 (MJD 57133), approximately 1 month after the Swift/BAT detection of an X-ray outburst from this source (Altamirano et al. ...

  20. The study of construct validity and reliability of the Maslach burnout inventory-general survey (MBI-GS) for nurses%Maslash工作倦怠量表通用版在护理人员中应用的信度与效度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟; 娄小平; 王治明

    2007-01-01

    目的 对Maslach工作倦怠量表通用版(MBI-GS)在中国职业人群中的信度和效度进行验证.方法 整群抽取某市省市级医院3所,从中随机抽取各临床科室和检验、放射等辅助科室护理人员319人作为样本.效度分析采用主成分因子分析、验证性因子分析、会聚效度和区分效度;选用同质性检验、重测信度和相关分析进行信度评价.结果 因子分析表明MBI-GS的结构效度三因子模型优于单因子模型;量表及各维度的Cronbach's α系数在0.672~0.874之间,量表总分与维度的相关系数在0.579~0.788之间(P <0.01),两次测量的量表相关系数为0.713(P <0.01),各维度相关系数大于0.666(P <0.01),说明该量表具有较好的同质性信度和重测信度.结论 MBI-GS中文版经过适当修订可以作为中国护理人群工作倦怠比较理想的测量工具.

  1. Design and Implementation of Image Defogging Algorithm in Video Surveillance System Based on G/S mode%基于G/S模式的视频监控系统图像去雾处理算法的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史宏宇; 梅玉

    2011-01-01

    For the phenomena of atmospheric scattering in fog environment, the visibility and contrast of surveillance video imaging greatly reduce, causing the video image distortion. Finally, imaging is difficult to meet the expected applications. In this paper, in order to solve the issue of image enhancement and de-noising, we put forward high-performance image defogging improved algorithm which can be used in the video surveillance system of G / S mode and system at the same time meet real-time transmission of video data demand. It could implement the adaptive enhancement and de-noising of degraded image with this algorithm. On the premise of guarantee of real-time, this algorithm improves the contrast and definition of images efficiently, solves the distortion of videos and images to a great extent, and provides the strong complement to solve the problems of the image distortion in real-time video surveillance applications of G/S model.%受雾天环境中大气散射现象的影响,监控视频成像中的能见度与对比度大幅降低,导致视频图像失真,最终成像效果难以满足预期应用需求、,针对雾天图像增强与去噪问题,提出了一套应用于G/S模式下的视频监控系统同时能够满足视频数据实时传输需求的高性能影像去雾改进算法。该算法实现了降质图像的自适应增强与去噪.有效提高了图像的对比度和清晰度.很大程度上解决了雾天环境下视频图像的失真问题,为解决吲S模式下实时视频监控应用中图像失真问题提供有力补充。

  2. A study of stress in medical students at Seth G.S. Medical College.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe A

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is usually observed that medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. There is a high rate of suicide among them. METHODS: To determine incidence of stress and factors controlling stress in medical students at various stages of MBBS course at Seth G S Medical college, 238 students (First year 98, Second 76, Third 64 were asked to complete a questionnaire on personal data (gender, stay at hostel, mode of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education., Stress inducing factors, Zung′s depression scale, ways of coping, stress relievers, perceived social support and personality type. Statistical tests used were ANOVA, critical ratio and Student′s ′t′ test. RESULTS: Majority of medical students (175/238--73% perceived stress. Stress was found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students rather than First MBBS levels (p < 0.05. Stress was not found to differ significantly on the basis of sex, stay at hostel, model of travel, time spent in travel every day, medium of study in school, place of school education. Stress was found to be significantly more in students having more than 95% of marks at 12th Standard as compared to others. Academic factors were greater perceived cause of stress in medical students. There was no significant difference in the students at different levels of MBBS regarding academic factors and social factors as a stress inducing factors. Physical factors were found to be significantly more in Second and Third MBBS students as compared to First MBBS students. Emotional factors were found to be significantly more in First MBBS students as compared to Second & Third MBBS students. Stress was more common in medical students who have dominant strategy of coping as positive reappraisal, accepting responsibility and planful problem solving. Stress was less common in medical students at Seth G S Medical College who have dominant strategy of coping as escaping and distancing from difficult situation. Family and Friend as perceived social supports were more in Second MBBS than First MBBS medical students. Stress was not found to be significantly more in students having their personality factor contributing to stress (Type A--52/67 as compared to others (Type B--123/171. This indicates that the stress was not trait oriented but was process oriented (p = NS. CONCLUSION: Stress in medical students is common and is process oriented. It is more in second and third year. Academic factors are greater perceived cause of stress in medical students at Seth G S medical college. Emotional factors are found to be significantly more in First MBBS. It is dependent on person′s ways of coping and social support.

  3. A study of stress in medical students at Seth G.S. Medical College.

    OpenAIRE

    Supe A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is usually observed that medical students undergo tremendous stress during various stages of the MBBS course. There is a high rate of suicide among them. METHODS: To determine incidence of stress and factors controlling stress in medical students at various stages of MBBS course at Seth G S Medical college, 238 students (First year 98, Second 76, Third 64) were asked to complete a questionnaire on personal data (gender, stay at hostel, mode of travel, time spent in travel every...

  4. SUPPORT OF MSA AND GS SHORT COURSES AND THE COMPANION REVIEWS VOLUMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Alex Speer

    2008-01-23

    Report on two short courses: [1] Fluid-fluid Equilibria in the Crust: Petrology - Geochemistry - Economic potential. August 16-17, 2007 preceding the Goldschmidt Conference in Cologne, Germany) and [2] Paleoaltimetry: Geochemical And Thermodynamic Approaches. October 26-27, 2007 (preceding the GSA Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado)

  5. 无限畅快 丽台Winfast PX6800 GS TDH显卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    不久前,丽台科技(Leadtek),发表了玩家级3D绘图显示卡-WinFast PX6800 GS。WinFast PX6800 GS的出现将效能以及兼容性推向另一个顶点,支持Microsoft Dierct X 9.0c Shader Model 3.0与OpenGL.2.0。

  6. GS Soil - Assessment and strategic development of INSPIRE compliant Geodata-Services for European Soil Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Münier, Bernd

    facilities and long term observations as part of the Annex III theme "Environmental Monitoring Facilities", • Information about the soil related aspects of Annex III theme "Natural Risk Zones" as e.g. landslides, soil erosion, soil compaction, soil organic carbon decline, salinization, acidification and soil...

  7. Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; DeVree, Brian T; Zou, Yaozhong;

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist...

  8. A 12b 1.7GS/s two-times interleaved DAC with

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, Erik; Annema, Anne-Johan; Nauta, Bram; Bal, Ankur; Singh, Pratap Narayan

    2013-01-01

    A two-times interleaved DAC using only a single supply voltage in a standard 65nm CMOS technology is presented. The interleaving architecture suppresses most of the non-idealities commonly found in high-speed DACs. Spurs generated by the interleaved architecture are suppressed by a novel calibration

  9. A 4 GS/sec Instability Feedback Processing System for Intra-bunch Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dusatko, J; Fox, J D; Pollock, K; Rivetta, C H; Turgut, O; Hofle, W

    2013-01-01

    We present the architecture and implementation overview of a proof-of-principle digital signal processing system developed to study control of Electron-Cloud and Transverse Mode Coupling Instabilities (TMCI) in the CERN SPS. This system is motivated by intensity increases planned as part of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade. It is based on a reconfigurable processing architecture which samples intra-bunch motion and applies correction signals at a 4GSa/s rate, allowing multiple samples across a single 3.2ns SPS bunch. This initial demonstration system is a rapidly developed prototype consisting of both commercial and custom- designed hardware that implements feedback control on a single bunch. It contains a high speed ADC and DAC, capable of sampling at up to 4GSa/s, with a 16-tap FIR control filter for each bunch sample slice. Other system features include a timing subsystem to synchronize the sampling to the injection and the bunch 1 markers, the capability of generating arbitrary time domain signals to drive...

  10. Forskolin inhibits the Gs-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH66F cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T

    1989-09-01

    Forskolin increased intracellular cyclic AMP and augmented cyclic AMP formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in normal rat hepatocytes and ascites hepatoma AH66 cells. However, in AH66F cells which were derived from the AH66 cell line, the diterpene only slightly increased the cyclic AMP level, and dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation caused by PGE1. Forskolin dose-dependently activated adenylate cyclase in these membranes, and the magnitude of activation by forskolin was largest in the following order: hepatocytes, AH66 cells, and AH66F cells. This difference may be based on the number of forskolin-binding sites. The binding affinity of forskolin for each cell membrane was similar. The number and affinity of forskolin-binding sites in these cells were not influenced by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]. In hepatocytes and AH66 cells, forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators such as PGE1, GTP, Gpp(NH)p, F-, and Mn2+ synergistically increased the enzyme activity. In AH66F cells, the forskolin-stimulated activity was hardly influenced by the GTP analog, and forskolin diminished the activities induced by the GTP analog in a manner similar to that of diterpene alone. Forskolin (10 microM) also significantly inhibited the activities induced by PGE1, GTP, and F-. The effect of forskolin with Mn2+ was additive in AH66F cells. The data suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and the catalytic unit in the membrane of normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but it interferes with the coupling in AH66F cells.

  11. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Hays, E.; Troja, E.; Moiseev, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission ofG8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of pions produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS Jl804-2l6 and that the spectrum in the Ge V band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV-spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.l with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  12. 1 GS/s, Low Power Flash, Analog to Digital Converter in 90nm CMOS Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Raza Naqvi, Syed

    2007-01-01

    The analog to digital converters is the key components in modern electronic systems. As the digital signal processing industry grows the ADC design becomes more and more challenging for researchers. In these days an ADC becomes a part of the system on chip instead of standalone circuit for data converters. This increases the requirements on ADC design concerning for example speed, power, area, resolution, noise etc. New techniques and methods are going to develop day by day to achieve high pe...

  13. X-Ray Transient in Musca (GRS 1121-68 = GS 1124-683)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren; Makino, F.

    1991-01-01

    Research Institute, Lyngby; and Space Research Institute, Moscow), report: "A new x-ray source in Musca, GRS 1121-68, has been discovered in data obtained by the WATCH detectors on Jan. 9. The spectrum of the source was harder than that of the Crab nebula, and the flux was about twice that from...

  14. Gs invaders: assessing a computer game-like test of processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jason; Burns, Nicholas R

    2007-11-01

    Computer games potentially offer a useful research tool for psychology but there has been little use made of them in assessing cognitive abilities. Two studies assessing the viability of a computer game-like test of cognitive processing speed are described. In Experiment 1, a computerized coding task that uses a mouse responsemethod (McPherson & Burns, 2005) was the basis for a simple computer game-like test. In Experiment 2, dynamic game-like elements were added. Validity was assessed within a factor analytic framework using standardized abilities tests as marker tests. We conclude that computer game-like tests of processing speed may provide an alternative or supplementary tool for research and assessment. There is clearly potential to develop game-like tests for other cognitive abilities.

  15. A phylogenomic gene cluster resource: The phylogeneticallyinferred groups (PhlGs) database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehal, Paramvir S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-08-25

    We present here the PhIGs database, a phylogenomic resource for sequenced genomes. Although many methods exist for clustering gene families, very few attempt to create truly orthologous clusters sharing descent from a single ancestral gene across a range of evolutionary depths. Although these non-phylogenetic gene family clusters have been used broadly for gene annotation, errors are known to be introduced by the artifactual association of slowly evolving paralogs and lack of annotation for those more rapidly evolving. A full phylogenetic framework is necessary for accurate inference of function and for many studies that address pattern and mechanism of the evolution of the genome. The automated generation of evolutionary gene clusters, creation of gene trees, determination of orthology and paralogy relationships, and the correlation of this information with gene annotations, expression information, and genomic context is an important resource to the scientific community.

  16. Natural analogue synthesis report, TDR-NBS-GS-000027 rev00 icn02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A.; Nieder-Westermann, G.; Stuckless, J.; Dobson, P.; Unger, A.J.A.; Kwicklis, E.; Lichtner, P.; Carey, B.; Wolde, G.; Murrel,M.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Meijer, A.; Faybishenko, B.

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M&O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere, and potentially disruptive events. Results of these studies will be used to corroborate estimates of the magnitude and limitation of operative processes in order to build realism into conceptual and numerical process models used as a foundation for PA in the representative case of postclosure safety.

  17. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of the copepod Calanus sinicus using 454 GS FLX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite their species abundance and primary economic importance, genomic information about copepods is still limited. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the copepod Calanus sinicus, which is a dominant species in the coastal waters of East Asia. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a large number of expressed sequence tags for the copepod C. sinicus. RESULTS: Copepodid larvae and adults were used as the basic material for transcriptome sequencing. Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,470,799 reads were obtained, which were assembled into 56,809 high quality expressed sequence tags. Based on their sequence similarity to known proteins, about 14,000 different genes were identified, including members of all major conserved signaling pathways. Transcripts that were putatively involved with growth, lipid metabolism, molting, and diapause were also identified among these genes. Differentially expressed genes related to several processes were found in C. sinicus copepodid larvae and adults. We detected 284,154 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that provide a resource for gene function studies. CONCLUSION: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource available for C. sinicus. This resource allowed us to identify genes associated with primary physiological processes and SNPs in coding regions, which facilitated the quantitative analysis of differential gene expression. These data should provide foundation for future genetic and genomic studies of this and related species.

  18. Hot Cutting of Real-Time Cast-Forged GS Ductile Iron for Automotive Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouilland, Laurence; Mansori, Mohamed El

    2011-01-01

    In the global economy context, automotive industry suppliers have to keep a constant advance on products design and manufacturing process. Concerning automotive rods, the substitution of forged steel by spherical graphite iron (SG iron) with high mechanical properties constitutes a valid economic alternative. Such rods are produced using a complex coupled process: casting and forging followed by an austempered heat treatment. The forging operation is capable to shape the cast rod which introduces hot deformation to increase mechanical properties of net-shape SG iron rod. However, the intermediate re-heating between casting and forging must be avoided to keep competitive manufacturing costs. A major concern of this new process development is the cracks produced in rod's surface which are consecutive to hot spruing involved after casting operations. This issue is addressed in this paper which discusses the physical mechanisms involved in the hot ductile damage of SG iron. Hot cutting tests were performed to simulate the spruing operation which shows the close interactions between microstructure, machining parameters and resulting damages. The damage mechanisms in terms of crack initiation and its growth have been studied with respect to the constituent phases (austenite+graphite nodules), the cut surface morphology and the hot cutting performance.

  19. Osteoblastic regulation of B lymphopoiesis is mediated by Gs{alpha}-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joy Y; Purton, Louise E; Rodda, Stephen J; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S; McMahon, Andrew P; Scadden, David T; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-11-04

    Osteoblasts play an increasingly recognized role in supporting hematopoietic development and recently have been implicated in the regulation of B lymphopoiesis. Here we demonstrate that the heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit G(s)alpha is required in cells of the osteoblast lineage for normal postnatal B lymphocyte production. Deletion of G(s)alpha early in the osteoblast lineage results in a 59% decrease in the percentage of B cell precursors in the bone marrow. Analysis of peripheral blood from mutant mice revealed a 67% decrease in the number of circulating B lymphocytes by 10 days of age. Strikingly, other mature hematopoietic lineages are not decreased significantly. Mice lacking G(s)alpha in cells of the osteoblast lineage exhibit a reduction in pro-B and pre-B cells. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-7 expression is attenuated in G(s)alpha-deficient osteoblasts, and exogenous IL-7 is able to restore B cell precursor populations in the bone marrow of mutant mice. Finally, the defect in B lymphopoiesis can be rescued by transplantation into a WT microenvironment. These findings confirm that osteoblasts are an important component of the B lymphocyte niche and demonstrate in vivo that G(s)alpha-dependent signaling pathways in cells of the osteoblast lineage extrinsically regulate bone marrow B lymphopoiesis, at least partially in an IL-7-dependent manner.

  20. MASTER optical polarization variability detection in the Microquasar V404 Cyg/GS2023+33

    CERN Document Server

    Lipunov, Vladimir M; Kornilov, V; Krushinskiy, V; Vlasenko, D; Tiurina, N; Balanutsa, P; Kuznetsov, A; Budnev, N; Gress, O; Tlatov, A; Lopez, R Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M; Buckley, D A H; Israelian, G; Lodieu, N; Ivanov, K; Yazev, S; Sergienko, Yu; Gabovich, A; Yurkov, V; Levato, H; Saffe, C; Podesta, R; Mallamaci, C; Lopez, C

    2016-01-01

    On 2015 June 15 the Swift space observatory discovered that the Galactic black hole candidate V404 Cyg was undergoing another active X-ray phase, after 25 years of inactivity (Barthelmy et al. 2015). Twelve telescopes of the MASTER Global Robotic Net located at six sites across four continents were the first ground based observatories to start optical monitoring of the microquasar after its gamma-ray wakeup at 18h 34m 09s U.T. on 2015 June 15 (Lipunov et al. 2015). In this paper we report, for the first time, the discovery of variable optical linear polarization, changing by 4-6% over a timescale of approximately 1 h, on two different epochs. We can conclude that the additional variable polarization arisies from the relativistic jet generated by the black hole in V404Cyg. The polarization variability correlates with optical brightness changes, increasing when the flux decreases.

  1. Characterization and growth of epitaxial layers of Gs exhibiting high resistivity for ionic implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Either classical or low temperature epitaxial growth techniques can be used to control the deposition of buffer layers of GaAs on semiconducting substrates and to obtain the resistivity and purity desired. Techniques developed to study, as a function of thickness, the evolution of mobilities by photoHall, and the spectroscopy of shallow and deep centers by cathodoluminescence and current transients reveal one very pure layer of medium resistivity and high mobility, and another "dead layer" of elevated resistivity far from the surface. The highly resistive layer remains pure over several microns, which appears interesting for implantation.

  2. 加把劲——别克君威GS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    君威RS的设计完全以欧宝Insignia的高性能OPC版本为模板,不过完全拒绝了OPC最大功率为239kW的涡轮增压V6发动机。别克坚持为君威GS搭载高功率的2.0LA喷Eco Tec四缸涡轮增压发动机,这可以说是通用汽车多年来覆盖面极广的一款发动机,最大功率/最大扭矩的动力参数还从原来的190kW/352N·m调整为187kW/400N·m,并搭配6挡手动变速器。

  3. Cooper, H. (ed. (2013. Teaching History Creatively. Londres: Routledge. 185 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil de Sola Bellas, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching History Creatively es un libro orientado a los docentes cuya labor se desempeña principalmente durante los primeros años de la educación escolar, más concretamente los últimos años de Educación Infantil y toda la Educación Primaria, aunque también podría adaptarse a los niveles de enseñanza superiores. A través del mismo se pretende introducir a los do centes a la enseñanza de la historia de manera creativa a partir de la realización de investigaciones históricas aptas para el alumnado, de forma que se desarrolle su pensamiento histórico. Esto dotará a los alumnos de una serie de recursos esenciales para el adecuado aprendizaje de la historia, y permitiendo que éstos realicen su propia representación del pasado y analizar los hechos históricos desde un punto de vista crítico.

  4. GS o mirar los cuerpos sociales y emociones desde Georg Simmel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Aguiluz Ibargüen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pone de relieve los vínculos existentes entre las claves de Georg Simmel sobre la constitución de lo social y la socialidad respecto a los cambios tecnológicos, arreglos culturales, campos discursivos y estructuras de percepción que se entretejieron alcanzando la vida social de las ciudades europeas y de los circuitos moderno-capitalistas del siglo XIX.

  5. Dölger, F. J. (2015. La luz de Cristo. Madrid: Ediciones Encuentro. 98 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Sánchez, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La luz de Cristo, publicado originalmente en 1936, es el segundo libro de Franz Joseph Dölger traducido al castellano, siendo el anterior una selección de sus trabajos con el título Paganos y cristianos. El debate de la Antigüedad sobre el significado de los símbolos. En esta ocasión se abordan las relaciones entre estos distintos credos a través de la luz. La obra es presentada por Pedro Sabe Andreu, quien realiza una introducción que nos aporta datos claves para poder comprender de forma correcta el texto. Del mismo modo la obra cuenta con un prólogo a cargo de Manuel González López-Corps, profesor de la Universidad eclesiástica San Dámaso de Madrid. El autor de este volumen es Franz Joseph Dolger (1879-1940, un intelectual alemán, sacerdote y profesor en varias universidades de este país como la de Bonn o miembro de instituciones como la Academia Pontificia de Arqueología de Roma. Su ámbito de estudio se centró en el Cristianismo primitivo, abarcando dentro de este un amplio espectro de temas, sin dejar de abordar los nexos de unión de esta religión con los credos paganos.

  6. De novo sequence assembly and characterization of Lycoris aurea transcriptome using GS FLX titanium platform of 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lycoris aurea, also called Golden Magic Lily, is an ornamentally and medicinally important species of the Amaryllidaceae family. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable as a non-model organism. Transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST dataset for L. aurea using high-throughput sequencing technology. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total RNA was isolated from leaves with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, salicylic acid (SA, or methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, stems, and flowers at the bud, blooming, and wilting stages. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue and stage were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, a total of 937,990 high quality reads (308.63 Mb with an average read length of 329 bp were generated. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 141,111 unique sequences, comprising 24,604 contigs and 116,507 singletons. All of the unique sequences were involved in the biological process, cellular component and molecular function categories by GO analysis. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literatures, many putative genes involved in Amaryllidaceae alkaloids synthesis, including PAL, TYDC OMT, NMT, P450, and other potentially important candidate genes, were identified for the first time in this Lycoris. Furthermore, 6,386 SSRs and 18,107 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in L. aurea. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will provide useful information for functional genomic research in future.

  7. A 10 Gs/s latched comparator with dynamic offset cancellation in 28nm FD-SOI process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    This papers presents a high-speed, latched comparator implemented in industrial 28 nm FD-SOI technology. A novel approach to counter the mismatch is proposed. The solution employs trimming the threshold voltage by means of modulating of back-gate polarization of FD-SOI transistors. The comparator is a first step towards the design of a complete 4-bit FLASH analog-to-digital converter, with a sampling frequency of 10 GHz.

  8. Study on Encryption Technology in Internet of Thin,gs%物联网加密技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文; 吴传伟; 罗敏

    2012-01-01

    物联网是一种虚拟网络与现实世界实时交互的新型系统,随着物联网技术的迅猛发展,物联网终端的安全问题也逐渐被重视。文中通过分析物联网终端设备存在的认证、私隐等安全问题,针对终端设备计算能力、网络资源有限的特点,研究了基于IBE密钥参数协商和身份鉴别技术、轻量级加密算法和密码自同步技术,提出了将几种技术相结合的加密技术方案,并对这种方案的安全性进行了分析。%IoT(Internet of Things) is a new real-time interactive system in virtual network with the real world. With the rapid development of IoT technology, the security of IoT terminal gradually attracts much attention from the people. Based on analysis of its terminal equipment certification, privacy, and other security issues, and for its terminal equipment limitation in computing power, network resources, the IBE-based key parameter negotiation and identity authentication technologies, lightweight encryption algorithm, and self-synchronous encryption for password are studied, and the encryption technical scheme in combination of these technologies is proposed. And also the security of this scheme is analyzed and proved in detail.

  9. Characterization of Novel Seven Transmembrane Helix, GS-Coupled Receptors and Pou Domain Proteins in Cancer of the Mammary Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    and tested against CBP (amino acids, 2,058- 2,170) by a yeast two-hybrid assay. The major CBP interaction NATUREl VOL 387112 JUNE 1997 677...dependent transcription by evaluating its effects on stimulation by IFN-7 and retinoic acid. The simultaneous addition NATUREl VOL 387112 JUNE 1997...described44. Transient transfections and reporter assays. Transfection was done in either HeLa or CV-1 cells using the standard calcium phosphate procedure

  10. Intragenic suppression of a constitutively active allele of Gsα associated with McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar-Rubin, Raquel; Sultan, Dahlia; Janevska, Daniela; Turcic, Kyle; Carroll, Julie; Ooms, Laura; Pals-Rylaarsdam, Robin

    2013-04-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a human genetic disorder caused by a mutation that constitutively activates the G(s)α subunit by abolishing GTP hydrolysis. MAS patients suffer from a range of endocrinopathies as well as polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of bone. We previously identified an intragenic suppressor of the MAS mutation in a yeast system, which substituted two residues in the GTP-binding site of Gpa1: L318P and D319V to suppress the constitutive activity of an R297H mutation, corresponding to the human F222P, D223V, and R201H mutations respectively. To extend these studies, the human GNAS gene was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis. Constructs expressing the MAS mutation (R201H), the MAS mutation plus the mutations homologous to the yeast suppressors (R201H, F222P/D223V), or the yeast suppressor mutation alone (F222P/D223V) were transfected into HEK293 cells, and basal and receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were measured. Expression of R201H increased the basal cAMP levels and decreased the EC(50) for hormone-stimulated cAMP production. These effects were dependent on the amount of R201H protein expressed. R201H, F222P/D223V abolished the constitutive activity of the MAS mutation and caused responses to hormone that were not different from those measured in cells expressing WT G(s)α. Interestingly, F222P/D223V behaved similar to R201H in causing increases in basal cAMP production, thus demonstrating constitutive activity. Substitution of another acidic (E) or polar (N, T, and G) amino acid at position 223 caused no suppression of R201H activity, while substitution of a second nonpolar amino acid (A) at this position partially suppressed, and the larger polar I residue completely suppressed the effects of R201H.

  11. Structural flexibility of the G alpha s alpha-helical domain in the beta2-adrenoceptor Gs complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westfield, Gerwin H; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Su, Min

    2011-01-01

    The active-state complex between an agonist-bound receptor and a guanine nucleotide-free G protein represents the fundamental signaling assembly for the majority of hormone and neurotransmitter signaling. We applied single-particle electron microscopy (EM) analysis to examine the architecture of ...

  12. The QUAX-g_p g_s experiment to search for monopole-dipole Axion interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Crescini, Nicolò; Carugno, Giovanni; Falferi, Paolo; Ortolan, Antonello; Ruoso, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The QCD axion is an hypothetical particle introduced to solve the strong CP problem of standard model of particle physics and is of interest as a possible component of cold dark matter. In the axion scenario, J.E. Moody and F. Wilczek showed that a new macroscopic long-range force, mediated by axion exchange, acts on electron spins, and that such force can be described in terms of an effective magnetic field. The QUAX-g$_p$g$_s$ experiment, carried out at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, is designed to search for the effects on magnetized samples of the effective field produced by unpolarized mass sources. As this field is macroscopic, it can be detected by measuring the change of magnetization of a paramagnetic Gadolinium silicate (GSO) crystal cooled at liquid helium temperature. The axion effective field induced magnetization can be detected with a SQUID magnetometer. By varying the position of the of source masses, the induced GSO magnetization is modulated at acoustic frequencies. Although the full ...

  13. Enhanced $0_{g.s.}^+ \\to 2_1^+$ E2 Transition Strength in $^{112,114}$Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, R; Jhingan, A; Muralithar, S; Mukherjee, S; Reiter, P; Gorska, M; Bhowmik, R K; Cederkall, J; Siwal, D; Doornenbal, P; Garg, R; Appannababu, S; Kojouharov, I; Grawe, H; Singh, P P; Mandal, S; Sharma, A; Schaffner, H; Ekstrom, A; Caceres, L; Prokopowicz, W; Kaur, J; Gerl, J; Singh, R P; Bednarczyk, P

    2011-01-01

    The poorly known B(E2; 0(+) -> 2(+)) values of (112)Sn and (114)Sn have been measured to high precision. Two Coulomb excitation experiments were performed to determine the reduced transition probabilities relative to (116)Sn in order to minimize the systematic errors. The obtained B(E2 up arrow) values of 0.242(8) e(2)b(2) for (112)Sn and 0.232(8) e(2)b(2) for (114)Sn confirm the tendency of large B(E2 up arrow) values for the lighter tin isotopes below the midshell (116)Sn that has been observed recently in various radioactive ion beam experiments.

  14. Dölger, F. J. (2015). La luz de Cristo. Madrid: Ediciones Encuentro. 98 págs.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Sánchez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    La luz de Cristo, publicado originalmente en 1936, es el segundo libro de Franz Joseph Dölger traducido al castellano, siendo el anterior una selección de sus trabajos con el título Paganos y cristianos. El debate de la Antigüedad sobre el significado de los símbolos. En esta ocasión se abordan las relaciones entre estos distintos credos a través de la luz. La obra es presentada por Pedro Sabe Andreu, quien realiza una introducción que nos aporta datos claves para poder comprender de forma co...

  15. Goldsurfer2 (Gs2: A comprehensive tool for the analysis and visualization of genome wide association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Michael R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide association (GWA studies are now being widely undertaken aiming to find the link between genetic variations and common diseases. Ideally, a well-powered GWA study will involve the measurement of hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in thousands of individuals. The sheer volume of data generated by these experiments creates very high analytical demands. There are a number of important steps during the analysis of such data, many of which may present severe bottlenecks. The data need to be imported and reviewed to perform initial quality control (QC before proceeding to association testing. Evaluation of results may involve further statistical analysis, such as permutation testing, or further QC of associated markers, for example, reviewing raw genotyping intensities. Finally significant associations need to be prioritised using functional and biological interpretation methods, browsing available biological annotation, pathway information and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD. Results We have developed an interactive and user-friendly graphical application to be used in all steps in GWA projects from initial data QC and analysis to biological evaluation and validation of results. The program is implemented in Java and can be used on all platforms. Conclusion Very large data sets (e.g. 500 k markers and 5000 samples can be quality assessed, rapidly analysed and integrated with genomic sequence information. Candidate SNPs can be selected and functionally evaluated.

  16. Discovery of Human IgGs against α-Cobratoxin for Development of Recombinant Antibody-based Antivenom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Engmark, Mikael; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    , in which large mammals (typically horses) are immunized with snake venom and antiserum is derived from the animals blood. The incompatibility with the human immune system of these animal derived antivenoms leads to a range of side effects,such as serum sickness, anaphylaxis, and sometimes even death...

  17. Nustar Detection of Hard X-Ray Phase Lags from the Accreting Pulsar GS 0834-430

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.;

    2013-01-01

    -mass X-ray binary pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low energies (E mechanisms that might produce this energy-dependent pulse phase shift. We find the most likely explanation for this effect is a complex beam...

  18. Inactivation of bacteria G(+)-S. aureus and G(-)-E. coli by phototoxic polythiophene incorporated in ZSM-5 zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cík, Gabriel; Priesolová, Sona; Bujdáková, Helena; Sersen, Frantisek; Potheöová, Timea; Kristín, Jozef

    2006-06-01

    A new heterogeneous photocatalyst was prepared by oxidative polymerization of the thiophene with ferric chloride in the ZSM-5 zeolite type. The synthesized polythiophene absorbs radiation in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and by illumination with visible light generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in water medium. During illumination reactive hydroxyl radical was detected by the spin trapping EPR method. Efficiency of the photocatalyst was tested on the killing of Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli.

  19. Ecological features of titica vine (Heteropsis flexuosa (Kunth GS Bunting in Rondônia State, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELLINY M. BENTES GAMA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the forest structure with H. flexuosa in Rondônia State, as a first step in developing sustainable harvest and conservation guidelines for the species. Crown attributes, total height (m and diameter at breast height ≥ 10 (cm of trees and palms with H. flexuosa were evaluated in three permanent plots (100 m x 150 m each randomized in 219 ha. A total of 22 botanical families hosted H. flexuosa. It was not observed any specific preference for the species standing up itself. Nevertheless it was frequently associated to Burseraceae, Leguminosae, Sapotaceae, Annonaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Myristicaceae and species with thick bark like Schweilera coriacea, Protium sp. and Licania membranaceae. The species was less frequent with taller and broader trees and tended to develop in understory light condition. Trunks or branches were the main position for the attaching of H. flexuosa (90.83% and a low frequency of other lianas was observed on the same host trees. These highlight the need to promote appropriate management practices for root harvesting and species conservation in order to maintain the species in open ombrophylus forest habitat.

  20. An Assessment of Talent Management Practices Targeting GS-12/13 Level Members of the Army Acquisition Corps Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    value (Ulrich, 1998). Douglas Ivester, President and Chief Operating Officer of Coca - Cola , emphasized this point when he said, “People are our...organizations planned to promote and advertise their organizational advantages to attract and recruit talent to meet their future workforce needs

  1. Comments by Author regarding: Levy, G.S. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions. Entropy 2013, 15, 4700–4715

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Levy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This comment by the author discusses paragraph 3.3. Adiabatic Phenomena—An Analogy of the published article [1]. The paragraph draws an incorrect analogy between Maxwellian gases such as found in the atmosphere, and non-Maxwellian gases embodied, for example, by electrical carriers in thermoelectric materials. As reported by the author in more recent articles, Maxwellian gases do not produce spontaneous temperature gradients in the presence of a force field. However, non-Maxwellian gases, such as Fermions or Bosons, can produce such gradients.

  2. Near-complete genome sequencing of swine vesicular disease virus using the Roche GS FLX sequencing platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo;

    2014-01-01

    that is suitable for sequencing the complete protein-encoding sequences of SVDV isolates in which the RNA is relatively intact. The approach couples a single PCR amplification reaction, using only a single PCR primer set to amplify the near-complete SVDV genome, with deep-sequencing using a small fraction...

  3. Operational Data Report C&GS DR-8, Seismic Reflection Profiles Northern Bering Sea (NODC Accession 7000753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of seismic reflection profiles were taken aboard the USC&GSS SURVEYOR during the summer of 1969 as part of a general continental shelf survey in the...

  4. William F. Sater, La imagen heroica de Chile: Arturo Prat, santo secular, Santiago, Centro de Estudios Bicentenario, 2005, 231 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTIAGO ARÁNGUIZ PINTO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LA PERSONA Y LA FIGURA de Arturo Prat parece que, a simple vista, representan una misma y única unidad. Pero, si profundizamos algo más en la vida de este marino y abogado, nos daremos cuenta de que sus datos biográficos y la percepción que tuvo la sociedad de éste, varían considerablemente, pues, por su misma condición de héroe, está sujeto a los vaivenes interpretativos propios de la sobreabundante mitología nacional. Y es que el héroe, dice Sater, plantea otras problemáticas y disyuntivas cuando se le estudia, diferente a las del hombre público que posee figuración o renombre. En el héroe, por el contrario, confluyen elementos que responden a otro tipo de variables sociales, espirituales y culturales, y que es, por cierto, la preocupación fundamental que se ha propuesto desarrollar en este libro el historiador norteamericano. Analizar, comprender o estudiar la imagen heroica de Prat exige la participación de otros elementos analíticos que, a su vez, se plantean en relación a determinados momentos de la historia de Chile. No hay dudas al respecto: a nadie dejaba indiferente los rasgos y virtudes que desprendía la cautivante personalidad de Prat, considerando que éste era un ejemplo único de abnegación, heroísmo y de entrega hacia su patria, digno de imitar y difundir hacia el resto de la sociedad. Cada vez que ocurría alguna desgracia, el país requería a su vez de un estímulo moral para superar los problemas nacionales. ¿Cómo lograrlo? Recurriendo a Prat, que luego se transformaría en una práctica común, que excedió los límites de la mesura y el entendimiento.

  5. Polymerase recognition of 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone (iGs·P)--A new DD/AA base pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kye; Switzer, Christopher

    2016-02-15

    Polymerase specificity is reported for a previously unknown base pair with a non-standard DD/AA hydrogen bonding pattern: 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone. Our findings suggest that atomic substitution may provide a solution for low fidelity previously associated with enzymatic copying of iso-guanine.

  6. Antonio María Baggio, Adriana Cosseddu y Antonio Márquez Prieto (Coord., Fraternidad y Justicia, Comares, Granada, 2012, 94 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta obra nos ofrece una visión triádica entre libertad, justicia y fraternidad, destacando el carácter novedoso de esta última. En efecto, únicamente un análisis conjunto de las tres categorías permitiría alcanzar, según sus autores, un significado pleno de la fraternidad. Esta relación queda en evidencia en el art. 1 de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del hombre. De hecho, se destaca a la fraternidad como el principio olvidado de la revolución francesa (liberté, egalité, fraternité. Diversos autores la analizan como categoría política, lo que permitiría corregir algunos errores e injusticias de los sistemas políticos. Por otro lado, en la fraternidad podemos observar la relacionalidad, entendida como las relaciones entre los hombres. Asimismo, cuando hablamos de justicia se requieren tres elementos: la relacionalidad, la reciprocidad y la socialidad, en la medida en que la relación requiere lugar en el espacio social, donde adquiere sentido.

  7. Gérard Guyon, La Règle de Saint Benoît: aux sources du droit..., DMM, Poitiers Cedex, 2012, 190 págs.

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-01-01

    En esta monografía Guyon estudia ampliamente la Regla de San Benito, fundada por su homónimo, considerado como uno de los "Padres de Europa". Sus reglas, influidas en gran medida por el Derecho Romano, alcanzaron gran predicamento sobre todo a partir del siglo VI. Los dos pilares básicos que conformaban la Regla benedictina eran el oficio divino, de una parte, y la lección divina o el trabajo, de otra. San Benito obligaba a dedicar entre cuatro y ocho horas diarias al oficio divino y siete ho...

  8. The PI3-kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib (GS-1101) targets integrin-mediated adhesion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell to endothelial and marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Brown, Wells S; McIntyre, Bradley W; Estrov, Zeev; Maffei, Rossana; O'Brien, Susan; Sivina, Mariela; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Ding, Wei; Kay, Neil E; Lannutti, Brian J; Marasca, Roberto; Burger, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.

  9. The PI3-kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib (GS-1101 targets integrin-mediated adhesion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cell to endothelial and marrow stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Fiorcari

    Full Text Available CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC. We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106 expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.

  10. Bourke, Joanna. Los violadores: historia del estupro de 1860 a nuestros días. Barcelona: Crítica, 2009, 702 págs

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Viviana Serrano Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Joanna Bourke es nacida en Blenheim, Nueva Zelanda en el año de 1963, actualmente es catedrática de Historia en el Birkbeck College, de la Universidad de Londres. se describe a sí misma como una «socialista feminista», ha tratado un amplio abanico de temas en sus investigaciones: la historia de la clase obrera y el trabajo de las mujeres, las experiencias de los hombres y las mujeres durante la guerra, la historia de las emociones, especialmente del miedo y el odio, y la historia de la violen...

  11. Design and Implementation of Automatic Street Light Control Using Sensors and Solar Panel Sharath Patil G.S1 , Rudresh S.M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Patil G.S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic panel based street lighting systems are becoming more common these days. But the limitation with these ordinary street light systems is that it lacks intelligent performance. It is very essential to automate the system so that we can conserve energy as well as to maximize the efficiency of the system. In this paper a new method is suggested so as to maximize the efficiency of the street lighting system and to conserve the energy usage the LED lights sensors. Here automation of street lights is done by LDR sensor. Intensity of led street lights can be controlled by IR sensor and pulse width modulation. Kewords:

  12. M10.6.3: Design and manufacturing of the AMC board with ultra fast ADC (at least 2 Gs/s, 10 b)

    CERN Document Server

    Makowski, D

    2011-01-01

    This report outlines the progress in the development of digitizer modules with ultrafast analogue-to-digital converters. The module was designed to proof the concept of direct sampling of RF signal and detecting of transients caused by accelerated particles. The module was designed as AMC card with two ADC (1 GSps, 12 bits) allowing to sample signals with frequencies up to 2 GHz.

  13. Detection of IgM antibrucella antibody in the absence of IgGs: a challenge for the clinical interpretation of brucella serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís García Del Pozo, Julián; Lorente Ortuño, Santiago; Navarro, Elena; Solera, Javier

    2014-12-01

    The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies antibrucella has become widespread in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. IgM anti-Brucella antibodies are indicative of acute infection. Between 2009-2013, 5307 patients were evaluated for serologic diagnosis at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Albacete General Hospital. A ELISA IgM-positive, IgG-negative anti-Brucella antibody serology pattern was detected in 17 of those patients. Epidemiology data, symptoms, laboratory data, treatment and outcome from these patients were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented with musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or fever and 1 was asymptomatic. Five patients received treatment with doxycycline combined with rifampin, gentamycin or streptomycin during 6-12 weeks, with no improvement. None of the 17 patients were finally diagnosed with brucellosis. Our results indicate that anti-Brucella IgM positive serology, per se, is not enough to diagnose acute brucellosis and other methods should be used for confirmation. Brucella serology data should be interpreted taking into account the patient's clinical history and epidemiological context.

  14. Molecular characterization, function and regulation of ammonium transporters (Amt) and ammonium-metabolizing enzymes (GS, NADP-GDH) in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelle, Arnaud; Morel, Mélanie; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca-Rosa; Botton, Bernard; André, Bruno; Marini, Anne-Marie; Brun, Annick; Chalot, Michel

    2003-01-01

    External hyphae, which play a key role in nitrogen nutrition of trees, are considered as the absorbing structures of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Here, we have cloned and characterized Hebeloma cylindrosporum AMT1, GLNA and GDHA genes, which encode a third ammonium transporter, a glutamine synthetase and an NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase respectively. Amt1 can fully restore the pseudohyphal growth defect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mep2 mutant, and this is the first evidence that a heterologous member of the Mep/Amt family complements this dimorphic change defect. Dixon plots of the inhibition of methylamine uptake by ammonium indicate that Amt1 has a much higher affinity than the two previously characterized members (Amt2 and Amt3) of the Amt/Mep family in H. cylindrosporum. We also identified the intracellular nitrogen pool(s) responsible for the modulation of expression of AMT1, AMT2, AMT3, GDHA and GLNA. In response to exogenously supplied ammonium or glutamine, AMT1, AMT2 and GDHA were downregulated and, therefore, these genes are subjected to nitrogen repression in H. cylindrosporum. Exogenously supplied nitrate failed to induce a downregulation of the five mRNAs after transfer of mycelia from a N-starved condition. Our results demonstrate that glutamine is the main effector for AMT1 and AMT2 repression, whereas GDHA repression is controlled by intracellular ammonium, independently of the intracellular glutamine or glutamate concentration. Ammonium transport activity may be controlled by intracellular NH4+. AMT3 and GLNA are highly expressed but not highly regulated. A model for ammonium assimilation in H. cylindrosporum is presented.

  15. Rosenzweig, Roy. Clio wired: the future of past in the digital age. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011, 309 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto, además de una novedad bibliográfica, es un homenaje póstumo a Roy Rosenzweig (1950-2007, fundador del Center of History and New Media (en adelante CHNM de la Universidad George Mason, y uno de los mayores impulsores de este campo histórico. Clio wired, título de difícil traducción al español pero que podría entenderse como Clío conectada, fue el nombre dado por Rosenzweig a un curso desarrollado en el semestre de invierno de 2003 para el doctorado de Historia de la George Mason, en el que se les solicitaba a sus estudiantes realizar una propuesta de proyecto en historia digital y desarrollar una página web para este, algunas de las cuales aún están disponibles, así como la bitácora del curso, en el sitio web del CHNM.

  16. Time-differential observation of alpha -particle perturbed angular distribution; g-factor measurements for /sup 217/Ac/sup gs/ and /sup 217/Ac/sup m/

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K H; Grawe, H; Kluge, H

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor measurements of the ground state and an isomeric level in /sup 217/Ac using the DPAD method with alpha -decay are described. The results of gamma -ray g-factor measurements for the isomer and a tentative decay scheme produced by alpha - gamma and gamma - gamma coincidence experiments are also presented. An analysis of the alpha - particle angular distributions suggests that nuclear deformation affects the observed anisotropy. (13 refs).

  17. Gérard Guyon, La Règle de Saint Benoît: aux sources du droit..., DMM, Poitiers Cedex, 2012, 190 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta monografía Guyon estudia ampliamente la Regla de San Benito, fundada por su homónimo, considerado como uno de los "Padres de Europa". Sus reglas, influidas en gran medida por el Derecho Romano, alcanzaron gran predicamento sobre todo a partir del siglo VI. Los dos pilares básicos que conformaban la Regla benedictina eran el oficio divino, de una parte, y la lección divina o el trabajo, de otra. San Benito obligaba a dedicar entre cuatro y ocho horas diarias al oficio divino y siete horas para dormir; y las restantes horas a trabajar, a estudiar o a la lectura religiosa. En caso de incumplimiento de las normas se establecían sanciones, que tenían su fundamento en el Derecho privado romano. Asimismo, diferenciaba entre la culpa y el dolo. Además, la Regla se basaba en los principios de la caridad y el acogimiento, si bien limitaba al máximo la permanencia de extranjeros dentro de la comunidad, para evitar que surgieran conflictos internos. La figura del abad en los monasterios adquiría un papel relevante en la medida en que presentaba como un auténtico Padre, pero como un Padre que juzgaba.

  18. Design challenges of EO polymer based leaky waveguide deflector for 40 Gs/s all-optical analog-to-digital converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2016-08-01

    Design challenges and performance optimization of an all-optical analog-to-digital converter (AOADC) is presented here. The paper addresses both microwave and optical design of a leaky waveguide optical deflector using electro-optic (E-O) polymer. The optical deflector converts magnitude variation of the applied RF voltage into variation of deflection angle out of a leaky waveguide optical beam using the linear E-O effect (Pockels effect) as part of the E-O polymer based optical waveguide. This variation of deflection angle as result of the applied RF signal is then quantized using optical windows followed by an array of high-speed photodetectors. We optimized the leakage coefficient of the leaky waveguide and its physical length to achieve the best trade-off between bandwidth and the deflected optical beam resolution, by improving the phase velocity matching between lightwave and microwave on one hand and using pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the RF signal attenuation on the other hand. In addition, for ease of access from both optical and RF perspective, a via-hole less broad bandwidth transition is designed between coplanar pads and coupled microstrip (CPW-CMS) driving electrodes. With the best reported E-O coefficient of 350 pm/V, the designed E-O deflector should allow an AOADC operating over 44 giga-samples-per-seconds with an estimated effective resolution of 6.5 bits on RF signals with Nyquist bandwidth of 22 GHz. The overall DC power consumption of all components used in this AOADC is of order of 4 W and is dominated by power consumption in the power amplifier to generate a 20 V RF voltage in 50 Ohm system. A higher sampling rate can be achieved at similar bits of resolution by interleaving a number of this elementary AOADC at the expense of a higher power consumption.

  19. Generalized Polarization Effect and B(E2,2+1→0+g.s.) in Neutron Rich Even Carbon Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The generalized polarization effects on electric quadrupole transitions is proposed and studied by the microscopic particle-vibration model. The static polarization effects on neutron and proton vertex are

  20. Bourke, Joanna. Los violadores: historia del estupro de 1860 a nuestros días. Barcelona: Crítica, 2009, 702 págs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Viviana Serrano Ramírez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Joanna Bourke es nacida en Blenheim, Nueva Zelanda en el año de 1963, actualmente es catedrática de Historia en el Birkbeck College, de la Universidad de Londres. se describe a sí misma como una «socialista feminista», ha tratado un amplio abanico de temas en sus investigaciones: la historia de la clase obrera y el trabajo de las mujeres, las experiencias de los hombres y las mujeres durante la guerra, la historia de las emociones, especialmente del miedo y el odio, y la historia de la violencia sexual. Actualmente, dirige una investigación sobre el dolor corporal a lo largo de los dos últimos siglos. Entre sus libros están traducidos La Segunda Guerra Mundial: una historia de las víctimas Empúries, 2003; Paidós, 2002, Sed de sangre: historia íntima del combate cuerpo a cuerpo en las guerras del siglo XX (Crítica, 2008 y Los violadores: historia del estupro de 1860 a nuestros días (Crítica, 2009. Recientemente, ha publicado What it Means to be Human. Reflections from 1791 to the Present (Virago, 2011.

  1. Evidence for phase-locked changes in climate between Scotland and Greenland during GS-1 (Younger Dryas) using micromorphology of glaciolacustrine varves from Glen Roy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Adrian P.; Rose, Jim; Rasmussen, Sune Olander

    2012-01-01

    There is a current need to develop annual/decadal chronologies from periods of rapid climate change in order to understand the rate and timing of climate events and identify how other proxies either lead or lag this climate forcing. Annually-laminated or varved sediments are key proxies for under...

  2. De novo sequencing and analysis of the American ginseng root transcriptome using a GS FLX Titanium platform to discover putative genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Edmund MK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in the world. Its major bioactive constituents are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. However, little is known about ginsenoside biosynthesis in American ginseng, especially the late steps of the pathway. Results In this study, a one-quarter 454 sequencing run produced 209,747 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 427 bases. De novo assembly generated 31,088 unique sequences containing 16,592 contigs and 14,496 singletons. About 93.1% of the high-quality reads were assembled into contigs with an average 8-fold coverage. A total of 21,684 (69.8% unique sequences were annotated by a BLAST similarity search against four public sequence databases, and 4,097 of the unique sequences were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Based on the bioinformatic analysis described above, we found all of the known enzymes involved in ginsenoside backbone synthesis, starting from acetyl-CoA via the isoprenoid pathway. Additionally, a total of 150 cytochrome P450 (CYP450 and 235 glycosyltransferase unique sequences were found in the 454 cDNA library, some of which encode enzymes responsible for the conversion of the ginsenoside backbone into the various ginsenosides. Finally, one CYP450 and four UDP-glycosyltransferases were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis through a methyl jasmonate (MeJA inducibility experiment and tissue-specific expression pattern analysis based on a real-time PCR assay. Conclusions We demonstrated, with the assistance of the MeJA inducibility experiment and tissue-specific expression pattern analysis, that transcriptome analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing is a powerful tool for determining the genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in non-model plants. Additionally, the expressed sequence tags (ESTs and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community that is interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of American ginseng.

  3. Influence of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW-GS) on Sensory Quality Properties of Chinese Dry Noodle%小麦高分子量谷蛋白亚基(HMW-GS)对面条感官质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张影全; 魏益民; 张波; 张晓科; 董凯娜; 刘锐

    2013-01-01

    [目的]明确HMW-GS及其组合对面条感官质量特性的影响,筛选适于制作优质面条的HMW-GS及其组合.[方法]以大田种植的80份小麦品种为材料,实验室制作干白面条.采用标度感官评价方法,利用经过培训和测试的感官评价员组成的感官评价小组,对煮制后的面条进行感官质量评价.通过组间方差分析,研究Glu-A1、G1u-B1、G1u-D1位点内单个亚基及其亚基组合对面条感官质量的影响.[结果]方差分析结果表明,G1u-A1、G1u-B1、G1u-D1位点分别对光滑性、弹性和感官评价总分、硬度和黏性有显著影响(P<0.1),G1u-A1、G1u-B1、G1u-D1位点内单个亚基对面条感官质量的影响大小为Nu11>1、7+8> 7+9> 14+15、4+12> 5+10≥ 2+12.不同亚基组合的面条感官质量特性(色泽、硬度、弹性、光滑性)以及总分之间存在显著差异(P<0.1).亚基组合为Nu1 1/7+8/2+12、1/7+8/4+12、1/7+8/5+10的小麦品种制作面条的感官质量得分较高,且在部分感官质量特性方面表现突出.[结论]不同位点HMW-GS对面条感官质量有显著影响.G1u-B1位点上的7+8亚基为影响面条感官质量特性的主要亚基类型.亚基组合为Nu1 1/7+8/2+12、1/7+8/4+12和1/7+8/5+10的小麦品种制作的面条感官评分较好,为面条小麦品种选育的推荐亚基组合.

  4. A UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of direct antiviral agents simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, sofosbuvir/GS-331007, dasabuvir, ombitasvir and paritaprevir, together with ritonavir, in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariaudo, Alessandra; Favata, Fabio; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Simiele, Marco; Paglietti, Luca; Boglione, Lucio; Cardellino, Chiara Simona; Carcieri, Chiara; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-06-05

    To date, the new standard for treatment of chronic hepatitis C is based on the administration of novel direct acting antivirals. Among these, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, dasabuvir, ombitasvir and paritaprevir already entered the clinical use. Anyway, since few pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted on these drugs in a "real life" context poor knowledge is available about their optimal therapeutic range. Without this background, therapeutic drug monitoring is not applicable for treatment optimization. Up to now, a few methods are reported to quantify these drugs in human plasma, and none of them in a simultaneous way. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, fast and cheap, but still reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of these drugs, feasible for a clinical routine use. Solid phase extraction was performed using HLB C18 96-well plates. Chromatographic separation was performed on a BEH C18 1.7μm, 2.1mm×50mm column, settled at 50°C, with a gradient run of two mobile phases: ammonium acetate 5mM (pH 9.5) and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 0.4mL/min for 5min. Tandem-mass detection was carried out in positive electrospray ionization mode. Both inter and intraday imprecision and inaccuracy were below 15%, as required by FDA guidelines, while both recoveries and matrix effects resulted within the acceptance criteria. The method was tested on 80 patients samples with good performance. Being robust, simple and fast and requiring a low plasma volume, this method resulted eligible for a clinical routine use.

  5. Identifiaction of a y-type HMW-GS from Ta. crinitum Schreber Nevski%长发带芒草y型高分子量谷蛋白亚基的鉴定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜泽洪; 代寿芬; 刘登才; 魏育明; 郑有良

    2005-01-01

    为了证实长发带芒草中的y型高分子量谷蛋白亚基的存在,利用SDS-PAGE分析了3份长发带芒草的高分子量谷蛋白亚基组成,发现其y亚基的迁移率均较普通小麦中迁移率最快的Dy12亚基迁移率更快, 应用PCR扩增、序列测定及基因编码区体外表达等方法研究了1份材料中的y亚基, 确认了长发带芒草比普通小麦中迁移率最快的Dy12亚基迁移率更快的Tay亚基的真实存在及表达.研究结果证实带芒草属具有与普通小麦中相类似的y型高分子量谷蛋白亚基.

  6. Vania Markarian: El 68 uruguayo. El movimiento estudiantil entre molotovs y música beat : Bernal, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, 2012, 168 págs.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En el transcurso de la década de 1960 la rebelión juvenil emergió como dato mundial, traspasando fronteras nacionales y continentales. Acontecimientos como la revuelta por la “libertad de expresión” en Berkeley, el “mayo francés” o la “masacre de Tlatelolco” en México, se han convertido en hitos mundiales del activismo estudiantil de los años sesenta. En este campo, se inscribe El 68 uruguayo, el reciente trabajo de la historiadora uruguaya Vania Markarian. A través del análisis de las movili...

  7. 用食品BDI-GS体系综合评价牛奶的营养健康效应%Comprehensive evaluation on nutrition and health of bovine milk using food BDI-GS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙伟; 沈秀; 王德芝; 王浩; 王晓光; 白佳利; 周则卫

    2013-01-01

    In this issue,study functions and safety of pure bovine milk through mice trial,establish a novel comprehensive system and method to evaluate nutrition,health-promotion and safety of food.The ICR male mice during growth were used in the trial,the experimental mice were feed with low nutrient maize and blending bovine milk feeds for 12 days,display and evaluate the effects of bovine milk with animal experiment data through observing and statistics the mice body weights,organ weights,organ indexes and its effect Benefit-damage Indexes (BDI).The study demonstrated that bovine milk possesses comprehensive and overall nutrition functions,certain health-promoting and foodtherapy functions for diabetes mellitus,and attenuating obesity effect,but some adverse response to bone mass.Bovine milk intake fits for nutrition of growing and nourishing for children and adolescents,nevertheless,drinking for a long period in large amount is not suitable for preventing adults and olds osteoporosis.The evaluation system has intuition,concrete,overall and comprehension features.This method can be used to evaluate nutrition,health-promotion and safety for various foods.%通过建立的食品功效安全BDI-GS评价体系和低营养小鼠模型方法综合评价纯牛奶的营养及健康效应.实验用生长期ICR雄性小鼠,通过12 d低营养玉米饲料和5%,10%及15%纯牛奶掺和饲料喂养,考察统计小鼠体质量、脏器质量、系数及其效应的损益指数(BDI)等指标,用动物实验数据评价牛奶功效.结果表明,牛奶的营养功效综合、全面;牛奶对II型糖尿病有一定的预防保健功效及控制体重(减肥)作用,但对骨质健康影响轻微.牛奶适合儿童、青少年生长发育饮用,适量饮用对中老年健康有益,而长期大量饮用对中老年防治骨质疏松不利.

  8. 基于GS M与AR M的船用设备远程监控系统%Remote Monitoring and Control System for Shipborne Equipment Based on GSM and ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子晗; 李维嘉

    2016-01-01

    Based on the mature communication technology of GSM,the remote monitoring and control system for shipborne equipment uses relevant communication modules combined with the ARM processor and the pro-gramming software MDK to achieve collection,packaging and sending of the operating parameters and fault messa-ges of the shipborne equipment.The information processing and monitoring interfaces programmed by VC++en-able the monitoring personnel to master the operating parameters and faults of the equipment based on the indicator lights and prompt messages on the screen thus improving the level of intelligent ship management.%基于全球移动通信系统GSM的成熟通信技术,采用相关通信模块与ARM处理器相配合,使用MDK软件进行程序编写,完成了船用设备工作参数与故障信息的收集、打包以及发送工作.基于VC++语言所编写的信息处理与监控界面,使监控人员可以通过屏幕上的指示灯和提示信息,对设备的工作参数、故障问题加以掌控,提高了船舶智能化管理的水平.

  9. Antonio Sánchez-Bayón, Sistema de Derecho Comparado y global: de las familias jurídicas mundiales al nuevo Derecho común, Tirant lo Blanch, Valencia, 2012, 161 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia del Barrio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Sánchez-Bayón untersucht in dieser Studie die Notwendigkeit, das Konzept des Vergleichenden Rechts in Zeiten der Globalisierung neu zu überdenken. Die kulturellen, politischen und soziologischen Wechsel müssen an die neue Weltlage angepasst werden. Die juristischen Lösungen müssen verglichen werden, so dass die Spielregeln und der professionelle technische Sprachgebrauch angeglichen werden können; nur so können die Antworten auf die Konsolidierung des gemeinschaftlichen Rechts gefunden werden. Der Autor stellt den formalistischen Positivismus des Staates in Frage.

  10. Oscar Terán: Nuestros años sesentas. La formación de la nueva izquierda intelectual argentina, 1956-1966 : Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI, 2013, 288 págs.

    OpenAIRE

    Pis Diez, Nayla

    2015-01-01

    Mediando 2013 fue reeditado Nuestros años sesentas, un aporte imprescindible para la reconstrucción de la historia reciente argentina. Publicado inicialmente en el año 1991, tiempo histórico marcado por los indultos presidenciales y la “demonización” de aquellos años, el trabajo de Oscar Terán propone un estudio sobre las ideas y los debates que marcaron a una generación. En esta reedición, el trabajo original y revisado se acompaña de un Estudio Preliminar de Hugo Vezzetti, y de las transcri...

  11. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation Status of CpGs in Placental DNA and Maternal Blood DNA - Potential New Epigenetic Biomarkers for Cell Free Fetal DNA-Based Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M; Graakjaer, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    G sites to be used with methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes (MSRE) in PCR-based NIPD, we furthermore refined the list of selected sites, containing a restriction sites for one of 16 different methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. We present a list of markers on chromosomes 13, 18 and 21...

  12. Salustiano de Dios y Eugenia Torijano (coords., Cultura, política y práctica del Derecho. Juristas de Salamanca, Siglos XV-XX, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, 2012, 567 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta obra se recogen hasta siete estudios relativos a juristas de Salamanca en el período que comprende desde el s. XV hasta el pasado siglo XX. El primero de ellos está dedicado a distintos juristas salmantinos que vivieron durante el s. XV, destacando la figura de Pedro de Luna, conocido como papa Benedicto XIII; el segundo de los artículos pone de relieve la importancia de los colegios mayores salmantinos, institución en la que se tramitaron numerosos expedientes a los colegiales para la averiguación de la limpieza de sangre, así como otros aspectos, como la honorabilidad de la línea familiar; la tercera de las colaboraciones gira en torno a la figura del oficial de la administración española en el s. XVIII, y a las referencias que sobre ella se recogen en la obra de Jean Pierre Dedieu titulada La muerte del letrado; el cuarto estudia la personalidad del catedrático Vicente Fernández de Ocampo, que vivió entre 1743 y 1815; el quinto al informe realizado al proyecto de Código Civil de 1851 por la Facultad de jurisprudencia de la Universidad de Salamanca, que aunque no llegó a entrar en vigor adquirió gran trascendencia en el ámbito civil; el sexto, a la importancia de las audiencias de lo criminal de Salamanca y Ciudad Rodrigo, hasta la supresión de esta última; y el último de ellos, a aquellos profesores de la Universidad de Salamanca que vivieron los primeros años de la Dictadura franquista, entre los que podemos citar a Teodoro Andrés Marcos y Nicolás Rodríguez Aniceto, entre otros.

  13. Survey of antipsychotic druGs usinG status in patients with schizophrenia in Suzhou%苏州市精神分裂症患者抗精神病药物使用现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 盖海军; 王秀艳; 丁若水; 杨忠; 王新达; 杜向东; 梅其一; 吴爱勤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To infestigate the status quo of antipsychotic drugs using in patients with schizo-phrenia in Suzhou. Method:The drugs using questionnaire was used to infestigate the drug using situation in 544 schizophrenic patients( including inpatients and outpatients)from 3 mental disease hospitals in Suzhou. Results:The first 6 drugs used frequently were clozapine( 25. 6%),risperidone( 16. 5%),olanzapine (13. 9%),quetiapine(11. 4%),aripiprazole(9. 1%)and chlorpromazine(6. 8%). The usage frequency of an-tipsychotic was significantly different between inpatients and outpatients(χ2 =37. 361,P=0. 003). Compared with inpatients,the dose of clozapine,risperidone,olanzapine,quetiapine,aripiprazole and chlorpromazine in outpatients were significantly lower,sulpiride,ziprasidone and haloperidol were significantly higher( all P ﹤0. 01). The rate of using single antipsychotic drug(54. 4%,293 cases)was higher than combination(45. 6%, 246 cases). Among the patients treated with single antipsychotic drug,84. 2%(247 cases)used the second gen-eration antipsychotics(SGAs);and among the patients treated with combination therapy,97. 8%(241 cases) main drug and 65. 0%(160 cases)secondary drugs were SGAs. The most common combinatife drugs were sed-atife hypnotics( 20. 2%),then mood stabilizers( 12. 2%),anticholinergics( 12. 1%),antidepressants (7. 8%)andβ-blockers(4. 3%). Conclusion:The major treatment model of schizophrenia in Suzhou is u-sing single antipsychotic drug and choosing SGAs.%目的:调查苏州市精神分裂症患者抗精神病药物使用现况。方法:采用患者药物使用调查表,对苏州市3家精神疾病专科医院的544例住院和门诊精神分裂症患者进行抗精神病药物使用情况调查。结果:使用居前6位的抗精神病药物分别是氯氮平(25.6%)、利培酮(16.5%)、奥氮平(13.9%)、奎硫平(11.4%)、阿立哌唑(9.1%)、氯丙嗪(6.8%)。门诊和住院患者抗精神病药物使用频率存在差异(χ2=37.361,P=0.003)。门诊患者氯氮平、利培酮、奥氮平、奎硫平、阿立哌唑、氯丙嗪、奋乃静、帕利哌酮的使用剂量低于住院患者;舒必利、齐拉西酮、氟哌啶醇使用剂量高于住院患者(P均﹤0.01)。单一抗精神病药治疗的比率(54.4%,293例)高于联合药物治疗(45.6%,246例);单一药物治疗者中84.2%(247例)使用第2代抗精神病药( SGAs);联合用药者中97.8%(241例)主要抗精神病药物及65.0%(160例次)次要药物为SGAs;最常合并使用的药物是镇静催眠药(20.2%)、心境稳定剂(12.2%)、抗胆碱能药(12.1%)、抗抑郁药(7.8%)和β-受体阻断剂(4.3%)。结论:单一用药和选择SGAs是苏州市精神分裂症患者药物治疗的主要方式。

  14. Robert Muchembled. El Orgasmo y Occidente. Una Historia del Placer desde el Siglo XVI a nuestros días. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2008, 425 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Crucelly González Rey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El orgasmo, la voluptuosidad, el disfrute, solían ser un tema tabú en occidente. Robert Muchembled presenta esta historia social, producto de su estancia académica en el Institute for Advanced Study de Princenton, en un extenso argumento que abarca desde el Renacimiento en los siglos XVI y XVII hasta nuestros días en lo que el autor ha denominado “el triunfo del narcisismo”.

  15. Comment on 'Clay mineralogy of the Pelagic sediments: along a west-east transect in the Indian Ocean by G.S. Roonwal and S.K. Srivastava' Journal of the Geological Society of India 38; 1991; 37-54'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Geol_Soc_India_38_539.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Geol_Soc_India_38_539.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. 基于DVB-S2 GS流的IP数据提取方法研究%Method of IP Content Extraction Based on GS over DVB-S2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗彪; 黄焱; 张白愚

    2014-01-01

    为应对数字卫星广播信道传输越来越多的IP业务,第二代数字卫星广播标准引入了通用流.深入分析了IP数据在DVB-S2 GS流中的传输方式和特征,提出了一种基于多模式匹配的DVB-S2中GS流承载的IP数据提取方法.该方法依据关键特征串及其位置信息,首先识别出承载IP数据的连续GS流所在的基带帧的头部,然后对封装的IP数据进行提取.利用实际数据,对文章提出方法进行了验证.实验结果表明,该方法简单有效,能够快速准确的提取DVB-S2中GS流承载的IP数据.

  17. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation Status of CpGs in Placental DNA and Maternal Blood DNA--Potential New Epigenetic Biomarkers for Cell Free Fetal DNA-Based Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hatt

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markers for cell free fetal DNA in the maternal blood circulation are highly interesting in the field of non-invasive prenatal testing since such markers will offer a possibility to quantify the amount of fetal DNA derived from different chromosomes in a maternal blood sample. The aim of the present study was to define new fetal specific epigenetic markers present in placental DNA that can be utilized in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted a high-resolution methylation specific beadchip microarray study assessing more than 450.000 CpG sites. We have analyzed the DNA methylation profiles of 10 maternal blood samples and compared them to 12 1st trimesters chorionic samples from normal placentas, identifying a number of CpG sites that are differentially methylated in maternal blood cells compared to chorionic tissue. To strengthen the utility of these differentially methylated CpG sites to be used with methyl-sensitive restriction enzymes (MSRE in PCR-based NIPD, we furthermore refined the list of selected sites, containing a restriction sites for one of 16 different methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. We present a list of markers on chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 with a potential for aneuploidy testing as well as a list of markers for regions harboring sub-microscopic deletion- or duplication syndromes.

  18. 4种木瓜新品种光合作用日变化以及气孔导度-VPD响应%Photosynthetic Diurnal Courses and Gs-VPD Responses of the Four New Carica papaya Linn.Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世平; 邓雄; 蔡楚雄; 曹洪麟; 叶万辉

    2003-01-01

    研究了4个木瓜Carica papaya Linn新品种的光合作用日变化特性,表明在网室栽培下的4个木瓜品种光合日变化均为"单峰曲线",而不使用遮荫措施的两个木瓜品种均为"双峰曲线",气孔导度与蒸汽压差的响应拟合表明,在遮荫条件下,其气孔导度-VPD的负相关趋势不显著,而在不遮荫栽培条件下则呈显著负相关(P≤0.05).表明遮荫使木瓜避开了午间的高光强、高温以及高湿度的抑制.

  19. Utilització del software constructiviste Etoys com a ajuda i complement als cicles formatius de GM i GS d’automatització Industrial. Unitat Formativa: Máquines Elèctriques

    OpenAIRE

    Mañas García, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Castellà: Squeak o Etoys, su versión para el proyecto One Laptop per Child (OLPC), es un software Open Source desarrollado especialmente con fines educativos, en la linea de LOGO de Seymour Papert, siguiendo las teorias constructivistas de Piaget y las investigaciones de Jerome Bruner. Es un entorno de programación multimedia pensado especialmente para que el alumno pueda ser protagonista de su propio aprendizaje. Tradicionalmente ha venido utilizandose en Primaria y Secundaria...

  20. Guðmundur J. Guðmundsson: Síðasta þorskastríðið - útfærsla fiskveiðilögsögunnar í 200 mílur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristján Guy Burgess

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Á þeim degi sem þetta er skrifað er þess minnst í íslenskum og breskum fjölmiðlum að 32 ár eru liðin frá því að verulega sló í brýnu milli Íslendinga og Breta í síðasta þorskastríðinu. Þann 11. desember 1975 veittu tveir breskir dráttarbátar varðskipinu Þór fyrirsát þar sem það leitaði vars í vondu veðri í Seyðisfirði. Helgi Hallvarðsson skipherra lýsti því að dráttarbátarnir hafi ætlað að sökkva Þór og Helgi fyrirskipaði að fallbyssuskoti skyldi skotið að herskipunum. Þetta var eina fasta skotið sem hleypt var af í síðasta þorskastríðinu og færði deilurnar á nýtt stig. Íslenskum stjórnvöldum þótti atvikið svo alvarlegt að þau kröfðust þess að málið yrði tekið fyrir hjá öryggisráði Sameinuðu þjóðanna. Helgi skipherra hafði ekki heimild til að hleypa af skoti en sagði síðar: "Nauðsyn brýtur stundum lög."

  1. MEDIOS NARRATIVOS PARA FINES TERAPÉUTICOS. WHITE, MICHAEL Y EPSTON, DAVID. BARCELONA, ESPAÑA, EDITORIAL PAIDÓS, 1993. TÍTULO ORIGINAL: NARRATIVE MEANS TO THERAPEUTIC ENDS, 222 PÁGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Zapata

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cuando en el horizonte de las ciencias sociales hicieron su aparición las ideas sobre construcción social, y se desplazó el foco del individuo a la relación como lugar del conocimiento, la atención y la reflexión en tomo al lenguaje no se han hecho esperar. La obra de White y Epston se ubica justamente en este esfuerzo por dar cuenta del lenguaje en la construcción social de Iconocimiento, marcando un énfasis especial en su relación con el poder.

  2. MEDIOS NARRATIVOS PARA FINES TERAPÉUTICOS. WHITE, MICHAEL Y EPSTON, DAVID. BARCELONA, ESPAÑA, EDITORIAL PAIDÓS, 1993. TÍTULO ORIGINAL: NARRATIVE MEANS TO THERAPEUTIC ENDS, 222 PÁGS.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cuando en el horizonte de las ciencias sociales hicieron su aparición las ideas sobre construcción social, y se desplazó el foco del individuo a la relación como lugar del conocimiento, la atención y la reflexión en tomo al lenguaje no se han hecho esperar. La obra de White y Epston se ubica justamente en este esfuerzo por dar cuenta del lenguaje en la construcción social de Iconocimiento, marcando un énfasis especial en su relación con el poder.

  3. Ricardo Jiménez y Joaquín Mantecón, Escribir bien es de justicia, Editorial Aranzadi Thomson Reuters, Cizur Menor, 2012, 176 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Seghiri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El libro que se recensiona no es un tratado sobre el lenguaje jurídico español. Es un libro de técnicas de expresión escrita con ejercicios, fruto de la experiencia y con una orientación práctica. Esta obra pretende ayudar a mejorar la expresión escrita tanto de los estudiantes de Ciencias Jurídicas, como de los juristas que ya desempeñan su profesión. Ricardo Jiménez es licenciado en Filología hispánica por la Universidad de Barcelona y Máster en análisis estilístico de la lengua por la Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. Es profesor asociado de la facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y políticas y de la facultad de Humanidades de la Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. Además, es colaborador externo de GRADUN (Instituto Cultura y Sociedad, Universidad de Navarra. Joaquín Mantecón es catedrático de Derecho Eclesiástico del Estado en la Universidad de Cantabria y miembro de la Comisión Asesora de Libertad Religiosa del Ministerio de Justicia.

  4. Book review: Peregruznoe I Burial Ground: Results of Interdisciplinary Research : Monograph [Text] / M. A. Balabanova, E. V. Pererva [at al.]. – Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo Filiala FGBOU VPO RANHiGS, 2014. – 360 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairov Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review concerns the monograph “Peregruznoe I Burial Ground: Results of Interdisciplinary Research. The book was prepared by the team of authors including archaeologists, anthropologists, paleosoil specialists, archaeozoologists. The review contains examination of materials and main conclusions for every chapter of the monograph. The monograph is devoted to the analysis of materials from 52 burial mounds dated from the Aeneolith to the Middle Ages. Most of them were erected in the Sarmatian period. In the review, the controversial points concerning the reconstruction of the paleodemographic and physicalgenetic structure of the buried Sarmatian population were pointed out. The authors consider that the gender disharmony of the Early and Middle Sarmatian samples was determined by the peculiarities of mounds formation of nomadic groups localized at the winter and summer nomad camps. This conclusion provokes some objections. As a positive moment, it should be noted that the authors have discovered new trends by means of analysis of cultural and chronological Sarmatian groups according to anthropological data. The monograph presents new interesting data related to reconstruction of the social structure of the Sarmatian societies, burial mound construction, the taxonomic composition of animals from grave pits and mounds. It is necessary to note, that the authors carried out a great deal of investigation and study. The monograph presents abundant scientific data. Interpretation of this material has a great potential which resources are far from being exhausted. The book is going to be a significant event not only for the study of the Volga-Ural steppe antiquities but for all over the Sarmatian archaeology.

  5. Manuel J. Peláez (dir., Diccionario de Canonistas y Eclesiasticistas Europeos y Americanos (Tomo I, AV Akademikerverlag GmbH & Co. KG, EAE, Saarbrücken, 2012, 547 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Alcaide-Pulido

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ¿Por qué se otorga escasa atención a los canonistas y eclesiasticistas dentro del Derecho canónico y del Derecho eclesiástico? Esta es la cuestión que surge y el motivo de la aparición de la obra Diccionario de canonistas y eclesiasticistas europeos y americanos. Dicha obra aparece como una necesidad científica emanada de la escasa atención que en el ámbito citado se presta a canonistas y a eclesiasticistas, a través de una recopilación de los pensadores más influyentes en las diversas áreas que comprenden el Derecho Canónico y Eclesiástico, a lo largo del último milenio y, por ende, también de interés para iushistoricistas.

  6. Ruiz-Gálvez Pliego, M. (2013. Con el fenicio en los talones. Los inicios de la Edad del Hierro en la cuenca del Mediterrámeo. Barcelona: Editorial Bellaterra. 377 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mondéjar, Celso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El último libro publicado por Marisa Ruíz-Gálvez, profesora titular de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid desde 1989, trata en profundidad el contexto histórico que posibilitó el desarrollo y expansión de la denominada cultura fenicia. Un interesante ejercicio motivado por la necesidad de mantener actualizada su asignatura de “Protohistoria del Mediterráneo”. Este libro nace, en palabras de la autora, de las inquietudes de sus alumnos y de la necesidad de sistematizar una bibliografía que cambia de año en año.

  7. Purification and Properties of a Prokaryote Type Glutamine Synthetase from the Bialaphos Producer Streptomyces hygroscopicus SF1293

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumada, Yoichi; Takano, Eriko; Nagaoka, Kozo

    1990-01-01

    A prokaryote type glutamine synthetase (GS) was purified from a bialaphos (BA)-producing organism, Streptomyces hygroscopicus SF1293 (SF1293). The GS (GS I) consisted of a 55,000 dalton subunit, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was similar to that of S. coelicolor GS. GS I was highly sensitive

  8. 48 CFR 301.603-73 - Additional HHS training requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GS-1102s and GS-1105s are required to complete both HHS University's classroom-based and on-line... entering on duty (for new employees). Employees are required to take the HHS University on-line course as.... When the HHS Office on Disability (OD) so requires, all GS-1102s, GS-1105s and GS-1106s who award...

  9. Fourteen new generic and ten new specific synonymies in Pholcidae (Araneae), and transfer of Mystes Bristowe to Filistatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A; Colmenares, Pío A; Ramirez, Martin J

    2014-08-08

    Between 1998 and 2011, the Venezuelan arachnologist Manuel Ángel González-Sponga (GS) published a series of taxonomic papers devoted to the Pholcidae of Venezuela. Of his 22 new genera, 20 were monotypic when described, suggesting a high percentage of synonyms. We studied his descriptions and as far as accessible his type specimens and propose the following new generic synonymies: Autana GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Ayomania GS, 2005 and Venezuela Koçak & Kemal, 2008 (new replacement names for Falconia GS, 2003) = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Carbonaria GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Caruaya GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Coroia GS, 2005 = Artema Walckenaer, 1837; Maimire GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Moraia GS, 2011 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Nasuta GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Portena GS, 2011 = Metagonia Simon, 1893; Rioparaguanus GS, 2005 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Tonoro GS, 2009 = Litoporus Simon, 1893; Sanluisi GS, 2003 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893. Three of the type species are also specific synonyms: Autana autanensis GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar aurantiacus (Mello-Leitão, 1930); Coroia magna GS, 2005 = Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837; Tonoro multispinae GS, 2009 = Litoporus uncatus (Simon, 1893). Six species that González-Sponga described under Blechroscelis (a genus previously synonymized with Priscula Simon, 1893) are all synonyms of Mesabolivar eberhardi Huber, 2000 (B. acuoso GS, 2011; B. araguanus GS, 2011; B. blechroscelis GS, 2011; B. copeyensis GS, 2011; B. cordillerano GS, 2011; B. andinensis GS, 2011). In addition, and unrelated to González-Sponga's work, we synonymize the Central Asian monotypic genus Ceratopholcus Spassky, 1934 with Crossopriza Simon, 1893; we synonymize the Chinese species Pholcus acerosus Peng & Zhang, 2011 with Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907 and remove the Malaysian monotypic genus Mystes Bristowe, 1938, previously thought to be the only East Asian representative of the subfamily Ninetinae, to the

  10. A Continuum of Accretion Burst Behavior in Young Stars Observed by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; David, Trevor J.; Carpenter, John M.; Everett, Mark E.; Howell, Steve B.

    2017-02-01

    We present 29 likely members of the young ρ Oph or Upper Sco regions of recent star formation that exhibit “accretion burst” type light curves in K2 time series photometry. The bursters were identified by visual examination of their ∼80-day light curves, though all satisfy the Mtheory of pre-main sequence accretion history.

  11. Bifurcation of a Saddle-Node Limit Cycle with Homoclinic Orbits Satisfying the Small Lobe Condition in a Leech Neuron Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOOER Chi-Feng; XU Jian-Xue; ZHANG Xin-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Mechanism of period-adding cascades with chaos in a reduced leech neuron model is suggested as the bifurcation of a saddle-node limit cycle with homoclinic orbits satisfying the "small lobe condition",instead of the blue-sky catastrophe.In every spiking adding,the new spike emerges at the end of the spiking phase of the bursters.

  12. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the known X-ray bursters are frequently observed by INTEGRAL, in particular in the frame of the Key Programmes. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL instrumentation, an international collaboration led by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Institute has been monitoring the occurrence of uncommon burst...

  13. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.; Kuulkers, E.;

    2008-01-01

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. As most of the known X-ray bursters are frequently observed by INTEGRAL, an international collaboration have been taking advantage of its instrumentation to specifically monitor the occurrence...

  14. Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of GRB 000301C: CCD imaging and near-ultraviolet MAMA spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the c-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R similar or equal to 21.50 +/- 0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy. ...

  15. 78 FR 9951 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... unique cyber security skills and knowledge to perform cyber risk and strategic analysis, incident... assessment, network and systems engineering, enterprise architecture, intelligence analysis, investigation... (GS-0080), intelligence analysts (GS- 0132), computer engineers (GS-0854), electronic engineers...

  16. Environmental Assessment for Construction of a Multi-Story Dormitory at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    7:47AM Cintron, Jose J GS-12 325 CES/CEV Cc: Khanna, Chaman GS-12 325 CES/CECC; Rozell, Daryl GS-13 325 CES/CECC; Gonzales Gabriel D Civ AETC/A7CVI...Tarone GS-12 325 CES/CEC" <tarone.watley@tyndall.af . mil>, "Khanna , Chaman GS - 1 2 325 CES/CECC" .:: chaman . khanna@tyndall.af . mil> , "Mobley...fws.gov Sent: To: Thursday, November 30, 2006 7:47AM Cintron, Jose J GS-12 325 CES/CEV Cc: Khanna, Chaman GS-12 325 CES/CECC; Rozell, Daryl GS-13 325

  17. GLUT4 and glycogen synthase are key players in bed rest-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    glycogen synthase (GS) was reduced with normal GS site 3 but abnormal GS site 2+2a phosphorylation after bed rest. Exercise enhanced insulin-stimulated leg glucose extraction both before and after bed rest, which was accompanied by higher GS activity in the prior-exercised leg than the rested leg...

  18. Glutamine Synthetase Deficiency in Murine Astrocytes Results in Neonatal Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. He; T.B.M. Hakvoort; J.L.M. Vermeulen; W.T. Labruyere; D.R. de Waart; W.S. van der Hel; J.M. Ruijter; H.B.M. Uylings; W.H. Lamers

    2010-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in the "glutamine-glutamate cycle" between astrocytes and neurons, but its function in vivo was thus far tested only pharmacologically. Crossing GS(fl/lacZ) or GS(fl/f)l mice with hGFAP-Cre mice resulted in prenatal excision of the GS(fl) allele in astrocyte

  19. Connected. Volume 5, Issue 1, Spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Proponent is making head- way in reviewing and recommending an optimal force design for TDA headquarters. A survey of TDA headquarters reveals that most... TDA KM Sections use the following force structure: 1 X GS 13 KMO; 1 X GS 12 Management Analyst; 1 X GS 9-12 Con- tent Manager; 1 X GS 7-11 Management

  20. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Stéphanie M; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2...

  1. Summary Information on Employment, Characteristics, Supply, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-05-01

    Physiology GS 414 Entomology Plant Sciences GS 415 Nematology GS 430 Botany GS 431 Mycology GS 433 Plant taxomony GS 434 Plant pathology GS 435...Bacteriology 7X01—Bacterial metabolism 7X02—Bacterial physiology 7X03—Microbial processes Botany 7001—Bryology 7002—Dendrology 7003— Mycology ...8502— Poultry 8503—Small animal Fish and Wildlife 8601—Controls 8602—Food habits 8603—Habitat influences 8604—Population dynamics 8605

  2. Glutamine synthetase isoforms in nitrogen-fixing soybean nodules: distinct oligomeric structures and thiol-based regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalkar, Pintu D; Roberts, Daniel M

    2015-01-16

    Legume root nodule glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the assimilation of ammonia produced by nitrogen fixation. Two GS isoform subtypes (GS1β and GS1γ) are present in soybean nodules. GS1γ isoforms differ from GS1β isoforms in terms of their susceptibility to reversible inhibition by intersubunit disulfide bond formation between C159 and C92 at the shared active site at subunit interfaces. Although nodule GS enzymes share 86% amino acid sequence identity, analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that GS1γ is a dodecamer, whereas the GS1β is a decamer. It is proposed that this difference contributes to the differential thiol sensitivity of each isoform, and that GS1γ1 may be a target of thiol-based regulation.

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHJ393 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1554 |AR551554.1 Sequence 6685 from patent US 6747137. 58 3e-04 1 DY586119 |DY586119.1 GS01JG03 Acropora millepora presettlement... |DY586847.1 GS01OG04 Acropora millepora presettlement library GS01 Acropora mill...epora cDNA clone GS01OG04, mRNA sequence. 38 0.029 2 DY587622 |DY587622.1 GS01YD02 Acropora millepora presettlement

  4. Characterization and Anti-tumor Activity of Giycopeptides from Ganoderma sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; JIANG Ru-zhi; CHEN Ying-hong; LUO Hao-ming; XU Duo-duo; GAO Qi-pin

    2009-01-01

    The water-soluble part(GS) of Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang was divided into high molecu-Iar(GS-H) and low molecular(GS-L) parts by Cellulose Super Filtration, and GS was also fractionated into four frac-tions, GS-1, 2, 3, and 4 by ethanol precipitation according to their molecular weights. Chemical analysis shows that GS and GS-I, 2, 3, 4 were complexes of polysaccharide and peptide. The fractions with molecular weights over 4000, GS-1, 2, 3, and GS-H show anti-tumor activities, however, the fractions with molecular weights lower than 4000,GS-4, and GS-L have no anti-tumor activity, indicating that the anti-tumor activity of Ganoderma Sinensis was caused by glucopeptides with molecular weight ranging from 4000 to 20000. Two purified glucopeptides, GS-6b and GS-7b were obtained from GS-H by ion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. Their molecular weights, glycosidic linkages, and configurations were detected by means of IR spectrum, sugar composition analysis, and me-thylation analysis. The polysaccharide parts of GS-6b and GS-7b had glucan backbone consisting of β-1→3 Glc, and side chain containing glucosyl, mannosyl, fueosyl, xylosyl, galactosyl, and glucuronic acid residues attached on 1-2,1-4, 1-6 positions of the backbone of GS-6b, or 1-6, 1-4 positions of the backbone of GS-7b. The peptide parts in GS-6b and GS-7b were composed of 10 kinds of amino acids, including Asp, Ser, Arg, Gly, Thr, Pro, Ala, Val, Met, and Lys.

  5. The mechanism of bursting phenomena in Belousov-Zhabotinsky(BZ) chemical reaction with multiple time scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a typical Belousov-Zhabotinsky(BZ)reaction with multiple time scales is investigated in this paper.Different forms of periodic bursting phenomena,and specially,three types of chaotic bursters with different structures can be obtained,which are in common with the behaviors observed in experiments.The bifurcations connecting the quiescent state and the repetitive spikes are presented to account for the occurrence of the NKoscillations as well as the different forms of chaotic bursters.The mechanism of the period-adding bifurcation sequences is explored to reveal why the length of the periods in the sequences does not change continuously with the continuous variation of the parameters.

  6. A Search for Astrophysical Burst Signals at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aharmim, B; Anthony, A E; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Beltran, B; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boudjemline, K; Boulay, M G; Cai, B; Chan, Y D; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Deng, H; Detwiler, J A; DiMarco, M; Diamond, M D; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Drouin, P -L; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Gagnon, N; Goon, J TM; Graham, K; Guillian, E; Habib, S; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hime, A; Howard, C; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jamieson, B; Jelley, N A; Jerkins, M; Keeter, K J; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Krueger, A; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Martin, R; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S R; Miller, M L; Monreal, B; Monroe, J; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; O'Keeffe, H M; Oblath, N S; Ollerhead, R W; Gann, G D Orebi; Oser, S M; Ott, R A; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Prior, G; Reitzner, S D; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Schwendener, M H; Secrest, J A; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Sonley, T J; Stonehill, L C; Tesic, G; Tolich, N; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; VanDevender, B A; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Tseung, H Wan Chan; Wark, D L; Watson, P J S; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhang, F; Zuber, K

    2013-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has confirmed the standard solar model and neutrino oscillations through the observation of neutrinos from the solar core. In this paper we present a search for neutrinos associated with sources other than the solar core, such as gamma-ray bursters and solar flares. We present a new method for looking for temporal coincidences between neutrino events and astrophysical bursts of widely varying intensity. No correlations were found between neutrinos detected in SNO and such astrophysical sources.

  7. Recent results from the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of neutron stars and their environments, and the emission and absorption of iron, obtained with the Hakucho and Tenma satellites, are examined. The characteristics of X-ray bursts, neutron stars, and accretion disks, in particular spectra, color and effective temperatures, blackbody temperature and radius, the emissivity factor, and the Eddington limit luminosity, are discussed. Consideration is given to the rapid burster discovered by Lewin et al. (1976) and potential blackhole sources. 43 references.

  8. Inelastic Branch of the Stellar Reaction $^{14}$O$(\\alpha,p)^{17}$F

    CERN Multimedia

    Hass, M; Van duppen, P L E

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the upgraded REX-ISOLDE beam energy to study the astrophysically important $^{14}$O($\\alpha$, p)$^{17}$F reaction in time reverse kinematics. In particular, we will use the highly efficient miniball + CD detection system to measure the previously undetermined inelastic proton branch of the 1$^-$ state at 6.15 MeV in $^{18}$Ne. This state dominates the reaction rate under X-ray burster conditions.

  9. Identification of several soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase transcripts highly or specifically expressed in nodules: expression studies using one of the corresponding genes in transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolier, M C; Debrosses, G; Hirel, B

    1995-01-01

    A DNA fragment containing sequences hybridizing to the 5' region of GS15, a gene encoding soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase, was isolated from a soybean genomic library. Mapping and partial sequence analysis of the genomic clone revealed that it encodes a cytosolic GS gene, GS21, which is different from GS15. In parallel, a number of cDNA clones encoding cytosolic GS were isolated using the coding region of pGS20 as a probe (pGS20 is a cDNA clone which corresponds to a transcript of the GS15 gene). Two new full-length cDNAs designated pGS34 and pGS38 were isolated and sequenced. In the 5' non-coding region a strong homology was found between the two clones and the GS21 gene. However, none of these sequences were identical, which suggests that there are at least three members in this group of genes. In order to determine their relative levels of transcription, specific sequences from pGS34, pGS38 and GS21 were used in an RNAse protection assay. This experiment clearly showed that GS21 and the gene encoding pGS38 are specifically expressed in young or mature nodules, whereas the gene encoding pGS34 is highly transcribed in nodules and constitutively expressed at a lower level in other soybean organs. In order to further analyse the molecular mechanisms controlling GS21 transcription, different fragments of the promoter region were fused to the Escherichia coli reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and the constructs were introduced into Lotus corniculatus via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Analysis of GUS activity showed that the GS21 promoter-GUS constructs were expressed in the vasculature of all vegetative organs. This result is discussed in relation to species-specific metabolic and developmental characteristics of soybean and Lotus.

  10. Regulation of glutamine synthetase activity by adenylylation in the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces cattleya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, S L; Tyler, B

    1981-01-01

    The enzymatic activity of glutamine synthetase [GS; L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.1.2] from the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces cattleya is regulated by covalent modification. In whole cells containing high levels of GS the addition of ammonium chloride leads to a rapid decline in GS activity. Crude extracts prepared from such ammonia-shocked cells had very low levels of GS activity as measured by biosynthetic and gamma-glutamyltransferase assays. Incubation of the crude extracts with snake venom phosphodiesterase restored GS activity. In cell extracts, GS was also inactivated by an ATP- and glutamine-dependent reaction. Radioactive labeling studies demonstrated the incorporation of an AmP moiety into GS protein upon modification. Our results suggest a covalent modification of GS in a Gram-positive bacterium. This modification appears to be adenylylation of the GS subunit similar to that found in the Gram-negative bacteria.

  11. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  12. Kinetics of borided gear steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Gunes

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the case properties and diffusion kinetics of GS18NiMoCr36 (GS18), GS22NiMoCr56 (GS22) and GS32NiCrMo6.4 (GS32) gear steels borided in Ekabor-II powder were investigated by conducting a series of experiments at temperatures of 1123, 1173 and 1223 K for 2, 4 and 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and microVickers hardness tester. X-ray diffraction analysis of boride layers on the surface of the steels revealed the existence of FeB, Fe2B, CrB and Cr2B compounds. The thickness of the boride layer increases by increasing boriding time and temperature for all steels. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 ranged from 1624 to 1905 HV0,05, 1702 to 1948 HV0,05, and 1745 to 2034 HV0,05 respectively, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 were 335 HV0,05, 358 HV0,05 and 411 HV0,05, respectively. The activation energies (Q) of borided steels were 228.644 kJ/mol for GS18, 280.609 kJ/mol for GS22 and 294.359 kJ/mol for GS32. The growth kinetics of the boride layers forming on the GS18, GS22 and GS32 steels and the thickness of boride layers were also investigated.

  13. Drug-polymer interaction between glucosamine sulfate and alginate nanoparticles: FTIR, DSC and dielectric spectroscopy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houssiny, A. S.; Ward, A. A.; Mostafa, D. M.; Abd-El-Messieh, S. L.; Abdel-Nour, K. N.; Darwish, M. M.; Khalil, W. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work involves the preparation and characterization of alginate nanoparticles (Alg NPs) as a new transdermal carrier for site particular transport of glucosamine sulfate (GS). The GS-Alg NPs were examined through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric spectroscopy. GS-Alg NPs was efficiently prepared via ionic gelation method which generates favorable conditions for the entrapment of hydrophilic drugs. The TEM studies revealed that GS-Alg NPs are discrete and have spherical shapes. FTIR studies showed a spectral change of the characteristic absorptions bands of Alg NPs after encapsulation with GS because of the amine groups of GS and the carboxylic acid groups of Alg. The DSC data showed changes in the thermal behavior of GS-Alg NPs after the addition of GS indicating signs of main chemical interaction among the drug (GS) and the polymer (Alg). The absence of the drug melting endothermic peak within the DSC thermogram of GS-Alg NPs indicating that GS is molecularly dispersed in the NPs and not crystallize. From the dielectric study, it was found modifications within the dielectric loss (ɛ″) and conductivity (σ) values after the addition of GS. The ɛ″ and σ values of Alg NPs decreased after the addition of GS which indicated the successful encapsulation of GS within Alg NPs. Furthermore, the dielectric study indicated an increase of the activation energy and the relaxation time for the first process in the GS-Alg NPs as compared to Alg NPs. Consequently, the existing observations indicated an initiation of electrostatic interaction among the amine group of GS and carboxyl group of Alg indicating the successful encapsulation of GS inside Alg NPs which could provide favorable circumstance for the encapsulation of GS for topical management.

  14. Antonio Maria Baggio (ed., Adriana Cossedu, Paolo Giusta, Rodrigo Mardones Z. y Antonio Márquez Prieto, Caino e i suoi fratelli. Il fondamento relazionale nella politica e nel diritto, Città Nuova, Roma, 2012, 247 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Salas Porras

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios recogidos en este volumen intentan reinterpretar los fundamentos de la Política y del Derecho, enmarcados en el horizonte relacional que la fraternidad les abre. Desde esta perspectiva, la fraternidad asume una relevancia política y jurídica en la medida en que se la entienda sustancialmente ligada a la libertad y a la igualdad. Cada una de las tres categorías, en la medida en que sean consideradas conjuntamente, llegan a adquirir su propio significado a través de la relación con las otras. El redescubrimiento de la fraternidad significa por tanto volver a proponer el "tríptico" entero, para recuperar, a través del mismo, el proyecto humanísitico de la modernidad, y liberarnos del destino del conflicto radical al que nuestro tiempo parece condenado: Caín no sólo ha matado a su hermano, sino que también ha fundado la primera ciudad, es decir, el lugar donde la violencia se ve confinada por el gobierno y por las leyes. Abrir el Derecho al horizonte de la fraternidad significa, hoy, llevar la racionalidad jurídica más allá de la mera racionalidad técnica; permitir renovar la relación jurídica, volver a encontrar sus fundamentos humanísticos, redescubriendo una justicia que reconcilia y reconstruye, fortificando el vínculo social. Considerar la fraternidad una categoría política significa poder emitir juicios políticos, capaces de producir un pensamiento político a través de la óptica de la fraternidad; se abandonan así las lógicas de la ideología, para intentar construir una forma de pensamiento en disposición de pasar, de una idea intuitiva de fraternidad, a una definición que la haga operativa, "operacionalizable". Es una tarea que no corresponde hoy a una sola disciplina, sino que interesa a todo el conjunto de los ya numerosos estudiosos que se han enrolado en este frente, interactuando entre sí de manera interdisiciplinar y abriendo un camino en el cual resulte posible, a todos los que han abrazado un humanismo y un ideal político, encontrar las mejores razones de su esperanza.

  15. Reseña: Cruz Mundet, José Ramón. Diccionario de Archivística (con equivalencias en inglés, francés, alemán, portugués, catalán, euskera y gallego). Madrid: Alianza, 2011, 363 págs. ISBN: 978-84-206-5285-6.

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Gómez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Review of a dictionary by Cruz Mundet: a thoughtful work, rigorous, original in its treatment, and, more importantly, useful for our daily tasks and for our theoretical speculation. A "portable" dictionary, essential to our professional libraries.

  16. Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL. Edité par Günter Holtus -Michael Metzeltin - Christian Schmitt. Volume VI,l. Aragones/Navarro, Español, Asturiano/Leonés. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1992, págs. XXXVIII+708

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available El Diccionario enciclopédico de lingüistica románica (LRL es un compendio general de todo el saber romanistico sobre Ia génesis, el desarrollo y el estado actual de las lenguas romanicas. La obra consta de ocho volúmenes, de los cuales han aparecido, hasta ahora, los que tratan de las lenguas románicas desde el Renacimiento basta nuestros dias, con excepción del volumen reservado al gallego y portugués. Esperamos, por tanto, con gran interes la aparición del segundo volumen, dedicado al latín y al desarrollo de las lenguas románicas desde la Edad Media basta el Renacimiento.

  17. 高校建立管控型的财务共享服务中心模式的探讨--基于运用浪潮GS管理软件%Discussion on the Establishment of Management and Control Mode of Fi-nancial Shared Service Center in Colleges and Universities---Based on the Use of GS Management Software of Inspur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯昌恕

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014, the Ministry of Finance issued Guidance on the Comprehensively Promoting the Construction of Management Accounting System (Accounting [2014] No. 27), which is not only the need of promoting upgrades of transfor-mation of economy of our country, but also the important measure for deepening the strategy of invigorating the country through accounting. It contributes to promoting the modernization of national governance systems and governance capacity and points out the important direction of accounting reform and development in our country. The development of management ac-counting in our country is relatively lagging behind. Colleges and universities, as the implementation units of management ac-counting, should strengthen budget management and cost control. On the base of learning useful cases of management account-ing work, we should choose the establishment of the“Internet +”management accounting information system according to the universities’situation. For instance, we can reform business processes by establishing financial shared center, build up system platform, design information system and business process solutions, achieve the integration of business and finance and realize the conjunction of accounting and budget management (i.e. embedded). Furthermore, we should provide more powerful support for the development of university by solving the problem of deviation from the budget and business and promoting working lev-el on accounting.%2014年11月,财政部《关于全面推进管理会计体系建设的指导意见》(财会【2014】27号),不仅是推动我国经济转型升级的需要,也是深入推进会计强国战略的重要举措,助力推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,指出了我国会计改革与发展的重要方向。我国管理会计发展相对滞后,高等学校做为管理会计的实施单位,应强化预算管理和成本控制,在对管理会计工作的有益案例进行学习借鉴的基础上,根据校情选择建立“互联网+”管理会计信息系统的具体运行方案,如通过建立财务共享中心,进行业务流程重整,建立系统平台,设计信息系统方案和业务流程方案,实现业务与财务的一体化,使会计核算与预算管理深度契合(即嵌入),解决预算与业务的偏离问题,促进学校会计工作上水平,为学校发展提供更加有力的保障。

  18. Borja Gómez, Jaime y Rodríguez Jiménez, Pablo. Historia de la vida privada en Colombia. Tomo I: Las fronteras difusas del siglo XVI a 1880. Bogotá: Taurus, 2011, 396 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Francisco Ríos García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde mediados de los ochenta cuando Philippe Ariès y George Duby, sacaron a la luz un trabajo sobre la vida privada, se ha generado un nuevo movimiento historiográfico que ha recorrido el mundo, el cual no trata lo que siempre la historia había trabajado, sino que se concentraba en la vida de las vidas secretas de las personas, ya fueran personajes públicos o desconocidas, también se hablo de las situaciones que vivían los sectores marginales de la población, todos visto desde el punto de vista de su vida en los ambientes alejados del escrutinio público, desde su forma de vestir, sus amores, sus aventuras, su alimentación y de las mismos espacios que frecuentaban.

  19. Albert Estrada-Rius, El desafío de la moneda falsa en la Barcelona de Felipe III (1598-1621, Sabadell, Editorial Ausa, Primera edición en lengua española, 2012, 411 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sáez Arjona

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Es una recensión del libro sobre el desafío de la moneda falsa en la Barcelona de Felipe III de Castilla y II de Aragón. En esta obra se analiza, con una exposición ordenada de las fuentes, el fenómeno falsario en el contexto económico y monetario del primer cuarto siglo XVII. La evolución monetaria, la lucha llevada a cabo por las autoridades contra la falsificación de la moneda. La respuesta criminal, policial, judicial, entre otras. Las relaciones entre Cataluña y la Corte Real en el marco de la política monetaria.

  20. 小麦Glu-A1位点null和1亚基重组姊妹系间品质差异的研究%Study of Differences on Flour Quality between HMW-GS null and 1 RILs at the Glu-A 1 Locus in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭义; 徐如宏; 任明见

    2006-01-01

    为了解小麦Glu-A1位点的null和1亚基间的遗传差异,对具有null和1亚基的8个重组姊妹系进行了品质差异的研究.结果表明,在Glu-A1位点为1亚基与其相应的null亚基的重组姊妹系间在蛋白质含量、湿面筋、SDS沉降值、硬度的平均值分别为16.65%/17.44%、29.38/32.00、36.09/40.68、50.56/51.42,均以null亚基的为高.研究结果为两种亚基在小麦品质育种中的亲本选配及其应用提供了参考依据.

  1. RESEñA DEL LIBRO “LA GENERACIóN App. CóMO LOS JóVENES GESTIONAN SU IDENTIDAD, SU PRIVACIDAD y SU IMAGINACIóN EN EL MUNDO DIGITAL” HOWARD GARDNER y kATIE DAVIS (2014. BARCELONA, PAIDóS, 238 PáGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bolívar Bonilla Baquero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available os autores logran una crítica equilibrada al sustentar, cualitativa y estadísticamente, las bondades y riesgos de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación para la construcción subjetiva de los jóvenes de la "Generación app" (aplicaciones o programas informáticos en los dispositivos móviles. De manera prudente no les asignan a las tecnologías un carácter de causalidad determinante en los actuales comportamientos juveniles, pero admiten que se trata de un poderoso fenómeno tanto imparable como coadyuvante en las concepciones dominantes del mundo y las prácticas de interacción social, fenómeno que debe estudiarse en conexión con múltiples factores familiares, educativos, culturales, económicos y políticos del desarrollo histórico social que vivimos.

  2. Miguel Ángel González de San Segundo (coord.,, Un jurista aragonés y su tiempo. El doctor Juan Luis López primer Marqués del Risco (1644-1703, Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza, 2007, 704 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta obra colectiva se estudia la persona de Juan Luis López (1644-1703, marqués del Risco y jurista aragonés de familia originaria de la localidad de Escarrilla, en el Valle de Tena. Fue doctor en Leyes por la Universidad de Zaragoza, y llegó a ocupar los cargos de alcalde del crimen de la Audiencia de Lima el 23 de octubre de 1681, gobernador de Huancavelica, y más tarde regente del Supremo Consejo de Aragón y primer marqués del Risco. Uno de los títulos más destacados que poseía Juan Luis López era el estatuto especial de la infanzonía, que fue solicitado y aprobado por su padre Juan Lamberto López para sí y para la totalidad de sus hijos en 1656, y reflejaba la pertenencia a una clase noble que gozaba de una serie de privilegios. Finalizado su cargo como magistrado en las Indias, se integró en la administración central de la Corona aragonesa en el año 1694, y más tarde en el consejo de Aragón, obteniendo además el título de marqués del Risco a comienzos del reinado de Felipe V. Entre sus obras más importantes destacan: De Origine Iustitiae, sive Iudicis Medii, Aragonum. Exercitatio. Cum annotatis (1678, y Ad Nonnullos Aragoniae Foros Emendationes (1679.

  3. Miguel Ángel González de San Segundo (coord.,), Un jurista aragonés y su tiempo. El doctor Juan Luis López primer Marqués del Risco (1644-1703), Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza, 2007, 704 págs.

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-01-01

    En esta obra colectiva se estudia la persona de Juan Luis López (1644-1703), marqués del Risco y jurista aragonés de familia originaria de la localidad de Escarrilla, en el Valle de Tena. Fue doctor en Leyes por la Universidad de Zaragoza, y llegó a ocupar los cargos de alcalde del crimen de la Audiencia de Lima el 23 de octubre de 1681, gobernador de Huancavelica, y más tarde regente del Supremo Consejo de Aragón y primer marqués del Risco. Uno de los títulos más destacados que poseía Juan L...

  4. Felipe González Vicén, Teoría de la revolución. Sistema e historia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Plaza y Valdés, Madrid y México, D. F., 2010, 125 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Peláez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos encontramos ante la reedición de un libro clásico de Felipe González Vicén, catedrático de Derecho Natural y Filosofía del Derecho que lo fue de las Universidades de Sevilla y La Laguna, fallecido en 1991. Su tesis doctoral, que indudablemente está en este libro, fue menospreciada por el tribunal llamado a juzgarla en la Universidad de Madrid, otorgándole la calificación de Aprobado. La figura de González Vicén está acompañada de una leyenda, que conviene ir aclarando poco a poco con el paso del tiempo. Autor de fina pluma y con un gran conocimiento de la doctrina alemana, recoge en el presente libro la evolución de las teorías sobre la revolución, incidiendo en la importancia que tiene el orden jurídico establecido y el derecho de resistencia ante la existencia de poderes injustos. También determina la diferenciación conceptual que puede hacerse entre revolución, golpe de Estado, conquista y reformas de las constituciones vigentes.

  5. Physics Teaching Should Mobilize the Students Sen ses Feelin gs to Co m prehen d Physics Beauty%物理教学中应调动学生的“五官”感受领悟物理学中的“美”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕红林

    2014-01-01

    Based on new curriculum standards and author’s teaching practices , the paper proposes that in physical classroom teaching teachers should mobilize students senses feelings ,and make them comprehend physics beauty ,and then raise their interests and enthusiasms in learning physics .%根据新课标的精神及自己的教学实践,提出了在物理教学中应充分调动学生的“五官”感受,让他们领悟物理学中的“美”,提高物理学习的兴趣与热情。

  6. Los escenarios del siglo XX : María Dolores Béjar (2011), Historia del siglo XX. Europa, América, Asia, África y Oceanía, Siglo XXI Editores, Buenos Aires, 461 págs

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol, Sergio A.

    2011-01-01

    El nuevo libro de la doctora María Dolores Béjar, profesora titular de Historia Contemporánea en la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación de la UNLP, aparece en un momento crítico para la reflexión histórica “general”. Si es cierto, como afirma Tony Judt (2008), que vivimos en una época de olvido, en la que resulta evidente “la dificultad que experimentamos para comprender el turbulento siglo que acaba de terminar y aprender de él”, no podemos menos que recibir con expectativas u...

  7. Antonio Sánchez-Bayón, Estado y religión de acuerdo con Estados Unidos de América: Análisis y sistematización del modelo relacional, AV Akademikerverlag GmbH & Co. KG, EAE, Saarbrücken, 2012, 314 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Stenglein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Antonio Sánchez-Bayón untersucht in seiner neuartigen Studie das Beziehungsmodell zwischen Staat und Religion in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Aufgrund seines außerordenlich logischen Denkens und seiner interdiszpilinären Ausbildung in Rechtsgeschichte, Rechtsphilosohpie, vergleichender Rechtswissenschaft, Kirchenrecht und anderen Sozialwissenschaften kommt er zu einem überraschenden Ergebnis, das über ein vereinfachtes Wissen über die USA und deren Menschen weit hinausgeht. Die USA ist ein konfessionsloser Staat, seine Bevölkerung ist aber religiös. Um diesem Phänomen auf den Grund zu gehen, wird unter anderem das amerikanische Kirchenrecht analysiert und systematisiert, was in den USA als spezielles Fachgebiet des öffentlichen Rechts und in den Universtiäten als eigenständige Disziplin behandelt wird. Die Studie widmet sich der Erklärung der wichtigsten Variablen der anglo-amerikanischen Version des Ius Circa Sacra (postjüdisch-christliche politische und rechtliche Theologie, der Übernahme dieser Variablen und deren notwendige Umsetzung. Weiter werden die amerikanischen Rahmenregulierungen, durch die Religionsfreiheit und andere Bürgerrechte anerkennt und gewährleistet werden, sowie der juristische Status und die Finanzierung des Klerus und der Kirchen untersucht. Der Autor kommt zu der überraschenden Schlußfolgerung, dass das amerikanische Beziehungsmodell Staat und Religion nicht nur für die Amerikaner gültig ist, sondern auch die Kontinentaleuropäer, die gewisse Schwierigkeiten haben, die Bereiche Religion, Politik und Recht harmonisch zu ordnen, inspirieren könnte.

  8. José Calvo González, El alma y la ley: Tolstói entre juristas. España (1890-1928, Sevilla-Zamora, Comunicación Social ediciones y publicaciones, 2010, 311 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez Dhier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recensión a la obra El alma y la ley: Tolstói entre juristas. España (1890-1928 de José Calvo González, Catedrático de Filosofía del Derecho de la Universidad de Málaga, en la cual analiza la recepción de las obras literarias de Tolstói, uno de los máximos exponentes de la edad de oro de la novela realista, entre algunos de los más prestigiosos juristas españoles del periodo 1890-1928, a través de la edición y traducción de algunas de sus más significativas obras, creándose en España una auténtica "cultura literaria del Derecho" de clara vocación europeísta y universal.

  9. Gudrun Stenglein, Condición femenina y delincuencia: Estudio comparado hispano-alemán y una propuesta sistémica europea, AV Akademikerverlag GmbH & Co. KG, EAE, Saarbrücken, 2012, 252 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Peláez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wenn über Kriminalität gesprochen wird, scheint es sich um ein reines Männerthema zu handeln. Sind die Frauen wirklich weniger straffällig als die Männer? Die Frau als Straftäterin wird in der Literatur vernachlässigt. In der modernen Kriminologie erscheint die Frau fast nur in der Opferrolle. Die angeführte Studie befaßt sich mit den Fragen, die sich aus dieser Problematik ergeben. Die Straffälligkeit der Frauen wird einer multidisziplinären Analyse unterzogen, traditionelle und moderne Erklärungsansätze werden systematisiert und in Verbindung zueinander gebracht. Anhand von Statistiken werden sowohl die Anzahl der Straftäterinnen als auch die Delikte, die scheinbar frauentypisch sind, untersucht und zwischen den Modellen der mediterranen und nordeuropäischen Länder verglichen. Es überrascht, dass es so gut wie keine internationalen oder nationalen Programme zur Verbrechensvorbeugung bezüglich der Frauenkrimialität gibt. Scheint es doch so, dass der Staat als einzige Antwort auf dieses Phänomen die Strafverfolgung kennt (traditionelles Strafrecht. Untersuchungen in Strafanstalten zeigen aber, dass die Frauen in den meisten Fällen aufgrund ihres sozialen Umfelds und ihrer geringeren Chancen auf Ausbildung und Ausübung eines Berufes zur Straftäterin werden. Eine effiziente Kriminalpolitik müsste mit der Ungleichbehandlung der Frauen aufräumen und eine adäquate Sozialisierung für die Frauen schaffen, die oft auf sich gestellt und mit der Versorgung ihrer Familie überfordert sind. Es stellt sich heraus, dass, wenn über ein vereintes Europa gesprochen wird, die Wirklichkeit einer gemeinsamen europäischen Kriminalpolitik noch weit entfernt ist. Außerdem wird die Ernsthaftigkeit dieses Vorhabens bezweifelt, da zuviele Unterschiede, Differenzen und Vorbehalte unter den europäischen Mitgliedsstaaten bestehen. Es handelt sich eher um ein fadenscheiniges Agieren der Politiker.

  10. Clizia Magoni, Fueros y libertades. El mito de la Constitución aragonesa en la Europa moderna, trad. de Antonio Pérez Martín, El Justicia de Aragón, Zaragoza, 2012, 255 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hierrezuelo Conde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta obra Clizia Magoni nos ofrece un estudio de la constitución aragonesa, conocida como fueros de Sobrarbe, que ha influido en tiempos venideros no sólo en España, sino también en Francia, Inglaterra o Estados Unidos de América. El origen de estos fueros lo encontramos en el historiador de origen local Gerónimo Blancas, considerado el cronista oficial del reino aragonés desde el año 1580, que reconstruyó los seis fueros en 1588 con el título de Aragonensium rerum commentarii.

  11. André Thibault, Perfecto simple y perfecto compuesto en español preclásico. Estudio de los perfectos de indicativo en "La Celestina", el "Teatro" de Encina y el "Dialogo de Ia lengua". Beihefte zur ZRPh, Band 301, Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2000; págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available La suerte del perfectum latino en lenguas románicas no deja de atraer a los investigadores de los problemas sintácticos. Suenan como profecía las palabras con las cuales el Autor concluyó su trabajo diciendo que en este campo queda todavía mucho por hacer; la profecía parece válida no solo para el español, sino para todo el mundo romance. Prof. André Thibault ha restringido su investigación sobre el pretérito simple y compuesto (permítaseme la terminologia a la cual estoy acostumbrado a los tres grandes acontecimientos en la literatura española, indicados en el título, pero antepuso a su trabajo un amplio panorama histórico, incluyendo en ello anotaciones sobre las tendencias en algunos idiomas indoeuropeos que demuestran los usos de las formas simples y las compuestas y no sólo en el campo del pretérito.

  12. Standardization of Gleason grading among 337 European pathologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevad, Lars; Ahmad, Amar S; Algaba, Ferran;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS:   The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) modification of Gleason grading recommended that the highest grade should always be included in the Gleason score (GS) in prostate biopsies. We analysed the impact of this recommendation on reporting of GS 6 versus 7. METHODS...... member GS in 12 of 15 cases, while members upgraded in three cases. Among members and the expert consensus, a GS >6 was assigned by 64.5% and 60%, respectively. Mean member GS was higher than consensus GS in nine of 15 cases. A Gleason pattern (GP) 5 was reported by 0.3-5.6% in 10 cases. Agreement...

  13. Size and shape controllable preparation of graphene sponge by freezing, lyophilizing and reducing in container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO LianQin; YU BaoWei; ZHANG XiaoLiang; WU RuiHan; LIU XiaoYang; LIAO Rong; YANG ShengTao

    2016-01-01

    Graphene sponge (GS) is a porous 3D structure of graphene.Although hydrothermal reduction,chemical vapor deposition,solution reduction and high temperature annealing could be used for the preparation of GS,the size and shape cannot be well controlled.Herein,we reported a facile method to prepare GS under mild condition in a size and shape controllable way.Graphene oxide was lyophilized to form the spongy structure and reduced by steamy hydrazine hydrate to produce GS.The size and shape of GS prepared were nearly identical to that of the container.The reduction degree of GS could be regulated by the reduction temperature and time.

  14. Griscelli syndrome type 2: A rare and fatal syndrome in a South Indian boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajyalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Griscelli syndrome (GS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the MYO5A (GS1, RAB27A (GS2, and MLPH (GS3 genes, characterized by a common feature, partial albinism. The common variant of three, GS type 2, in addition, shows primary immunodeficiency which leads to recurrent infections and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We, herewith, describe a case of GS type 2, in a 4-year-old male child who presented with chronic and recurrent fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and secondary neurological deterioration; highlighting the cytological and histopathological features of lymph nodes. Hair shaft examination of the child confirmed the diagnosis.

  15. The effect of supplementing highly wilted grass silage with maize silage, fodder beet or molasses on degradation of the diets and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Velikonja-Bolta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS in diets based on highly wilted grass silage (GS, 539 g dry matter (DM per kg with the supplementation of starch or water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC rich feeds, i.e. maize silage (MS, 391 g kg-1 DM intake [DMI], fodder beet (FB, 173 g kg-1 DMI or molasses (M, 137 g kg-1 DMI. All the diets were made isonitrogenous by urea supplementation (14.0, 4.0 and 2.0 g per kg DMI in GS-MS, GS-FB and GS-M diets. In sacco determined crude protein (CP and organic matter (OM degradabilities were 756, 800, 778 and 814 (P0.05 among the diets (36.6, 35.1, 34.7 and 34.0 g microbial nitrogen per kg OM apparently digested in the rumen in GS, GS-MS, GS-FB and GS-M diets, respectively. The estimated metabolizable protein supply from GS, GS-MS, GS-FB and GS-M diets amounted to 97, 91, 93 and 86 g kg-1 DMI, respectively. Apparently, highly wilted GS containing a high concentration of WSC (91 g kg-1 DM supports high EMPS in the rumen and this cannot be improved by the supplementation with starch or WSC rich feeds.

  16. Anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol plus guggulsterone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayalam, Srujana; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Park, Hea Jin; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

    2009-08-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) and guggulsterone (GS) have each been shown to inhibit adipogenesis and induce apoptosis in adipocytes. In the present study effects of the combination of XN + GS on 3T3-L1 adipocyte apoptosis and adipogenesis were investigated. Mature adipocytes were treated with XN and GS individually and in combination. XN and GS individually decreased cell viability, but XN + GS caused an enhanced decrease in viability and potentiated induction of apoptosis. Likewise, XN + GS caused a potentiated increase in caspase-3/7 activation, whereas neither of the compounds showed any effect individually. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that XN + GS increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas individual compounds did not show any significant effect. XN and GS both decreased lipid accumulation. Individually, XN at 1.5 microM and GS at 3.12 microM decreased lipid accumulation by 26 +/- 4.5% (P < .001) each, whereas XN1.5 + GS3.12 decreased lipid accumulation by 78.2 +/- 1.8% (P < .001). Moreover, expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins was down-regulated with XN1.5 + GS3.12, but no effect was observed with the individual compounds. Finally, XN + GS caused an enhanced stimulation of lipolysis. Thus, combination of XN and GS is more potent in exerting anti-obesity effects than additive effects of the individual compounds.

  17. Drug: D06794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06794 Akebia stem; Akebiae caulis Crude drugs...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06794 Akebia stem (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  18. ACTIVITIES OF AMMONIA ASSIMILATION ENZYMES AS INDICATORS OF THE RELATIVE SUPPLY OF NITROGEN SUBSTRATES FOR MARINE BACTERIOPLANKTON IN SUB-TROPICAL COASTAL WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The supply of nitrogen substrates available for bacterial production in seawater was determined using the activities of ammonia assimilation enzymes, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Expression of GS and GDH by bacteria in pure culture is generally ind...

  19. Low birth weight and zygosity status is associated with defective muscle glycogen and glycogen synthase regulation in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik;

    2007-01-01

    AND METHODS: We measured the activities of glycogen synthase (GS), GS kinase (GSK)3 alpha, GS phosphorylation, and glycogen levels in muscle biopsies obtained from 184 young and elderly twins before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. RESULTS: Elderly monozygotic twins had significantly lower...... fractional GS activity amidst higher glycogen and GS protein levels compared with dizygotic twins. In addition, we demonstrated strong nongenetic associations between birth weight and defect muscle glycogen metabolism in elderly--but not in younger--twins. Thus, for every 100 g increase in birth weight...... within pairs, GS fractional activity, GS protein level, and glycogen content was increased by 4.2, 8.7, and 4.5%, respectively, in elderly twins. Similarly, for every 100 g increase in birth weight, GSK3 alpha activity and GS phosphorylation at the sites 2, 2+2a, and 3a+3b were decreased by 3.1, 9.0, 10...

  20. AcEST: DK958546 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PSEFGNDVDR 385 + GS++D+ SLV A+K VDVVIS +GS ++ Q+ I++AIKEVGT+KRFFPSEFGNDVD Sbjct: 61 VHGSIDDHASLVEAVKNVDVVIST...RFFPSEFGNDVD Sbjct: 61 VHGSIDDHASLVEAVKNVDVVISTVGSLQIESQVNIIKAIKEIGTVKRFFPSEFGNDVDN 120 Query: 386 VHALEPAKT

  1. マウス実験的停留睾丸および幼若精巣から磁気細胞分離法により濃縮したCD9 ならびにα6インテグリン発現細胞の体外培養

    OpenAIRE

    MITANI, Tasuku; Ozaki, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Ayako; Saeki, Kazuhiro; Kato, Hiromi; MATSUMOTO, Kazuya; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Recently, studies on cell surface markers of spermatogonia in combination with germ cell transplantation technique have made possible their functional analysis and the germline stem cells(GS cell)have established. GS cells are downstream of the stem cells such as ES cells and embryonic germ cells, namely EG cells, which are derived from PGCs. Therefore, GS cells are expected to be useful for the production of genetically-modified animals. In this study, we examined enrichment of GS cells expr...

  2. 32 CFR 286.29 - Collection of fees and fee rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Audiovisual documentary materials. Search costs are computed as for any other record. Duplication cost is the... Component has determined that the fee will be in excess of $250 (see § 286.28(e)). (b) Search time—(1) Manual search. Type Grade Hourly Rate Clerical E1-E9/GS1-GS8 $20.00 Professional O1-O6/GS9-GS15...

  3. Gender-Segregated Schooling: A Problem Disguised as a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Hanish, Laura D.; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Gender-segregated (GS) schooling has become popular in the United States despite the fact that every major review has concluded that GS schooling is not superior to coeducational schooling. Moreover, concern has been raised that GS schooling leads to negative effects, including increased gender stereotyping. We argue that these negative effects…

  4. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  5. Weak mitochondrial targeting sequence determines tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase in liver and brain cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, G.D.; Gur, N.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Pines, O.; Vardimon, L.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution of the uricotelic system for ammonia detoxification required a mechanism for tissue-specific subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase (GS). In uricotelic vertebrates, GS is mitochondrial in liver cells and cytoplasmic in brain. Because these species contain a single copy of the GS

  6. An Appreciative Inquiry Exploring Game Sense Teaching in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research framed as a strengths-based appreciative inquiry (AI) into the use of a game sense (GS) approach for sport and games teaching in physical education (PE). The aim of this research was to find the elements which sustain teachers in the use of a GS approach. This is particularly pertinent given strong advocacy for GS as…

  7. "¡Prueben ustedes con sus propios ojos!"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cotes Benítez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La casa de Resfa. Carlos Mario Garcés Toro. El Gaviero Editor, Medellín, 2008, 125 págs. Simonía de amor. Verano Brisas. Arquitrave, Medellín, 2007, 97 págs. Trece cuentos no peregrinos. Javier Gil Gallego. Medellín, 2008, 163 págs.

  8. Pre- and posttranslational upregulation of muscle-specific glycogen synthase in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H; Lund, S

    1994-01-01

    by insulin. We conclude that athletes have increased whole body insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism associated with both pretranslational (mRNA) and posttranslational (enzyme activity) upregulation of GS. However, the immunoreactive mass of GS is normal, emphasizing that posttranslational...... regulation of the GS protein activity is important for the increased glycogen synthesis rate of muscle in endurance-trained individuals....

  9. 75 FR 35095 - Excepted Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... temporary appointments in the following occupational series: Security (GS-0080), intelligence analysts (GS... positions, GS-15 and below, of senior policy analysts and other personnel with expertise in drug related... Agriculture DAGS60603 Special Assistant for Marketing and Regulatory Programs. Effective May 7,...

  10. Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Hotzy, Cosima; Rankin, Daniel; Tuda, Midori; Hjelmen, Carl E.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the ‘C-value paradox’. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4–5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution. PMID:26354938

  11. El ojo de los franceses

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Orlando Melo

    1985-01-01

    Recuerdos de la Nueva Granada. Pierre d'Espagnat. Ediciones Incunables, Bogotá, 1983, 317 págs. Viaje y estancia en la Nueva Granada. Augusto Le Moyne. Ediciones Incunables, Bogotá, 1985, 243 págs. Viaje a la Nueva Granada. Charles Saffray. Ediciones Incunables, Bogotá, 1984, 352 págs.

  12. El ojo de los franceses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Orlando Melo

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Recuerdos de la Nueva Granada. Pierre d'Espagnat. Ediciones Incunables, Bogotá, 1983, 317 págs. Viaje y estancia en la Nueva Granada. Augusto Le Moyne. Ediciones Incunables, Bogotá, 1985, 243 págs. Viaje a la Nueva Granada. Charles Saffray. Ediciones Incunables, Bogotá, 1984, 352 págs.

  13. AcEST: DK959385 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KL 63 Query: 274 GYANANIYVCEDERCPRPMCYKAYGSGKEDSPLCDIPGFENARMKLLRHVSFVDSPGQDI 453...CPRPMCYKAYGSGKEDSPLCDIPGFENARMKLLRHVSFVDSPGQDILMATMLNG 477 +D C RP CY++ GS D DIPG KL+RHVSFVD PG DILMATMLNG S...ANA IY Sbjct: 30 PLSHEVISRQATINIGTIGHVAHGKSTVVKAISGVHTVRFKNELERNITIKLGYANAKIY 89 Query: 298 VCEDERCPRPMCYKAYGSGKEDSPLCDIPGFENARM...EDERCPRPMCYKAYGSGKEDSPLCDIPGFENARMKLLRHVSFVDSPGQDILMATMLNG 477 +D CPRP CY++ GS D DIPG KL+RHVSFVD PG DILMATML...GYANAKIY 89 Query: 298 VCEDERCPRPMCYKAYGSGKEDSPLCDIPGFENARMKLLRHVSFVDSPGQDILMATMLNG 477 +D CPRP CY++ GS D DI

  14. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS...2; Box 2; glutamine synthetase; GS2; pea (Pisum sativum); TCTAAGCAAAG ...

  15. Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Hotzy, Cosima; Rankin, Daniel; Tuda, Midori; Hjelmen, Carl E; Johnston, J Spencer

    2015-09-22

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the 'C-value paradox'. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4-5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution.

  16. Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Cell Wall Biosynthesis. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter M. Ray

    2000-04-01

    The following aspects of enzymology of cell wall synthesis were pursued under this cited grant: (1) Isolation of plasma membrane-localized glucan synthase II (GS-II) of pea; (2) Cloning of genes for possible plant GS-II components; (3) Golgi glucan synthase-I (GS-I); and (4) Golgi reversibly glycosylated protein 1 (RGP1).

  17. The glutamine synthetase gene family in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cánovas Francisco M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC: 6.3.1.2, L-glutamate: ammonia ligase ADP-forming is a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation and metabolism of higher plants. The current work was undertaken to develop a more comprehensive understanding of molecular and biochemical features of GS gene family in poplar, and to characterize the developmental regulation of GS expression in various tissues and at various times during the poplar perennial growth. Results The GS gene family consists of 8 different genes exhibiting all structural and regulatory elements consistent with their roles as functional genes. Our results indicate that the family members are organized in 4 groups of duplicated genes, 3 of which code for cytosolic GS isoforms (GS1 and 1 which codes for the choroplastic GS isoform (GS2. Our analysis shows that Populus trichocarpa is the first plant species in which it was observed the complete GS family duplicated. Detailed expression analyses have revealed specific spatial and seasonal patterns of GS expression in poplar. These data provide insights into the metabolic function of GS isoforms in poplar and pave the way for future functional studies. Conclusions Our data suggest that GS duplicates could have been retained in order to increase the amount of enzyme in a particular cell type. This possibility could contribute to the homeostasis of nitrogen metabolism in functions associated to changes in glutamine-derived metabolic products. The presence of duplicated GS genes in poplar could also contribute to diversification of the enzymatic properties for a particular GS isoform through the assembly of GS polypeptides into homo oligomeric and/or hetero oligomeric holoenzymes in specific cell types.

  18. La inútil añoranza de la normalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Valencia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Litchis de Madagascar. Aquiles Cuervo. Editorial Elfin de la noche. Buenos Aires, 2011, 91 págs. El ruido de las cosas al caer. Juan Gabriel Vásquez. Premio Alfaguara de novela 2011. Alfaguara. Bogotá. 2011, 259 págs. Tres ataúdes blancos. Antonio Ungar. Premio Herralde de Novela. Editorial Anagrama. Barcelona. 2010, 259 págs. Suicídame. Andrés Arias. Ediciones B. Bogotá, 2010, 261 págs. C.M. no récord. Juan Álvarez. Alfaguara. Bogotá, 2010, 262 págs.

  19. La inútil añoranza de la normalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Valencia

    2012-01-01

    Litchis de Madagascar. Aquiles Cuervo. Editorial Elfin de la noche. Buenos Aires, 2011, 91 págs. El ruido de las cosas al caer. Juan Gabriel Vásquez. Premio Alfaguara de novela 2011. Alfaguara. Bogotá. 2011, 259 págs. Tres ataúdes blancos. Antonio Ungar. Premio Herralde de Novela. Editorial Anagrama. Barcelona. 2010, 259 págs. Suicídame. Andrés Arias. Ediciones B. Bogotá, 2010, 261 págs. C.M. no récord. Juan Álvarez. Alfaguara. Bogotá, 2010, 262 págs.

  20. Total glutamine synthetase levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients are unchanged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Nienke M; Herbert, Megan K; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2015-03-01

    Decreased cerebral protein and activity levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) have been reported for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using a recently established method, we quantified total GS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients and control subjects. Furthermore, we investigated if total GS levels in CSF could differentiate AD from frontotemperal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies patients. As we found no significantly altered total GS levels in any of the patient groups compared with control subjects, we conclude that levels of total GS in CSF have no diagnostic value for AD, dementia with Lewy bodies, or frontotemperal dementia.