Sample records for burst jet formation

  1. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.


    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  2. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection. (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens


    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  3. Polarized Emission from Gamma-Ray Burst Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Kobayashi


    Full Text Available I review how polarization signals have been discussed in the research field of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs. I mainly discuss two subjects in which polarimetry enables us to study the nature of relativistic jets. (1 Jet breaks: Gamma-ray bursts are produced in ultra-relativistic jets. Due to the relativistic beaming effect, the emission can be modeled in a spherical model at early times. However, as the jet gradually slows down, we begin to see the edge of the jet together with polarized signals at some point. (2 Optical flash: later time afterglow is known to be insensitive to the properties of the original ejecta from the GRB central engine. However, a short-lived, reverse shock emission would enable us to study the nature of of GRB jets. I also briefly discuss the recent detection of optical circular polarization in GRB afterglow.

  4. Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet (United States)

    Zhou, Maolei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhiyuan; Han, Jifeng; Liu, Dong


    Soap bubbles can be easily generated by various methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth studying. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in the study by Salkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 (2016)] recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after a detailed study of these experiments, we found that the bubbles could be generated in two velocity ranges which corresponded to the laminar and turbulent gas jet, respectively, and the predicted threshold was only effective for turbulent gas flow. The study revealed that the bubble formation was greatly influenced by the aerodynamics of the gas jet blowing to the film, and these results will help to further understand the formation mechanism of the soap bubble as well as the interaction between the gas jet and the thin liquid film.

  5. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comins, N.F.


    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity

  6. Jetting formation of the explosively loaded powders (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Yu, Qiqi


    The formation of jet-like structures is widely reported in the explosive dispersal of powders surrounding high explosive charges. The jetting of powder beds initiates upon the shock wave reaches the outer edge of the charge. Opposed to the interface instability theory, a hollow sphere based bulk fragmentation model is established to account for the jetting of powders. A two-phase process, namely the nucleation and free expansion of hollow spheres, corresponds to the unloading process of the powder compact caused by the rarefaction waves which governs the fragmentation of the powders. The separation between adjacent hollow spheres dictates the size of the particle clusters, which would evolve into particle jets in later times. The predicted breakup time and the size of particle jets agree well with the experimental results. The increased moisture content in powders results in an increased number of particle jets. This moisture effect can be understood in light of the varied energy distribution due to the incompressibility of the interstitial liquids trapped inside the inter-grain pores. The portion of shock energy which is not consumed in the shock compaction of the wet powders would be dissipated through the viscous shear flows during the unloading of the wet powder compact. The excessive viscous energy requires to activate more localized shear flows, accordingly leading to an increased number of particle jets.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Burrows, D. N.; Falcone, A.; Liang, E. W.; Zhang, B. B.; Zhang, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Evans, P.; Osborne, J.


    We present a systematic temporal and spectral study of all Swift-X-ray Telescope observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows discovered between 2005 January and 2007 December. After constructing and fitting all light curves and spectra to power-law models, we classify the components of each afterglow in terms of the canonical X-ray afterglow and test them against the closure relations of the forward shock models for a variety of parameter combinations. The closure relations are used to identify potential jet breaks with characteristics including the uniform jet model with and without lateral spreading and energy injection, and a power-law structured jet model, all with a range of parameters. With this technique, we survey the X-ray afterglows with strong evidence for jet breaks (∼12% of our sample), and reveal cases of potential jet breaks that do not appear plainly from the light curve alone (another ∼30%), leading to insight into the missing jet break problem. Those X-ray light curves that do not show breaks or have breaks that are not consistent with one of the jet models are explored to place limits on the times of unseen jet breaks. The distribution of jet break times ranges from a few hours to a few weeks with a median of ∼1 day, similar to what was found pre-Swift. On average, Swift GRBs have lower isotropic equivalent γ-ray energies, which in turn result in lower collimation corrected γ-ray energies than those of pre-Swift GRBs. Finally, we explore the implications for GRB jet geometry and energetics.

  8. The Properties of Short Gamma-Ray Burst Jets Triggered by Neutron Star Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Montes, Gabriela [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); De Colle, Fabio [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-543 04510 D. F. (Mexico); Rezzolla, Luciano; Takami, Kentaro [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rosswog, Stephan [Astronomy and Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Perego, Albino [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lee, William H. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-264 04510 D. F. (Mexico)


    The most popular model for short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) involves the coalescence of binary neutron stars. Because the progenitor is actually hidden from view, we must consider under which circumstances such merging systems are capable of producing a successful sGRB. Soon after coalescence, winds are launched from the merger remnant. In this paper, we use realistic wind profiles derived from global merger simulations in order to investigate the interaction of sGRB jets with these winds using numerical simulations. We analyze the conditions for which these axisymmetric winds permit relativistic jets to break out and produce an sGRB. We find that jets with luminosities comparable to those observed in sGRBs are only successful when their half-opening angles are below ≈20°. This jet collimation mechanism leads to a simple physical interpretation of the luminosities and opening angles inferred for sGRBs. If wide, low-luminosity jets are observed, they might be indicative of a different progenitor avenue such as the merger of a neutron star with a black hole. We also use the observed durations of sGRB to place constraints on the lifetime of the wind phase, which is determined by the time it takes the jet to break out. In all cases we find that the derived limits argue against completely stable remnants for binary neutron star mergers that produce sGRBs.

  9. A Reconnection Switch to Trigger gamma-Ray Burst Jet Dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.


    Prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission requires some mechanism to dissipate an ultrarelativistic jet. Internal shocks or some form of electromagnetic dissipation are candidate mechanisms. Any mechanism needs to answer basic questions, such as what is the origin of variability, what radius does dissipation occur at, and how does efficient prompt emission occur. These mechanisms also need to be consistent with how ultrarelativistic jets form and stay baryon pure despite turbulence and electromagnetic reconnection near the compact object and despite stellar entrainment within the collapsar model. We use the latest magnetohydrodynamical models of ultrarelativistic jets to explore some of these questions in the context of electromagnetic dissipation due to the slow collisional and fast collisionless reconnection mechanisms, as often associated with Sweet-Parker and Petschek reconnection, respectively. For a highly magnetized ultrarelativistic jet and typical collapsar parameters, we find that significant electromagnetic dissipation may be avoided until it proceeds catastrophically near the jet photosphere at large radii (r {approx} 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14}cm), by which the jet obtains a high Lorentz factor ({gamma} {approx} 100-1000), has a luminosity of L{sub j} {approx} 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg s{sup -1}, has observer variability timescales of order 1s (ranging from 0.001-10s), achieves {gamma}{theta}{sub j} {approx} 10-20 (for opening half-angle {theta}{sub j}) and so is able to produce jet breaks, and has comparable energy available for both prompt and afterglow emission. A range of model parameters are investigated and simplified scaling laws are derived. This reconnection switch mechanism allows for highly efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy into prompt emission and associates the observed prompt GRB pulse temporal structure with dissipation timescales of some number of reconnecting current sheets embedded in the jet. We hope this work helps motivate the

  10. Choked jets and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as hidden neutrino sources (United States)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter


    We consider gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets that are choked by extended material as sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics both inside the progenitor star and the surrounding dense medium. Radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production, are considered as well. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in a dense, extended wind or outer envelope. Such conditions also favor GRB jets to become stalled, and the necessary conditions for stalling are explicitly derived. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic supernovae (SNe) and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs, giving a unified picture of GRBs and GRB-SNe. Focusing on this unified scenario for GRBs, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra from choked jets, including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in p p and p γ interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results for the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux. Our results are consistent with the present IceCube data and do not violate the stacking limits on classical high-luminosity GRBs. We find that high-energy neutrino production in choked jets is dominated by p γ interactions. These sources are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Assuming stalled jets can launch a quasispherical shock in the dense medium, "precursor" TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout gamma-ray emission can be used as smoking-gun evidence for a choked jet model for LL GRBs. Our results strengthen the relevance of wide field-of-view sky monitors with better sensitivities in the 1-100 keV range.

  11. Search for a Signature of Interaction between Relativistic Jet and Progenitor in Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Yoneoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro


    The time variability of prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is expected to originate from the temporal behavior of the central engine activity and the jet propagation in the massive stellar envelope. Using a pulse search algorithm for bright GRBs, we investigate the time variability of gamma-ray light curves to search a signature of the interaction between the jet and the inner structure of the progenitor. Since this signature might appear in the earlier phase of prompt emission, we divide the light curves into the initial phase and the late phase by referring to the trigger time and the burst duration of each GRB. We also adopt this algorithm for GRBs associated with supernovae/hypernovae that certainly are accompanied by massive stars. However, there is no difference between each pulse interval distribution described by a lognorma distribution in the two phases. We confirm that this result can be explained by the photospheric emission model if the energy injection of the central engine is not steady or completely periodic but episodic and described by the lognormal distribution with a mean of ˜1 s.

  12. Search for a Signature of Interaction between Relativistic Jet and Progenitor in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Yoneoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astrophysical Big Ban Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    The time variability of prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is expected to originate from the temporal behavior of the central engine activity and the jet propagation in the massive stellar envelope. Using a pulse search algorithm for bright GRBs, we investigate the time variability of gamma-ray light curves to search a signature of the interaction between the jet and the inner structure of the progenitor. Since this signature might appear in the earlier phase of prompt emission, we divide the light curves into the initial phase and the late phase by referring to the trigger time and the burst duration of each GRB. We also adopt this algorithm for GRBs associated with supernovae/hypernovae that certainly are accompanied by massive stars. However, there is no difference between each pulse interval distribution described by a lognorma distribution in the two phases. We confirm that this result can be explained by the photospheric emission model if the energy injection of the central engine is not steady or completely periodic but episodic and described by the lognormal distribution with a mean of ∼1 s.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe, E-mail: [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012 (China)


    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by H α images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory . The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND /WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  14. Pulsar-Driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Middleditch


    Full Text Available The bipolarity of Supernova 1987A can be understood through its very early light curve from the CTIO 0.4 m telescope and IUE FES and following speckle observations of the “Mystery Spot”. These indicate a beam/jet of light/particles, with initial collimation factors >104 and velocities >0.95 c, involving up to 10−5 M⊙ interacting with circumstellar material. These can be produced by a model of pulsar emission from polarization currents induced/(modulated faster than c beyond the pulsar light cylinder by the periodic electromagnetic field (supraluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP. SLIP accounts for the disruption of supernova progenitors and their anomalous dimming at cosmological distances, jets from Sco X-1 and SS 433, the lack/presence of pulsations from the high-/low-luminosity low-mass X-ray binaries, and long/short gamma-ray bursts, and it predicts that their afterglows are the pulsed optical-/near-infrared emission associated with these pulsars. SLIP may also account for the TeV e+/e− results from PAMELA and ATIC, the WMAP “Haze”/Fermi “Bubbles,” and the r-process. SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without dark matter and explain the peculiar nongravitational motions between pairs of distant galaxies observed by GALEX.

  15. X-ray burst studies with the JENSA gas jet target (United States)

    Schmidt, Konrad; Chipps, Kelly A.; Ahn, Sunghoon; Allen, Jacob M.; Ayoub, Sara; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Blankstein, Drew; Browne, Justin; Cha, Soomi; Chae, Kyung YUK; Cizewski, Jolie; Deibel, Catherine M.; Deleeuw, Eric; Gomez, Orlando; Greife, Uwe; Hager, Ulrike; Hall, Matthew R.; Jones, Katherine L.; Kontos, Antonios; Kozub, Raymond L.; Lee, Eunji; Lepailleur, Alex; Linhardt, Laura E.; Matos, Milan; Meisel, Zach; Montes, Fernando; O'Malley, Patrick D.; Ong, Wei Jia; Pain, Steven D.; Sachs, Alison; Schatz, Hendrik; Schmitt, Kyle T.; Smith, Karl; Smith, Michael S.; Soares de Bem, Natã F.; Thompson, Paul J.; Toomey, Rebecca; Walter, David


    When a neutron star accretes hydrogen and helium from the outer layers of its companion star, thermonuclear burning enables the αp-process as a break out mechanism from the hot CNO cycle. Model calculations predict (α, p) reaction rates significantly affect both the light curves and elemental abundances in the burst ashes. The Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) gas jet target enables the direct measurement of previously inaccessible (α,p) reactions with radioactive beams provided by the rare isotope re-accelerator ReA3 at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), USA. JENSA is going to be the main target for the Recoil Separator for Capture Reactions (SECAR) at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). Commissioning of JENSA and first experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) showed a highly localized, pure gas target with a density of ˜1019 atoms per square centimeter. Preliminary results are presented from the first direct cross section measurement of the 34Ar(α, p)37 K reaction at NSCL.

  16. Looking inside jets: optical polarimetry as a probe of Gamma-Ray Bursts physics (United States)

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C.


    It is broadly accepted that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powered by accretion of matter by black holes, formed during massive stellar collapse, which launch ultra-relativistic, collimated outflows or jets. The nature of the progenitor star, the structure of the jet, and thus the underlying mechanisms that drive the explosion and provide collimation, remain some of the key unanswered questions. To approach these problems, and in particular the role of magnetic fields in GRBs, early time-resolved polarimetry is the key, because it is the only direct probe of the magnetic fields structure. Using novel fast RINGO polarimeter developed for use on the 2-m robotic optical Liverpool Telescope, we have made the first measurements of optical linear polarization of the early optical afterglows of GRBs, finding linear percentage polarization as high as 30% and, for the first time, making time-resolved polarization measurements. I will present the past 8 years of RINGO observations, discuss how the results fit into the GRB theoretical picture, and highlight recent data, in particular high-time resolution multi-colour optical photometry performed during the prompt GRB phase, which also provides some limits on polarization.

  17. X-ray burst studies with the JENSA gas jet target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Konrad


    Full Text Available When a neutron star accretes hydrogen and helium from the outer layers of its companion star, thermonuclear burning enables the αp-process as a break out mechanism from the hot CNO cycle. Model calculations predict (α, p reaction rates significantly affect both the light curves and elemental abundances in the burst ashes. The Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA gas jet target enables the direct measurement of previously inaccessible (α,p reactions with radioactive beams provided by the rare isotope re-accelerator ReA3 at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL, USA. JENSA is going to be the main target for the Recoil Separator for Capture Reactions (SECAR at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB. Commissioning of JENSA and first experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL showed a highly localized, pure gas target with a density of ∼1019 atoms per square centimeter. Preliminary results are presented from the first direct cross section measurement of the 34Ar(α, p37 K reaction at NSCL.

  18. 'Jet breaks' and 'missing breaks' in the X-Ray afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, Alvaro


    The X-ray afterglows (AGs) of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and X-Ray Flashes (XRFs) have, after the fast decline phase of their prompt emission, a temporal behaviour varying between two extremes. A large fraction of these AGs has a 'canonical' light curve which, after an initial shallow-decay 'plateau' phase, 'breaks smoothly' into a fast power-law decline. Very energetic GRBs, contrariwise, appear not to have a 'break', their AG declines like a power-law from the start of the observations. Breaks and 'missing breaks' are intimately related to the geometry and deceleration of the jets responsible for GRBs. In the frame of the 'cannonball' (CB) model of GRBs and XRFs, we analyze the cited extreme behaviours (canonical and pure power-law) and intermediate cases spanning the observed range of X-ray AG shapes. We show that the entire panoply of X-ray light-curve shapes --measured with Swift and other satellites-- are as anticipated, on very limpid grounds, by the CB model. We test the expected correlations between the...

  19. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel


    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  20. Formation of Bipolar Lobes by Jets (United States)

    Soker, Noam


    I conduct an analytical study of the interaction of jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW), with a previously blown asymptotic giant branch (AGB) slow wind. Such jets (or CFWs) are supposedly formed when a compact companion, a main-sequence star, or a white dwarf accretes mass from the AGB star, forms an accretion disk, and blows two jets. This type of flow, which I think shapes bipolar planetary nebulae (PNs), requires three-dimensional gasdynamical simulations, which are limited in the parameter space they can cover. By imposing several simplifying assumptions, I derive simple expressions which reproduce some basic properties of lobes in bipolar PNs and which can be used to guide future numerical simulations. I quantitatively apply the results to two proto-PNs. I show that the jet interaction with the slow wind can form lobes which are narrow close to, and far away from, the central binary system, and which are wider somewhere in between. Jets that are recollimated and have constant cross section can form cylindrical lobes with constant diameter, as observed in several bipolar PNs. Close to their source, jets blown by main-sequence companions are radiative; only further out they become adiabatic, i.e., they form high-temperature, low-density bubbles that inflate the lobes.

  1. Probe initial parton density and formation time via jet quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian


    Medium modification of jet fragmentation function due to multiple scattering and induced gluon radiation leads directly to jet quenching or suppression of leading particle distribution from jet fragmentation. One can extract an effective total parton energy loss which can be related to the total transverse momentum broadening. For an expanding medium, both are shown to be sensitive to the initial parton density and formation time. Therefore, one can extract the initial parton density and formation time from simultaneous measurements of parton energy loss and transverse momentum broadening. Implication of the recent experimental data on effects of detailed balance in parton energy loss is also discussed



    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshots reveal dramatic activities within the core of the galaxy NGC 3079, where a lumpy bubble of hot gas is rising from a cauldron of glowing matter. The picture at left shows the bubble in the center of the galaxy's disk. The structure is more than 3,000 light-years wide and rises 3,500 light-years above the galaxy's disk. The smaller photo at right is a close-up view of the bubble. Astronomers suspect that the bubble is being blown by 'winds' (high-speed streams of particles) released during a burst of star formation. Gaseous filaments at the top of the bubble are whirling around in a vortex and are being expelled into space. Eventually, this gas will rain down upon the galaxy's disk where it may collide with gas clouds, compress them, and form a new generation of stars. The two white dots just above the bubble are probably stars in the galaxy. The close-up reveals that the bubble's surface is lumpy, consisting of four columns of gaseous filaments that tower above the galaxy's disk. The filaments disperse at a height of 2,000 light-years. Each filament is about 75 light-years wide. Velocity measurements taken by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in Hawaii show that the gaseous filaments are ascending at more than 4 million miles an hour (6 million kilometers an hour). According to theoretical models, the bubble formed when ongoing winds from hot stars mixed with small bubbles of very hot gas from supernova explosions. Observations of the core's structure by radio telescopes indicate that those processes are still active. The models suggest that this outflow began about a million years ago. They occur about every 10 million years. Eventually, the hot stars will die, and the bubble's energy source will fade away. Astronomers have seen evidence of previous outbursts from radio and X-ray observations. Those studies show rings of dust and gas and long plumes of material, all of which are larger than the bubble. NGC 3079 is 50

  3. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  4. Visualization of synthetic jet formation in air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Broučková, Zuzana; Kordík, Jozef; Vít, T.


    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2015), s. 595-609 ISSN 1343-8875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * flow visualization * hot-wire anemometry Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2015

  5. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)


    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  6. Jet-induced star formation in gas-rich galaxies (United States)

    Gaibler, V.; Khochfar, S.; Krause, M.; Silk, J.


    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) has become a major component in simulations of galaxy evolution, in particular for massive galaxies. AGN jets have been shown to provide a large amount of energy and are capable of quenching cooling flows. Their impact on the host galaxy, however, is still not understood. Subgrid models of AGN activity in a galaxy evolution context so far have been mostly focused on the quenching of star formation. To shed more light on the actual physics of the 'radio mode' part of AGN activity, we have performed simulations of the interaction of a powerful AGN jet with the massive gaseous disc (1011 M⊙) of a high-redshift galaxy. We spatially resolve both the jet and the clumpy, multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) and include an explicit star formation model in the simulation. Following the system over more than 107 yr, we find that the jet activity excavates the central region, but overall causes a significant change to the shape of the density probability distribution function and hence the star formation rate due to the formation of a blast wave with strong compression and cooling in the ISM. This results in a ring- or disc-shaped population of young stars. At later times, the increase in star formation rate also occurs in the disc regions further out since the jet cocoon pressurizes the ISM. The total mass of the additionally formed stars may be up to 1010 M⊙ for one duty cycle. We discuss the details of this jet-induced star formation (positive feedback) and its potential consequences for galaxy evolution and observable signatures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [TASC, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)


    The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with {rho}{sub ext}{proportional_to}r{sup -k} for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle {theta}{sub 0} = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor {Gamma} drops below {theta}{sup -1}{sub 0}. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when {Gamma} > {theta}{sup -1}{sub 0}) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for {theta}{sub obs} {<=} {theta}{sub 0}) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 {<=} k {<=} 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results

  8. Simulations of Gamma-Ray Burst Jets in a Stratified External Medium: Dynamics, Afterglow Light Curves, Jet Breaks, and Radio Calorimetry (United States)

    De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Lopez-Camara, Diego


    The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with ρextvpropr -k for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle θ0 = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor Γ drops below θ-1 0. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when Γ > θ-1 0) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for θobs <= θ0) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 <= k <= 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results in a clear bump-like feature in the light curve. However, for larger k values the jet decelerates more

  9. Effect of finite container size on granular jet formation (United States)

    von Kann, Stefan; Joubaud, Sylvain; Caballero-Robledo, Gabriel A.; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj


    When an object is dropped into a bed of fine, loosely packed sand, a surprisingly energetic jet shoots out of the bed. In this work we study the effect that boundaries have on the granular jet formation. We did this by (i) decreasing the depth of the sand bed and (ii) reducing the container diameter to only a few ball diameters. These confinements change the behavior of the ball inside the bed, the void collapse, and the resulting jet height and shape. We map the parameter space of impact with Froude number, ambient pressure, and container dimensions as parameters. From these results we propose an explanation for the thick-thin structure of the jet reported by several groups ([J. R. Royer , Nat. Phys. 1, 164 (2005)], [G. Caballero , Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 018001 (2007)], and [J. O. Marston , Phys. Fluids 20, 023301 (2008)]).

  10. Formation and Destruction of Jets in X-ray Binaries (United States)

    Kylafix, N. D.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Christodoulou, D. M.


    Context. Neutron-star and black-hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) exhibit radio jets, whose properties depend on the X-ray spectral state e.nd history of the source. In particular, black-hole XRBs emit compact, 8teady radio jets when they are in the so-called hard state. These jets become eruptive as the sources move toward the soft state, disappear in the soft state, and then re-appear when the sources return to the hard state. The jets from neutron-star X-ray binaries are typically weaker radio emitters than the black-hole ones at the same X-ray luminosity and in some cases radio emission is detected in the soft state. Aims. Significant phenomenology has been developed to describe the spectral states of neutron-star and black-hole XRBs, and there is general agreement about the type of the accretion disk around the compact object in the various spectral states. We investigate whether the phenomenology describing the X-ray emission on one hand and the jet appearance and disappearance on the other can be put together in a consistent physical picture. Methods. We consider the so-called Poynting-Robertson cosmic battery (PRCB), which has been shown to explain in a natural way the formation of magnetic fields in the disks of AGNs and the ejection of jets. We investigate whether the PRCB can also explain the [ormation, destruction, and variability or jets in XRBs. Results. We find excellent agreement between the conditions under which the PRCB is efficient (i.e., the type of the accretion disk) and the emission or destruction of the r.adio jet. Conclusions. The disk-jet connection in XRBs can be explained in a natural way using the PRCB.

  11. The Formation of Relativistic Jets from Kerr Black Holes (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Hardee, P.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.


    We have performed the first fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) simulation for Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes with a free falling corona and thin accretion disk. The initial simulation results with a Schwarzschild metric show that a jet is created as in the previous axisymmetric simulations with mirror symmetry at the equator. However, the time to form the jet is slightly longer than in the 2-D axisymmetric simulation. We expect that the dynamics of jet formation are modified due to the additional freedom in the azimuth dimension without axisymmetry with respect to the Z axis and reflection symmetry respect to the equatorial plane. The jet which is initially formed due to the twisted magnetic fields and shocks becomes a wind at the later time. The wind flows out with a much wider angle than the initial jet. The twisted magnetic fields at the earlier time were untwisted and less pinched. The accretion disk became thicker than the initial condition. Further simulations with initial perturbations will provide insights for accretion dynamics with instabilities such as magneto-rotational instability (MRI) and accretion-eject instability (AEI). These instabilities may contribute to variabilities observed in microquasars and AGN jets.

  12. Spray Formation of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids using Impinging Jets (United States)

    Rodrigues, Neil; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Sojka, Paul E.


    The impinging jet spray formation of two non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, Herschel-Bulkley fluids was investigated in this work. The water-based gelled solutions used were 1.0 wt.-% agar and 1.0 wt.-% kappa carrageenan. A rotational rheometer and a capillary viscometer were used to measure the strain-rate dependency of viscosity and the Herschel-Bulkley Extended (HBE) rheological model was used to characterize the shear-thinning behavior. A generalized HBE jet Reynolds number Rej , gen - HBE was used as the primary parameter to characterize the spray formation. A like-on-like impinging jet doublet was used to produce atomization. Shadowgraphs were captured in the plane of the sheet formed by the two jets using a CCD camera with an Nd:YAG laser beam providing the back-illumination. Typical behavior for impinging jet atomization using Newtonian liquids was not generally observed due to the non-Newtonian, viscous properties of the agar and kappa carrageenan gels. Instead various spray patterns were observed depending on Rej , gen - HBE. Spray characteristics of maximum instability wavelength and sheet breakup length were extracted from the shadowgraphs. Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.

  13. A magnetodynamic mechanism for the formation of astrophysical jets, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kazunari; Uchida, Yutaka.


    We present a nonsteady magnetodynamic mechanism for the formation of astrophysical jets in a magnetized accretion disk system. The dynamical processes in the contraction of a rotating disk, which is penetrated by a magnetic field parallel to the rotation axis, are investigated by using axially symmetric 2.5-dimensional MHD numerical simulations. As the rotating disk contracts, it pulls the magnetic field towards the center as well as to the azimuthal direction, producing a helically twisted magnetic field, and as the magnetic twist is accumulated and begins to relax along the poloidal field, the gas in the surface layers of the disk is pushed out to the polar directions by the J x B force with the relaxing magnetic twist. It is shown that the accelerated gas is collimated by the magnetic field and forms a supersonic bipolar jet which has a hollow cylindrical shell structure with helical motion in it. A considerable fraction of the gravitational potential energy released in the contraction of the disk is transformed to the kinetic energy of the jet through the action of the magnetic field. Also, angular momentum is carried away from the disk by the magnetic torque especially in the phase of the jet formation, and this allows the disk to keep contracting towards the gravitating center and can continue the ejection of the jet. (author)

  14. TeV-PeV neutrinos from low-power gamma-ray burst jets inside stars. (United States)

    Murase, Kohta; Ioka, Kunihito


    We study high-energy neutrino production in collimated jets inside progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae, considering both collimation and internal shocks. We obtain simple, useful constraints, using the often overlooked point that shock acceleration of particles is ineffective at radiation-mediated shocks. Classical GRBs may be too powerful to produce high-energy neutrinos inside stars, which is consistent with IceCube nondetections. We find that ultralong GRBs avoid such constraints and detecting the TeV signal will support giant progenitors. Predictions for low-power GRB classes including low-luminosity GRBs can be consistent with the astrophysical neutrino background IceCube may detect, with a spectral steepening around PeV. The models can be tested with future GRB monitors.

  15. VLBA Reveals Formation Region of Giant Cosmic Jet (United States)


    Astronomers have gained their first glimpse of the mysterious region near a black hole at the heart of a distant galaxy, where a powerful stream of subatomic particles spewing outward at nearly the speed of light is formed into a beam, or jet, that then goes nearly straight for thousands of light-years. The astronomers used radio telescopes in Europe and the U.S., including the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most detailed images ever of the center of the galaxy M87, some 50 million light-years away. "This is the first time anyone has seen the region in which a cosmic jet is formed into a narrow beam," said Bill Junor of the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque. "We had always speculated that the jet had to be made by some mechanism relatively near the black hole, but as we looked closer and closer to the center, we kept seeing an already-formed beam. That was becoming embarrassing, because we were running out of places to put the formation mechanism that we knew had to be there." Junor, along with John Biretta and Mario Livio of the Space Telescope Science Institute, in Baltimore, MD, now have shown that M87's jet is formed within a few tenths of a light-year of the galaxy's core, presumed to be a black hole three billion times more massive than the sun. In the formation region, the jet is seen opening widely, at an angle of about 60 degrees, nearest the black hole, but is squeezed down to only 6 degrees a few light-years away. "The 60-degree angle of the inner part of M87's jet is the widest such angle yet seen in any jet in the universe," said Junor. "We found this by being able to see the jet to within a few hundredths of a light-year of the galaxy's core -- an unprecedented level of detail." The scientists reported their findings in the October 28 issue of the journal Nature. At the center of M87, material being drawn inward by the strong gravitation of the black hole is formed into a rapidly-spinning flat

  16. The formation and disruption of black hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Gabuzda, Denise; Kylafis, Nikolaos


    This book reviews the phenomenology displayed by relativistic jets as well as the most recent theoretical efforts to understand the physical mechanisms at their origin. Relativistic jets have been observed and studied in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) for about half a century and are believed to be fueled by accretion onto a supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy. Since the first discovery of relativistic jets associated with so-called "micro-quasars" much more recently, it has seemed clear that much of the physics governing the relativistic outflows in stellar X-ray binaries harboring black holes and in AGN must be common, but acting on very different spatial and temporal scales. With new observational and theoretical results piling up every day, this book attempts to synthesize a consistent, unified physical picture of the formation and disruption of jets in accreting black-hole systems. The chapters in this book offer overviews accessible not only to specialists but also to graduat...

  17. The association of a J-burst with a solar jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Fallows, R. A.; Reid, H.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Magdalenić, J.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Vocks, C.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; Hoeft, M.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Kuper, G.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Schwarz, D. J.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.


    Context. The Sun is an active star that produces large-scale energetic events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and numerous smaller scale events such as solar jets. These events are often associated with accelerated particles that can cause emission at radio wavelengths. The

  18. Study of fuel powder formation in reactive coaxial jets; Etude de la formation de poudre dans des jets coaxiaux reactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablitzer, C


    One step of the conversion of gaseous UF{sub 6} to solid UO{sub 2} by dry route is the formation of particles of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} in a triple coaxial jet UF{sub 6}/N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The characteristics of resulting powder have an influence on the properties of final particles of UO{sub 2}, and then on the quality of pellets of nuclear fuel. So a good control of this step of the process is of interest. This study deals with an experimental investigation and modelling of the influence of various parameters on particles obtained by reaction in a turbulent coaxial jet. For example, the influence of absolute and relative velocities of gases on particle size distributions has been investigated. Two kinds of experimental studies have been undertaken. First, the development of mixing layers in the near field of the jet has been evaluated with temperature measurements. Then, particle size distributions have been measured with e turbidimetric sensor, for particles obtained by hydrolysis of gaseous metallic chlorides (SnCl{sub 4}, TiCl{sub 4}) in double and triple coaxial jets. A model has been proposed for mixing of gases and growth of particles. It takes into account the development of mixing layers, meso-mixing, micro-mixing and growth of particles through agglomeration. The influence of operating parameters, especially velocities, on experimental results appear to be different for TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O jets and SnCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O jets. In fact, a comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows that particles obtained by hydrolysis of TiCl{sub 4} seem to grow mainly through agglomeration whereas another growth phenomenon may be involved for particles obtained by hydrolysis of SnCl{sub 4}. (authors)

  19. Jet formation and interference in a thin QCD medium

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Tywoniuk, Konrad


    In heavy-ion collisions, an abundant production of high-energy QCD jets allows to study how these multiparticle sprays are modified as they pass through the quark-gluon plasma. In order to shed new light on this process, we compute the inclusive two-gluon rate off a hard quark propagating through a color deconfined medium at first order in medium opacity. We explicitly impose an energy ordering of the two emitted gluons, such that the "hard" gluon can be thought of as belonging to the jet substructure while the other is a "soft" emission (which can be collinear or medium-induced). Our analysis focusses on two specific limits that clarify the modification of the additional angle- and formation time-ordering of splittings. In one limit, the formation time of the "hard" gluon is short compared to the "soft" gluon formation time, leading to a probabilistic formula for production of and subsequent radiation off a quark-gluon antenna. In the other limit, the ordering of formation is reverted, which automatically le...

  20. Jet-induced star formation in gas-rich galaxies


    Gaibler, Volker; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krause, Martin; Silk, Joseph


    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) has become a major component in simulations of galaxy evolution, in particular for massive galaxies. AGN jets have been shown to provide a large amount of energy and are capable of quenching cooling flows. Their impact on the host galaxy, however, is still not understood. Subgrid models of AGN activity in a galaxy evolution context so far have been mostly focused on the quenching of star formation. To shed more light on the actual physics of the "rad...

  1. Universal scaling laws of top jet drop size and speed in bubble bursting (United States)

    Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso


    The collapse of a bubble of radius Ro at the surface of a liquid generating a liquid jet and a subsequent first drop of radius R follows a universal flow pattern that can be universally scaled using the difference between the parent bubble radius and a critical radius R* =Oh*-2μ2 /(ρσ) below which no droplet is ejected for a given Newtonian liquid. Here, Oh* = 0.037 is the critical Ohnesorge number, where Oh = μ /(ρσRo) 1 / 2 ; ρ, σ and μ are the liquid density, surface tension and viscosity. Based on a flow singularity occurring for Ro =R* , a scaling analysis of the complex flow structure at the onset of jet ejection for Ro >R* leads to the diameter of the first emitted droplet and the initial ejection velocity: D =kd(Ro -R*) 5 / 4R* - 1 / 4 and V =kv σμ-1(Ro -R*) 3 / 4R* - 3 / 4 , respectively. A remarkable collapse of data taken from available literature since 1954 to 2017 furnishes the universal constants kd = 0.1 and kv = 1.6 , for negligible gravity effects.The role of gravity is subdominant and can be reflected by the exponential dependence of the scaling laws obtained on the Bond number. This work was supported by the Ministerio de Economy Competitividad, Plan Estatal 2013-2016 Retos, project DPI2016-78887-C3-1-R.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, O.; Janka, H.-T.; Schwarz, N.; Obergaulinger, M.; Bauswein, A.


    We present the first special relativistic, axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of black hole-torus systems (approximating general relativistic gravity) as remnants of binary-neutron star (NS–NS) and neutron star–black hole (NS–BH) mergers, in which the viscously driven evolution of the accretion torus is followed with self-consistent energy-dependent neutrino transport and the interaction with the cloud of dynamical ejecta expelled during the NS–NS merging is taken into account. The modeled torus masses, BH masses and spins, and the ejecta masses, velocities, and spatial distributions are adopted from relativistic merger simulations. We find that energy deposition by neutrino annihilation can accelerate outflows with initially high Lorentz factors along polar low-density funnels, but only in mergers with extremely low baryon pollution in the polar regions. NS–BH mergers, where polar mass ejection during the merging phase is absent, provide sufficiently baryon-poor environments to enable neutrino-powered, ultrarelativistic jets with terminal Lorentz factors above 100 and considerable dynamical collimation, favoring short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs), although their typical energies and durations might be too small to explain the majority of events. In the case of NS–NS mergers, however, neutrino emission of the accreting and viscously spreading torus is too short and too weak to yield enough energy for the outflows to break out from the surrounding ejecta shell as highly relativistic jets. We conclude that neutrino annihilation alone cannot power sGRBs from NS–NS mergers


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, O.; Janka, H.-T.; Schwarz, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Obergaulinger, M. [Departament d´Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, Edifici d´Investigació Jeroni Muñoz, C/ Dr. Moliner, 50, E-46100 Burjassot (València) (Spain); Bauswein, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    We present the first special relativistic, axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of black hole-torus systems (approximating general relativistic gravity) as remnants of binary-neutron star (NS–NS) and neutron star–black hole (NS–BH) mergers, in which the viscously driven evolution of the accretion torus is followed with self-consistent energy-dependent neutrino transport and the interaction with the cloud of dynamical ejecta expelled during the NS–NS merging is taken into account. The modeled torus masses, BH masses and spins, and the ejecta masses, velocities, and spatial distributions are adopted from relativistic merger simulations. We find that energy deposition by neutrino annihilation can accelerate outflows with initially high Lorentz factors along polar low-density funnels, but only in mergers with extremely low baryon pollution in the polar regions. NS–BH mergers, where polar mass ejection during the merging phase is absent, provide sufficiently baryon-poor environments to enable neutrino-powered, ultrarelativistic jets with terminal Lorentz factors above 100 and considerable dynamical collimation, favoring short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs), although their typical energies and durations might be too small to explain the majority of events. In the case of NS–NS mergers, however, neutrino emission of the accreting and viscously spreading torus is too short and too weak to yield enough energy for the outflows to break out from the surrounding ejecta shell as highly relativistic jets. We conclude that neutrino annihilation alone cannot power sGRBs from NS–NS mergers.

  4. Neutron model for the formation of AGN jets with Cetral Radio Gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, there has been an attempt to explain the formation of jets in some radio sources with gaps at their centers using the neutron “production-to-decay” process. The jet-light-up point is taken to coincide with the end of the lifetime of the neutrons. Calculated intrinsic opening angles for the jets of the selected Active ...

  5. On a Solar Blowout Jet: Driving Mechanism and the Formation of Cool and Hot Components (United States)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Ying D.; Su, Jiangtao; Qu, Zhining; Tian, Zhanjun


    We present observations of a blowout jet that experienced two distinct ejection stages. The first stage started from the emergence of a small positive magnetic polarity, which was cancelled by the nearby negative magnetic field and caused the rising of a mini-filament and its confining loops. This further resulted in a small jet due to the magnetic reconnection between the rising confining loops and the overlying open field. The second ejection stage was mainly due to successive removal of the confining field by reconnection: the filament erupted, and the erupting cool filament material directly combined with the hot jet that originated form the reconnection region and therefore formed the cool and hot components of the blowout jet. During the two ejection stages, cool Hα jets are also observed cospatial with their coronal counterparts, but their appearance times are earlier by a few minutes than those of the hot coronal jets. The hot coronal jets are therefor possibly caused by the heating of the cool Hα jets or the rising of the reconnection height from the chromosphere to the corona. The scenario that magnetic reconnection occurred between the confining loops and the overlying open loops is supported by many observational facts, including the bright patches on both sides of the mini-filament, hot plasma blobs along the jet body, and periodic metric radio type III bursts at the very beginnings of the two stages. The evolution and characteristics of these features show the detailed nonlinear process in magnetic reconnection.

  6. The formation of turbulent vortex rings by synthetic jets (United States)

    Lawson, J. M.; Dawson, J. R.


    An investigation is made into the mechanism of pinch-off for turbulent vortex rings formed by a synthetic jet using time resolved particle image velocimetry measurements in air. During formation, measurements of the material acceleration field show a trailing pressure maximum (TPM) forms behind the vortex core. The adverse pressure gradient behind this TPM inhibits vorticity transport into the ring and the TPM is spatially coincident with the termination of vorticity flux into a control volume moving with the ring. A Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) analysis is shown to be in agreement with the role of the TPM in pinch-off and in identifying the vortex ring before separation. The LCS analysis provides physical insights which form the basis of a revised model of pinch-off, based on kinematics, which predicts the time of formation (formation number) well for the present dataset. The delivery of impulse to the vortex ring is also considered. Two equally important mechanisms are shown to play a role: a material flux and a vortex force. In the case of long maximum stroke ratio, it is demonstrated that a vortex force continues to deliver impulse to the ring after the material flux is terminated at pinch-off and that this contribution may be substantial. This shows that the pinch-off and separation process cannot be considered impulse invariant, which has important implications for unsteady propulsion, present models of vortex ring formation, and existing explanations for vortex ring pinch-off.

  7. Formation Rates of Black Hole Accretion Disk Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Hartmann, Dieter H.


    The cosmological origin of at least an appreciable fraction of classical gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is now supported by redshift measurements for a half-dozen faint host galaxies. Still, the nature of the central engine (or engines) that provide the burst energy remains unclear. While many models have been proposed, those currently favored are all based upon the formation of and/or rapid accretion into stellar-mass black holes. Here we discuss a variety of such scenarios and estimate the probability of each. Population synthesis calculations are carried out using a Monte Carlo approach in which the many uncertain parameters intrinsic to such calculations are varied. We estimate the event rate for each class of model as well as the propagation distances for those having significant delay between formation and burst production, i.e., double neutron star (DNS) mergers and black hole-neutron star (BH/NS) mergers. One conclusion is a 1-2 order of magnitude decrease in the rate of DNS and BH/NS mergers compared to that previously calculated using invalid assumptions about common envelope evolution. Other major uncertainties in the event rates and propagation distances include the history of star formation in the universe, the masses of the galaxies in which merging compact objects are born, and the radii of the hydrogen-stripped cores of massive stars. For reasonable assumptions regarding each, we calculate a daily event rate in the universe for (1) merging neutron stars: ∼100 day-1; (2) neutron star-black hole mergers: ∼450 day-1; (3) collapsars: ∼104 day-1; (4) helium star black hole mergers: ∼1000 day-1; and (5) white dwarf-black hole mergers: ∼20 day-1. The range of uncertainty in these numbers, however, is very large, typically 2-3 orders of magnitude. These rates must additionally be multiplied by any relevant beaming factor (f Ω <1) and sampling fraction (if the entire universal set of models is not being observed). Depending upon the mass of the host

  8. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution (United States)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark; Schiminovich, David


    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  9. Quenching or Bursting: Star Formation Acceleration—A New Methodology for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Darvish, Behnam; Seibert, Mark [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gonçalves, Thiago S. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Saude, Rio de Janeiro-RJ 20080-090 (Brazil); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    We introduce a new methodology for the direct extraction of galaxy physical parameters from multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy. We use semianalytic models that describe galaxy evolution in the context of large-scale cosmological simulation to provide a catalog of galaxies, star formation histories, and physical parameters. We then apply models of stellar population synthesis and a simple extinction model to calculate the observable broadband fluxes and spectral indices for these galaxies. We use a linear regression analysis to relate physical parameters to observed colors and spectral indices. The result is a set of coefficients that can be used to translate observed colors and indices into stellar mass, star formation rate, and many other parameters, including the instantaneous time derivative of the star formation rate, which we denote the Star Formation Acceleration (SFA), We apply the method to a test sample of galaxies with GALEX photometry and SDSS spectroscopy, deriving relationships between stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and SFA. We find evidence for a mass-dependent SFA in the green valley, with low-mass galaxies showing greater quenching and higher-mass galaxies greater bursting. We also find evidence for an increase in average quenching in galaxies hosting an active galactic nucleus. A simple scenario in which lower-mass galaxies accrete and become satellite galaxies, having their star-forming gas tidally and/or ram-pressure stripped, while higher-mass galaxies receive this gas and react with new star formation, can qualitatively explain our results.

  10. Burst Format Design for Optimum Joint Estimation of Doppler-Shift and Doppler-Rate in Packet Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giugno


    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimizing the burst format of packet transmission to perform enhanced-accuracy estimation of Doppler-shift and Doppler-rate of the carrier of the received signal, due to relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. Two novel burst formats that minimize the Doppler-shift and the Doppler-rate Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs for the joint estimation of carrier phase/Doppler-shift and of the Doppler-rate are derived, and a data-aided (DA estimation algorithm suitable for each optimal burst format is presented. Performance of the newly derived estimators is evaluated by analysis and by simulation, showing that such algorithms attain their relevant CRBs with very low complexity, so that they can be directly embedded into new-generation digital modems for satellite communications at low SNR.

  11. Burst Format Design for Optimum Joint Estimation of Doppler-Shift and Doppler-Rate in Packet Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanier Francesca


    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimizing the burst format of packet transmission to perform enhanced-accuracy estimation of Doppler-shift and Doppler-rate of the carrier of the received signal, due to relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. Two novel burst formats that minimize the Doppler-shift and the Doppler-rate Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs for the joint estimation of carrier phase/Doppler-shift and of the Doppler-rate are derived, and a data-aided (DA estimation algorithm suitable for each optimal burst format is presented. Performance of the newly derived estimators is evaluated by analysis and by simulation, showing that such algorithms attain their relevant CRBs with very low complexity, so that they can be directly embedded into new-generation digital modems for satellite communications at low SNR.

  12. High Performance Simulations of Accretion Disk Dynamics and Jet Formations Around Kerr Black Holes (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Watson, Michael


    We investigate jet formation in black-hole systems using 3-D General Relativistic Particle-In-Cell (GRPIC) and 3-D GRMHD simulations. GRPIC simulations, which allow charge separations in a collisionless plasma, do not need to invoke the frozen condition as in GRMHD simulations. 3-D GRPIC simulations show that jets are launched from Kerr black holes as in 3-D GRMHD simulations, but jet formation in the two cases may not be identical. Comparative study of black hole systems with GRPIC and GRMHD simulations with the inclusion of radiate transfer will further clarify the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disk-jet systems.

  13. Electron dynamics and plasma jet formation in a helium atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algwari, Q. Th. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Electronic Department, College of Electronics Engineering, Mosul University, Mosul 41002 (Iraq); O' Connell, D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)


    The excitation dynamics within the main plasma production region and the plasma jets of a kHz atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet operated in helium was investigated. Within the dielectric tube, the plasma ignites as a streamer-type discharge. Plasma jets are emitted from both the powered and grounded electrode end; their dynamics are compared and contrasted. Ignition of these jets are quite different; the jet emitted from the powered electrode is ignited with a slight time delay to plasma ignition inside the dielectric tube, while breakdown of the jet at the grounded electrode end is from charging of the dielectric and is therefore dependent on plasma production and transport within the dielectric tube. Present streamer theories can explain these dynamics.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessart, Luc; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.


    We present a quantitative study on the properties at death of fast-rotating massive stars evolved at low-metallicity—objects that are proposed as likely progenitors of long-duration γ-ray bursts (LGRBs). We perform one-dimensional+rotation stellar-collapse simulations on the progenitor models of Woosley and Heger, and critically assess their potential for the formation of a black hole and a Keplerian disk (namely, a collapsar) or a proto-magnetar. We note that theoretical uncertainties in the treatment of magnetic fields and the approximate handling of rotation compromise the accuracy of stellar-evolution models. We find that only the fastest rotating progenitors achieve sufficient compactness for black hole formation while the bulk of models possess a core density structure typical of garden-variety core-collapse supernova (SN) progenitors evolved without rotation and at solar metallicity. Of the models that do have sufficient compactness for black hole formation, most of them also retain a large amount of angular momentum in the core, making them prone to a magneto-rotational explosion, therefore preferentially leaving behind a proto-magnetar. A large progenitor angular-momentum budget is often the sole criterion invoked in the community today to assess the suitability for producing a collapsar. This simplification ignores equally important considerations such as the core compactness, which conditions black hole formation, the core angular momentum, which may foster a magneto-rotational explosion preventing black hole formation, or the metallicity and the residual envelope mass which must be compatible with inferences from observed LGRB/SNe. Our study suggests that black hole formation is non-trivial, that there is room for accommodating both collapsars and proto-magnetars as LGRB progenitors, although proto-magnetars seem much more easily produced by current stellar-evolutionary models.

  15. The Formation Rate of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts and Gravitational Waves (United States)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Wang, F. Y.


    In this paper, we study the luminosity function and formation rate of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs). First, we derive the {E}p{--}{L}p correlation using 16 sGRBs with redshift measurements and determine the pseudo redshifts of 284 Fermi sGRBs. Then, we use the Lynden-Bell c‑ method to study the luminosity function and formation rate of sGRBs without any assumptions. A strong evolution of luminosity L{(z)\\propto (1+z)}4.47 is found. After removing this evolution, the luminosity function is {{\\Psi }}(L)\\propto {L}0-0.29+/- 0.01 for dim sGRBs and \\psi (L)\\propto {L}0-1.07+/- 0.01 for bright sGRBs, with the break point 8.26× {10}50 erg s‑1. We also find that the formation rate decreases rapidly at zLIGO and Virgo is {0.85}-0.56+4.82 events yr‑1 for an NS–NS binary.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kitanidis, Ellie [Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kocevski, Daniel [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, College Park, MD (United States)


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), by virtue of their high luminosities, can be detected up to very high redshifts and therefore can be excellent probes of the early universe. This task is hampered by the fact that most of their characteristics have a broad range, so we first need to obtain an accurate description of the distribution of these characteristics and, especially, their cosmological evolution. We use a sample of about 200 Swift long GRBs with known redshifts to determine the evolution of the luminosity, formation rate, and the general shape of the luminosity function (LF). In contrast to most other forward-fitting methods of treating this problem, we use the Efron–Petrosian methods, which allow a non-parametric determination of the above quantities. We find a relatively strong luminosity evolution, an LF that can be fitted to a broken power law, and an unusually high formation rate at low redshifts, a rate more than one order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate (SFR). On the other hand, our results seem to agree with the almost constant SFR in redshifts 1–3 and the decline above this redshift.

  17. Why lower diatremes in kimberlitic and non-kimberlitic systems are non-stratified, homogenized, and contain steep internal contacts: episodic bursts and debris jets (United States)

    Ross, P.; White, J. D.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Lorenz, V.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.; McClintock, M.


    In both kimberlitic and non-kimberlitic systems, the volcaniclastic fill of the lower diatreme zone is often described as "homogenized" or "well mixed". Although the components come from different sources, the deposits display "a crude degree of textural and lithological consistency" (Clement and Reid, 1989, "Kimberlites and related rocks", p. 632-646). Bedding is typically absent from the lower diatreme but in some pipes, columnar bodies of volcaniclastic material occur. These bodies have steep contacts with, and a different grain size, componentry, etc. than, the enclosing host. Sometimes the difference can be subtle and the contacts gradational, making recognition difficult. Good examples are documented from Arizona and Antarctica in basaltic systems and such columnar bodies are also known in kimberlites, where they are sometimes called "feeder conduits". Both the homogenized aspect of many diatremes, and the generation of steep internal contacts, have been attributed to whole-pipe fluidization by some recent workers. This process is unlikely to occur in large pipes because it would take a huge amount of gas being emitted at a sufficient rate to fluidize the whole pipe. Other recent models call for Plinian-scale eruptions. However it is clear that small episodic bursts, not sustained Plinian plumes, must explain the genesis of the hundreds of relatively thin beds in maar tephra rims (maar- diatreme volcanoes do not generate large ignimbrites or thick widespread pyroclastic fall layers). Here we examine what these episodic bursts may do to the underground part of the maar-diatreme volcano. An explosion at deep levels in the pipe will generate enough gas to mobilize newly fragmented magma and existing debris upward into a "debris jet", typically much narrower than the width of the diatreme. Debris jets propagate within the existing diatreme fill and may or may not reach the surface. Experimental studies can be used to illustrate the processes at work. With time

  18. Unveiling the Secrets of Metallicity and Massive Star Formation Using DLAs Along Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Cucchiara, A.; Fumagalli, M.; Rafelski, M.; Kocevski, D.; Prochaska, J. X.; Cooke, R. J.; Becker, G. D.


    We present the largest, publicly available, sample of Damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs) along Swift discovered Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) line of sights in order to investigate the environmental properties of long GRB hosts in the z = 1.8 - 6 redshift range. Compared with the most recent quasar DLAs sample (QSO-DLA), our analysis shows that GRB-DLAs probe a more metal enriched environment at z approximately greater than 3, up to [X/H] approximately -0.5. In the z = 2 - 3 redshift range, despite the large number of lower limits, there are hints that the two populations may be more similar (only at 90% significance level) than at higher redshifts. Also, at high-z, the GRB-DLA average metallicity seems to decline at a shallower rate than the QSO-DLAs: GRB-DLA hosts may be polluted with metals at least as far as approximately 2 kpc from the GRB explosion site, probably due to previous star-formation episodes and/or supernovae explosions. This shallow metallicity trend, extended now up to z approximately 5, confirms previous results that GRB hosts are star-forming and have, on average, higher metallicity than the general QSO-DLA population. Finally, our host metallicity measurements are broadly consistent with the predictions derived from the hypothesis of two channels of GRB progenitors, one of which is mildly affected by a metallicity bias, although more data are needed to constrain the models at z approximately greater than 4.

  19. Connections Between Jet Formation and Multiwavelength Spectral Evolution in Black Hole Transients (United States)

    Kakemci, Emrah; Chun, Yoon-Young; Dincer, Tolga; Buxton, Michelle; Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip


    Multiwavelength observations are the key to understand conditions of jet formation in Galactic black hole transient (GBHT) systems. By studying radio and optical-infrared evolution of such systems during outburst decays, the compact jet formation can be traced. Comparing this with X-ray spectral and timing evolution we can obtain physical and geometrical conditions for jet formation, and study the contribution of jets to X-ray emission. In this work, first X-ray evolution - jet relation for XTE J1752-223 will be discussed. This source had very good coverage in X-rays, optical, infrared and radio. A long exposure with INTEGRAL also allowed us to study gamma-ray behavior after the jet turns on. We will also show results from the analysis of data from GX 339-4 in the hard state with SUZAKU at low flux levels. The fits to iron line fluorescence emission show that the inner disk radius increases by a factor of greater than 27 with respect to radii in bright states. This result, along with other disk radius measurements in the hard state will be discussed within the context of conditions for launching and sustaining jets.

  20. Photoexcitation cascade and quantum-relativistic jet formation in graphene (United States)

    Lewandowski, Cyprian; Levitov, Leonid

    Interactions between ultra-relativistic particles can lead to striking behavior in which a high-energy particle creates showers of softer particles characterized by a collimated angular distribution aligned with the particle velocity. These showers, known as jets, are a generic phenomenon relevant for all quantum cascades of linearly dispersing particles. This talk will discuss jets formed upon photoexcitation in graphene, which due to its linear dispersion provides an appealing medium for exploring quantum-relativistic phenomena. We will study the cascade generated by carrier-carrier collisions in photon absorption, wherein a single photon creates an electron-hole (e-h) excitation that decays producing multiple near-collinear secondary e-h excitations. We will argue that the cascade can occur through an off-shell mechanism such that all the particles and holes involved reside outside the energy-momentum dispersion manifold, relieving the bottleneck arising in the on-shell process due to energy and momentum conservation. The characteristics of the jets such as the angular and energy distribution of the particles will be discussed. Photogenerated jets provide an interesting setting to investigate the carrier-carrier collision processes in graphene and other Dirac materials. We acknowledge support of the Center for Integrated Quantum Materials (CIQM) under NSF award DMR-1231319.

  1. Experiment on the formation of boron nitride in the jet of low-temperature plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollo, I. (Politechnika Lubelska (Poland)); Aniol, S. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Katedra Chemii i Technologii Nieorganicznej)


    The paper deals with the experiments on the formation of boron nitride in the jet of nitric-argon plasma into which solid boron trioxide as well as gaseous ammonia were introduced. It was found out that the conversion process of B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ into nitride in the jet of low-temperature plasma affected by gaseous NH/sub 3/ is possible and in the conditions of our experiment did not exceed 20 per cent.

  2. Formation Criterion for Axisymmetric Synthetic Jets at High Stokes Numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Broučková, Zuzana; Kordík, Jozef


    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2012), s. 2012-2017 ISSN 0001-1452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * power spectral density * hot-wire anemometry Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2012

  3. Formation of Radio Type II Bursts During a Multiple Coronal Mass Ejection Event (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Firas; Pohjolainen, Silja; Valtonen, Eino


    We study the solar event on 27 September 2001 that consisted of three consecutive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originating from the same active region, which were associated with several periods of radio type II burst emission at decameter-hectometer (DH) wavelengths. Our analysis shows that the first radio burst originated from a low-density environment, formed in the wake of the first, slow CME. The frequency-drift of the burst suggests a low-speed burst driver, or that the shock was not propagating along the large density gradient. There is also evidence of band-splitting within this emission lane. The origin of the first shock remains unclear, as several alternative scenarios exist. The second shock showed separate periods of enhanced radio emission. This shock could have originated from a CME bow shock, caused by the fast and accelerating second or third CME. However, a shock at CME flanks is also possible, as the density depletion caused by the three CMEs would have affected the emission frequencies and hence the radio source heights could have been lower than usual. The last type II burst period showed enhanced emission in a wider bandwidth, which was most probably due to the CME-CME interaction. Only one shock that could reliably be associated with the investigated CMEs was observed to arrive near Earth.

  4. Blob Formation and Ejection in Coronal Jets due to the Plasmoid and Kelvin–Helmholtz Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Zhang, Qing-Min [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Murphy, Nicholas A., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We perform 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal jets driven by flux emergence along the lower boundary. The reconnection layers are susceptible to the formation of blobs that are ejected in the jet. Our simulation with low plasma β (Case I) shows that magnetic islands form easily and propagate upward in the jet. These islands are multithermal and thus are predicted to show up in hot channels (335 Å and 211 Å) and the cool channel (304 Å) in observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The islands have maximum temperatures of 8 MK, lifetimes of 120 s, diameters of 6 Mm, and velocities of 200 km s{sup −1}. These parameters are similar to the properties of blobs observed in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets by AIA. The Kelvin–Helmholtz instability develops in our simulation with moderately high plasma β (Case II) and leads to the formation of bright vortex-like blobs above the multiple high magnetosonic Mach number regions that appear along the jet. These vortex-like blobs can also be identified in the AIA channels. However, they eventually move downward and disappear after the high magnetosonic Mach number regions disappear. In the lower plasma β case, the lifetime for the jet is shorter, the jet and magnetic islands are formed with higher velocities and temperatures, the current-sheet fragments are more chaotic, and more magnetic islands are generated. Our results show that the plasmoid instability and Kelvin–Helmholtz instability along the jet are both possible causes of the formation of blobs observed at EUV wavelengths.

  5. Impinging jet spray formation using non-Newtonian liquids (United States)

    Rodrigues, Neil S.

    Over the past two decades there has been a heightened interest in implementing gelled propellants for rocket propulsion, especially for hypergolic bi-propellants such as monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer (NTO). Due to the very high level of toxicity of hypergolic liquid rocket propellants, increasing safety is an important area of need for continued space exploration and defense operations. Gelled propellants provide an attractive solution to meeting the requirements for safety, while also potentially improving performance. A gelling agent can be added to liquid propellants exhibiting Newtonian behavior to transform the liquid into a non-Newtonian fluid with some solid-like behavior, i.e. a gel. Non-Newtonian jet impingement is very different from its Newtonian counterpart in terms of fluid flow, atomization, and combustion. This is due to the added agents changing physical properties such as the bulk rheology (viscosity) and interfacial rheology (surface tension). Spray characterization of jet impingement with Newtonian liquids has been studied extensively in existing literature. However, there is a scarcity in literature of studies that consider the spray characterization of jet impingement with gelled propellants. This is a rather critical void since a major tradeoff of utilizing gelled propellants is the difficulty with atomization due to the increased effective viscosity. However, this difficulty can be overcome by using gels that exhibit shear-thinning behavior---viscosity decreases with increasing strain rate. Shear-thinning fluids are ideal because they have the distinct advantage of only flowing easily upon pressure. Thereby, greatly reducing the amount of propellant that could be accidentally leaked during both critical functions such as liftoff or engagement in the battlefield and regular tasks like refilling propellant tanks. This experimental work seeks to help resolve the scarcity in existing literature by providing drop size

  6. Experimental evidence of multimaterial jet formation with lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nicolai, Ph.; Stenz, C.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Juha, Libor; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Kmetík, Viliam; Ullschmied, Jiří; Kalal, M.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Kubeš, P.; Rezac, K.; Pisarczyk, P.; Tabakhoff, E.


    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2010), 112903/1-112903/9 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma jets * laser plasma ablation * interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2010

  7. Drop impact into a deep pool: Vortex shedding and jet formation

    KAUST Repository

    Agbaglah, Gilou


    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on a deep pool. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates an axisymmetric sheet-like jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are transitions in the multiplicity of jets as the experimental parameters are varied. Here, we use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the transition from impacts that produce a single jet to those that produce two jets. Using high-speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet. Using numerical simulations we develop a phase diagram for this transition and show that the capillary number is the most appropriate order parameter for the transition. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  8. Simulations of radiative shocks and jet formation in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, P; Gonzalez, M; GarcIa-Fernandez, C; Oliva, E [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain) (Spain); Kasperczuk, A; Pisarczyk, T [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland) (Poland); Ullschmied, J [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic) (Czech Republic); Stehle, C [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France) (France); Rus, B [Institute of Physics, PALS Center, Prague (Czech Republic) (Czech Republic); GarcIa-Senz, D; Bravo, E; Relano, A [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain) (Spain)], E-mail:


    We present the simulations of two relevant hydrodynamical problems related to astrophysical phenomena performed by three different codes. The numerical results from these codes will be compared in order to test both the numerical method implemented inside them and the influence of the physical phenomena simulated by the codes. Under some conditions laser produced plasmas could be scaled to the typical conditions prevailing in astrophysical plasmas. Therefore, such similarity allows to use existing laser facilities and numerical codes suitable to a laser plasma regime, for studying astrophysical proccesses. The codes are the radiation fluid dynamic 2D ARWEN code and the 3D HERACLES, and, without radiation energy transport, a Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code. These codes use different numerical techniques and have overlapping range of application, from laser produced plasmas to astrophysical plasmas. We also present the first laser experiments obtaining cumulative jets with a velocity higher than 100 km/s.

  9. The impact of star formation and gamma-ray burst rates at high redshift on cosmic chemical evolution and reionization (United States)

    Vangioni, Elisabeth; Olive, Keith A.; Prestegard, Tanner; Silk, Joseph; Petitjean, Patrick; Mandic, Vuk


    Recent observations in the total luminosity density have led to significant progress in establishing the star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift. Concurrently observed gamma-ray burst rates have also been used to extract the SFR at high redshift. The SFR in turn can be used to make a host of predictions concerning the ionization history of the Universe, the chemical abundances, and supernova rates. We compare the predictions made using a hierarchical model of cosmic chemical evolution based on three recently proposed SFRs: two based on extracting the SFR from the observed gamma-ray burst rate at high redshift, and one based on the observed galaxy luminosity function at high redshift. Using the WMAP/Planck data on the optical depth and epoch of reionization, we find that only the SFR inferred from gamma-ray burst data at high redshift suffices to allow a single mode (in the initial mass function - IMF) of star formation which extends from z = 0 to redshifts >10. For the case of the SFR based on the observed galaxy luminosity function, the reionization history of the Universe requires a bimodal IMF which includes at least a coeval high- (or intermediate-) mass mode of star formation at high redshift (z > 10). Therefore, we also consider here a more general bimodal case which includes an early-forming high-mass mode as a fourth model to test the chemical history of the Universe. We conclude that observational constraints on the global metallicity and optical depth at high redshift favour unseen faint but active star-forming galaxies as pointed out in many recent studies.

  10. Studying the formation of non-linear bursts in fully turbulent channel flows (United States)

    Encinar, Miguel P.; Jimenez, Javier


    Linear transient growth has been suggested as a possible explanation for the intermittent behaviour, or `bursting', in shear flows with a stable mean velocity profile. Analysing fully non-linear DNS databases yields a similar Orr+lift-up mechanism, but acting on spatially localised wave packets rather than on monochromatic infinite wavetrains. The Orr mechanism requires the presence of backwards-leaning wall-normal velocity perturbations as initial condition, but the linear theory fails to clarify how these perturbations are formed. We investigate the latter in a time-resolved wavelet-filtered turbulent channel database, which allows us to assign an amplitude and an inclination angle to a flow region of selected size. This yields regions that match the dynamics of linear Orr for short times. We find that a short streamwise velocity (u) perturbation (i.e. a streak meander) consistently appears before the burst, but disappears before the burst reaches its maximum amplitude. Lift-up then generates a longer streamwise velocity perturbation. The initial streamwise velocity is also found to be backwards-leaning, contrary to the averaged energy-containing scales, which are known to be tilted forward. Funded by the ERC COTURB project.

  11. Investigation of the Methane Hydrate Formation by Cavitation Jet (United States)

    Morita, H.; Nagao, J.


    Methane hydrate (hereafter called "MH") is crystalline solid compound consisting of hydrogen-bonded water molecules forming cages and methane gas molecules enclosed in the cage. When using MH as an energy resource, MH is dissociated to methane gas and water and collect only the methane gas. The optimum MH production method was the "depressurization method". Here, the production of MH means dissociating MH in the geologic layers and collecting the resultant methane gas by production systems. In the production of MH by depressurization method, MH regeneration was consider to important problem for the flow assurance of MH production system. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effect of flow phenomena in the pipeline on hydrate regeneration. Cavitation is one of the flow phenomena which was considered a cause of MH regeneration. Large quantity of microbubbles are produced by cavitation in a moment, therefore, it is considered to promote MH formation. In order to verify the possible of MH regeneration by cavitation, it is necessary to detailed understanding the condition of MH formation by cavitation. As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we performed a study on MH formation using by cavitation. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the formation MH by using cavitation in the various temperature and pressure condition, and to clarify the condition of MH formation by using observation results.

  12. Liquid jet formation through the interactions of a laser-induced bubble and a gas bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han


    Full Text Available The mechanisms of the liquid jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair are investigated and compared with the jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair. The strobe photography experimental method and numerical simulations are implemented to obtain the parameter space of the optimum liquid jet, i.e. highest speed and lowest diameter. It is found that due to the enhanced “catapult effect”, which is induced by the protrusion of the first bubble into the second bubble and the flip back of the elongated part of the first bubble, the optimum liquid jet of the second bubble of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair compared to that of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair is 54 %, 65 % and 11 % faster in speed, and 4 %, 44 % and 64 % smaller in diameter, for the 500 μm, 50 μm and 5 μm sized bubbles, respectively. The optimum dimensionless distance for the optimum jet of the laser-induced and the gas bubble is around 0.7, when the maximum bubble radius increases from ∼ 5μm to ∼500 μm, which is different from the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pairs. Besides, the optimum jet of the laser-induced bubble appeared when the bubbles are equal sized, while that of the gas bubble is independent of the relative bubble size, i.e. the liquid jet of the gas bubble has higher robustness in real liquid jet assisted applications when the laser-induced bubble size varies. However, the jet of bubble 2 could maintain a high speed (20 m/s - 35 m/s and a low diameter (∼5 % of the maximum bubble diameter over a big range of the dimensionless distance (0.6 - 0.9 for both of the 50 μm and 500 μm sized laser-induced equal sized anti-phase bubble pairs.

  13. Liquid jet formation through the interactions of a laser-induced bubble and a gas bubble (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Liu; Zhao, Xiong-Tao; Ni, Xiao-Wu


    The mechanisms of the liquid jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair are investigated and compared with the jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair. The strobe photography experimental method and numerical simulations are implemented to obtain the parameter space of the optimum liquid jet, i.e. highest speed and lowest diameter. It is found that due to the enhanced "catapult effect", which is induced by the protrusion of the first bubble into the second bubble and the flip back of the elongated part of the first bubble, the optimum liquid jet of the second bubble of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair compared to that of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair is 54 %, 65 % and 11 % faster in speed, and 4 %, 44 % and 64 % smaller in diameter, for the 500 μm, 50 μm and 5 μm sized bubbles, respectively. The optimum dimensionless distance for the optimum jet of the laser-induced and the gas bubble is around 0.7, when the maximum bubble radius increases from ˜ 5μm to ˜500 μm, which is different from the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pairs. Besides, the optimum jet of the laser-induced bubble appeared when the bubbles are equal sized, while that of the gas bubble is independent of the relative bubble size, i.e. the liquid jet of the gas bubble has higher robustness in real liquid jet assisted applications when the laser-induced bubble size varies. However, the jet of bubble 2 could maintain a high speed (20 m/s - 35 m/s) and a low diameter (˜5 % of the maximum bubble diameter) over a big range of the dimensionless distance (0.6 - 0.9) for both of the 50 μm and 500 μm sized laser-induced equal sized anti-phase bubble pairs.

  14. Formation of precessing jets by tilted black hole discs in 3D general relativistic MHD simulations (United States)

    Liska, M.; Hesp, C.; Tchekhovskoy, A.; Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.; Markoff, S.


    Gas falling into a black hole (BH) from large distances is unaware of BH spin direction, and misalignment between the accretion disc and BH spin is expected to be common. However, the physics of tilted discs (e.g. angular momentum transport and jet formation) is poorly understood. Using our new GPU-accelerated code H-AMR, we performed 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of tilted thick accretion discs around rapidly spinning BHs, at the highest resolution to date. We explored the limit where disc thermal pressure dominates magnetic pressure, and showed for the first time that, for different magnetic field strengths on the BH, these flows launch magnetized relativistic jets propagating along the rotation axis of the tilted disc (rather than of the BH). If strong large-scale magnetic flux reaches the BH, it bends the inner few gravitational radii of the disc and jets into partial alignment with the BH spin. On longer time-scales, the simulated disc-jet system as a whole undergoes Lense-Thirring precession and approaches alignment, demonstrating for the first time that jets can be used as probes of disc precession. When the disc turbulence is well resolved, our isolated discs spread out, causing both the alignment and precession to slow down.

  15. Modelling of fast jet formation under explosion collision of two-layer alumina/copper tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Balagansky


    Full Text Available Under explosion collapse of two-layer tubes with an outer layer of high-modulus ceramics and an inner layer of copper, formation of a fast and dense copper jet is plausible. We have performed a numerical simulation of the explosion collapse of a two-layer alumina/copper tube using ANSYS AUTODYN software. The simulation was performed in a 2D-axis symmetry posting on an Eulerian mesh of 3900x1200 cells. The simulation results indicate two separate stages of the tube collapse process: the nonstationary and the stationary stage. At the initial stage, a non-stationary fragmented jet is moving with the velocity of leading elements up to 30 km/s. The collapse velocity of the tube to the symmetry axis is about 2 km/s, and the pressure in the contact zone exceeds 700 GPa. During the stationary stage, a dense jet is forming with the velocity of 20 km/s. Temperature of the dense jet is about 2000 K, jet failure occurs when the value of effective plastic deformation reaches 30.

  16. Gamma-ray Burst Formation Environment: Comparison of Redshift Distributions of GRB Afterglows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim


    Full Text Available Since gamma-ray bursts(GRBs have been first known to science societites in 1973, many scientists are involved in their studies. Observations of GRB afterglows provide us with much information on the environment in which the observed GRBs are born. Study of GRB afterglows deals with longer timescale emissions in lower energy bands (e.g., months or even up to years than prompt emissions in gamma-rays. Not all the bursts accompany afterglows in whole ranges of wavelengths. It has been suggested as a reason for that, for instance, that radio and/or X-ray afterglows are not recorded mainly due to lower sensitivity of detectors, and optical afterglows due to extinctions in intergalactic media or self-extinctions within a host galaxy itself. Based on the idea that these facts may also provide information on the GRB environment, we analyze statistical properties of GRB afterglows. We first select samples of the redshift-known GRBs according to the wavelength of afterglow they accompanied. We then compare their distributions as a function of redshift, using statistical methods. As a results, we find that the distribution of the GRBs with X-ray afterglows is consistent with that of the GRBs with optical afterglows. We, therefore, conclude that the lower detection rate of optical afterglows is not due to extinctions in intergalactic media.

  17. Selforganized Structure Formation in Organized Microstructuring by Laser-Jet Etching (United States)

    Rabbow, T. J.; Plath, P. J.; Mora, A.; Haase, M.

    Laser-jet induced wet etching of stainless steel in 5M H3PO4 has been investigated. By this method, it is possible to cut and microstructure metals and alloys that form passive layers in strong etchants. Due to the laser heating of the metal and the adjacent layers of the etchant, the passive layer is removed and an active dissolution of the base metal together with the formation of hydrogen is observed. The reactions are limited by the transport of fresh acid and the removal of dissolved metal. A jet of etchant reduces the transport limitations. For definite ranges of the laser power, the feed velocity and the etchant jet velocity, a regime of periodic structure formation of the kerf, often called ripples, has been found. The ripple length depends on all three parameters. The ripple formation can be brought into correlation with a periodic change of the intensity of the reflected light as well as oscillations of the potential workpiece. It could be shown that the periodic structure formation is connected to a spreading of an etching front from the laser activated area, that temporarily moves ahead to the laser. This leads to modulations of the interface for the laser absorption, which results, for example, in oscillations of the intensity of the reflected light. This means the laser induced etching reaction attracts a feedback based on the conditions of absorption for the laser. For those parameters of feed velocity, laser power and etchant jet velocity, without ripple formation the laser induced etching front is of a constant distance to the laser which results in steady conditions at the interface for the absorption of the laser.

  18. Physics of liquid jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, Jens; Villermaux, Emmanuel


    Jets, i.e. collimated streams of matter, occur from the microscale up to the large-scale structure of the universe. Our focus will be mostly on surface tension effects, which result from the cohesive properties of liquids. Paradoxically, cohesive forces promote the breakup of jets, widely encountered in nature, technology and basic science, for example in nuclear fission, DNA sampling, medical diagnostics, sprays, agricultural irrigation and jet engine technology. Liquid jets thus serve as a paradigm for free-surface motion, hydrodynamic instability and singularity formation leading to drop breakup. In addition to their practical usefulness, jets are an ideal probe for liquid properties, such as surface tension, viscosity or non-Newtonian rheology. They also arise from the last but one topology change of liquid masses bursting into sprays. Jet dynamics are sensitive to the turbulent or thermal excitation of the fluid, as well as to the surrounding gas or fluid medium. The aim of this review is to provide a unified description of the fundamental and the technological aspects of these subjects


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S., E-mail: [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    The contemporary discoveries of galaxies and gamma ray bursts (GRBs) at high redshift have supplied the first direct information on star formation when the universe was only a few hundred million years old. The probable origin of long duration GRBs in the deaths of massive stars would link the universal GRB rate to the redshift-dependent star formation rate (SFR) density, although exactly how is currently unknown. As the most distant GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, the potential reward of understanding the redshift-dependent ratio {Psi}(z) of the GRB rate to SFR is significant and includes addressing fundamental questions such as incompleteness in rest-frame UV surveys for determining the SFR at high redshift and time variations in the stellar initial mass function. Using an extensive sample of 112 GRBs above a fixed luminosity limit drawn from the Second Swift Burst Alert Telescope catalog and accounting for uncertainty in their redshift distribution by considering the contribution of 'dark' GRBs, we compare the cumulative redshift distribution N(< z) of GRBs with the star formation density {rho}-dot{sub *}(z) measured from UV-selected galaxies over 0 < z <4. Strong evolution (e.g., {Psi}(z){proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 1.5}) is disfavored (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test P < 0.07). We show that more modest evolution (e.g., {Psi}(z){proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 0.5}) is consistent with the data (P Almost-Equal-To 0.9) and can be readily explained if GRBs occur primarily in low-metallicity galaxies which are proportionally more numerous at earlier times. If such trends continue beyond z {approx_equal} 4, we find that the discovery rate of distant GRBs implies an SFR density much higher than that inferred from UV-selected galaxies. While some previous studies of the GRB-SFR connection have concluded that GRB-inferred star formation at high redshift would be sufficient to maintain cosmic reionization over 6

  20. The Double Firing Burst (United States)


    Astronomers from around the world combined data from ground- and space-based telescopes to paint a detailed portrait of the brightest explosion ever seen. The observations reveal that the jets of the gamma-ray burst called GRB 080319B were aimed almost directly at the Earth. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 28/08 A Gamma-Ray Burst with Two Jets Read more on this illuminating blast in the additional story. GRB 080319B was so intense that, despite happening halfway across the Universe, it could have been seen briefly with the unaided eye (ESO 08/08). In a paper to appear in the 11 September issue of Nature, Judith Racusin of Penn State University, Pennsylvania (USA), and a team of 92 co-authors report observations across the electromagnetic spectrum that began 30 minutes before the explosion and followed it for months afterwards. "We conclude that the burst's extraordinary brightness arose from a jet that shot material almost directly towards Earth at almost the speed of light - the difference is only 1 part in 20 000," says Guido Chincarini, a member of the team. Gamma-ray bursts are the Universe's most luminous explosions. Most occur when massive stars run out of fuel. As a star collapses, it creates a black hole or neutron star that, through processes not fully understood, drives powerful gas jets outward. As the jets shoot into space, they strike gas previously shed by the star and heat it, thereby generating bright afterglows. The team believes the jet directed toward Earth contained an ultra-fast component just 0.4 degrees across (this is slightly smaller than the apparent size of the Full Moon). This jet is contained within another slightly less energetic jet about 20 times wider. The broad component is more typical of other bursts. "Perhaps every gamma-ray burst has a narrow jet, but astronomers miss it most of the time," says team member Stefano Covino. "We happened to view this monster down the barrel of the very narrow and energetic jet, and the chance for

  1. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Cosmology (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.


    The unrivalled, extreme luminosities of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) make them the favored beacons for sampling the high redshift Universe. To employ GRBs to study the cosmic terrain -- e.g., star and galaxy formation history -- GRB luminosities must be calibrated, and the luminosity function versus redshift must be measured or inferred. Several nascent relationships between gamma-ray temporal or spectral indicators and luminosity or total energy have been reported. These measures promise to further our understanding of GRBs once the connections between the luminosity indicators and GRB jets and emission mechanisms are better elucidated. The current distribution of 33 redshifts determined from host galaxies and afterglows peaks near z $\\sim$ 1, whereas for the full BATSE sample of long bursts, the lag-luminosity relation predicts a broad peak z $\\sim$ 1--4 with a tail to z $\\sim$ 20, in rough agreement with theoretical models based on star formation considerations. For some GRB subclasses and apparently related phenomena -- short bursts, long-lag bursts, and X-ray flashes -- the present information on their redshift distributions is sparse or entirely lacking, and progress is expected in Swift era when prompt alerts become numerous.

  2. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezel, C; Hallo, L [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence, Cedex (France); Souquet, A; Guillemot, F, E-mail: mezel@celia.u-bordeaux1.f [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Universite Bordeaux 2 - UMR 577, 146 Rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  3. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling. (United States)

    Mézel, C; Souquet, A; Hallo, L; Guillemot, F


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  4. Laboratory experiments on the formation and recoil jet transport of aerosol by laser ablation (United States)

    Hirooka, Yoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Imamura, Keisuke; Okazaki, Katsuya


    In a high-repetition rate inertial fusion reactor, the first wall will be subjected to repeated ablation along with pellet implosions, which then leads to the formation of aerosol to scatter and/or deflect laser beams for the subsequent implosion, affecting the overall reactor performance. Proposed in the present work is a method of in-situ directed transport of aerosol particles by the use of laser ablation-induced jet recoil momenta. Lithium and carbon are used as the primary ablation targets, the former of which is known to form aerosol in the form of droplet, and the latter of which tends to form carbon nanotubes. Laboratory-scale experiments have been conducted to irradiate airborne aerosol particles with high-intensity laser to produce ablation-induced jet. Data have indicated a change in aerosol flow direction, but only in the case of lithium.

  5. The afterglow of the short/intermediate-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 000301C: A jet at z=2.04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.L.; Fynbo, J.U.; Gorosabel, J.


    We present Ulysses and NEAR data from the detection of the short or intermediate duration (2 s) gamma-ray burst GRB 000301C (2000 March 1.41 UT). The gamma-ray burst (GRB) was localised by the Inter Planetary Network (IPN) and RXTE to an area of similar to 50 arcmin(2). A fading optical counterpart...

  6. Measurements and Modeling of Soot Formation and Radiation in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames. Volume 4 (United States)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, Li; Greenberg, Paul S.


    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. A compact, self-contained drop rig is used for microgravity experiments in the 2.2-second drop tower facility at NASA Lewis Research Center. On modeling, we have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed Beta-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude- Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H20 and C02. It is shown that when compared to results from true spectral integration, the Rosseland mean absorption coefficient can provide reasonably accurate predictions for the type of flames studied. The soot formation model proposed by Moss, Syed, and Stewart seems to produce better fits to experimental data and more physically sound than the simpler model by Khan et al. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar

  7. Extinction of gamma-ray burst afterglows as a diagnostic of the location of cosmic star formation (United States)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Trentham, Neil; Blain, A. W.


    The properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are used to investigate the location of star formation activity through the history of the Universe. This approach is motivated by the following: (i) GRBs are thought to be associated with the deaths of massive stars and so the GRB rate ought to follow the formation rate of massive stars; (ii) GRBs are the last phase of the evolution of these stars, which do not live long enough to travel far from their place of birth, and so GRBs are located where the stars formed; and (iii) GRB afterglows occur over both X-ray and optical wavelengths, and so the differential effects of dust extinction between the two wavebands can reveal whether or not large amounts of dust are present in galaxies hosting GRBs. Recent evidence suggests that a significant fraction of stars in the Universe formed in galaxies that are bright at rest-frame submillimetre (submm) and infrared wavelengths rather than at ultraviolet wavelengths; we estimate about three quarters of the star formation in the Universe occurred in the submm-bright mode. High-redshift submm-selected galaxies are thought to have properties similar to local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) such as Arp 220, based on the concordance between their luminosities and spectral energy distributions. If this is the case, then GRBs in submm-bright galaxies should have their optical afterglows extinguished by internal dust absorption, but only very few should have their 2-10keV X-ray afterglows obscured. The value that we quote of three quarters is marginally consistent with observations of GRBs: 60+/-15 per cent of GRBs have no detected optical afterglow, whereas almost all have an X-ray afterglow. A more definitive statement could be made with observations of soft X-ray afterglows (0.5-2keV), in which extinction should be severe for GRBs located in submm-bright galaxies with gas densities similar to those in local ULIGs. If the X-ray afterglows disappear at soft X


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, P.


    Model color-magnitude diagrams of low-metallicity globular clusters (GCs) usually show a deficit of hot evolved stars with respect to observations. We investigate quantitatively the impact of such modeling inaccuracies on the significance of star formation history reconstructions obtained from optical integrated spectra. To do so, we analyze the sample of spectra of galactic globular clusters of Schiavon et al. with STECKMAP (Ocvirk et al.), and the stellar population models of Vazdekis et al. and Bruzual and Charlot, and focus on the reconstructed stellar age distributions. First, we show that background/foreground contamination correlates with E(B - V), which allows us to define a clean subsample of uncontaminated GCs, on the basis of an E(B - V) filtering. We then identify a 'confusion zone' where fake young bursts of star formation pop up in the star formation history although the observed population is genuinely old. These artifacts appear for 70%-100% of cases depending on the population model used, and contribute up to 12% of the light in the optical. Their correlation with the horizontal branch (HB) ratio indicates that the confusion is driven by HB morphology: red HB clusters are well fitted by old stellar population models while those with a blue HB require an additional hot component. The confusion zone extends over [Fe/H] = [ - 2, - 1.2], although we lack the data to probe extreme high and low metallicity regimes. As a consequence, any young starburst superimposed on an old stellar population in this metallicity range could be regarded as a modeling artifact, if it weighs less than 12% of the optical light, and if no emission lines typical of an H II region are present. This work also provides a practical method for constraining HB morphology from high signal to noise integrated light spectroscopy in the optical. This will allow post-asymptotic giant branch evolution studies in a range of environments and at distances where resolving stellar populations

  9. Visualization of the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition in electrostatic atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Yuanping, E-mail:; Wang, Junfeng, E-mail:; Zuo, Ziwen; Fan, Yajun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China)


    A detailed experimental study on the evolution of charged droplet formation and jet transition from a capillary is reported. By means of high-speed microscopy, special attention has been paid to the dynamics of the liquid thread and satellite droplets in the dripping mode, and a method for calculating the surface charge on the satellite droplet is proposed. Jet transition behavior based on the electric Bond number has been visualized, droplet sizes and velocities are measured to obtain the ejection characteristic of the spray plume, and the charge and hydrodynamic relaxation are linked to give explanations for ejection dynamics with different properties. The results show that the relative length is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic relaxation time. The magnitude of the electric field strength dominates the behavior of coalescence and noncoalescence, with the charge relationship between the satellite droplet and the main droplet being clear for every noncoalescence movement. Ejection mode transitions mainly depend on the magnitude of the electric Bond number, and the meniscus dynamics is determined by the ratio of the charge relaxation time to the hydrodynamic relaxation time.

  10. Vortex Ring Formation Characteristics in Synthetic Jet due to Changes of Excitation Frequency in the ½-Ball Cavity Actuator (United States)

    Kosasih, Engkos A.; Harinaldi; Trisno, Ramon


    A jet flow that contains vortex ring has a large energy compared to a regular jet. As one of the causes of the aerodynamic drag to the vehicle, the flow separation that occurs behind the bluff body must be controlled, so that aerodynamic drag can be significantly reduced. This study is a basic work on the development of turbulent flow separation control for aerodynamic purpose, especially in the design of the vehicle body. The main objective of this study is to analyze the performance of the synthetic jet (SJA) as one of flow control tool to reduce separation area. To get the maximum performance of the synthetic jet actuator, the research starts by characterizing the actuator. Characterization of ½ ball-shaped cavity is done with excitation frequency changes and orifice diameter of 3, 5 and 8 mm. The study was conducted using computational and experimental methods. The experimental data was obtained by testing synthetic jet actuator with providing sinusoidal signal to drive the membrane and at the orifice end a hotwire probe that is set and plugged into a CTA (Constant Temperature Anemometry) to obtain the speed velocity of the exhaust jet. Computational methods used a commercial CFD software (FLUENT 6.3) with a Reynolds Stress Model as a model of turbulence. Each of these calculations or measurements was conducted under the same conditions. The research result is displayed in frequency testing curve to get the maximum velocity of the jet stream. The results are further indicative of the synthetic jet actuator capability to generate vortex rings. In the experimental results, the determination of ring vortex formation taken from the calculation of the flow velocity, while the CFD simulations, the formation of vortex rings can be seen from the visualization of the flow contour. Vortex ring formed from this ½ -ball cavity, occurred at 3 mm and 5 mm orifice diameter, while the 8 mm orifice diameter cavity cannot form a ring vortex.

  11. The afterglow of the short/intermediate-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 000301C: A jet at z=2.04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.L.; Fynbo, J.U.; Gorosabel, J.


    was subsequently discovered with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) about 42 h after the burst. The GRB lies at the border between the long-soft and the short-hard classes of GRBs. If GRB 000301C belongs to the latter class, this would be the first detection of an afterglow to a short-hard burst. We present UBRI...... the burst. The optical light curve is consistent with bring achromatic from 2 to 11 days after the burst and exhibits a break. A broken power-law fit yields a shallow pre-break decay power-law slope of alpha (1) = -0.72 +/- 0.06, a break time of t(break) = 4.39 +/- 0.26 days after the burst, and a post.......0404 +/- 0.0008. We find evidence for a curved shape of the spectral energy distribution of the observed afterglow. It is best fitted with a power-law spectral distribution with index beta similar to -0.7 reddened by an SMC-like extinction law with A(v) similar to 0.1 mag. Based on the Ly alpha absorption...

  12. Controlled formation of cyclopentane hydrate suspensions via capillary-driven jet break-up (United States)

    Geri, Michela; McKinley, Gareth


    Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds that form when a lattice of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is filled by guest molecules sequestered from an adjacent gas or liquid phase. Being able to rapidly produce and transport synthetic hydrates is of great interest given their significant potential as a clean energy source and safe option for hydrogen storage. We propose a new method to rapidly produce cyclopentane hydrate suspensions at ambient pressure with tunable particle size distribution by taking advantage of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability to form a mono-disperse stream of droplets during the controlled break-up of a water jet. The droplets are immediately frozen into ice particles through immersion in a subcooled reservoir and converted into hydrates with a dramatic reduction in the nucleation induction time. By measuring the evolution of the rheological properties with time, we monitor the process of hydrates formation via surface crystallization and agglomeration with different droplet size distributions. This new method enables us to gain new insights into hydrate formation and transport which was previously hindered by uncontrolled droplet formation and hydrate nucleation processes. MITei Chevron Fellowship.

  13. Blob/hole formation and zonal-flow generation in the edge plasma of the JET tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Naulin, Volker; Fundamenski, W.


    The first experimental evidence showing the connection between blob/hole formation and zonal-flow generation was obtained in the edge plasma of the JET tokamak. Holes as well as blobs are observed to be born in the edge shear layer, where zonal-flows shear off meso-scale coherent structures, lead...

  14. Effects of equation of state, transport, and initial conditions on plasma liner formation and implosion from hypervelocity jets (United States)

    Schillo, Kevin; Cassibry, Jason; Samulyak, Roman; Langendorf, Samuel; Hsu, Scott; PLX-Alpha Team


    The PLX- α project is studying plasma liner formation and implosion by merging a spherical array of plasma jets as a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). A three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPFMax) code is used to conduct simulations of merging of discrete plasma jets to form a plasma liner and the subsequent implosion of that liner. Peak ram pressure, Mach number, and uniformity of the liner are presented as a function of initial jet properties and assumptions about transport physics. The initial conditions include the number of jets, density, temperature, and implosion velocity. Solid-angle-averaged and standard deviation of liner ram pressure and Mach number reveal variations during liner formation and implosion. Spherical-harmonic mode-number analysis of spherical slices of ram pressure at various radii and times provide a quantitative means to assess the evolution of liner non-uniformity. Comparisons are made with select and equivalent cases of a uniform, imploding liner. Simulations of 6 and 7 jets are provided for select cases to support near-term experiments on PLX- α and will include synthetic spectra and line-integrated densities.

  15. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk


    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  16. Numerical Methods for 3D Magneto-Rotational Core-Collapse Supernova Simulation with Jet Formation (United States)

    Käppeli, R. Y.


    The work presented in this thesis is devoted to the development of a numerical model for the three dimensional simulation of magneto-rotational core-collapse supernovae (MHD-CCSNe) with jet formation. The numerical model then suggests that MHD-CCSNe naturally provide a possible site for the strong rapid neutron capture process in agreement with observations of the early Galactic chemical evolution. In the first part of this thesis, we develop several numerical methods and describe thoroughly their efficient implementations on current high-performance computer architectures. We develop a fast and simple computer code texttt{FISH} that solves the equations of magnetohydrodynamics. The code is parallelized with an optimal combination of shared and distributed memory paradigms and scales to several thousands processes on high-performance computer clusters. We develop a novel well-balanced numerical scheme for the Euler equations with gravitational source terms to preserve a discrete hydrostatic equilibrium exactly. Being able to accurately represent hydrostatic equilibria is of particular interest for the simulation of CCSN, because a large part of the newly forming neutron star evolves in a quasi-hydrostatic manner. We include an approximate and computationally efficient treatment of neutrino physics in the form of a spectral leakage scheme. It enables us to capture approximately the most important neutrino cooling effects, which are responsible for the shock stall and for the neutronisation of matter behind the shock. The latter is crucial for the nucleosynthesis yields. To fit into our multidimensional MHD-CCSN model, the spectral leakage scheme is implemented in a ray-by-ray approach. In the second part of this thesis, we apply our three-dimensional numerical model to the study of the MHD-CCSN explosion mechanism. We investigate a series of models with poloidal magnetic field and varying initial angular momentum distribution through the collapse, bounce and jet

  17. In-Flight Formation of Nano-Crystalline Titanium Dioxide Powder in a Plasma Jet and Its Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Sreekumar, K. P.; Vijay, M.; Selvarajan, V.; Yu, Jiaguo; Liu, Shengwei


    Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide powder was synthesized by in-flight oxidation of titanium dihydride (TiH 2 ) powder in a thermal plasma jet. TiH 2 powder was injected into the thermal plasma jet and allowed to react with oxygen injected downstream the jet. Characterization of the powder by various analytical tools indicated that the powder consisted of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles consisting predominantly of the anatase phase. It is suggested that the thermo-chemistry of the oxidation process contributes significantly to the formation of nano-sized titania. The large energy released during the oxidation process dissociates the TiO 2 particles into TiO (g) and titanium vapour, which recombine downstream with oxygen and form nano particles of TiO 2 .

  18. Formation and evaluation of image obtained by the toner-jet printing technology (United States)

    Kutsuwada, Noboru; Shohdohji, Tsutomu; Sugai, Takashi; Izawa, Harunobu; Lin, Chun-Wei; Murata, Tadaichi


    Various nonimpact printing methods used printers are in general use. We have investigated an imaging method using the Toner Jet in which a visible direct image is obtained using an electrostatic field to make the toner stick to the paper. Images obtained from the Toner Jet are of equal quality to those obtained by an electrophotographic method. We have confirmed that the Toner Jet method will be an effective nonimpact printing method in the near future.

  19. Black Holes from the Dark Ages:. Exploring the Reionization ERA and Early Structure Formation with Quasars and Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.


    The cosmic reionization era, which includes formation of the first stars, galaxies, and AGN, is now one of the most active frontiers of cosmological research. We review briefly our current understanding of the early structure formation, and use the ideas about a joint formation of massive black holes (which power the early QSOs) and their host galaxies to employ high-redshift QSOs as probes of the early galaxy formation and primordial large-scale structure. There is a growing evidence for a strong biasing in the formation of the first luminous sources, which would lead to a clumpy reionization. Absorption spectroscopy of QSOs at z ≥ 6 indicates the end of the reionization era at z 6; yet measurements from the WMAP satellite suggest and early reionization at z 10 - 20. The first generation of massive stars, perhaps aided by the early mini-quasars, may have reionized the universe at such high redshifts, but their feedback may have disrupted the subsequent star and galaxy formation, leading to an extended and perhaps multimodal reionization history ending by z 6. Observations of γ-ray bursts from the death events of these putative Population III stars may provide essential insight into the primordial structure formation, reionization, early chemical enrichment, and formation of seed black holes which may grow to become central engines of luminous quasars.

  20. Jet propagation and Mach-cone formation in (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, Barbara


    This thesis investigates the jet-medium interactions in a Quark-Gluon Plasma using a hydrodynamical model. Such a Quark-Gluon Plasma represents a very early stage of our universe and is assumed to be created in heavy-ion collisions. Its properties are subject of current research. Since the comparison of measured data to model calculations suggests that the Quark-Gluon Plasma behaves like a nearly perfect liquid, the medium created in a heavy-ion collision can be described applying hydrodynamical simulations. One of the crucial questions in this context is if highly energetic particles (so-called jets), which are produced at the beginning of the collision and traverse the formed medium, may lead to the creation of a Mach cone. Such a Mach cone is always expected to develop if a jet moves with a velocity larger than the speed of sound relative to the medium. In that case, the measured angular particle distributions are supposed to exhibit a characteristic structure allowing for direct conclusions about the Equation of State and in particular about the speed of sound of the medium. Several different scenarios of jet energy loss are examined (the exact form of which is not known from first principles) and different mechanisms of energy and momentum loss are analyzed, ranging from weak interactions (based on calculations from perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, pQCD) to strong interactions (formulated using the Anti-de-Sitter/Conformal Field Theory Correspondence, AdS/CFT). Though they result in different angular particle correlations which could in principle allow to distinguish the underlying processes (if it becomes possible to analyze single-jet events), it is shown that the characteristic structure observed in experimental data can be obtained due to the different contributions of several possible jet trajectories through an expanding medium. Such a structure cannot directly be connected to the Equation of State. In this context, the impact of a strong flow

  1. Near-field shock formation in noise propagation from a high-power jet aircraft. (United States)

    Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Downing, J Micah; James, Michael M; McKinley, Richard L; McKinley, Robert C; Wall, Alan T


    Noise measurements near the F-35A Joint Strike Fighter at military power are analyzed via spatial maps of overall and band pressure levels and skewness. Relative constancy of the pressure waveform skewness reveals that waveform asymmetry, characteristic of supersonic jets, is a source phenomenon originating farther upstream than the maximum overall level. Conversely, growth of the skewness of the time derivative with distance indicates that acoustic shocks largely form through the course of near-field propagation and are not generated explicitly by a source mechanism. These results potentially counter previous arguments that jet "crackle" is a source phenomenon.

  2. Experimental Study of the Oxidation, Ignition, and Soot Formation Characteristics of Jet Fuel (United States)


    by liquid vol Derived cetane number ( DNC ) = 47.1 Threshold soot index (TSI) = 14.1 Liquid density (kg/m3) = 750 RPI surrogate 1 Molar: 25.8% n...20% n-propylbenzene H/C = 1.87 MW =151 kg/kmol Aromatic content = 20% by liquid vol Derived cetane number ( DNC ) = 42.8 Threshold soot index... DNC ) = 32-57, avg = 44 Threshold soot index (TSI) = 16-26, avg = 18 Liquid density (kg/m3) = ~804 POSF 4658: average Jet A, blended from several Jet

  3. Plasma-Jet-Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF): Physics and Design for a Plasma Liner Formation Experiment (United States)

    Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Witherspoon, F. Douglas


    Spherically imploding plasma liners are a potential standoff compression driver for magneto-inertial fusion, which is a hybrid of and operates in an intermediate density between those of magnetic and inertial fusion. We propose to use an array of merging supersonic plasma jets to form a spherically imploding plasma liner. The jets are to be formed by pulsed coaxial guns with contoured electrodes that are placed sufficiently far from the location of target compression such that no hardware is repetitively destroyed. As such, the repetition rate can be higher (e.g., 1 Hz) and ultimately the power-plant economics can be more attractive than most other MIF approaches. During the R&D phase, a high experimental shot rate at reasonably low cost (e.g., gun plasma-liner-formation experiment, which will provide experimental data on: (i) scaling of peak liner ram pressure versus initial jet parameters, (ii) liner non-uniformity characterization and control, and (iii) control of liner profiles for eventual gain optimization.

  4. New Probe of Early Phases of Jet Formation and Evolution using Stellar Tidal Disruption Flares (United States)

    Ranga Reddy Pasham, Dheeraj; van Velzen, Sjoert


    The tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole can result in transient radio emission. The electrons producing these synchrotron radio flares could either be accelerated inside a relativistic jet or externally by shocks resulting from an outflow interacting with the circumnuclear medium. Until now, evidence for the internal emission mechanism has been lacking; nearly all tidal disruption flare studies have adopted the external shock model to explain the observed properties of radio flares. I will talk about a result that presents a challenge to external emission models: we discovered a cross-correlation between the soft X-ray (0.3-1 keV) and 16 GHz radio flux of Rosetta Stone tidal disruption flare ASASSN-14li. Variability features in the X-ray light curve appear again in the radio light curve, but after a time lag of about 13 days. This demonstrates that soft X-ray emitting accretion disk regulates the radio emission. This coupling appears to be inconsistent with all previous external emission models for this source but is naturally explained if the radio emission originates from a freely expanding jet. I will show that emission internal to an adiabatically expanding jet can also reproduce the observed evolution of the radio spectral energy distribution. Furthermore, both the correlation between X-ray and radio luminosity as well as our radio spectral modeling imply an approximately linear coupling between the accretion rate and jet power. I will also discuss how future tidal disruption events can help us understand how jets form and evolve in general.

  5. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of environmental barrier coatings for the inhibition of solid deposit formation from heated jet fuel (United States)

    Mohan, Arun Ram

    Solid deposit formation from jet fuel compromises the fuel handling system of an aviation turbine engine and increases the maintenance downtime of an aircraft. The deposit formation process depends upon the composition of the fuel, the nature of metal surfaces that come in contact with the heated fuel and the operating conditions of the engine. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of substrate surfaces on the amount and nature of solid deposits in the intermediate regime where both autoxidation and pyrolysis play an important role in deposit formation. A particular focus has been directed to examining the effectiveness of barrier coatings produced by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on metal surfaces for inhibiting the solid deposit formation from jet fuel degradation. In the first part of the experimental study, a commercial Jet-A sample was stressed in a flow reactor on seven different metal surfaces: AISI316, AISI 321, AISI 304, AISI 347, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Inconel 750X and FecrAlloy. Examination of deposits by thermal and microscopic analysis shows that the solid deposit formation is influenced by the interaction of organosulfur compounds and autoxidation products with the metal surfaces. The nature of metal sulfides was predicted by Fe-Ni-S ternary phase diagram. Thermal stressing on uncoated surfaces produced coke deposits with varying degree of structural order. They are hydrogen-rich and structurally disordered deposits, spherulitic deposits, small carbon particles with relatively ordered structures and large platelets of ordered carbon structures formed by metal catalysis. In the second part of the study, environmental barrier coatings were deposited on tube surfaces to inhibit solid deposit formation from the heated fuel. A new CVD system was configured by the proper choice of components for mass flow, pressure and temperature control in the reactor. A bubbler was designed to deliver the precursor into the reactor

  6. Inefficient jet-induced star formation in Centaurus A. High resolution ALMA observations of the northern filaments (United States)

    Salomé, Q.; Salomé, P.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Combes, F.; Hamer, S.


    NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) is one of the best targets to study AGN feedback in the local Universe. At 13.5 kpc from the galaxy, optical filaments with recent star formation lie along the radio jet direction. This region is a testbed for positive feedback, here through jet-induced star formation. Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) observations have revealed strong CO emission in star-forming regions and in regions with no detected tracers of star formation activity. In cases where star formation is observed, this activity appears to be inefficient compared to the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to map the 12CO(1-0) emission all along the filaments of NGC 5128 at a resolution of 1.3'' 23.8pc. We find that the CO emission is clumpy and is distributed in two main structures: (i) the Horseshoe complex, located outside the HI cloud, where gas is mostly excited by shocks and where no star formation is observed, and (ii) the Vertical filament, located at the edge of the HI shell, which is a region of moderate star formation. We identified 140 molecular clouds using a clustering method applied to the CO data cube. A statistical study reveals that these clouds have very similar physical properties, such as size, velocity dispersion, and mass, as in the inner Milky Way. However, the range of radius available with the present ALMA observations does not enable us to investigate whether or not the clouds follow the Larson relation. The large virial parameter αvir of the clouds suggests that gravity is not dominant and clouds are not gravitationally unstable. Finally, the total energy injection in the northern filaments of Centaurus A is of the same order as in the inner part of the Milky Way. The strong CO emission detected in the northern filaments is an indication that the energy injected by the jet acts positively in the formation of dense molecular gas. The relatively high virial parameter of the molecular clouds

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigations of mechanisms responsible for plasma jets formation at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kálal, M.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.


    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2009), s. 415-427 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Laser-plasma interaction * laser produced-plasma jet * radiative cooling * target irradiation geometry * PALS laser * laser interferometry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2008

  8. Influence of low atomic number plasma component on the formation of laser-produced plasma jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.


    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2010), s. 114505 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Composed laser targets * target material * laser produced-plasma jets * PALS laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2010 resource /1/phpaen/v17/i11/p114505_s1

  9. Formation of a supersonic laser-driven plasma jet in a cylindrical channel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kasperczuk, A.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Krouský, Eduard; Krása, Josef; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Velyhan, Andriy; Dhareshwar, L.J.; Gupta, N.K.; Rhee, Y.-J.; Torrisi, L.; Pisarczyk, P.


    Roč. 160, č. 11 (2009), 114506/1-114506/4 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Grant - others:HiPER - European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility(XE) 7E08099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma jet * nterferometry * astrophysics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2009

  10. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.


    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  11. Bioinspired preparation of alginate nanoparticles using microbubble bursting. (United States)

    Elsayed, Mohamed; Huang, Jie; Edirisinghe, Mohan


    Nanoparticles are considered to be one of the most advanced tools for drug delivery applications. In this research, alginate (a model hydrophilic polymer) nanoparticles 80 to 200 nm in diameter were obtained using microbubble bursting. The natural process of bubble bursting occurs through a number of stages, which consequently produce nano- and microsized droplets via two main production mechanisms, bubble shell disintegration and a jetting process. In this study, nano-sized droplets/particles were obtained by promoting the disintegrating mechanism and suppressing (limiting) the formation of larger microparticles resulting from the jetting mechanism. A T-junction microfluidic device was used to prepare alginate microbubbles with different sizes in a well-controlled manner. The size of the bubbles was varied by controlling two processing parameters, the solution flow rate and the bubbling pressure. Crucially, the bubble size was found to be the determining factor for inducing (or limiting) the bubble shell disintegration mechanism and the size needed to promote this process was influenced by the properties of the solution used for preparing the bubbles, particularly the viscosity. The size of alginate nanoparticles produced via the disintegration mechanism was found to be directly proportional to the viscosity of the alginate solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the conditions necessary for propane-jet freezing of fresh biological tissues without detectable ice formation. (United States)

    Haggis, G H


    The performance of a commercial double-propane-jet freezer (Balzers QFD 101) has been assessed, for rapid freezing of fresh tissues in freeze-etch work. Samples of diaphragm muscle and intestinal villi were frozen between copper sheets, with a spacer to give 20-30 microns thickness of tissue. Fracture cuts were made with the Balzers BAF 400 freeze-etch microtome within 5-10 microns of a freezing face (i.e. a tissue face in contact with the copper sheets of the frozen sandwich). After some modifications to the QFD 101, replicas showing no evidence of ice were obtained of muscle cells, although for intestinal epithelial cells some evidence of ice formation was found. Infiltration with 5% glycerol or dimethylsulphoxide improves the depth of good freezing. Results and problems arising from such infiltration are briefly discussed.

  13. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Silverman, J. M., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  14. A Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Formation of Solar Chromospheric Jets with Twisted Magnetic Field Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, H. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0814 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    This paper presents a three-dimensional simulation of chromospheric jets with twisted magnetic field lines. Detailed treatments of the photospheric radiative transfer and the equations of state allow us to model realistic thermal convection near the solar surface, which excites various MHD waves and produces chromospheric jets in the simulation. A tall chromospheric jet with a maximum height of 10–11 Mm and lifetime of 8–10 minutes is formed above a strong magnetic field concentration. The magnetic field lines are strongly entangled in the chromosphere, which helps the chromospheric jet to be driven by the Lorentz force. The jet exhibits oscillatory motion as a natural consequence of its generation mechanism. We also find that the produced chromospheric jet forms a cluster with a diameter of several Mm with finer strands. These results imply a close relationship between the simulated jet and solar spicules.

  15. Gamma-Ray Bursts Have Millisecond Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Katharine C.; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Fenimore, E. E.


    We have performed searches for isolated flares and for steady flickering in the initial ∼1 s of gamma-ray burst light curves on the microsecond to millisecond timescales. Two bursts among our sample of 20 revealed four isolated flares with timescales from 256 to 2048 μs. A wavelet analysis for our sample showed low-level flickering for all bursts on timescales from 256 μs to 33 ms, with the majority of bursts containing rise times faster than 4 ms and 30% having rise times faster than 1 ms. These results show that millisecond variability is common in classical bursts and not some exceptional activity by a possibly separate class of bursts. These fast rise times can be used to place the following severe limits on burst models. (1) The characteristic thickness of the energy generation region must be less than 1200 km along the line of sight. (2) The angular size of the gamma-ray emission region as subtended from the central source must be less than 42''. (3) The expanding ejecta must have a range of Lorentz factors along a radius line with a dispersion of less than roughly 2%. (4) Within the external shock scenario, the characteristic dimension of the impacted cloud must be smaller than 16 AU on average. (5) Within the collimated jet scenario, the collimation angle must be smaller than 42''. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  16. The Konus-Wind Catalog of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Known Redshifts. I. Bursts Detected in the Triggered Mode (United States)

    Tsvetkova, A.; Frederiks, D.; Golenetskii, S.; Lysenko, A.; Oleynik, P.; Pal'shin, V.; Svinkin, D.; Ulanov, M.; Cline, T.; Hurley, K.; Aptekar, R.


    In this catalog, we present the results of a systematic study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with reliable redshift estimates detected in the triggered mode of the Konus-Wind (KW) experiment during the period from 1997 February to 2016 June. The sample consists of 150 GRBs (including 12 short/hard bursts) and represents the largest set of cosmological GRBs studied to date over a broad energy band. From the temporal and spectral analyses of the sample, we provide the burst durations, the spectral lags, the results of spectral fits with two model functions, the total energy fluences, and the peak energy fluxes. Based on the GRB redshifts, which span the range 0.1≤slant z≤slant 5, we estimate the rest-frame, isotropic-equivalent energy, and peak luminosity. For 32 GRBs with reasonably constrained jet breaks, we provide the collimation-corrected values of the energetics. We consider the behavior of the rest-frame GRB parameters in the hardness-duration and hardness-intensity planes, and confirm the “Amati” and “Yonetoku” relations for Type II GRBs. The correction for the jet collimation does not improve these correlations for the KW sample. We discuss the influence of instrumental selection effects on the GRB parameter distributions and estimate the KW GRB detection horizon, which extends to z˜ 16.6, stressing the importance of GRBs as probes of the early universe. Accounting for the instrumental bias, we estimate the KW GRB luminosity evolution, luminosity and isotropic-energy functions, and the evolution of the GRB formation rate, which are in general agreement with those obtained in previous studies.

  17. Formation, growth, and transport of soot in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed jet flame

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio


    The formation, growth, and transport of soot is investigated via large scale numerical simulation in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed n-heptane/air jet flame at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000. For the first time, a detailed chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene and a high-order method of moments are employed in a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent sooting flame. The results are used to discuss the interaction of turbulence, chemistry, and the formation of soot. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the scalar dissipation rate. While the mixture fraction and temperature fields show fairly smooth spatial and temporal variations, the sensitivity of naphthalene to turbulent mixing causes large inhomogeneities in the precursor fields, which in turn generate even stronger intermittency in the soot fields. A strong correlation is apparent between soot number density and the concentration of naphthalene. On the contrary, while soot mass fraction is usually large where naphthalene is present, pockets of fluid with large soot mass are also frequent in regions with very low naphthalene mass fraction values. From the analysis of Lagrangian statistics, it is shown that soot nucleates and grows mainly in a layer close to the flame and spreads on the rich side of the flame due to the fluctuating mixing field, resulting in more than half of the total soot mass being located at mixture fractions larger than 0.6. Only a small fraction of soot is transported towards the flame and is completely oxidized in the vicinity of the stoichiometric surface. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. Finally, given the difficulties in obtaining quantitative data in experiments of turbulent sooting flames, this simulation provides valuable data to guide the development of

  18. Cosmic Forensics Confirms Gamma-Ray Burst And Supernova Connection (United States)


    between the supernova and the gamma ray burst. The supra-nova model involves a two-step process: the first step is the collapse of the core of an extremely massive star accompanied by the ejection of the outer layers of the star. The collapsed core forms a rapidly rotating black hole surrounded by a swirling disk of matter. In the second step this black hole-disk system produces a jet of high-energy particles. Shock waves within the jet produce the burst of X-rays and gamma rays that is observed to last only a few minutes. Interaction of the jet with the ejected supernova shell produces the X-ray afterglow, which can last for days or even months. The reason for the delay between the formation of the black hole and the production of the jet is not understood. Earlier observations with Japan's ASCA, the Italian-Netherlands Beppo-SAX, and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton satellites, as well as Chandra had given some indication of the presence of elements expected in a shell ejected by a supernova. However, the number of X-rays detected in those observations was small, and the possibility remained that the reported lines were an instrumental effect or statistical fluctuation. Since Chandra was able to observe X-ray lines from GRB 020813 for almost an entire day, the number of X-rays detected was five times larger than for previous observations. This enabled the team to make a definitive identification of the silicon and sulfur lines. Chandra observed GRB 020813 for about 77,000 seconds, approximately 21 hours after the initial burst. Other members of the research team included Herman Marshall, George Ricker, Roland Vanderspek, Peter Ford, Geoffrey Crew (MIT), and Donald Lamb (University of Chicago). The High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer was built by MIT. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center

  19. Jet formation in spallation of metal film from substrate under action of femtosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inogamov, N. A.; Zhakhovskii, V. V.; Khokhlov, V. A.


    It is well known that during ablation by an ultrashort laser pulse, the main contribution to ablation of the substance is determined not by evaporation, but by the thermomechanical spallation of the substance. For identical metals and pulse parameters, the type of spallation is determined by film thickness d f . An important gauge is metal heating depth d T at the two-temperature stage, at which electron temperature is higher than ion temperature. We compare cases with d f < d T (thin film) and d f ≫ d T (bulk target). Radius R L of the spot of heating by an optical laser is the next (after d f ) important geometrical parameter. The morphology of film bulging in cases where d f < d T on the substrate (blistering) changes upon a change in radius R L in the range from diffraction limit R L ∼ λ to high values of R L ≫ λ, where λ ∼ 1 μm is the wavelength of optical laser radiation. When d f < d T , R L ∼ λ, and F abs > F m , gold film deposited on the glass target acquires a cupola-shaped blister with a miniature frozen nanojet in the form of a tip on the circular top of the cupola (F abs and F m are the absorbed energy and the melting threshold of the film per unit surface area of the film). A new physical mechanism leading to the formation of the nanojet is proposed

  20. Jet formation in spallation of metal film from substrate under action of femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inogamov, N. A., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Zhakhovskii, V. V. [Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)


    It is well known that during ablation by an ultrashort laser pulse, the main contribution to ablation of the substance is determined not by evaporation, but by the thermomechanical spallation of the substance. For identical metals and pulse parameters, the type of spallation is determined by film thickness d{sub f}. An important gauge is metal heating depth d{sub T} at the two-temperature stage, at which electron temperature is higher than ion temperature. We compare cases with d{sub f} < d{sub T} (thin film) and d{sub f} ≫ d{sub T} (bulk target). Radius R{sub L} of the spot of heating by an optical laser is the next (after d{sub f}) important geometrical parameter. The morphology of film bulging in cases where d{sub f} < d{sub T} on the substrate (blistering) changes upon a change in radius R{sub L} in the range from diffraction limit R{sub L} ∼ λ to high values of R{sub L} ≫ λ, where λ ∼ 1 μm is the wavelength of optical laser radiation. When d{sub f} < d{sub T}, R{sub L} ∼ λ, and F{sub abs} > F{sub m}, gold film deposited on the glass target acquires a cupola-shaped blister with a miniature frozen nanojet in the form of a tip on the circular top of the cupola (F{sub abs} and F{sub m} are the absorbed energy and the melting threshold of the film per unit surface area of the film). A new physical mechanism leading to the formation of the nanojet is proposed.

  1. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets

    KAUST Repository



    Using high-resolution 3-D vortex simulations, this study seeks a mechanistic understanding of vorticity dynamics in transverse jets at a finite Reynolds number. A full no-slip boundary condition, rigorously formulated in terms of vorticity generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary condition that suppresses the separation of the wall boundary layer away from the jet nozzle. By contrasting results obtained with these two boundary conditions, we characterize near-field vortical structures formed as the wall boundary layer separates on the backside of the jet. Using various Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, it is demonstrated that several near-wall vortical structures are formed as the wall boundary layer separates. The counter-rotating vortex pair, manifested by the presence of vortices aligned with the jet trajectory, is initiated closer to the jet exit. Moreover tornado-like wall-normal vortices originate from the separation of spanwise vorticity in the wall boundary layer at the side of the jet and from the entrainment of streamwise wall vortices in the recirculation zone on the lee side. These tornado-like vortices are absent in the case where separation is suppressed. Tornado-like vortices merge with counter-rotating vorticity originating in the jet shear layer, significantly increasing wall-normal circulation and causing deeper jet penetration into the crossflow stream. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  2. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared (United States)

    Roeck, Benjamin


    whole optical and infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50000Å which are almost completely based on spectra of observed stars (apart from two gaps which were fitted with theoretical stellar spectra) . We analyze the behaviour of the near-infrared (J - K) and the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colour calculated from our models. For ages older than 3 Gyr, both colours depend only slightly on age and metallicity. However, for younger ages, both colours become redder which is caused by the asymptotic giant branch stars contributing significantly to the light in the infrared at ages between 0.1 and 3 Gyr. Furthermore, we find a satisfactory agreement between the optical and near-infrared colours measured from our models and the colours observed from various samples of globular clusters and early-type x galaxies. However, our model predictions are only able to reproduce correctly the Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours of older, more massive galaxies that resemble a single-burst population. Younger, less massive and more metal-poor galaxies show redder colours than our models. This mismatch can be explained by a more extended star formation history of these galaxies which includes a metal-poor or/and young population. The Spitzer ([3.6]-[4.5]) colours derived from our models also agree very well with those from most other models available in this wavelength range as long as they also correctly take into account a strong CO absorption band situated at 4.5 μm. The model predictions for colours in the near-infrared, such as (J - K), differ more between the different sets of models, depending on the underlying prescriptions for the asymptotic giant branch stellar evolutionary phase. Compared to other authors, we adopt only a moderate contribution of asymptotic giant branch stars to our models. Our stellar population models allow us also to determine mass-to-light ratios in different infrared bands. Consequently, we can confirm that the massto- light ratio determined in the Spitzer [3

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Intensity Distributions (United States)

    Band, David L.; Norris, Jay P.; Bonnell, Jerry T.


    We use the lag-luminosity relation to calculate self-consistently the redshifts, apparent peak bolometric luminosities L(sub B1), and isotropic energies E(sub iso) for a large sample of BATSE bursts. We consider two different forms of the lag-luminosity relation; for both forms the median redshift, for our burst database is 1.6. We model the resulting sample of burst energies with power law and Gaussian dis- tributions, both of which are reasonable models. The power law model has an index of a = 1.76 plus or minus 0.05 (95% confidence) as opposed to the index of a = 2 predicted by the simple universal jet profile model; however, reasonable refinements to this model permit much greater flexibility in reconciling predicted and observed energy distributions.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Ryoji


    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  5. An Experimental and Computational Study on Soot Formation in a Coflow Jet Flame Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Cao, Su; Giassi, Davide; Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Smooke, Mitchell D.; Long, Marshall B.


    Upon the completion of the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) in March 2012, a comprehensive and unique set of microgravity coflow diffusion flame data was obtained. This data covers a range of conditions from weak flames near extinction to strong, highly sooting flames, and enabled the study of gravitational effects on phenomena such as liftoff, blowout and soot formation. The microgravity experiment was carried out in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on board the International Space Station (ISS), while the normal gravity experiment was performed at Yale utilizing a copy of the flight hardware. Computational simulations of microgravity and normal gravity flames were also carried out to facilitate understanding of the experimental observations. This paper focuses on the different sooting behaviors of CH4 coflow jet flames in microgravity and normal gravity. The unique set of data serves as an excellent test case for developing more accurate computational models.Experimentally, the flame shape and size, lift-off height, and soot temperature were determined from line-of-sight flame emission images taken with a color digital camera. Soot volume fraction was determined by performing an absolute light calibration using the incandescence from a flame-heated thermocouple. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the chemically reacting flow, and the soot evolution was modeled by the sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretized on an axisymmetric computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting system of fully coupled, highly nonlinear equations was solved by a damped, modified Newtons method. The microgravity sooting flames were found to have lower soot temperatures and higher volume fraction than their normal gravity counterparts. The soot distribution tends to shift from the centerline of the flame to the wings from normal gravity to

  6. Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitev Ivan


    Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.

  7. The Structure and Dynamics of GRB Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park


    There are several lines of evidence which suggest that the relativistic outflows in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated into narrow jets. The jet structure has important implications for the true energy release and the event rate of GRBs, and can constrain the mechanism responsible for the acceleration and collimation of the jet. Nevertheless, the jet structure and its dynamics as it sweeps up the external medium and decelerates, are not well understood. In this review I discuss our current understanding of GRB jets, stressing their structure and dynamics.

  8. Burst Statistics Using the Lag-Luminosity Relationship (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.


    Using the lag-luminosity relation and various BATSE catalogs we create a large catalog of burst redshifts, peak luminosities and emitted energies. These catalogs permit us to evaluate the lag-luminosity relation, and to study the burst energy distribution. We find that this distribution can be described as a power law with an index of alpha = 1.76 +/- 0.05 (95% confidence), close to the alpha = 2 predicted by the original quasi-universal jet model.

  9. The Drift Burst Hypothesis


    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto


    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...

  10. The many lives of active galactic nuclei-II: The formation and evolution of radio jets and their impact on galaxy evolution (United States)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Croton, Darren J.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Bernyk, Maksym


    We describe new efforts to model radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a cosmological context using the Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) semi-analytic galaxy model. Our new method tracks the physical properties of radio jets in massive galaxies including the evolution of radio lobes and their impact on the surrounding gas. This model also self consistently follows the gas cooling-heating cycle that significantly shapes star formation and the life and death of many galaxy types. Adding jet physics to SAGE adds new physical properties to the model output, which in turn allows us to make more detailed predictions for the radio AGN population. After calibrating the model to a set of core observations we analyse predictions for jet power, radio cocoon size, radio luminosity and stellar mass. We find that the model is able to match the stellar mass-radio luminosity relation at z ˜ 0 and the radio luminosity function out to z ˜ 1. This updated model will make possible the construction of customised AGN-focused mock survey catalogues to be used for large-scale observing programs.

  11. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  12. Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption (United States)

    Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.


    Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.

  13. Broadband observations of the naked-eye gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B. (United States)

    Racusin, J L; Karpov, S V; Sokolowski, M; Granot, J; Wu, X F; Pal'shin, V; Covino, S; van der Horst, A J; Oates, S R; Schady, P; Smith, R J; Cummings, J; Starling, R L C; Piotrowski, L W; Zhang, B; Evans, P A; Holland, S T; Malek, K; Page, M T; Vetere, L; Margutti, R; Guidorzi, C; Kamble, A P; Curran, P A; Beardmore, A; Kouveliotou, C; Mankiewicz, L; Melandri, A; O'Brien, P T; Page, K L; Piran, T; Tanvir, N R; Wrochna, G; Aptekar, R L; Barthelmy, S; Bartolini, C; Beskin, G M; Bondar, S; Bremer, M; Campana, S; Castro-Tirado, A; Cucchiara, A; Cwiok, M; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Valle, M Della; de Ugarte Postigo, A; Dominik, W; Falcone, A; Fiore, F; Fox, D B; Frederiks, D D; Fruchter, A S; Fugazza, D; Garrett, M A; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Gomboc, A; Gorosabel, J; Greco, G; Guarnieri, A; Immler, S; Jelinek, M; Kasprowicz, G; La Parola, V; Levan, A J; Mangano, V; Mazets, E P; Molinari, E; Moretti, A; Nawrocki, K; Oleynik, P P; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Pandey, S B; Paragi, Z; Perri, M; Piccioni, A; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Roming, P W A; Steele, I A; Strom, R G; Testa, V; Tosti, G; Ulanov, M V; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Winters, J M; Zarnecki, A F; Zerbi, F; Mészáros, P; Chincarini, G; Burrows, D N


    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) release copious amounts of energy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and so provide a window into the process of black hole formation from the collapse of massive stars. Previous early optical observations of even the most exceptional GRBs (990123 and 030329) lacked both the temporal resolution to probe the optical flash in detail and the accuracy needed to trace the transition from the prompt emission within the outflow to external shocks caused by interaction with the progenitor environment. Here we report observations of the extraordinarily bright prompt optical and gamma-ray emission of GRB 080319B that provide diagnostics within seconds of its formation, followed by broadband observations of the afterglow decay that continued for weeks. We show that the prompt emission stems from a single physical region, implying an extremely relativistic outflow that propagates within the narrow inner core of a two-component jet.

  14. Experimental set-up for time resolved small angle X-ray scattering studies of nanoparticles formation using a free-jet micromixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmiroli, Benedetta [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria); Grenci, Gianluca [TASC INFM/CNR, SS 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, TS (Italy); Cacho-Nerin, Fernando; Sartori, Barbara; Laggner, Peter [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria); Businaro, Luca [TASC INFM/CNR, SS 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, TS (Italy); Amenitsch, Heinz, E-mail: heinz.amenitsch@elettra.trieste.i [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria)


    Recently, we have designed, fabricated and tested a free-jet micromixer for time resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of nanoparticles formation in the <100 mus time range. The microjet has a diameter of 25 mum and a time of first accessible measurement of 75 mus has been obtained. This result can still be improved. In this communication, we present a method to estimate whether a given chemical or biological reaction can be investigated with the micromixer, and to optimize the beam size for the measurement at the chosen SAXS beamline. Moreover, we describe a system based on stereoscopic imaging which allows the alignment of the jet with the X-ray beam with a precision of 20 mum. The proposed experimental procedures have been successfully employed to observe the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) nanoparticles from the reaction of sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The induction time has been estimated in the order of 200 mus and the determined radius of the particles is about 14 nm.

  15. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    . We then develop a non-parametric test statistic that allows for the identification of drift bursts from noisy high-frequency data. We apply this methodology to a comprehensive set of tick data and show that drift bursts form an integral part of the price dynamics across equities, fixed income......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....

  16. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y


    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, γ, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at γ = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at γ = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at γ = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at γ 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s -1 , at γ = 1, to 36 m s -1 , at γ = 1.55. For γ < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

  17. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  18. Critical Bursts in Filtration (United States)

    Bianchi, Filippo; Thielmann, Marcel; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans Jürgen


    Particle detachment bursts during the flow of suspensions through porous media are a phenomenon that can severely affect the efficiency of deep bed filters. Despite the relevance in several industrial fields, little is known about the statistical properties and the temporal organization of these events. We present experiments of suspensions of deionized water carrying quartz particles pushed with a peristaltic pump through a filter of glass beads measuring simultaneously the pressure drop, flux, and suspension solid fraction. We find that the burst size distribution scales consistently with a power law, suggesting that we are in the presence of a novel experimental realization of a self-organized critical system. Temporal correlations are present in the time series, like in other phenomena such as earthquakes or neuronal activity bursts, and also an analog to Omori's law can be shown. The understanding of burst statistics could provide novel insights in different fields, e.g., in the filter and petroleum industries.

  19. When it is too hot for photosynthesis: heat-induced instability of photosynthesis in relation to respiratory burst, cell permeability changes and H₂O₂ formation. (United States)

    Hüve, Katja; Bichele, Irina; Rasulov, Bahtijor; Niinemets, Ulo


    Photosynthesis rate (A(n)) becomes unstable above a threshold temperature, and the recovery upon return to low temperature varies because of reasons not fully understood. We investigated responses of A(n), dark respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence to supraoptimal temperatures of varying duration and kinetics in Phaseolus vulgaris asking whether the instability of photosynthesis under severe heat stress is associated with cellular damage. Cellular damage was assessed by Evans blue penetration (enhanced membrane permeability) and by H₂O₂ generation [3,3'-diaminobenzidine 4HCl (DAB)-staining]. Critical temperature for dark fluorescence (F(0) ) rise (T(F)) was at 46-48 °C, and a burst of respiration was observed near T(F). However, A(n) was strongly inhibited already before T(F) was reached. Membrane permeability increased with temperature according to a switch-type response, with enhanced permeability observed above 48 °C. Experiments with varying heat pulse lengths and intensities underscored the threshold-type loss of photosynthetic function, and indicated that the degree of photosynthetic deterioration and cellular damage depended on accumulated heat-dose. Beyond the 'point of no return', propagation of cellular damage and reduction of photosynthesis continued upon transfer to lower temperatures and photosynthetic recovery was slow or absent. We conclude that instability of photosynthesis under severe heat stress is associated with time-dependent propagation of cellular lesions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger (United States)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.


    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  1. Experimental analysis of waveform effects on satellite and ligament behavior via in situ measurement of the drop-on-demand drop formation curve and the instantaneous jetting speed curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kye-Si


    In situ techniques to measure the drop-on-demand (DOD) drop formation curve and the instantaneous jetting speed curve are developed such that ligament behavior and satellite behavior of inkjet droplets can be analyzed effectively. It is known that the droplet jetting behavior differs by ink properties and the driving waveform voltage. In this study, to reduce possible droplet placement errors due to satellite drops or long ligaments during printing, waveform effects on drop formation are investigated based on the measured DOD drop formation curve and the instantaneous jetting speed curve. Experimental results show that a dwell time greater than the so-called efficient dwell time was effective in reducing placement errors due to satellite drops during the printing process

  2. The GRB-SLSN connection: misaligned magnetars, weak jet emergence, and observational signatures (United States)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Nicholl, Matt; Sukhbold, Tuguldur


    Multiple lines of evidence support a connection between hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) and long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Both classes of events require a powerful central energy source, usually attributed to a millisecond magnetar or an accreting black hole. The GRB-SLSN link raises several theoretical questions: What distinguishes the engines responsible for these different phenomena? Can a single engine power both a GRB and a luminous SN in the same event? We propose a unifying model for magnetar thermalization and jet formation: misalignment between the rotation (Ω) and magnetic dipole (μ) axes dissipates a fraction of the spin-down power by reconnection in the striped equatorial wind, providing a guaranteed source of `thermal' emission to power the supernova. The remaining unthermalized power energizes a relativistic jet. We show that even weak relativistic jets of luminosity ˜1046 erg s-1 can escape the expanding SN ejecta implying that escaping relativistic jets may accompany many SLSNe. We calculate the observational signature of these jets. We show that they may produce transient ultraviolet (UV) cocoon emission lasting a few hours when the jet breaks out of the ejecta surface. A longer lived optical/UV signal may originate from a mildly relativistic wind driven from the interface between the jet and the ejecta walls, which could explain the secondary early-time maximum observed in some SLSNe light curves, such as LSQ14bdq. Our scenario predicts a population of GRB from on-axis jets with extremely long durations, potentially similar to the population of `jetted-tidal disruption events', in coincidence with a small subset of SLSNe.

  3. External Shock in a Multi-bursting Gamma-Ray Burst: Energy Injection Phase Induced by the Later Launched Ejecta (United States)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Huang, Bao-Quan; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Mu, Hui-Jun; Liang, En-Wei


    Central engines of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may be intermittent and launch several episodes of ejecta separated by a long quiescent interval. In this scenario, an external shock is formed due to the propagation of the first launched ejecta into the circum-burst medium and the later launched ejecta may interact with the external shock at a later period. Owing to the internal dissipation, the later launched ejecta may be observed at a later time (t jet). In this paper, we study the relation of t b and t jet, where t b is the collision time of the later launched ejecta with the formed external shock. It is found that the relation of t b and t jet depends on the bulk Lorentz factor (Γjet) of the later launched ejecta and the density (ρ) of the circum-burst medium. If the value of Γjet or ρ is low, the t b would be significantly larger than t jet. However, the t b ∼ t jet can be found if the value of Γjet or ρ is significantly large. Our results can explain the large lag of the optical emission relative to the γ-ray/X-ray emission in GRBs, e.g., GRB 111209A. For GRBs with a precursor, our results suggest that the energy injection into the external shock and thus more than one external-reverse shock may appear in the main prompt emission phase. According to our model, we estimate the Lorentz factor of the second launched ejecta in GRB 160625B.

  4. Observed transition from Richtmyer-Meshkov jet formation through feedout oscillations to Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a laser target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Kessler, T. J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Nikitin, S. P.; Oh, J.; Metzler, N.


    Experimental study of hydrodynamic perturbation evolution triggered by a laser-driven shock wave breakout at the free rippled rear surface of a plastic target is reported. At sub-megabar shock pressure, planar jets manifesting the development of the Richtmyer-Meshkov-type instability in a non-accelerated target are observed. As the shock pressure exceeds 1 Mbar, an oscillatory rippled expansion wave is observed, followed by the “feedout” of the rear-surface perturbations to the ablation front and the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which breaks up the accelerated target.

  5. Water Fountains in the Sky: Streaming Water Jets from Aging Star Provide Clues to Planetary-Nebula Formation (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found that an aging star is spewing narrow, rotating streams of water molecules into space, like a jerking garden hose that has escaped its owner's grasp. The discovery may help resolve a longstanding mystery about how the stunningly beautiful objects called planetary nebulae are formed. Artist's Conception of W43A. Artist's conception of W43A, with the aging star surrounded by a disk of material and a precessing, twisted jet of molecules streaming away from it in two directions. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. The astronomers used the VLBA, operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, to study a star called W43A. W43A is about 8,500 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Aquila, the eagle. This star has come to the end of its normal lifetime and, astronomers believe, is about to start forming a planetary nebula, a shell of brightly glowing gas lit by the hot ember into which the star will collapse. "A prime mystery about planetary nebulae is that many are not spherical even though the star from which they are ejected is a sphere," said Phillip Diamond, director of the MERLIN radio observatory at Jodrell Bank in England, and one of the researchers using the VLBA. "The spinning jets of water molecules we found coming from this star may be one mechanism for producing the structures seen in many planetary nebulae," he added. The research team, led by Hiroshi Imai of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory (now at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, based in the Netherlands), also includes Kumiko Obara of the Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory and Kagoshima University; Toshihiro Omodaka, also of Kagoshima University; and Tetsuo Sasao of the Japanese National Astronomical Observatory. The scientists reported their findings in the June 20 issue of the scientific journal Nature. As stars similar to our Sun

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts and the Birth of Black Holes (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil


    Black holes have been predicted since the 1940's from solutions of Einstein's general relativity field equation. There is strong evidence of their existence from astronomical observations, but their origin has remained an open question of great interest. Gamma-ray bursts may the clue. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and appear to be the birth cries of black holes. The Swift and Fermi missions are two powerful NASA observatories currently in orbit that are discovering how gamma-ray bursts work. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are tremendously luminous and are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. One Swift burst at z=8.3 is the most distant object known in the universe. The talk will present the latest gamma-ray burst results from Swift and Fermi and will highlight what they are teaching us about black holes and jet outflows.

  7. Fuzzy jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Lester [Department of Statistics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stansbury, Conrad [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.; Sauty, C.


    Transversely stratified jets are observed in many classes of astrophysical objects, ranging from young stellar objects, mu-quasars, to active galactic nuclei and even in gamma-ray bursts. Theoretical arguments support this transverse stratification of jets with two components induced by intrinsic

  9. Small-scale filament eruptions as the driver of X-ray jets in solar coronal holes. (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C; Moore, Ronald L; Falconer, David A; Adams, Mitzi


    Solar X-ray jets are thought to be made by a burst of reconnection of closed magnetic field at the base of a jet with ambient open field. In the accepted version of the 'emerging-flux' model, such a reconnection occurs at a plasma current sheet between the open field and the emerging closed field, and also forms a localized X-ray brightening that is usually observed at the edge of the jet's base. Here we report high-resolution X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet observations of 20 randomly selected X-ray jets that form in coronal holes at the Sun's poles. In each jet, contrary to the emerging-flux model, a miniature version of the filament eruptions that initiate coronal mass ejections drives the jet-producing reconnection. The X-ray bright point occurs by reconnection of the 'legs' of the minifilament-carrying erupting closed field, analogous to the formation of solar flares in larger-scale eruptions. Previous observations have found that some jets are driven by base-field eruptions, but only one such study, of only one jet, provisionally questioned the emerging-flux model. Our observations support the view that solar filament eruptions are formed by a fundamental explosive magnetic process that occurs on a vast range of scales, from the biggest mass ejections and flare eruptions down to X-ray jets, and perhaps even down to smaller jets that may power coronal heating. A similar scenario has previously been suggested, but was inferred from different observations and based on a different origin of the erupting minifilament.

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Radio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Chandra


    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.

  11. A Burst to See (United States)


    On 19 March, Nature was particularly generous and provided astronomers with the wealth of four gamma-ray bursts on the same day. But that was not all: one of them is the most luminous object ever observed in the Universe. Despite being located in a distant galaxy, billions of light years away, it was so bright that it could have been seen, for a brief while, with the unaided eye. ESO PR Photo 08a/08 ESO PR Photo 08a/08 The REM Telescope and TORTORA Camera Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short flashes of energetic gamma-rays lasting from less than a second to several minutes. They release a tremendous quantity of energy in this short time making them the most powerful events since the Big Bang. It is now widely accepted that the majority of the gamma-ray bursts signal the explosion of very massive, highly evolved stars that collapse into black holes. Gamma-ray bursts, which are invisible to our eyes, are discovered by telescopes in space. After releasing their intense burst of high-energy radiation, they become detectable for a short while in the optical and in the near-infrared. This 'afterglow' fades very rapidly, making detailed analysis possible for only a few hours after the gamma-ray detection. This analysis is important in particular in order to determine the GRB's distance and, hence, intrinsic brightness. The gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B was detected by the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift satellite. "It was so bright that it almost blinded the Swift instruments for a while," says Guido Chincarini, Italian principal investigator of the mission. A bright optical counterpart was soon identified in the Boötes Constellation (the "Bear Driver" or "Herdsman"). A host of ground-based telescopes reacted promptly to study this new object in the sky. In particular, the optical emission was detected by a few wide-field cameras on telescopes that constantly monitor a large fraction of the sky, including the TORTORA camera in symbiosis with the 0.6-m REM telescope located at La Silla

  12. A Burst Chasing X-ray Polarimeter (United States)

    Hill, Joanne; Hill, Joe; Barthelmy, S.; Black, K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Kaaret, P.; McConnell, M.; Bloser, P.; hide


    Tihs is a viewgraph presentation of a discussion of the X-ray Polarimeter. Gamma-ray bursts are one of the most powerful explosions in the universe and have been detected out to distances of almost 13 billion light years. The exact origin of these energetic explosions is still unknown but the resulting huge release of energy is thought to create a highly relativistic jet of material and a power-law distribution of electrons. There are several theories describing the origin of the prompt GRB emission that currently cannot be distinguished. Measurements of the linear polarization would provide unique and important constraints on the mechanisms thought to drive these powerful explosions. We present the design of a sensitive, and extremely versatile gamma-ray burst polarimeter. The instrument is a photoelectric polarimeter based on a time-projection chamber. The photoelectric time-projection technique combines high sensitivity with broad band-pass and is potentially the most powerful method between 2 and 100 keV where the photoelectric effect is the dominant interaction process We present measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays obtained with a prototype detector and describe the two mission concepts, the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GRBP) for thc U S Naval Academy satellite MidSTAR-2, and thc Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) onboard POET, a broadband polarimetry concept for a small explorer mission.

  13. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    With the recent discovery of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes, its especially important to understand the electromagnetic signals resulting from mergers of compact objects. New simulations successfully follow a merger of two neutron stars that produces a short burst of energy via a jet consistent with short gamma-ray burst (sGRB) detections.Still from the authors simulation showing the two neutron stars, and their magnetic fields, before merger. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]Challenging SystemWe have long suspected that sGRBs are produced by the mergers of compact objects, but this model has been difficult to prove. One major hitch is that modeling the process of merger and sGRB launch is very difficult, due to the fact that these extreme systems involve magnetic fields, fluids and full general relativity.Traditionally, simulations are only able to track such mergers over short periods of time. But in a recent study, Milton Ruiz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Industrial University of Santander, Colombia) and coauthors Ryan Lang, Vasileios Paschalidis and Stuart Shapiro have modeled a binary neutron star system all the way through the process of inspiral, merger, and the launch of a jet.A Merger TimelineHow does this happen? Lets walk through one of the teams simulations, in which dipole magnetic field lines thread through the interior of each neutron star and extend beyond its surface(like magnetic fields found in pulsars). In this example, the two neutron stars each have a mass of 1.625 solar masses.Simulation start (0 ms)Loss of energy via gravitational waves cause the neutron stars to inspiral.Merger (3.5 ms)The neutron stars are stretched by tidal effects and make contact. Their merger produces a hypermassive neutron star that is supported against collapse by its differential (nonuniform) rotation.Delayed collapse into a black hole (21.5 ms)Once the differential rotation is redistributed by magnetic fields and partially

  14. Fishbone-like events in jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, M.F.F.; Campbell, D.; Joffrin, E.; Pegoraro, F.; Porcelli, F.; Smeulders, P.; Thomsen, K.


    A variety of MHD activity has been observed in JET during auxiliary heating experiments. In particular, periodic bursts of oscillations detected in several diagnostics show signatures similar to that of the 'fishbone' instabilities. Here we describe the characteristics of these instabilities, discuss the operating conditions under which they are observed, and compare these with the predictions of theory. (author) 7 refs., 6 figs

  15. Relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D E; Krawczynski


    Written by a carefully selected consortium of researchers working in the field, this book fills the gap for an up-to-date summary of the observational and theoretical status. As such, this monograph includes all used wavelengths, from radio to gamma, the FERMI telescope, a history and theory refresher, and jets from gamma ray bursts. For astronomers, nuclear physicists, and plasmaphysicists.

  16. The influence of the geometry and electrical characteristics on the formation of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Guaitella, O; Rousseau, A


    An extensive electrical study was performed on a coaxial geometry atmospheric pressure plasma jet source in helium, driven by 30 kHz sine voltage. Two modes of operation were observed, a highly reproducible low-power mode that features the emission of one plasma bullet per voltage period and an erratic high-power mode in which micro-discharges appear around the grounded electrode. The minimum of power transfer efficiency corresponds to the transition between the two modes. Effective capacitance was identified as a varying property influenced by the discharge and the dissipated power. The charge carried by plasma bullets was found to be a small fraction of charge produced in the source irrespective of input power and configuration of the grounded electrode. The biggest part of the produced charge stays localized in the plasma source and below the grounded electrode, in the range 1.2–3.3 nC for ground length of 3–8 mm. (paper)

  17. Simulations of Solar Jets (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  18. Optothermally actuated capillary burst valve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Johan; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders


    We demonstrate the optothermal actuation of individual capillary burst valves in an all-polymer microfluidic device. The capillary burst valves are realised in a planar design by introducing a fluidic constriction in a microfluidic channel of constant depth. We show that a capillary burst valve can...

  19. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n E-18008 Granada (Spain); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Toledo 2801 West Bancroft Street Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tobin, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Stutz, Amelia M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Concepción Concepción (Chile); Furlan, Elise [IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Caltech 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland [European Space Astronomy Center, ESA P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Stanke, Thomas [European Southern Observatory Garching bei München (Germany); Watson, Dan M., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)


    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s{sup −1}. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s{sup −1}, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  20. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.


    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s −1 . The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s −1 , similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  1. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar (United States)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; Gómez, José F.; González-García, Beatriz; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.; Loinard, Laurent; Vavrek, Roland; Carrasco-González, Carlos


    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7-5 cm), multi-epoch (1994-2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free-free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ˜7500-12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ˜100 km s-1. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ˜30 km s-1, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  2. Burst Populations and Detector Sensitivity (United States)

    Band, David L.


    The F(sub T) (peak bolometric photon flux) vs. E(sub p) (peak energy) plane is a powerful tool to compare the burst populations detected by different detectors. Detector sensitivity curves in this plane demonstrate which burst populations the detectors will detect. For example, future CZT-based detectors will show the largest increase in sensitivity for soft bursts, and will be particularly well- suited to study X-ray rich bursts and X-ray Flashes. Identical bursts at different redshifts describe a track in the F(sub T)-E(sub p) plane.

  3. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    and formation of a subsurface high salinity core are, apparently, manifestations of vertical advection of momentum associated with the jet. The driving force behind the equatorial undercurrent in the Indian Ocean ceases to exist in May, causing undercurrent...

  4. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked (United States)


    stars. This was originally based on the probable association of one unusual gamma-ray burst with a supernova ("SN 1998bw", also discovered with ESO telescopes, cf. ESO PR 15/98 ). More clues have surfaced since, including the association of GRBs with regions of massive star-formation in distant galaxies, tantalizing evidence of supernova-like light-curve "bumps" in the optical afterglows of some earlier bursts, and spectral signatures from freshly synthesized elements, observed by X-ray observatories. VLT observations of GRB 030329 ESO PR Photo 17a/03 ESO PR Photo 17a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 588 x 400 pix - 61k [Normal - JPEG: 1176 x 800 pix - 688k] ESO PR Photo 17b/03 ESO PR Photo 17b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 509 pix - 52k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1018 pix - 288k] Captions : PR Photo 17a/03 is reproduced from a CCD-exposure, obtained with the FORS 1 and 2 multi-mode instruments at the 8.2-m VLT telescopes. It shows the fading image of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 , as seen on April 3 (four days after the GRB event) and May 1, 2003. PR Photo 17b/03 displays a series of VLT-FORS-spectra, showing the spectral evolution of the hypernova (designated SN 2003dh [2]) underlying the gamma-ray burst GRB 030329 (black curves). The red-dotted spectra are those of an earlier, nearby hypernova, SN 1998bw , observed with various ESO telescopes. The elapsed time (days in the rest frame of the object) since the explosion is indicated. There is a striking similarity between the spectra of the two hypernovae, also in their evolution with time. This allowed a precise dating of the explosion of the hypernova underlying GRB 030329. On March 29, 2003 (at exactly 11:37:14.67 hrs UT) NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-II) detected a very bright gamma-ray burst. Following identification of the "optical afterglow" by a 40-inch telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (Australia), the redshift of the burst [3] was determined as 0.1685 by means of a high-dispersion spectrum obtained

  5. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan


    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  6. Compton echoes from nearby Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios; Younes, George; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa


    The recent discovery of gravitational waves from GW170817, associated with a short Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) at a distance of 40Mpc, has demonstrated that short GRBs can occur locally and at a reasonable rate. Furthermore, gravitational waves enable us to detect close by GRBs, even when we are observing at latitudes far from the jet's axis. We consider here Compton echoes, the scattered light from the prompt and afterglow emission. Compton echoes, an as yet undetected counterpart of GRBs, peak in X-rays and maintain a roughly constant flux for hundreds to thousands of years after the burst. Though too faint to be detected in typical cosmological GRBs, a fraction of close by bursts with a sufficiently large energy output in X-rays, and for which the surrounding medium is sufficiently dense, may indeed be observed in this way. The detection of a Compton echo could provide unique insight into the burst properties and the environment's density structure. In particular, it could potentially determine whether or not there was a successful jet that broke through the compact binary merger ejecta. We discuss here the properties and expectations from Compton echoes and suggest methods for detectability.

  7. Global hydromagnetic simulations of a planet embedded in a dead zone: Gap opening, gas accretion, and formation of a protoplanetary jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gressel, O. [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nelson, R. P. [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Turner, N. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ziegler, U., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany)


    We present global hydrodynamic (HD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with mesh refinement of accreting planets embedded in protoplanetary disks (PPDs). The magnetized disk includes Ohmic resistivity that depends on the overlying mass column, leading to turbulent surface layers and a dead zone near the midplane. The main results are: (1) the accretion flow in the Hill sphere is intrinsically three-dimensional for HD and MHD models. Net inflow toward the planet is dominated by high-latitude flows. A circumplanetary disk (CPD) forms. Its midplane flows outward in a pattern whose details differ between models. (2) The opening of a gap magnetically couples and ignites the dead zone near the planet, leading to stochastic accretion, a quasi-turbulent flow in the Hill sphere, and a CPD whose structure displays high levels of variability. (3) Advection of magnetized gas onto the rotating CPD generates helical fields that launch magnetocentrifugally driven outflows. During one specific epoch, a highly collimated, one-sided jet is observed. (4) The CPD's surface density is ∼30 g cm{sup −2}, small enough for significant ionization and turbulence to develop. (5) The accretion rate onto the planet in the MHD simulation reaches a steady value 8 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ⊕} yr{sup –1} and is similar in the viscous HD runs. Our results suggest that gas accretion onto a forming giant planet within a magnetized PPD with a dead zone allows rapid growth from Saturnian to Jovian masses. As well as being relevant for giant planet formation, these results have important implications for the formation of regular satellites around gas giant planets.

  8. Impact of gas backing pressure and geometry of conical nozzle on the formation of methane clusters in supersonic jets. (United States)

    Lu, Haiyang; Chen, Guanglong; Ni, Guoquan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan


    We present an experimental investigation of the dependence of the production of large methane clusters on the cluster source conditions. The clusters were produced at room temperature through supersonic expansion of methane gas at the backing pressures P(0) ranging from 10 to 84 bar using five conical nozzles of different geometries. The cluster size was characterized by Rayleigh scattering measurements and calibrated with Coulomb explosion of the clusters at P(0) = 44 bar subjected to an ultraintense laser pulse. A quantitative evaluation of the performance of the conical nozzles against the nozzle geometry and the backing pressure was made by introducing a parameter delta. Differ from the idealized case where the performance of the conical nozzle can be described by the equivalent sonic nozzle of diameter d(eq), in the present work, the "effective equivalent sonic-nozzle diameter" of the conical nozzle defined by d(eq)* = deltad(eq) is introduced. delta represents the deviation of the performance in cluster formation of the conical nozzles from that predicted on the basis of the concept of the equivalent diameter d(eq) = d/tan alpha, with d being the throat diameter, and alpha the half-opening angle of the conical nozzle. Experimental results show that the cluster growth process will be restricted when the gas backing pressure P(0) is higher and/or d/tan alpha of the conical nozzle becomes larger, resulting in smaller delta. From the experimental data, delta can be expressed by an empirical relation delta = A/[P(0)(B)(d/tan alpha)(1.36)], where A = 8.4 and B = 0.26 for 24 bar cases investigated in this work, delta was found to lie between about 0.2 and 1.0, and the average radii of the methane clusters were measured to be 1-7 nm, depending on the experimental conditions. For lack of the experimental data on methane cluster formation with sonic nozzles, the data from the "sonic-like" conical nozzles were applied. Consequently, the delta values provided in this

  9. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow (United States)

    Holland, Stephen T.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Taka; Shady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Yi-Zhong, Fan; Zhi-Ping, Jin; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; hide


    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift UltraViolet Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM and ROTSE telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx. 100000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data cover a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 5000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.

  10. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst (United States)


    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  11. Gamma-ray bursts. (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow.

  12. Gamma Ray Bursts (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  13. UWB dual burst transmit driver (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA


    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  14. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.


    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  15. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas


    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  16. A review of gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin J


    Gamma-ray bursts, an enigma for more than 25 years, are now coming into focus. They involve extraordinary power outputs, and highly relativistic dynamics. The 'trigger' involves stellar-mass compact objects. The most plausible progenitors, ranging from neutron star binary mergers to collapsars (sometimes called 'hypernovae') eventually lead to the formation of a black hole with a torus of hot neutron-density material around it, the extractable energy being up to 10 sup 5 sup 4 ergs. Magnetic fields may exceed 10 sup 1 sup 5 G and particles may be accelerated up to > or approx. 10 sup 2 sup 0 eV. Details of the afterglow may be easier to understand than the initial trigger. Bursts at very high redshift can be astronomically-important as probes of the distant universe.

  17. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  18. BATSE spectroscopy catalog of bright gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Fantasia, Stephan F.; Palmer, David; Cline, Thomas L.; Matteson, James L.; Band, David L.; Ford, Lyle A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegar, Charles A.


    This paper presents comprehensive results on the spectra of 30 bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs) as observed by the Spectroscopy Detectors (SDs) of the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The data selection was strict in including only spectra that are of high reliability for continuum shape studies. This BATSE Spectroscopy Catalog presents fluences, model fits (for five spectral models for three energy ranges), and photon spectra in a standard manner for each burst. Complete information is provided to describe the data selection and analysis procedures. The catalog results are also presented in electronic format (from the Compton Observatory Science Support Center) and CD-ROM format (AAS CD-ROM series, Vol. 2). These electronic formats also present the count spectra and detector response matrices so as to allow for independent study and fitting by researchers outside the BATSE Team. This BATSE Spectroscopy Catalog complements the catalog from BATSE Large Area Detector (LAD) data by Fishman et al. (1994).

  19. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kye-Si; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok


    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance

  20. Transient gas jets into liquids (United States)

    Lin, Jane Ming-Chin

    An experimental investigation of the development of high velocity, impulsively initiated gas jets into liquid was conducted in an effort to understand some of the physical processes that occur for a jet of very light fluid into a dense ambient atmosphere. Four gases, refrigerants 12 and 22, nitrogen, and helium were injected into water at nozzle exit Mach numbers from 1.0 to 2.2.The study showed that a gas jet into water develops in at least three stages: startup, transition, and global steady state. The startup is characterized by bubble growth; the growth rate is well predicted by classical bubble-growth theory. Jet transition is marked by axially directed flow, which penetrates through the startup bubble and which forms a cylindrical protrusion along the axis of symmetry. A combination of strong recirculating flow and liquid entrainment causes the startup bubble to deflate and to lift off and move downstream. In the steady state, instantaneous photographs show small-scale fluctuations of the jet boundary, but time-averaged photographs show the expected conical spreading of the steady jet; the measured spreading angles range from 18-25 degrees.However, the most significant finding of this study is that under some conditions, the gas jet into liquid never reaches the global steady state. Instead, the jet boundary exhibits chugging: large nonlinear oscillations which lead to irregular collapses of the gas column followed by explosive outward bursts of gas. The unsteadiness observed is much more violent than the familiar fluctuations typical of constant-density jets. The length scale of the motion is generally on the order of several jet diameters; the time scale is on the order of the period for bubble collapse.It was found that the amplitude and frequency of chugging are strongly dependent on the ratio of the liquid density to the gas density, the jet Mach number, and the operating pressure ratio. The conditions under which unsteadiness occurs were determined

  1. Bursts de raios gama (United States)

    Braga, J.


    Nos últimos anos, graças principalmente aos dados obtidos pelo Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory e pelo satélite ítalo-holandês BeppoSAX, grandes avanços foram obtidos no nosso conhecimento sobre os fascinantes e enigmáticos fenômenos conhecidos por "bursts"de raios gama. Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre a fenomenologia desses misteriosos objetos e são apresentados os desenvolvimentos recentes nessa área palpitante da astrofísica moderna, ressaltando tanto os resultados observacionais obtidos até o momento quanto os modelos teóricos propostos para explixá-los.

  2. Burst Detector Sensitivity: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Band, David L.


    I compare the burst detection sensitivity of CGRO's BATSE, Swift's BAT, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and EXIST as a function of a burst s spectrum and duration. A detector's overall burst sensitivity depends on its energy sensitivity and set of accumulations times (Delta)t; these two factors shape the detected burst population. For example, relative to BATSE, the BAT s softer energy band decreases the detection rate of short, hard bursts, while the BAT s longer accumulation times increase the detection rate of long, soft bursts. Consequently, Swift is detecting long, low fluence bursts (2-3 x fainter than BATSE).

  3. NASA Jet Noise Research (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda


    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  4. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)


    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  5. Fermi Bubbles: Formation Scenarios and Substructure (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas P.


    The Milky Way has gamma-ray lobes extending several kpc above and below the Galactic center, known as the "Fermi Bubbles." Although the Galactic center is quiet today, these bubbles are a hint of past AGN activity, a burst of star formation, or some other dramatic energy injection. In the three years since their discovery, they have been modeled analytically and numerically, and additional radio and x-ray data have been obtained, leading to a number of ideas about their origins. I will review the latest data and report on some possible formation scenarios. I will also give an update on our tentative claim last year of a linear jet-like structure within the bubbles (arXiv:1205.5852).

  6. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil


    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit since November 20, 2004 and all hardware is performing well. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera is detecting a hundred bursts per year. sensitive narrow-field X-ray and uv/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 50-100 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. There has been a break-through in the longstanding mystery of short GRBs; they appear to be caused by merging neutron stars. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow.

  7. Clustering of gamma-ray burst types in the Fermi GBM catalogue: indications of photosphere and synchrotron emissions during the prompt phase (United States)

    Acuner, Zeynep; Ryde, Felix


    Many different physical processes have been suggested to explain the prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although there are examples of both bursts with photospheric and synchrotron emission origins, these distinct spectral appearances have not been generalized to large samples of GRBs. Here, we search for signatures of the different emission mechanisms in the full Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope/GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) catalogue. We use Gaussian Mixture Models to cluster bursts according to their parameters from the Band function (α, β, and Epk) as well as their fluence and T90. We find five distinct clusters. We further argue that these clusters can be divided into bursts of photospheric origin (2/3 of all bursts, divided into three clusters) and bursts of synchrotron origin (1/3 of all bursts, divided into two clusters). For instance, the cluster that contains predominantly short bursts is consistent of photospheric emission origin. We discuss several reasons that can determine which cluster a burst belongs to: jet dissipation pattern and/or the jet content, or viewing angle.

  8. Jet Quenching via Jet Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    The ATLAS Collaboration recently reported strong modifications of dijet properties in heavy ion collisions. In this work, we discuss to what extent these first data constrain already the microscopic mechanism underlying jet quenching. Simple kinematic arguments lead us to identify a frequency collimation mechanism via which the medium efficiently trims away the soft components of the jet parton shower. Through this mechanism, the observed dijet asymmetry can be accomodated with values of $\\hat{q}\\, L$ that lie in the expected order of magnitude.

  9. Magnetron: Fitting bursts from magnetars (United States)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Brewer, Brendon J.; Hogg, David W.; Murray, Iain; Frean, Marcus


    Magnetron, written in Python, decomposes magnetar bursts into a superposition of small spike-like features with a simple functional form, where the number of model components is itself part of the inference problem. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and reversible jumps between models with different numbers of parameters are used to characterize the posterior distributions of the model parameters and the number of components per burst.

  10. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  11. Modelling of the material transport and layer formation in the divertor of JET: Comparison of ITER-like wall with full carbon wall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, A.; Matveev, D.; Borodin, D.; Airila, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Groth, M.; Wiesen, S.; Widdowson, A.; Beal, J.; Esser, H.G.; Likonen, J.; Bekris, N.; Ding, R.


    Impurity transport within the inner JET divertor has been modelled with ERO to estimate the transport to and the resulting deposition at remote areas. Various parametric studies involving divertor plasma conditions and strike point position have been performed. In JET-ILW (beryllium main chamber and tungsten divertor) beryllium, flowing from the main chamber into the divertor and then effectively reflected at the tungsten divertor tiles, is transported to remote areas. The tungsten flux to remote areas in L-Mode is in comparison to the beryllium flux negligible due to small sputtering. However, tungsten is sputtered during ELMs in H-Mode conditions. Nevertheless, depending on the plasma conditions, strike point position and the location of the remote area, the maximum resulting tungsten flux to remote areas is at least ∼3 times lower than the corresponding beryllium flux. Modelled beryllium and tungsten deposition on a rotating collector probe located below tile 5 is in good agreement with measurements if the beryllium influx into the inner divertor is assumed to be in the range of 0.1% relative to the deuterium ion flux and erosion due to fast charge exchange neutrals is considered. Comparison between JET-ILW and JET-C is presented

  12. Modeling relativistic jets and cosmic-ray acceleration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globus, Noemie


    This thesis explores various issues related to relativistic jets associated with black holes. Their formation as well as the acceleration and collimation processes, are studied using a fluid approximation within a global description of the flow. The general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations can be integrated using the 3+1 formalism, and the covariant equations can be transposed to a vectorial form, where the physical vectorial quantities are measured by an Eulerian observer comoving with the rotation, the so-called zero angular momentum observer. This formalism allows us to study the physics of the magnetosphere surrounding a Kerr black hole, i.e., the physics of a strongly magnetized plasma in differential rotation in curved space-time. This formalism enabled me to develop a self-similar meridional model in the Kerr metric that allows us to obtain relativistic jet solutions, and to describe the dynamics, and the geometry of the flow close to the rotational axis. In particular, I have investigated how the rotation of the black hole affects the collimation process. I have found solutions for T Tauri stars in the Newtonian approximation in order to study magnetic braking, and to compare them with their generalization in the Kerr metric. Relativistic jets could also be the seat of high-energy corpuscular and photon emission. In particular, gamma-ray bursts could be possible sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. This problem requires the use of a local description of the flow. Finally, we have investigated the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays in these shocks, taking into account the competition between relativistic Fermi acceleration and energy loss due to interaction with the gamma ray background, in order to ascertain whether the observed energies can be obtained in this way. (author)

  13. Statistical Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Permanent link: ... A statistical analysis of gamma-ray burst host galaxies is presented and a clear metallicity-stellar mass relation is found in our sample. A trend that a more massive host galaxy tends to have a higher star-formation rate is also found.

  14. GRB 120521C at z ∼ 6 and the properties of high-redshift γ-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Zauderer, B. Ashley; Margutti, Raffaella; Fong, Wen-fai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, Nial; Wiersema, Klaas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Levan, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Menten, Karl [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hrudkova, Marie [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Apartado de Correos 321, E-387 00 Santa Cruz de la Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)


    We present optical, near-infrared, and radio observations of the afterglow of GRB 120521C. By modeling the multi-wavelength data set, we derive a photometric redshift of z ≈ 6.0, which we confirm with a low signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the afterglow. We find that a model with a constant-density environment provides a good fit to the afterglow data, with an inferred density of n ≲ 0.05 cm{sup –3}. The radio observations reveal the presence of a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 7 d, corresponding to a jet opening angle of θ{sub jet} ≈ 3°. The beaming-corrected γ-ray and kinetic energies are E {sub γ} ≈ E{sub K} ≈ 3 × 10{sup 50} erg. We quantify the uncertainties in our results using a detailed Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, which allows us to uncover degeneracies between the physical parameters of the explosion. To compare GRB 120521C to other high-redshift bursts in a uniform manner we re-fit all available afterglow data for the two other bursts at z ≳ 6 with radio detections (GRBs 050904 and 090423). We find a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 15 d for GRB 090423, in contrast to previous work. Based on these three events, we find that γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at z ≳ 6 appear to explode in constant-density environments, and exhibit a wide range of energies and densities that span the range inferred for lower redshift bursts. On the other hand, we find a hint for narrower jets in the z ≳ 6 bursts, potentially indicating a larger true event rate at these redshifts. Overall, our results indicate that long GRBs share a common progenitor population at least to z ∼ 8.

  15. Jet in jet in M87 (United States)

    Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich


    New high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometer observations of the prominent jet in the M87 radio galaxy show a persistent triple-ridge structure of the transverse 15-GHz profile with a previously unobserved ultra-narrow central ridge. This radio structure can reflect the intrinsic structure of the jet, so that the jet as a whole consists of two embedded coaxial jets. A relativistic magnetohydrodynamic model is considered in which an inner jet is placed inside a hollow outer jet and the electromagnetic fields, pressures and other physical quantities are found. The entire jet is connected to the central engine that plays the role of a unipolar inductor generating voltage between the jets and providing opposite electric currents, and the charge neutrality and current closure together with the electromagnetic fields between the jets can contribute to the jet stabilization. The constant voltage is responsible for the similar widening laws observed for the inner and outer jets. This jet-in-jet structure can indicate simultaneous operation of two different jet-launching mechanisms, one relating to the central supermassive black hole and the other to the surrounding accretion disc. An inferred magnetic field of 80 G at the base is sufficient to provide the observed jet luminosity.

  16. Aerosol vertical distribution, new particle formation, and jet aircraft particle emissions in the free troposhere and tropopause region; Vertikalverteilung und Neubildungsprozesse des Aerosols und partikelfoermige Flugzeugemissionen in der freien Troposphaere und Tropopausenregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F.P.


    A contribution to the understanding of natural and anthropogenously induced particle formation as well as aerosol physical transformation processes within the free troposphere (FT) is introduced. Documentation and interpretation of empirical data relevant with respect to possible climatologic impact of anthropogenous aerosol emissions into the atmosphere is presented. The first section describes new technique for high spatial resolution measurements of ultrafine aerosol particles by condensation nucleus counters (CNCs), a necessary prerequisite for the observation of natural particle formation and jet aircraft emissions. The second section illustrates vertical distribution and variability ranges of the aerosol in the FT and the tropopause region (TP). Typical microphysical states of the atmospheric aerosol within the Northern Hemisphere are documented by means of systematic measurements during more than 60 flight missions. Simple mathematical parameterizations of the aerosol vertical distribution and aerosol size distributions are developed. Important aerosol sources within the FT are localized and possible aerosol formation processes are discussed. The third section is focussed on jet-engine particle emissions within the FT and TP. A unique inflight experiment for detection of extremely high concentrations (>10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}) of extremely small (donw to <3 nm) aerosols inside the exhaust plumes of several jet aircraft is described. Particle emission indices and emission-controlling parameters are deduced. Most important topic is the impact of fuel sulfur content of kerosine on number, size and chemical composition of jet particle emissions. Generalized results are parameterized in form of lognormal aerosol particle size distributions. (orig.) [German] Ein Beitrag zum Verstaendnis natuerlicher und anthropogen induzierter Aerosolneubildung sowie physikalischer Aerosolumwandlung in der freien Troposphaere wird vorgestellt. Empirisch gewonnenes Datenmaterial wird


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan M.


    Temporal variations of Saturn's equatorial jet and magnetic field hint at rich dynamics coupling the atmosphere and the deep interior. However, it has been assumed that rotation of the interior dynamo must be steady over tens of years of modern observations. Here we use a numerical convection model and scaling estimates to show how equatorial convective bursts can transfer angular momentum to the deeper interior. The numerical model allows angular momentum transfer between a fluid outer spherical shell and a rigid inner sphere. Convection drives a prograde equatorial jet exhibiting quasiperiodic bursts that fill the equatorial volume outside the tangent cylinder. For each burst strong changes in the equatorial surface velocity are associated with retrograde torque on the inner sphere. Our results suggest that Saturn's Great White Spot, a giant storm that was observed to fill the equatorial region in 1990, could mobilize a volume of fluid carrying roughly 15% of Saturn's moment of inertia. Conservation of angular momentum then implies that a 20% change in the equatorial jet angular velocity could change the average interior rotation rate by about 0.1%—roughly an order of magnitude less than the apparent rotation rate changes associated with Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) signal. However, if the SKR signal originates outside the liquid metal core in a 'planetary tachocline' that separates the layer of fast zonal flow from the magnetically controlled and slowly convecting deep interior, then convective bursts can provide a possible mechanism for the observed ∼1% SKR changes.

  18. Modified flapping jet for increased jet spreading using synthetic jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Chiekh, Maher, E-mail: [LESTE, ENIM, University of Monastir, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Ferchichi, Mohsen [Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Bera, Jean-Christophe [Centre acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)


    Highlights: > The interactions of a rectangular turbulent jet and a pair of co-flowing synthetic jets are examined. > One-sided actuation achieves jet vectoring while simultaneous actuations induce jet spreading. > Further spreading is achieved when the synthetic jets are alternately actuated. > The jet flapping improves mixing. > Optimal forcing conditions for jet spreading are discussed. - Abstract: The present paper is an experimental investigation, using a PIV system, on modified rectangular jet flow co-flowing with a pair of synthetic jets placed symmetrically with respect to the geometric centerline of the main flow. The objective was to determine the optimal forcing conditions that would result in jet spreading beyond what would be obtained in a simple flapped jet. The main jet had an exit Re{sub h} = 36,000, based on the slot height, h. The synthetic jets were operated in a periodic manner with a periodic momentum coefficient of about 3.3% and at a frequency of the main jet preferred mode. A short, wide angle diffuser of half angle of about 45{sup o} was attached to the main jet. Generally for the vectored jet, much of the flow features found here resembled those reported in the literature except that the deflection angle in this study increased with downstream distances inside the diffuser and then remained roughly unchanged thereafter. Larger jet spreading was achieved when the main jet was subjected to simultaneous actuation of the synthetic jets but the flow did not achieve the initial jet spreading that was observed in the vectored jet. Further jet spreading was achieved when the synthetic jets were alternately actuated in which each synthetic jet was actuated for a number of cycles before switching. This technique allowed the jet to flap across the flow between transverse positions larger than what would be obtained in a simple flip-flop jet. Under the present flow geometry and Reynolds number, it was found that when the ratio f{sub s}/f{sub al

  19. Burst Suppression for ICP Control. (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Akoth, Eva; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael


    The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that burst suppression has on intracranial pressure (ICP) control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to January 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education (GRADE) methodology. Seven articles were considered for review. A total of 108 patients were studied, all receiving burst suppression therapy. Two studies failed to document a decrease in ICP with burst suppression therapy. There were reports of severe hypotension and increased infection rates with barbiturate-based therapy. Etomidate-based suppressive therapy was linked to severe renal dysfunction. There currently exists both Oxford level 2b and GRADE C evidence to support that achieving burst suppression reduces ICP, and also has no effect on ICP, in severe traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests burst suppression therapy may be useful for ICP reduction in certain cases, although these situations are currently unclear. In addition, the impact on patient functional outcome is unclear. Further prospective study is warranted.

  20. Flow Mapping of a Jet in Crossflow with Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Özcan, Oktay; Westergaard, C. H.


    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to make a three-dimensional flow mapping of a jet in crossflow. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the jet diameter was nominally 2400. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 3.3 was used. Details of the formation...

  1. Observations of Turbulent-Burst Geometry and Growth in Supersonic Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, Carlton


    .... A study of the shape, growth, and formation rate of turbulent bursts in supersonic boundary layers has been made using spark shadowgraphs of small gun-launched models in free flight through still air...

  2. Swift Panchromatic Observations of the Bright Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 050525a (United States)

    Blustin, A. J.; Band, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Boyd, P.; Capalbi, M.; Holland, S. T.; Marshall, F. E.; Mason, K. O.; Perri, M.; Poole, T.; Roming, P.; Rosen, S.; Schady, P.; Still, M.; Zhang, B.; Angelini, L.; Barbier, L.; Beardmore, A.; Breeveld, A.; Burrows, D. N.; Cummings, J. R.; Cannizzo, J.; Campana, S.; Chester, M. M.; Chincarini, G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Cucchiara, A.; de Pasquale, M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Giommi, P.; Goad, M.; Gronwall, C.; Grupe, D.; Hill, J. E.; Hinshaw, D.; Hunsberger, S.; Hurley, K. C.; Ivanushkina, M.; Kennea, J. A.; Krimm, H. A.; Kumar, P.; Landsman, W.; La Parola, V.; Markwardt, C. B.; McGowan, K.; Mészáros, P.; Mineo, T.; Moretti, A.; Morgan, A.; Nousek, J.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K.; Page, M. J.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Rhoads, J.; Romano, P.; Sakamoto, T.; Sato, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tueller, J.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.


    The bright gamma-ray burst GRB 050525a has been detected with the Swift observatory, providing unique multiwavelength coverage from the very earliest phases of the burst. The X-ray and optical/UV afterglow decay light curves both exhibit a steeper slope ~0.15 days after the burst, indicative of a jet break. This jet break time combined with the total gamma-ray energy of the burst constrains the opening angle of the jet to be 3.2d. We derive an empirical ``time-lag'' redshift from the BAT data of ẑ=0.69+/-0.02, in good agreement with the spectroscopic redshift of 0.61. Prior to the jet break, the X-ray data can be modeled by a simple power law with index α=-1.2. However, after 300 s the X-ray flux brightens by about 30% compared to the power-law fit. The optical/UV data have a more complex decay, with evidence of a rapidly falling reverse shock component that dominates in the first minute or so, giving way to a flatter forward shock component at later times. The multiwavelength X-ray/UV/optical spectrum of the afterglow shows evidence for migration of the electron cooling frequency through the optical range within 25,000 s. The measured temporal decay and spectral indexes in the X-ray and optical/UV regimes compare favorably with the standard fireball model for gamma-ray bursts assuming expansion into a constant-density interstellar medium.

  3. Jet Car Track Site (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  4. Short Hard Gamma Ray Bursts And Their Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo


    Long duration gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) are produced by highly- relativistic jets ejected in core-collapse supernova explosions. The origin of short hard gamma-ray bursts (SHBs) has not been established. They may be produced by highly relativistic jets ejected in various processes: mergers of compact stellar objects; large-mass accretion episodes onto compact stars in close binaries or onto intermediate-mass black holes in dense stellar regions; phase transition of compact stars. Natural environments of such events are the dense cores of globular clusters, superstar clusters and young supernova remnants. We have used the cannonball model of GRBs to analyze all Swift SHBs with a well-sampled X-ray afterglow. We show that their prompt gamma-ray emission can be explained by inverse Compton scattering (ICS) of the progenitor's glory light, and their extended soft emission component by ICS of high density light or synchrotron radiation (SR) in a high density interstellar medium within the cl...

  5. Evaluation of burst-mode LDA spectra with implications (United States)

    Velte, Clara; George, William


    Burst-mode LDA spectra, as described in [1], are compared to spectra obtained from corresponding HWA measurements using the FFT in a round jet and cylinder wake experiment. The phrase ``burst-mode LDA'' refers to an LDA which operates with at most one particle present in the measuring volume at a time. Due to the random sampling and velocity bias of the LDA signal, the Direct Fourier Transform with accompanying weighting by the measured residence times was applied to obtain a correct interpretation of the spectral estimate. Further, the self-noise was removed as described in [2]. In addition, resulting spectra from common interpolation and uniform resampling techniques are compared to the above mentioned estimates. The burst-mode LDA spectra are seen to concur well with the HWA spectra up to the emergence of the noise floor, caused mainly by the intermittency of the LDA signal. The interpolated and resampled counterparts yield unphysical spectra, which are buried in frequency dependent noise and step noise, except at very high LDA data rates where they perform well up to a limited frequency.[4pt] [1] Buchhave, P. PhD Thesis, SUNY/Buffalo, 1979.[0pt] [2] Velte, C.M. PhD Thesis, DTU/Copenhagen, 2009.

  6. Star bursts and giant HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.E.J.


    Massive star formation bursts occur in a variety of galactic environments and can temporarily dominate the light output of a galaxy even when a relatively small proportion of its mass is involved. Inferences about their ages, the IMF and its dependence on chemical composition are still somewhat wobbly owing to an excess of unknowns, but certain things can be deduced from emission spectra of associated H II regions when due regard is paid to the effects of chemical composition and ionization parameter: In particular, largest ionization parameters and effective temperatures of exciting stars, at any given oxygen abundance, are anti-correlated with the abundance, and the second effect suggests an increasing proportion of more massive stars at lower abundances, although this is not yet satisfactorily quantified. A new blue compact galaxies could be very young, but it is equally possible that there is an older population of low surface brightness. Some giant H II regions may be self-polluted with nitrogen and helium due to winds from massive stars in the associated burst. (orig.)

  7. FERMIGBRST - Fermi GBM Burst Catalog (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by a subset of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO) which have been classified as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Note that...

  8. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This suggests either larger bulk Lorentz factors or spatially closer locations for the short GRBs [13]. From luminosity function studies, the local space density of the short GRBs is likely to be lower than that of the long ones by a factor of ~3 [14]. While analysing time tagged event (TTE) data for 156 category A type bursts.

  9. Cosmological Time Dilation in Gamma Ray Bursts?


    Band, David


    Norris et al. (1994) report that the temporal structure of faint gamma ray bursts is longer than that of bright bursts, as expected for time dilation in the cosmological models of burst origin. I show that the observed trends can easily be produced by a burst luminosity function and thus may not result from cosmological effects. A cosmological signature may be present, but the tests Norris et al. present are not powerful enough to detect these signatures.

  10. Light Dawns on Dark Gamma-ray Bursts (United States)


    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic events in the Universe, but some appear curiously faint in visible light. The biggest study to date of these so-called dark gamma-ray bursts, using the GROND instrument on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile, has found that these gigantic explosions don't require exotic explanations. Their faintness is now fully explained by a combination of causes, the most important of which is the presence of dust between the Earth and the explosion. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fleeting events that last from less than a second to several minutes, are detected by orbiting observatories that can pick up their high energy radiation. Thirteen years ago, however, astronomers discovered a longer-lasting stream of less energetic radiation coming from these violent outbursts, which can last for weeks or even years after the initial explosion. Astronomers call this the burst's afterglow. While all gamma-ray bursts [1] have afterglows that give off X-rays, only about half of them were found to give off visible light, with the rest remaining mysteriously dark. Some astronomers suspected that these dark afterglows could be examples of a whole new class of gamma-ray bursts, while others thought that they might all be at very great distances. Previous studies had suggested that obscuring dust between the burst and us might also explain why they were so dim. "Studying afterglows is vital to further our understanding of the objects that become gamma-ray bursts and what they tell us about star formation in the early Universe," says the study's lead author Jochen Greiner from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching bei München, Germany. NASA launched the Swift satellite at the end of 2004. From its orbit above the Earth's atmosphere it can detect gamma-ray bursts and immediately relay their positions to other observatories so that the afterglows could be studied. In the new study, astronomers combined Swift

  11. Low Altitude Solar Magnetic Reconnection, Type III Solar Radio Bursts, and X-ray Emissions. (United States)

    Cairns, I H; Lobzin, V V; Donea, A; Tingay, S J; McCauley, P I; Oberoi, D; Duffin, R T; Reiner, M J; Hurley-Walker, N; Kudryavtseva, N A; Melrose, D B; Harding, J C; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A; Emrich, D; Goeke, R; Hazelton, B J; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kratzenberg, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Wayth, R B; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L


    Type III solar radio bursts are the Sun's most intense and frequent nonthermal radio emissions. They involve two critical problems in astrophysics, plasma physics, and space physics: how collective processes produce nonthermal radiation and how magnetic reconnection occurs and changes magnetic energy into kinetic energy. Here magnetic reconnection events are identified definitively in Solar Dynamics Observatory UV-EUV data, with strong upward and downward pairs of jets, current sheets, and cusp-like geometries on top of time-varying magnetic loops, and strong outflows along pairs of open magnetic field lines. Type III bursts imaged by the Murchison Widefield Array and detected by the Learmonth radiospectrograph and STEREO B spacecraft are demonstrated to be in very good temporal and spatial coincidence with specific reconnection events and with bursts of X-rays detected by the RHESSI spacecraft. The reconnection sites are low, near heights of 5-10 Mm. These images and event timings provide the long-desired direct evidence that semi-relativistic electrons energized in magnetic reconnection regions produce type III radio bursts. Not all the observed reconnection events produce X-ray events or coronal or interplanetary type III bursts; thus different special conditions exist for electrons leaving reconnection regions to produce observable radio, EUV, UV, and X-ray bursts.

  12. Binary neutron star merger rate via the luminosity function of short gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta


    The luminosity function of short Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is modelled by using the available catalogue data of all short GRBs (sGRBs) detected till October, 2017. The luminosities are estimated via the `pseudo-redshifts' obtained from the `Yonetoku correlation', assuming a standard delay distribution between the cosmic star formation rate and the production rate of their progenitors. While the simple powerlaw is ruled out to high confidence, the data is fit well both by exponential cutoff powerlaw and broken powerlaw models. Using the derived parameters of these models along with conservative values in the jet opening angles seen from afterglow observations, the true rate of short GRBs are derived. Assuming a short GRB is produced from each binary neutron star merger (BNSM), the rate of gravitational wave (GW) detections from these mergers are derived for the past, present and future configurations of the GW detector networks. Stringent lower limits of 1.87yr-1 for the aLIGO-VIRGO, and 3.11yr-1 for the upcoming aLIGO-VIRGO-KAGRA-LIGO/India configurations are thus derived for the BNSM rate at 68% confidence. The BNSM rates calculated from this work and that independently inferred from the observation of the only confirmed BNSM observed till date, are shown to have a mild tension; however the scenario that all BNSMs produce sGRBs cannot be ruled out.

  13. Low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray nuclei (United States)

    Zhang, B. Theodore; Murase, Kohta; Kimura, Shigeo S.; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Mészáros, Peter


    Recent results from the Pierre Auger Collaboration have shown that the composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) becomes gradually heavier with increasing energy. Although gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been promising sources of UHECRs, it is still unclear whether they can account for the Auger results because of their unknown nuclear composition of ejected UHECRs. In this work, we revisit the possibility that low-luminosity GRBs (LL GRBs) act as the sources of UHECR nuclei and give new predictions based on the intrajet nuclear composition models considering progenitor dependencies. We find that the nuclear component in the jet can be divided into two groups according to the mass fraction of silicon nuclei, Si-free and Si-rich. Motivated by the connection between LL GRBs and transrelativistic supernovae, we also consider the hypernova ejecta composition. Then, we discuss the survivability of UHECR nuclei in the jet base and internal shocks of the jets, and show that it is easier for nuclei to survive for typical LL GRBs. Finally, we numerically propagate UHECR nuclei ejected from LL GRBs with different composition models and compare the resulting spectra and composition to Auger data. Our results show that both the Si-rich progenitor and hypernova ejecta models match the Auger data well, while the Si-free progenitor models have more difficulty in fitting the spectrum. We argue that our model is consistent with the newly reported cross-correlation between the UHECRs and starburst galaxies, since both LL GRBs and hypernovae are expected to be tracers of the star-formation activity. LL GRBs have also been suggested as the dominant origin of IceCube neutrinos in the PeV range, and the LL GRB origin of UHECRs can be critically tested by near-future multimessenger observations.

  14. Fine structure in fast drift storm bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.; Ellis, G.R.A.


    Recent observations with high time resolution of fast drift storm (FDS) solar bursts are described. A new variety of FDS bursts characterised by intensity maxima regularly placed in the frequency domain is reported. Possible interpretations of this are mentioned and the implications of the short duration of FDS bursts are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermak Helen


    Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Department of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pe' er, Asaf [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mizuta, Akira [KEK Theory Center, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Harikae, Seiji, E-mail: [Quants Research Department, Financial Engineering Division, Mitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities Co., Ltd., Mejirodai Bldg., 3-29-20 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8688 (Japan)


    We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

  17. Detection prospects for GeV neutrinos from collisionally heated gamma-ray bursts with IceCube/DeepCore. (United States)

    Bartos, I; Beloborodov, A M; Hurley, K; Márka, S


    Jet reheating via nuclear collisions has recently been proposed as the main mechanism for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. In addition to producing the observed gamma rays, collisional heating must generate 10-100 GeV neutrinos, implying a close relation between the neutrino and gamma-ray luminosities. We exploit this theoretical relation to make predictions for possible GRB detections by IceCube + DeepCore. To estimate the expected neutrino signal, we use the largest sample of bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1991-2000. GRB neutrinos could have been detected if IceCube + DeepCore operated at that time. Detection of 10-100 GeV neutrinos would have significant implications, shedding light on the composition of GRB jets and their Lorentz factors. This could be an important target in designing future upgrades of the IceCube + DeepCore observatory.

  18. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.


    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  19. Comparison of soot formation for diesel and jet-a in a constant volume combustion chamber using two-color pyrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei


    The measurement of the two-color line of sight soot and KL factor for NO.2 diesel and jet-A fuels was conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber by using a high speed camera under 1000 K ambient temperature and varied oxygen concentration conditions. The ambient conditions were set as follows: four oxygen cases including 10%, 15%, 18% and 21% at 1000 K ambient temperature. KL factor and soot temperature were determined based on the two-color pyrometry technique using two band-pass filters with wavelengths of 650 nm and 550 nm. The results show that low soot temperature is observed in the upstream inner flame along the centerline, which is surrounded by high soot temperature regions, and a high KL factor is found in the same region with a low soot temperature. The results under different times suggest that soot temperature is higher for high O2 conditions during the entire flame development; meanwhile, both integrated KL factor and soot area decrease with the increase of O2 concentration. The two fuels share a similar trend of soot temperature and KL factor, however, diesel flame has a higher soot temperature and a larger high soot temperature area compared to jet-A flame. On the other hand, diesel flame shows a lower soot level during the quasi-steady state with a higher total soot level at the end of the combustion under low O2 conditions. A lower O2 concentration range from 10% to 15% is expected to have the possibility to achieve a simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx in sooting flames under the 1000 K ambient temperature condition. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  20. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spectral lag τl for a burst was estimated by taking the difference between time centroids obtained using arrival instants (from TTE data) corresponding to photon energies larger than 100 keV, and to energies less than 100 keV so that τl ≡ τ > 100 keV − τ < 100 keV. (1). The time centroid for an energy channel is given by.

  1. On the neutron bursts origin.

    CERN Document Server

    Stenkin, Yu V


    The origin of the neutron bursts in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is explained using results of the experiments and CORSIKA based Monte-Carlo simulations. It is shown that events with very high neutron multiplicity observed last years in neutron monitors as well as in surrounding detectors, are caused by usual EAS core with primary energies > 1 PeV. No exotic processes were needed for the explanation.

  2. NICER Eyes on Bursting Stars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What happens to a neutron stars accretion disk when its surface briefly explodes? A new instrument recently deployed at the International Space Station (ISS) is now watching bursts from neutron stars and reporting back.Deploying a New X-Ray MissionLaunch of NICER aboard a Falcon 9 rocket in June 2017. [NASA/Tony Gray]In early June of 2017, a SpaceX Dragon capsule on a Falcon 9 rocket launched on a resupply mission to the ISS. The pressurized interior of the Dragon contained the usual manifest of crew supplies, spacewalk equipment, and vehicle hardware. But the unpressurized trunk of the capsule held something a little different: the Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER).In the two weeks following launch, NICER was extracted from the SpaceX Dragon capsule and installed on the ISS. And by the end of the month, the instrument was already collecting its first data set: observations of a bright X-ray burst from Aql X-1, a neutron star accreting matter from a low-mass binary companion.Impact of BurstsNICERs goal is to provide a new view of neutron-star physics at X-ray energies of 0.212 keV a window that allows us to explore bursts of energy that neutron stars sometimes emit from their surfaces.Artists impression of an X-ray binary, in which a compact object accretes material from a companion star. [ESA/NASA/Felix Mirabel]In X-ray burster systems, hydrogen- and helium-rich material from a low-mass companion star piles up in an accretion disk around the neutron star. This material slowly funnels onto the neutron stars surface, forming a layer that gravitationally compresses and eventually becomes so dense and hot that runaway nuclear fusion ignites.Within seconds, the layer of material is burned up, producing a burst of emission from the neutron star that outshines even the inner regions of the hot accretion disk. Then more material funnels onto the neutron star and the process begins again.Though we have a good picture of the physics that causes these bursts

  3. Bubble bursting at an interface (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Sajjad, Kumayl; Anand, Sushant; Fezzaa, Kamel


    Bubble bursting is crucial to understanding the life span of bubbles at an interface and more importantly the nature of interaction between the bulk liquid and the outside environment from the point of view of chemical and biological material transport. The dynamics of the bubble as it rises from inside the liquid bulk to its disappearance on the interface after bursting is an intriguing process, many aspects of which are still being explored. In our study, we make detailed high speed imaging measurements to examine carefully the hole initiation and growth in bursting bubbles that unearth some interesting features of the process. Previous analyses available in literature are revisited based on our novel experimental visualizations. Using a combination of experiments and theory we investigate the role of various forces during the rupturing process. This work aims to further our current knowledge of bubble dynamics at an interface with an aim of predicting better the bubble evolution from its growth to its eventual integration with the liquid bulk.

  4. Neutrinos from Choked Jets Accompanied by Type-II Supernovae (United States)

    He, Hao-Ning; Kusenko, Alexander; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming


    The origin of the IceCube neutrinos is still an open question. Upper limits from diffuse gamma-ray observations suggest that the neutrino sources are either distant or hidden from gamma-ray observations. It is possible that the neutrinos are produced in jets that are formed in core-collapsing massive stars and fail to break out, the so-called choked jets. We study neutrinos from the jets choked in the hydrogen envelopes of red supergiant stars. Fast photo-meson cooling softens the neutrino spectrum, making it hard to explain the PeV neutrinos observed by IceCube in a one-component scenario, but a two-component model can explain the spectrum. Furthermore, we predict that a newly born jet-driven type-II supernova may be observed to be associated with a neutrino burst detected by IceCube.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Adam [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric, E-mail: [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)


    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.

  6. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru


    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  7. AGN Feedback Compared: Jets versus Radiation (United States)

    Cielo, Salvatore; Bieri, Rebekka; Volonteri, Marta; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Dubois, Yohan


    Feedback by Active Galactic Nuclei is often divided into quasar and radio mode, powered by radiation or radio jets, respectively. Both are fundamental in galaxy evolution, especially in late-type galaxies, as shown by cosmological simulations and observations of jet-ISM interactions in these systems. We compare AGN feedback by radiation and by collimated jets through a suite of simulations, in which a central AGN interacts with a clumpy, fractal galactic disc. We test AGN of 1043 and 1046 erg/s, considering jets perpendicular or parallel to the disc. Mechanical jets drive the more powerful outflows, exhibiting stronger mass and momentum coupling with the dense gas, while radiation heats and rarifies the gas more. Radiation and perpendicular jets evolve to be quite similar in outflow properties and effect on the cold ISM, while inclined jets interact more efficiently with all the disc gas, removing the densest 20% in 20 Myr, and thereby reducing the amount of cold gas available for star formation. All simulations show small-scale inflows of 0.01 - 0.1 M⊙/yr, which can easily reach down to the Bondi radius of the central supermassive black hole (especially for radiation and perpendicular jets), implying that AGN modulate their own duty cycle in a feedback/feeding cycle.

  8. Neutrino burst of white dwarf being absorbed by a primordial black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, V V


    Primordial black holes (PBHS) of masses M>=5x10 sup 4 g are able to absorb white dwarfs (WD), giving rise to formation of black holes of WD masses. The WD absorption is accomplained by up to 10 sup 5 sup 2 erg neutrino bursts which can be readily detected by modern neutrino detectors. We calculate time characteristics of such a burst in this paper. (authors)

  9. Very forward jet, Mueller Navelet jets and jet gap jet measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim


    The measurements of very forward jet, Mueller-Navelet jets and jet-gap-jet events are presented for different collision energies. The analyses are based on data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets are defined through the anti-$k_\\mathrm{t}$ clustering algorithm for different cone sizes. Jet production studies provide stringent tests of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and contribute to tune Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and phenomenological models. The measurements are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators.

  10. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James


    High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single

  11. Hardness/intensity correlations among BATSE bursts (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.


    Conclusions about the nature of gamma-ray bursts derived from the size-frequency distribution may be altered if a significant correlation exists between burst intensity and spectral shape. Moreover, if gamma-ray bursts have a cosmological origin, such a correlation may be expected to result from the expansion of the universe. We have performed a rudimentary search of the BATSE bursts for hardness/intensity correlations. The range of spectral shapes was determined for each burst by computing the ratio of the intensity in the range 100-300 keV to that in 55-300 keV. We find weak evidence for the existence of a correlation, the strongest effect being present when comparing the maximum hardness ratio for each burst with its maximum rate.

  12. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.


    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies

  13. Extensive Broadband X-Ray Monitoring During the Formation of a Giant Radio Jet Base in Cyg X-3 with AstroSat (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Rawat, Divya; Misra, Ranjeev; Agrawal, P. C.; Chandra, Sunil; Bagri, Kalyani; Jain, Pankaj; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, Varsha; Bhattacharyya, Sudip


    We present X-ray spectral and timing behavior of Cyg X-3 as observed by AstroSat during the onset of a giant radio flare on 2017 April 1–2. Within a timescale of a few hours, the source shows a transition from the hypersoft state (HPS) to a more luminous state (we termed as the very high state), which coincides with the time of the steep rise in radio flux density by an order of magnitude. Modeling the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) and Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) spectra jointly in 0.5–70.0 keV, we found that the first few hours of the observation is dominated by the HPS with no significant counts above 17 keV. Later, an additional flat power-law component suddenly appeared in the spectra that extends to very high energies with the power-law photon index of {1.49}-0.03+0.04. Such a flat power-law component has never been reported from Cyg X-3. Interestingly the fitted power-law model in 25–70 keV, when extrapolated to the radio frequency, predicts the radio flux density to be consistent with the trend measured from the RATAN-600 telescope at 11.2 GHz. This provides direct evidence of the synchrotron origin of flat X-ray power-law component and the most extensive monitoring of the broadband X-ray behavior at the moment of decoupling the giant radio jet base from the compact object in Cyg X-3. Using SXT and LAXPC observations, we determine the giant flare ejection time as MJD 57845.34 ± 0.08 when 11.2 GHz radio flux density increases from ∼100 to ∼478 mJy.

  14. A Gamma-Ray Burst Trigger Toolkit (United States)

    Band, David L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)


    The detection rate of a gamma-ray burst detector can be increased by using a count rate trigger with many accumulation times DELTAt and energy bands DELTAE Because a burst's peak flux varies when averaged over different DELTAt and DELTAE the nominal sensitivity (the numerical value of the peak flux) of a trigger system is less important than how much fainter a burst could be at the detection threshold as DELTAt and DELTAE are changed. The relative sensitivity of different triggers can be quantified by referencing the detection threshold back to the peak flux for a fiducial value of DELTAt and DELTA E. This mapping between peak flux values for different sets of DELTAt and DELTAE varies from burst to burst. Quantitative estimates of the burst detection rate for a given detector and trigger system can be based on the observed rate at a measured peak flux value in this fiducial trigger. Predictions of a proposed trigger's burst detection rate depend on the assumed burst population, and these predictions can be wildly in error for triggers that differ significantly from previous missions. I base the fiducial rate on the BATSE observations: 550 bursts per sky above a peak flux of 0.3 ph per square centimeter per second averaged over DELTAt=1.024 sec and DELTAE=50-300 keV. Using a sample of 100 burst lightcurves I find that triggering on any value of DELTAt that is a multiple of 0.064 sec decreases the average threshold peak flux on the 1.024 sec timescale by a factor of 0.6. Extending DELTAE to lower energies includes the large flux of the X-ray background, increasing the background count rate. Consequently a low energy DELTAE is advantageous only for very soft bursts. Whether a large fraction of the population of bright bursts is soft is disputed; the new population of X-ray Flashes is soft but relatively faint.

  15. Exploring the Properties of Choked Gamma-ray Bursts with IceCube’s High-energy Neutrinos (United States)

    Denton, Peter B.; Tamborra, Irene


    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have often been considered the natural evolution of some core-collapse supernova (CCSN) progenitors. However, the fraction of CCSNe linked to astrophysical jets and their properties are still poorly constrained. While any successful astrophysical jet harbored in a CCSN should produce high-energy neutrinos, photons may be able to successfully escape the stellar envelope only for a fraction of progenitors, possibly leading to the existence of high-luminosity, low-luminosity, and not-electromagnetically bright (“choked”) GRBs. By postulating a CCSN–GRB connection, we accurately model the jet physics within the internal-shock GRB model and assume scaling relations for the GRB parameters that depend on the Lorentz boost factor Γ. The IceCube high-energy neutrino flux is then employed as an upper limit of the neutrino background from electromagnetically bright and choked GRBs to constrain the jet and the progenitor properties. The current IceCube data set is compatible with up to 1% of all CCSNe harboring astrophysical jets. Interestingly, those jets are predominantly choked. Our findings suggest that neutrinos can be powerful probes of the burst physics and can provide major insights on the CCSN–GRB connection.

  16. Chaotic bursting in semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Ruschel, Stefan; Yanchuk, Serhiy


    We investigate the dynamic mechanisms for low frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers subjected to delayed optical feedback, using the Lang-Kobayashi model. This system of delay differential equations displays pronounced envelope dynamics, ranging from erratic, so called low frequency fluctuations to regular pulse packages, if the time scales of fast oscillations and envelope dynamics are well separated. We investigate the parameter regions where low frequency fluctuations occur and compute their Lyapunov spectra. Using the geometric singular perturbation theory, we study this intermittent chaotic behavior and characterize these solutions as bursting slow-fast oscillations.

  17. Cosmology from gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouri, Athina; Basilakos, Spyros


    In this study we propose to use Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) as standard candles in order to constrain the expansion history of the universe up to redshifts of z ∼ 6. In particular, we utilize the 69 GRB dataset recently compiled by Cardone et al. (2009). Performing a joint likelihood analysis of the recent supernovae type Ia (SNIa) data and the GRBs we can put constraints on the main cosmological parameters (Ω m , w). However, the use of the current GRBs to trace the Hubble relation, as an alternative to the traditionally used SNIa, can not break the degeneracy between the Ω m and the dark energy equation of state parameter.

  18. Ballerina - pirouettes in search of gamma bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Lund, Niels; Pedersen, Henrik


    The cosmological origin of gamma ray bursts has now been established with reasonable certainty, Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large diversity in properties which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We are propo......The cosmological origin of gamma ray bursts has now been established with reasonable certainty, Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large diversity in properties which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We...

  19. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet (United States)


    outward. The movie also shows Einstein's relativity in action. Although two clouds are pushed by the jets in opposite directions away from the core, the cloud moving toward the Earth appears to be 15 times brighter and moving two times as fast as the cloud moving away from us. "We believe that both clouds are similar and the difference that we see is just a relativistic illusion caused by their fast motions," said Fomalont. Twice, the core flared in brightness as it shot a burst of electrons outward at more than 95 percent of light speed. As this burst reached the lobes, the collision of the fast electrons with the lobe material caused the lobes to brighten. The exquisite detail and continuous formation of the radio images allowed the scientists to directly measure the speed of the fast electrons in the beam, marking the first time ever that the speed of energy flow in such a cosmic jet has been measured. "Scorpius X-1 put on a great show for us. Now it's up to us to figure out how it performs its act," said Fomalont. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B. A.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Fong, W.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Soderberg, A. M. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Olivares E, F.; Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Perley, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Carpenter, J. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Updike, A. C. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Nakar, E. [Department of Astrophysics, Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Chandra, P. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Bremer, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); and others


    We present X-ray, optical, near-infrared (IR), and radio observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 110709B and 111215A, as well as optical and near-IR observations of their host galaxies. The combination of X-ray detections and deep optical/near-IR limits establish both bursts as ''dark''. Sub-arcsecond positions enabled by radio detections lead to robust host galaxy associations, with optical detections that indicate z {approx}< 4 (110709B) and z Almost-Equal-To 1.8-2.9 (111215A). We therefore conclude that both bursts are dark due to substantial rest-frame extinction. Using the radio and X-ray data for each burst we find that GRB 110709B requires A{sub V}{sup host}{approx}>5.3 mag and GRB 111215A requires A{sub V}{sup host}{approx}>8.5 mag (assuming z = 2). These are among the largest extinction values inferred for dark bursts to date. The two bursts also exhibit large neutral hydrogen column densities of N{sub H,{sub int}} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (z = 2) as inferred from their X-ray spectra, in agreement with the trend for dark GRBs. Moreover, the inferred values are in agreement with the Galactic A{sub V} -N{sub H} relation, unlike the bulk of the GRB population. Finally, we find that for both bursts the afterglow emission is best explained by a collimated outflow with a total beaming-corrected energy of E{sub {gamma}} + E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To (7-9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg (z = 2) expanding into a wind medium with a high density, M Almost-Equal-To (6-20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (n Almost-Equal-To 100-350 cm{sup -3} at Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 17} cm). While the energy release is typical of long GRBs, the inferred density may be indicative of larger mass-loss rates for GRB progenitors in dusty (and hence metal rich) environments. This study establishes the critical role of radio observations in demonstrating the origin and properties of dark GRBs. Observations with the JVLA and ALMA will provide a


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cécere, Mariana [Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina); Velázquez, Pablo F.; De Colle, Fabio; Esquivel, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-543, CP: 04510, D.F., México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella T. [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)


    Synchrotron radiation is commonly observed in connection with shocks of different velocities, ranging from relativistic shocks associated with active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, or microquasars, to weakly or non-relativistic flows such as those observed in supernova remnants. Recent observations of synchrotron emission in protostellar jets are important not only because they extend the range over which the acceleration process works, but also because they allow us to determine the jet and/or interstellar magnetic field structure, thus giving insights into the jet ejection and collimation mechanisms. In this paper, we compute for the first time polarized (synchrotron) and non-polarized (thermal X-ray) synthetic emission maps from axisymmetrical simulations of magnetized protostellar jets. We consider models with different jet velocities and variability, as well as a toroidal or helical magnetic field. Our simulations show that variable, low-density jets with velocities of ∼1000 km s{sup −1} and ∼10 times lighter than the environment can produce internal knots with significant synchrotron emission and thermal X-rays in the shocked region of the leading bow shock moving in a dense medium. While models with a purely toroidal magnetic field show a very large degree of polarization, models with a helical magnetic field show lower values and a decrease of the degree of polarization, in agreement with observations of protostellar jets.

  2. Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    A novel cognitive receiver for modulation format recognition with reconfigurable carrier recovery scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for phase modulated radio-over-fibre links. Demodulation of burst-mode mixed modulation formats (PSK and QAM) is demonstrated after 40km...

  3. Collapsar γ-ray bursts: how the luminosity function dictates the duration distribution (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios


    Jets in long-duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) have to drill through the collapsing star in order to break out of it and produce the γ-ray signal while the central engine is still active. If the breakout time is shorter for more powerful engines, then the jet-collapsar interaction acts as a filter of less luminous jets. We show that the observed broken power-law GRB luminosity function is a natural outcome of this process. For a theoretically motivated breakout time that scales with jet luminosity as L-χ with χ ∼ 1/3-1/2, we show that the shape of the γ-ray duration distribution can be uniquely determined by the GRB luminosity function and matches the observed one. This analysis has also interesting implications about the supernova-central engine connection. We show that not only successful jets can deposit sufficient energy in the stellar envelope to power the GRB-associated supernovae, but also failed jets may operate in all Type Ib/c supernovae.

  4. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carilli & Dreher (Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI; showing the jet and a weaker counter-jet; (b) A Hubble. Space Telescope image of. HH34 showing the jet at op- tical wavelengths emanating from a protostar in Orion. ( 2870/gallery; image cour- tesy NASA, ESA, and P.

  5. Jet results from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, N.


    Recent results from CDF in jet physics are presented. Tests of leading order and next to leading order QCD are performed by measuring the dijet invariant mass spectrum, jet shapes and three jet events. Tests the leading logarithm, approximation in QCD are made by comparing the high energy events at CDF with the Herwig Monte Carlo. 10 refs., 7 figs

  6. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jets in active galaxies are signatures of energy supply via collimatedbeams of plasma from the galactic nucleus to the extendedregions of emission. These jets, which occur acrossthe electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassiveblack holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seenon the scale of parsecs ...

  7. Delving into QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.


    The author discusses, in an introductory fashion, the latest developments in the study of hadronic jets produced in hard processes, based on perturbative QCD. Emphasis is on jet calculus (and its applications and generalizations), and on the appearance of a parton-like consistent, over-all picture of jet evolution in momentum, colour, and real space-time. (Auth.)

  8. Electromagnetic counterparts to structured jets from gravitational wave detected mergers (United States)

    Lamb, Gavin P.; Kobayashi, Shiho


    We show the peak magnitude for orphan afterglows from the jets of gravitational wave (GW) detected black hole/neutron star - neutron star (BH/NS-NS) mergers highly depend on the jet half-opening angle θj. Short γ-ray bursts (GRBs) with a homogeneous jet structure and θj > 10°, the orphan afterglow viewed at the typical inclination for a GW detected event, 38°, are brighter at optical frequencies than the comparable macronova emission. Structured jets, where the energetics and Lorentz factor Γ vary with angle from the central axis, may have low-Γ components where the prompt emission is suppressed; GW electromagnetic (EM) counterparts may reveal a population of failed-GRB orphan afterglows. Using a Monte Carlo method assuming an NS-NS detection limit we show the fraction of GW-EM counterparts from homogeneous, two-component, power-law structured and Gaussian jets where the variable structure models include a wide low energy and Γ component: for homogeneous jets, with a θj = 6° and typical short GRB parameters, we find r-band magnitude mr ≤ 21 counterparts for ∼13.6 per cent of GW detected mergers; where jet structure extends to a half-opening angle of 25°, two-component jets produce mr ≤ 21 counterparts in ∼30 per cent of GW detected mergers, power-law structured-jets result in ∼37 per cent and Gaussian jets with our parameters ∼13 per cent. We show the features in the light curves from orphan afterglows can be used to indicate the presence of extended structure.

  9. Two-component jets from 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic jet simulations of disk winds at sub-parsec scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staff Jan


    Full Text Available We explore the effect of large scale magnetic field on the formation of two-component jets in magnetohydrodynamic disk winds simulations. Our simulations show a one-component and two-component jets develop depending on the magnetic field distribution along the surface of the accretion disk. Magnetic field configurations with the least steep gradient along the disk lead to a well defined two-component jet with the self-similar (Blandford-Payne configuration separating the two regimes. Our results have direct implications to jets models of AGN and GRBs if indeed two-component jets emanate directly from the accretion disk. Our findings imply that a three-component jets may exist in AGN jets if one takes into account a Blandford-Znajek component in the innermost, relativistic, regions.

  10. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W


    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  11. BATSE software for the analysis of the gamma ray burst spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.


    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is designed to study astronomical gamma ray sources and to provide better positional, spectral, and time resolution about these objects than has previously been possible from one experiment. The procedure to be used in the analysis of the gamma ray burst spatial distribution is presented. Data is input from BATSE via the Gamma Ray Burst Catalog (listing individual burst positions, flux values, and associated errors) and the Sky Sensitivity Map (which summarizes observational selection effects in table format). A FORTRAN program generates Monte Carlo burst catalogs, which are models to be compared to the actual distribution. The Monte Carlo models are then filtered through the Sky Sensitivity Map so that they suffer from the same selection effects as the actual catalog data. Additionally, each burst position is converted into a probability distribution to mimic BATSE positional sensitivity. The Burst Catalog, Monte Carlo burst catalog, and Sky Sensitivity Map are then passed onto an IDL program that compares the catalogs for statistical significance. The Sky Sensitivity Map is used to estimate how often each sky area is observed above the minimum flux level in question. Each burst found in this sky area is then weighted according to the frequency with which this sky area is observed. The catalogs are then compared via tests of homogeneity (based on their radial distributions) and isotropy (based upon their angular distributions). The results of the statistical comparisons along with graphs and charts of the summaries, are output from the IDL program for study

  12. On the origin of the decimetric and microwave fiber bursts during solar flares (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. A.

    Fiber bursts or intermediate drift bursts are seen as narrowband drifting features superimposed on the type IV bursts Fiber bursts are often considered to be a possible tool for measurement of the coronal magnetic field In this work a new model of formation of fiber bursts is proposed It is assumed that electron beam with the loss-cone distribution in the magnetic loop generates upper-hybrid waves which in turn are transformed into radioemission at the doubled frequency thus the type IV burst is formed The fine structures are the reflection of the MHD oscillations --- sausage modes which propagate along slender magnetic tubes with the velocity intermediate between the Alfven velocities inside and outside the tube The MHD waves cause a local change of the plasma inhomogeneity scale which results in increase of the generation efficiency of the plasma waves and thus in increase of the emission intensity It is shown that this model allows us to explain the observed spectral structure of fiber bursts The MHD waves required for the generation of fiber bursts have size about hundreds of kilometers and amplitude of 1 or less In addition I perform the numerical simulation of the process of nonlinear coupling of upper-hybrid waves under the conditions typical for the fiber bursts sources It is shown that in some cases the degree of polarization of emission can be close to 100 in contrast to previous investigations where low polarization degrees are predicted This result allows us to explain the observed polarization of the high-frequency fiber

  13. [Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets (United States)

    Stone, James; Hardee, Philip


    NASA grant NAG 5 2866, funded by the Astrophysics Theory Program, enabled the study the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets. In collaboration with co-investigator Philip Hardee, the PI derived the analytic dispersion relation for the instability in including a cooling term in the energy equation which was modeled as one of two different power laws. Numerical solutions to this dispersion relation over a wide range of perturbation frequencies, and for a variety of parameter values characterizing the jet (such as Mach number, and density ratio) were found It was found that the growth rates and wavelengths associated with unstable roots of the dispersion relation in cooling jets are significantly different than those associated with adiabatic jets, which have been studied previously. In collaboration with graduate student Jianjun Xu (funded as a research associate under this grant), hydrodynamical simulations were used to follow the growth of the instability into the nonlinear regime. It was found that asymmetric surface waves lead to large amplitude, sinusoidal distortions of the jet, and ultimately to disruption Asymmetric body waves, on the other hand, result in the formation of shocks in the jet beam in the nonlinear regime. In cooling jets, these shocks lead to the formation of dense knots and filaments of gas within the jet. For sufficiently high perturbation frequencies, however, the jet cannot respond and it remains symmetric. Applying these results to observed systems, such as the Herbig-Haro jets HH34, HH111 and HH47 which have been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we predicted that some of the asymmetric structures observed in these systems could be attributed to the K-H modes, but that perturbations on timescales associated with the inner disk (about 1 year) would be too rapid to cause disruption. Moreover, it was discovered that weak shock 'spurs' in the ambient gas produced by ripples in the jet surface due to nonlinear, modes of

  14. Ginga Gamma-Ray Burst Line Occurrence (United States)

    Band, David


    The purpose of this project is the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of spectral lines in the gamma-ray burst spectra detected by the Ginga burst detector, and the comparison of the Ginga results to the BATSE observations. Two significant line features were detected in the Ginga bursts, but thus far none have been detected in the bursts BATSE detected. These line features may indicate the presence of strong magnetic fields in bursts, and therefore are important physical diagnostics of the conditions in the plasma which radiates the observed gamma-rays. The issue is whether there is a discrepancy between the Ginga and BATSE results; the potential discrepancy must be evaluated statistically. Even if BATSE line detections are announced, the statistical methodology we have developed can be used to estimate the rate at which different types of spectral features occur.

  15. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.


    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  16. Gamma-Ray Burst Associated Supernovae: Outliers Become Mainstream (United States)

    Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Masetti, N.; Ferrero, P.; Klose, S.; Palazzi, E.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Woosley, S. E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Deng, J.


    During the last eight years a clear connection has been established-between the two most powerful explosions in our Universe: core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and long gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Theory suggests4 that every GRB is simultaneously accompanied by a SN, but in only a few nearby cases have these two phenomena been observed together. We report the discovery and daily monitoring of SN 2006aj associated with the GRB 060218. Because the event was the second closest GRB, both explosions could be examined in detail. GRB 060218 had an unusually soft spectrum, long duration, and a total energy 100 to 1000 times less than most other GRBs. Yet SN 2006aj was similar to those in other GRBs, aside from rising more rapidly and being approximately 40% fainter. Taken together, these observations suggest that GRBs have two components: a broad, energetic, but only mildly relativistic outflow that makes a SN, and a more narrowly focused, highly relativistic jet responsible for the GRB. The properties of the GRB jet apparently vary greatly from event to event, while the broad SN outflow varies much less. Low energy transients like GRB 060218 may be the most common events in the Universe.

  17. Does Thermal Granulation Drive Tephra Jets? (United States)

    White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.; Sonder, I.; Dellino, P.


    Surtseyan tephra jets, also called cypressoid or cock's tail plumes, comprise a characteristic mixture of ash with bombs travelling roughly ballistic paths that tip the individual fingers of the projecting jet. Jets of similar form but smaller scale are generated by littoral magma-water interactions, confirming the general inference that surtseyan tephra jets are a characteristic product of explosive magma-water interaction, and suggesting that magmatic volatiles play a subsidiary role, if any, in their formation. Surtseyan jets have been inferred to result from both intense fuel-coolant interactions, and from simple boiling of water entrained into rising magma, and little new information has become available to test these two positions since they were clearly developed in the 1980s. Recent experiments in which magma is poured into standing water have produced vigorous jetting of hot water as melt solidifies and undergoes extensive thermal granulation. We present high-resolution hi-speed video of these jets, which we see as having the following origin. As thermal granulation takes place, a fracture network advances into the melt/glass body, and water invading the cracks at the rate of propagation is heated nearly instantaneously. Vapor produced at the contact expands and drives outward through cooled cracks, condensing as it moves to the exterior of the magma body where it is emitted as a jet of hot water. In ocean ridge hydrothermal systems a diffuse crack network inducts cold water, which is heated and expelled in focused jets. Focusing of hot outflow in experiments is inferred to result, as suggested for ridge hydrothermal systems, from thermoelastic closure of cracks near the one(s) feeding the jet. From the cooled products of our experimental runs, we know that thermal contraction produces a network of curved cracks with modal spacing of 1-2 mm, which separate domains of unbroken glass. It is during growth of this crack network that cold water enters, is

  18. Toward a Psychophysiology of Expertise : Focal Magnetic Gamma Bursts as a Signature of Memory Chunks and the Aptitude of Chess Players


    Amidzic, Ognjen; Riehle, Hartmut; Elbert, Thomas


    Gamma-band activity (GBA) bursts have been viewed as a signature for ignitions in localized Hebbian cell assemblies and are thought to indicate active memory. Using whole-head magnetoencephalography, we recorded focal bursts of GBA during chess playing. Unlike highly skilled chess grandmasters, with amateur chess players focal gamma bursts prevailed in deeper structures in the region of the medial temporal lobes. This observation is consistent with the interpretation of memory formation in am...

  19. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP


    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  20. What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars? Xinwu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei. (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is ...

  1. Jet fragmentation and predictions of the resummed perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, Alexei Nikolayevich [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    This dissertation is dedicated to the experimental analysis of jet fragmentation, the process of formation of jets of particles produced in high-energy collisions, and to the comparison of the results to the predictions of resummed perturbative calculations within Quantum Chromodynamics.

  2. What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present ...

  3. Spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Band, D.; Matteson, J.; Ford, L.; Schaefer, B.; Teegarden, B.; Cline, T.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.


    BATSE's Spectral Detectors provide a series of high resolution spectra over the duration of a gamma-ray burst; fits to these spectra show the evolution of the continuum as the burst progresses. The burst continuum can usually be fit by the spectral form AE sup alpha exp(-E/kT) from around 25 keV to more than 3 MeV, with varying trends in the value and evolution of the spectral parameters. As a result of limited statistics for E greater than 1 - 2 MeV in the individual spectra, a high energy power law is not required. Only long duration strong bursts can be studied by fitting a series of spectra, and therefore our conclusions concern only this class of burst. The bursts we analyzed tend to be characterized by a hard-to-soft trend both for individual intensity spikes and for the burst as a whole: the hardness leads the count rate in spectra which resolve the temporal variations, while the hardness of successive spikes decreases. We also summarize the performance of the Spectral Detectors and the development of analysis tools to date.

  4. SparkJet characterizations in quiescent and supersonic flowfields (United States)

    Emerick, T.; Ali, M. Y.; Foster, C.; Alvi, F. S.; Popkin, S.


    The aerodynamic community has studied active flow control actuators for some time, and developments have led to a wide variety of devices with various features and operating mechanisms. The design requirements for a practical actuator used for active flow control include reliable operation, requisite frequency and amplitude modulation capabilities, and a reasonable lifespan while maintaining minimal cost and design complexity. An active flow control device called the SparkJet actuator has been developed for high-speed flight control and incorporates no mechanical/moving parts, zero net mass flux capabilities and the ability to tune the operating frequency and momentum throughput. This actuator utilizes electrical power to deliver high-momentum flow with a very fast response time. The SparkJet actuator was characterized on the benchtop using a laser-based microschlieren visualization technique and maximum blast wave and jet front velocities of ~400 and ~310 m/s were, respectively, measured in the flowfield. An increase in jet front velocity from 240 to 310 m/s during subatmospheric (60 kPa) testing reveals that the actuator may have greater control authority at lower ambient pressures, which correspond to high-altitude flight conditions for air vehicles. A SparkJet array was integrated into a flat plate and tested in a Mach 1.5 crossflow. Phase-conditioned shadowgraph results revealed a maximum flow deflection angle of 5° created by the SparkJet 275 µs after the actuator was triggered in single-shot mode. Burst mode operation of frequencies up to 700 Hz revealed similar results during wind tunnel testing. Following these tests, the actuator trigger mechanism was improved and the ability of the actuator to be discharged in burst mode at a frequency of 1 kHz was achieved.

  5. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat


    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Mi-Xiang; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)


    The central engine and jet composition of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain mysterious. Here we suggest that observations on the polarization evolution of early optical afterglows may shed light on these questions. We first study the dynamics of a reverse shock and a forward shock that are generated during the interaction of a relativistic jet and its ambient medium. The jet is likely magnetized with a globally large-scale magnetic field from the central engine. The existence of the reverse shock requires that the magnetization degree of the jet should not be high (σ ≤ 1), so that the jet is mainly composed of baryons and leptons. We then calculate the light curves and polarization evolution of early optical afterglows and find that when the polarization position angle changes by 90° during the early afterglow, the polarization degree is zero for a toroidal magnetic field but is very likely to be nonzero for an aligned magnetic field. This result would be expected to provide a probe for the central engine of GRBs because an aligned field configuration could originate from a magnetar central engine and a toroidal field configuration could be produced from a black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism. Finally, for such two kinds of magnetic field configurations, we fit the observed data of the early optical afterglow of GRB 120308A equally well.

  7. Overview of JET results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.


    Scientific and technical activities on JET focus on the issues likely to affect the ITER design and operation. The physics of the ITER reference mode of operation, the ELMy H-mode, has progressed significantly: the extrapolation of ELM size to ITER has been re-evaluated; NTMs have been shown to be metastable in JET, and can be avoided via sawtooth destabilisation by ICRH; α-simulation experiments were carried out by accelerating 4 He beam ions by ICRH, providing a new tool for fast particle and MHD studies with up to 80-90% of plasma heating by fast 4 He ions. With or without impurity seeding, quasi-steady sate high confinement (H 98 =1), high density (n e /n GR = 0.9-1) and high β (β N =2) ELMy H-mode has been achieved by operating near the ITER triangularity (δ∼0.40-0.5) and safety factor (q 95 ∼3), at Z eff ∼1.5-2. In Advanced Tokamak scenarios, internal transport barriers are now characterised in real time with a new criterion ρ* T ; tailoring of the current profile with LHCD provides reliable access to a variety of q profiles, with significantly lowered access power for barrier formation; rational q surfaces appear to be associated with ITB formation; Alfven cascades are observed in RS plasmas, providing an identification of q profile evolution; plasmas with 'current holes' were observed and explained by modelling. Transient high confinement Advanced Tokamak regimes with H89=3.3, β N =2.4 and ITER relevant q<5 are achievable in reversed magnetic shear. Quasistationary internal transport barriers are developed with full non-inductive current drive, including ∼50% bootstrap current. Record duration of ITBs was achieved, up to 11 s, approaching the resistive time. Pressure and current profiles of Advanced Tokamak regimes are controlled by a real time feedback system, in separate experiments. The erosion and co-deposition data base progressed significantly, in particular with a new quartz microbalance diagnostic allowing shot by shot measurements of

  8. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.


    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Zhang, Bing


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucá (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.

  11. Pulse-burst PIV in a high-speed wind tunnel (United States)

    Beresh, Steven; Kearney, Sean; Wagner, Justin; Guildenbecher, Daniel; Henfling, John; Spillers, Russell; Pruett, Brian; Jiang, Naibo; Slipchenko, Mikhail; Mance, Jason; Roy, Sukesh


    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) has been achieved in a high-speed wind tunnel, providing velocity field movies of compressible turbulence events. The requirements of high-speed flows demand greater energy at faster pulse rates than possible with the TR-PIV systems developed for low-speed flows. This has been realized using a pulse-burst laser to obtain movies at up to 50 kHz, with higher speeds possible at the cost of spatial resolution. The constraints imposed by use of a pulse-burst laser are limited burst duration of 10.2 ms and a low duty cycle for data acquisition. Pulse-burst PIV has been demonstrated in a supersonic jet exhausting into a transonic crossflow and in transonic flow over a rectangular cavity. The velocity field sequences reveal the passage of turbulent structures and can be used to find velocity power spectra at every point in the field, providing spatial distributions of acoustic modes. The present work represents the first use of TR-PIV in a high-speed ground-test facility.

  12. Pulse-burst PIV in a high-speed wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresh, Steven; Kearney, Sean; Wagner, Justin; Guildenbecher, Daniel; Henfling, John; Spillers, Russell; Pruett, Brian; Jiang, Naibo; Slipchenko, Mikhail; Mance, Jason; Roy, Sukesh


    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) has been achieved in a high-speed wind tunnel, providing velocity field movies of compressible turbulence events. The requirements of high-speed flows demand greater energy at faster pulse rates than possible with the TR-PIV systems developed for low-speed flows. This has been realized using a pulse-burst laser to obtain movies at up to 50 kHz, with higher speeds possible at the cost of spatial resolution. The constraints imposed by use of a pulse-burst laser are limited burst duration of 10.2 ms and a low duty cycle for data acquisition. Pulse-burst PIV has been demonstrated in a supersonic jet exhausting into a transonic crossflow and in transonic flow over a rectangular cavity. The velocity field sequences reveal the passage of turbulent structures and can be used to find velocity power spectra at every point in the field, providing spatial distributions of acoustic modes. The present work represents the first use of TR-PIV in a high-speed ground-test facility. (paper)

  13. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)


    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  14. A Universal Scaling for the Energetics of Relativistic Jets From Black Hole Systems (United States)

    Nemmen, R. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; Guiriec, S.; Meyer, E. T.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R. M.


    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies (active galactic nuclei; AGN). How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGNs is still unknown. Here we show that jets produced by AGNs and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGNs and GRBs lying at the low and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  15. Multiwavelength study of 20 jets that emanate from the periphery of active regions (United States)

    Mulay, Sargam M.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Del Zanna, Giulio; Mason, Helen


    Aims: We present a multiwavelength analysis of 20 EUV jets which occurred at the periphery of active regions close to sunspots. We discuss the physical parameters of the jets and their relation with other phenomena such as Hα surges, nonthermal type-III radio bursts and hard X-ray (HXR) emission. Methods: These jets were observed between August 2010 and June 2013 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument that is onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). We selected events that were observed on the solar disk within +/-60° latitude. Using AIA wavelength channels that are sensitive to coronal temperatures, we studied the temperature distribution in the jets using the line of sight (LOS) differential emission measure (DEM) technique. We also investigated the role of the photospheric magnetic field using the LOS magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. Results: It has been observed that most of the jets originated from the western periphery of active regions. Their lifetimes range from 5 to 39 min with an average of 18 min and their velocities range from 87 to 532 km s-1 with an average of 271 km s-1. All the jets are co-temporally associated with Hα surges. Most of the jets are co-temporal with nonthermal type-III radio bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES spacecraft in the frequency range from 20 kHz to 13 MHz. We confirm the source region of these bursts using the potential field source surface (PFSS) technique. Using Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations, we found that half of the jets produced HXR emission and they often shared the same source region as the HXR emission (6-12 keV). Ten out of 20 events showed that the jets originated in a region of flux cancellation and six jets in a region of flux emergence. Four events showed flux emergence and then cancellation during the jet evolution. DEM analyses showed that for most of the spires of the jets, the DEM peaked at around log

  16. A universal scaling for the energetics of relativistic jets from black hole systems. (United States)

    Nemmen, R S; Georganopoulos, M; Guiriec, S; Meyer, E T; Gehrels, N; Sambruna, R M


    Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets, which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies [active galactic nuclei (AGN)]. How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGN is still unknown. Here, we show that jets produced by AGN and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGN and GRBs lying at the low- and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.

  17. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross-section with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pleskot, Vojtech

    The Large Hadron Collider is an accelerator based in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It accelerates protons to the highest energies ever reached by the mankind. The ATLAS experiment records data from the proton-proton collisions. Common objects born in the collisions are jets, i.e. collimated bursts of hadrons. This thesis presents the newest ATLAS measurement of the inclusive jet cross-section. The data sample used was recorded in 2011 at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy. Calorimeter is the most important part of ATLAS for the jet reconstruction. During the data taking, the hadronic calorimeter faced several failures of its components, modules. These non-operating parts have important impact on the jet energy measurement. The thesis describes tests of two available software corrections of the affected jet energies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Long; Zhang, Shu; Chen, YuPeng; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Chang, Zhi [Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China); Torres, Diego F. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), E-08010 Barcelona (Spain); Kretschmar, Peter; Kuulkers, Erik [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, Villanueva de la Cañada (Madrid) (Spain); Li, Jian [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC–IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n E-08193, Barcelona (Spain)


    Type I X-ray bursts on the surface of a neutron star are a unique probe into accretion in X-ray binary systems. However, we know little about the feedback of the burst emission on accretion. Hard X-ray shortages and enhancements of the persistent emission at soft X-rays have been observed. To put these findings in context with the aim of understanding the possible mechanism underneath, we investigated 68 bursts seen by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from the clocked burster GS 1826-238. We diagnosed jointly the burst influence of both soft and hard X-rays, and we found that the observations can be described by the CompTT model with variable normalization, electron temperature, and optical depth. Putting these results in a scenario of coronal Compton cooling via the burst emission would lead to a shortage of cooling power, which may suggest that additional considerations, like the influence of the burst on corona formation, should be accounted for as well.

  19. The genesis of period-adding bursting without bursting-chaos in the Chay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhuoqin; Lu Qishao; Li Li


    According to the period-adding firing patterns without chaos observed in neuronal experiments, the genesis of the period-adding 'fold/homoclinic' bursting sequence without bursting-chaos is explored by numerical simulation, fast/slow dynamics and bifurcation analysis of limit cycle in the neuronal Chay model. It is found that each periodic bursting, from period-1 to 7, is separately generated by the corresponding periodic spiking pattern through two period-doubling bifurcations, except for the period-1 bursting occurring via a Hopf bifurcation. Consequently, it can be revealed that this period-adding bursting bifurcation without chaos has a compound bifurcation structure with transitions from spiking to bursting, which is closely related to period-doubling bifurcations of periodic spiking in essence

  20. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Cherubini, Christian; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Fraschetti, Federico; Geralico, Andrea; Guida, Roberto; Patricelli, Barbara; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng


    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the...

  1. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.


    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m 2 jet /p jet T scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  2. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  3. Complex transitions between spike, burst or chaos synchronization states in coupled neurons with coexisting bursting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hua-Guang; Chen Sheng-Gen; Li Yu-Ye


    We investigated the synchronization dynamics of a coupled neuronal system composed of two identical Chay model neurons. The Chay model showed coexisting period-1 and period-2 bursting patterns as a parameter and initial values are varied. We simulated multiple periodic and chaotic bursting patterns with non-(NS), burst phase (BS), spike phase (SS), complete (CS), and lag synchronization states. When the coexisting behavior is near period-2 bursting, the transitions of synchronization states of the coupled system follows very complex transitions that begins with transitions between BS and SS, moves to transitions between CS and SS, and to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting while only a few lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting. When the coexisting behavior is near period-1 bursting, the transitions begin with NS, move to transitions between SS and BS, to transitions between SS and CS, and then to CS. Most initial values lead to the CS state of period-1 bursting but a few lead to the CS state of period-2 bursting. The BS was identified as chaos synchronization. The patterns for NS and transitions between BS and SS are insensitive to initial values. The patterns for transitions between CS and SS and the CS state are sensitive to them. The number of spikes per burst of non-CS bursting increases with increasing coupling strength. These results not only reveal the initial value- and parameter-dependent synchronization transitions of coupled systems with coexisting behaviors, but also facilitate interpretation of various bursting patterns and synchronization transitions generated in the nervous system with weak coupling strength. (paper)

  4. Squeezed colour states in gluon jet (United States)

    Kilin, S. YA.; Kuvshinov, V. I.; Firago, S. A.


    The possibility of the formation of squeezed states of gluon fields in quantum chromodynamics due to nonlinear nonperturbative self interaction during jet evolution in the process of e(+)e(-) annihilation into hadrons, which are analogous to the quantum photon squeezed states in quantum electrodynamics, is demonstrated. Additionally, the squeezing parameters are calculated.

  5. Long Burst Error Correcting Codes, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long burst error mitigation is an enabling technology for the use of Ka band for high rate commercial and government users. Multiple NASA, government, and commercial...

  6. Relativistic effects in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Erik; Groen, Oeyvind


    According to recent models of the sources of gamma-ray bursts the extremely energetic emission is caused by shells expanding with ultrarelativistic velocity. With the recent identification of optical sources at the positions of some gamma-ray bursts these ''fireball'' models have acquired an actuality that invites to use them as a motivating application when teaching special relativity. We demonstrate several relativistic effects associated with these models which are very pronounced due to the great velocity of the shell. For example a burst lasting for a month in the rest frame of an element of the shell lasts for a few seconds only, in the rest frame of our detector. It is shown how the observed properties of a burst are modified by aberration and the Doppler effect. The apparent luminosity as a function of time is calculated. Modifications due to the motion of the star away from the observer are calculated. (Author)

  7. Solar energetic particles and radio burst emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miteva Rositsa


    Full Text Available We present a statistical study on the observed solar radio burst emission associated with the origin of in situ detected solar energetic particles. Several proton event catalogs in the period 1996–2016 are used. At the time of appearance of the particle origin (flare and coronal mass ejection we identified radio burst signatures of types II, III and IV by inspecting dynamic radio spectral plots. The information from observatory reports is also accounted for during the analysis. The occurrence of solar radio burst signatures is evaluated within selected wavelength ranges during the solar cycle 23 and the ongoing 24. Finally, we present the burst occurrence trends with respect to the intensity of the proton events and the location of their solar origin.

  8. Solar energetic particles and radio burst emission (United States)

    Miteva, Rositsa; Samwel, Susan W.; Krupar, Vratislav


    We present a statistical study on the observed solar radio burst emission associated with the origin of in situ detected solar energetic particles. Several proton event catalogs in the period 1996-2016 are used. At the time of appearance of the particle origin (flare and coronal mass ejection) we identified radio burst signatures of types II, III and IV by inspecting dynamic radio spectral plots. The information from observatory reports is also accounted for during the analysis. The occurrence of solar radio burst signatures is evaluated within selected wavelength ranges during the solar cycle 23 and the ongoing 24. Finally, we present the burst occurrence trends with respect to the intensity of the proton events and the location of their solar origin.

  9. Astrophysics: Burst of support for relativity (United States)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni


    Light from a distant γ-ray burst backs up a key prediction of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity - that photon speed is the same regardless of energy. But it might set the stage for evolution of the theory.

  10. Observations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, I.B.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.


    Observational data on gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Information is grouped into temporal properties, energy fluxes and spectral properties, and directions and distributions of the sources in space. (BJG)

  11. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Massimo Della [INAF-Napoli, Capodimonte Observatory, Salita Moiariello, 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network, Piazzale della Repubblica 10, I-65122, Pescara (Italy)


    I’ll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ∼ 0.4% − 3%.

  12. Cfd modeling of a synthetic jet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dghim, Marouane; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi


    Synthetic jet actuators show good promise as an enabling technology for innovative boundary layer flow control applied to external surfaces, like airplane wings, and to internal flows, like those occurring in a curved engine inlet. The appealing characteristics of a synthetic jet are zero-net-mass flux operation and an efficient control effect that takes advantages of unsteady fluid phenomena. The formation of a synthetic jet in a quiescent external air flow is only beginning to be understood and a rational understanding of these devices is necessary before they can be applied to the control of flows outside of the laboratory. The synthetic jet flow generated by a planar orifice is investigated here using computational approach. Computations of the 2D synthetic jet are performed with unsteady RANS modeled with the Realizable κ - ε turbulence model available in FLUENT environment. In this present work, the ability of the first order turbulence model, employed in our computations, to model the formation of the counter-rotating-vortex pair (CVP) that appears in the flow-field was investigated. Computational results were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effectiveness of such control actuator was tested on separated boundary layer. Preliminary investigation were presented and discussed

  13. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  14. FastJet user manual

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Soyez, Gregory


    FastJet is a C++ package that provides a broad range of jet finding and analysis tools. It includes efficient native implementations of all widely used 2-to-1 sequential recombination jet algorithms for pp and e+e- collisions, as well as access to 3rd party jet algorithms through a plugin mechanism, including all currently used cone algorithms. FastJet also provides means to facilitate the manipulation of jet substructure, including some common boosted heavy-object taggers, as well as tools for estimation of pileup and underlying-event noise levels, determination of jet areas and subtraction or suppression of noise in jets.

  15. Manual of water jet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momber, A.


    The manual is the first of its kind, presenting a systematic review of water jet applications for cutting or otherwise treating concrete. The basic principles of water jet techniques are explained in chapters entitled: Systematic survey of water jets/Generation and characteristics of water jets/Concrete behaviour under water jet treatment/Optimization potentials/Fundamentals of abrasive water jet techniques/Pulsed water jets/Addition of additives/Equipment and tools/Applications (cleaning, roughening, abrasion, cutting, drilling)/Submerged water jet applications/Safety aspects/Evaluation principles and standard tender documents/Costs/Legal provisions and technical codes. (orig.) [de

  16. Jet Calibration at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, R; The ATLAS collaboration


    The accurate measurement of jets at high transverse momentum produced in proton proton collision at a centre of mass energy at \\sqrt(s)=7 TeV is important in many physics analysis at LHC. Due to the non-compensating nature of the ATLAS calorimeter, signal losses due to noise thresholds and in dead material the jet energy needs to be calibrated. Presently, the ATLAS experiment derives the jet calibration from Monte Carlo simulation using a simple correction that relates the true and the reconstructed jet energy. The jet energy scale and its uncertainty are derived from in-situ measurements and variation in the Monte Carlo simulation. Other calibration schemes have been also developed, they use hadronic cell calibrations or the topology of the jet constituents to reduce hadronic fluctuations in the jet response, improving in that way the jet resolution. The performances of the various calibration schemes using data and simulation, the evaluation of the modelling of the properties used to derive each calibration...

  17. Bouncy Fluid Jets (United States)

    Wadhwa, Navish; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos


    Contrary to intuition, free fluid jets can sometimes ``bounce'' off each other upon collision, due to an entrained air film that keeps them separated. So far, there have only been a few descriptive studies of bouncing jets, since the first recorded observation by Rayleigh more than a century ago. We present a quantitative investigation of non-coalescence in jets of same fluid upon an oblique collision. Using a simple experimental set-up, we carried out a parametric study of the bouncing jets by varying the jet diameter, velocity, angle of inclination and fluid viscosity. Our results reveal a scaling law for the contact time of bouncing jets. We further investigate the transition of colliding jets from non-coalescence to coalescence, which seems to be caused by instability of the fluid interface. A dimensionless parameter, which is a function of the Normal Weber Number, Normal Reynolds Number and the angle of inclination of the jets, quantitatively dictates the transition. Presently at Department of Physics, Danish Technical University, Denmark.

  18. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.


    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  19. Jet Lag Disorder (United States)

    ... but it can significantly reduce your vacation or business travel comfort. Fortunately, there are steps you can take ... to some symptoms of jet lag, regardless of travel across time zones. In ... attendants and business travelers are most likely to experience jet lag. ...

  20. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    referred to as a jet by. Maarten Schmidt in. 1963, who realized that the strong emission lines of 3C273 were the redshifted Balmer lines giving a redshift of 0.158. In the extragalactic context, while studying optical counterparts of radio sources Baade and Minkowski in 1954 noted a “straight jet, extending from the nucleus” of ...

  1. Smoking Gun Found for Gamma-Ray Burst in Milky Way (United States)


    Combined data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and infrared observations with the Palomar 200-inch telescope have uncovered evidence that a gamma-ray burst, one of nature's most catastrophic explosions, occurred in our Galaxy a few thousand years ago. The supernova remnant, W49B, may also be the first remnant of a gamma-ray burst discovered in the Milky Way. W49B is a barrel-shaped nebula located about 35,000 light years from Earth. The new data reveal bright infrared rings, like hoops around a barrel, and intense X-radiation from iron and nickel along the axis of the barrel. "These results provide intriguing evidence that an extremely massive star exploded in two powerful, oppositely directed jets that were rich in iron," said Jonathan Keohane of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory at a press conference at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Denver. "This makes W49B a prime candidate for being the remnant of a gamma ray burst involving a black hole collapsar." "The nearest known gamma-ray burst to Earth is several million light years away - most are billions of light years distant - so the detection of the remnant of one in our galaxy would be a major breakthrough," said William Reach, one of Keohane's collaborators from the California Institute of Technology. According to the collapsar theory, gamma-ray bursts are produced when a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel and the star's core collapses to form a black hole surrounded by a disk of extremely hot, rapidly rotating, magnetized gas. Much of this gas is pulled into the black hole, but some is flung away in oppositely directed jets of gas traveling at near the speed of light. An observer aligned with one these jets would see a gamma-ray burst, a blinding flash in which the concentrated power equals that of ten quadrillion Suns for a minute or so. The view perpendicular to the jets is a less astonishing, although nonetheless spectacular supernova explosion. For W49B, the jet is tilted out of the

  2. Subphotospheric neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts: the role of neutrons. (United States)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter


    Relativistic outflows with neutrons inevitably lead to inelastic collisions, and resulting subphotospheric γ rays may explain prompt emission of γ-ray bursts. In this model, hadronuclear, quasithermal neutrinos in the 10-100 GeV range should be generated, and they may even have a high-energy tail by neutron-proton-converter or shock acceleration mechanisms. We demonstrate the importance of dedicated searches with DeepCore+IceCube, though such analyses have not been performed. Successful detections enable us to discriminate among prompt emission mechanisms, probe the jet composition, and see roles of relativistic neutrons as well as effects of cosmic-ray acceleration.

  3. The Effect of a Finite Measurement Volume on Power Spectra from a Burst Type LDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika; K. George, William


    We analyze the effects of a finite size measurement volume on the power spectrum computed fromdata acquired with a burst-type laser Doppler anemometer. The finite measurement volume causes temporal distortions in acquisition of the data resulting in phenomena such as finite processing time and dead...... time.We compare analytical expressions for the bias and distortion of the velocity power spectrum computed from computer-generated data. We then compare the spectrum from the computer-generated data and a power spectrum from a measurement on a free turbulent jet in air and conclude that we have a valid...

  4. Jet Shapes at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kurt, Pelin


    The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector will observe high transverse momentum jets produced in the final state of proton-proton collisions at the center of mass energy of 14 TeV. These data will allow us to measure jet shapes, defined as the fractional transverse momentum distribution as a function of the distance from the jet axis. Since jet shapes are sensitive to parton showering processes they provide a good test of Monte Carlo event simulation programs. In this note we present a study of jet shapes reconstructed using calorimeter energies. We compare the predictions of the Monte Carlo generators PYTHIA and HERWIG++. Presented results are expected for $pp$ collisions at 14 TeV assuming an integrated luminosity of 10 pb$^{-1}$.

  5. Jet physics in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet performance and physics measurements, together with results from new physics searches using the 2011 dataset. They include studies of the underlying event and fragmentation models, measurements of the inclusive jet, dijet and multijet cross sections, parton density functions, heavy flavours, jet shape, mass and substructure. Searches for new physics in monojet, dijet and photon-jet final states are also presented.

  6. Herbivore derived fatty acid-amides elicit reactive oxygen species burst in plants (United States)

    The formation of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst is a central response of plants to many forms of stress including pathogen attack, several abiotic stresses, damage and insect infestation. These ROS act as a direct defense as well as signaling and regulatory molecules. Perception of microbe or...

  7. Statistical Properties of Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies Jie-Min ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A statistical analysis of gamma-ray burst host galaxies is pre- sented and a clear metallicity-stellar mass relation is found in our sample. A trend that a more massive host galaxy tends to have a higher star- formation rate is also found. No correlation is found between AV and NH. GRB host galaxies at a higher ...

  8. Dischi (E Jet) Nelle Stelle Massicce Giovani (United States)

    Cesaroni, Riccardo


    In questo contributo verrà discussa l'importanza dei dischi e jet ad essi asso- ciati per la formazione delle stelle di tipo spettrale OB e verranno presentati i risultati recentemente ottenuti con ALMA in questo ambito. In particolare mostr- eremo che la struttura del disco sembra risentire della complessità dell'ambiente circostante e che la probabilità di rivelare un disco attorno alle stelle di più alta massa è massima in una fase evolutiva intermedia. Infine discuteremo la possibilità che il fenomeno di accrescimento dal disco sulla stella possa avvenire in maniera discontinua mediante "burst", probabilmente dovuti ad instabilità nel disco.

  9. Reflection jets and collimation of radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacholczyk, A.G.


    A discussion of the hydrodynamics of jets formed by discrete portions of materials ejected from the parent galaxy through a channel, and reflected back to it as a result of an encounter with the material accumulated at the end of the channel, is the basis of the present descriptive hypothesis for a class of jets in extended radio sources. The model encompasses the view of extended radio sources as the multiple ejection of plasmoids through a channel, as well as the formation of retrojets through the interaction of a plasmon with the dense relic material at the end of a channel, and the collimation of plasmon material in channels. 14 references

  10. ASKAP Joins the Hunt for Mysterious Bursts (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    A new telescope, the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), has joined the search for energetic and elusive fast radio bursts. And in just a few days of looking, its already had success!Elusive TransientsThe Parkes radio telescope, which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date, has a very narrow field of view. [CSIRO]Fast radio bursts are mysterious millisecond-duration radio pulses that were first discovered around a decade ago. Since that time particularly in recent years weve made some progress toward the goal of localizing them. Were now fairly convinced that fast radio bursts come from outside of the galaxy, and yet theyre enormously bright orders of magnitude more luminous than any pulse seen from the Milky Way.Better identification of where these mysterious bursts come from would help us to determine what they are. But so far, weve discovered only around 30 such bursts, despite the fact that theyre estimated to occur at a rate of 3,000 events per day across the whole sky.Why are they so hard to find? Due to their short duration, effective detection would require instantaneous coverage of a very large fraction of the sky. The Parkes radio telescope which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date has a field of view spanning less than a square degree,significantly limiting our ability to rapidly survey for these transients.FRB 170107s band-averaged pulse (top) and dynamic spectrum (bottom). [Bannister et al. 2017]A New Array in TownA new player is now on the scene, however, and its already had huge success. ASKAP is a wide-field radio telescope made up of an array of 12-meter antennas. Using phased-array-feed technology, ASKAP is able to instantaneously observe an effective area of 160 square degrees an enormous field compared to Parkes 0.6 square degrees! This capability significantly increases our chances of being able to detect fast radio bursts.In a new study led by Keith Bannister

  11. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging (United States)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.


    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time.

  12. A Nontriggered Burst Supplement to the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalogs (United States)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.


    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a real-time burst detection (or "trigger") system running onboard the spacecraft. Under some circumstances, however, a GRB may not activate the on-board burst trigger. For example, the burst may be too faint to exceed the on-board detection threshold, or it may occur while the on-board burst trigger is disabled for technical reasons. This paper describes a catalog of 873 "nontriggered" GRBs that were detected in a search of the archival continuous data from BATSE recorded between 1991 December 9.0 and 1997 December 17.0. For each burst, the catalog gives an estimated source direction, duration, peak flux, and fluence. Similar data are presented for 50 additional bursts of unknown origin that were detected in the 25-50 keV range; these events may represent the low-energy "tail" of the GRB spectral distribution. This catalog increases the number of GRBs detected with BATSE by 48% during the time period covered by the search.

  13. Constraints on millisecond magnetars as the engines of prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Giannios, Dimitrios; Metzger, Brian D.


    We examine millisecond magnetars as central engines of gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs) prompt emission. Using the protomagnetar wind model of Metzger et al., we estimate the temporal evolution of the magnetization and power injection at the base of the GRB jet and apply these to different prompt emission models to make predictions for the GRB energetics, spectra and light curves. We investigate both shock and magnetic reconnection models for the particle acceleration, as well as the effects of energy dissipation across optically thick and thin regions of the jet. The magnetization at the base of the jet, σ0, is the main parameter driving the GRB evolution in the magnetar model and the emission is typically released for 100 ≲σ0 ≲3000. Given the rapid increase in σ0 as the protomagnetar cools and its neutrino-driven mass loss subsides, the GRB duration is typically limited to ≲100 s. This low baryon loading at late times challenges magnetar models for ultralong GRBs, though black hole models likely run into similar difficulties without substantial entrainment from the jet walls. The maximum radiated gamma-ray energy is ≲5 × 1051 erg, significantly less than the magnetar's total initial rotational energy and in strong tension with the high end of the observed GRB energy distribution. However, the gradual magnetic dissipation model applied to a magnetar central engine, naturally explains several key observables of typical GRBs, including energetics, durations, stable peak energies, spectral slopes and a hard to soft evolution during the burst.

  14. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  15. Design Study to Visualize Stock Market Bubble Formations and Bursts


    Iyer, Sruthi Ganesan


    The stock market is a very complex and continuously changing environment in which many varying factors shape its growth and decline. Studying interesting trends and analyzing the intricate movements of the market, while ignoring distracting and uninteresting patterns has the potential to save large amounts of money for individuals as well as corporations and governments. This thesis describes research that was conducted with the goal to visualize stock market data in such a way that it is abl...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam D-14476 (Germany); Troja, Eleonora [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)


    In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy, {epsilon}{sub jet} = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 M{sub Sun }, favoring 'high-mass' binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses {approx}> 1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since 'high-mass' systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of {approx}0.9 or higher.

  17. Reflection jets and collimation of radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacholczyk, A.G.


    The author proposes a description of only a certain class of jets in extended radio sources by discussing hydrodynamics of jets formed by discrete portions of material ejected from the parent galaxy through a channel and reflected back into it as a result of an encounter with the material accumulated at the end of the channel. The picture presented here combines some older ideas with recent ones. The older ideas consist of modeling of extended radio sources in terms of multiple ejection of plasmons through a channel ploughed by the first few plasmons in the ambient medium with a resupply of energy in plasmons through the conversion of bulk kinetic energy into relativistic electron energy through instability driven turbulence. The recent ideas concern the formation of retro-jets as the result of interaction of a plasmon with the dense relic material at the end of a channel and the collimation of plasmon material in channels. (Auth.)

  18. Sources of type III solar microwave bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanov D.A.


    Full Text Available Microwave fine structures allow us to study plasma evolution in an energy release region. The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT is a unique instrument designed to examine fine structures at 5.7 GHz. A complex analysis of data from RATAN-600, 4–8 GHz spectropolarimeter, and SSRT, simultaneously with EUV data, made it possible to localize sources of III type microwave bursts in August 10, 2011 event within the entire frequency band of burst occurrence, as well as to determine the most probable region of primary energy release. To localize sources of III type bursts from RATAN-600 data, an original method for data processing has been worked out. At 5.7 GHz, the source of bursts was determined along two coordinates, whereas at 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, and 6.0 GHz, their locations were identified along one coordinate. The size of the burst source at 5.1 GHz was found to be maximum as compared to those at other frequencies.

  19. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.


    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.

  20. Relativistic jets from accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriat, Mickael


    Matter ejection processes, more commonly called jets, are among the most ubiquitous phenomena of the universe at ail scales of size and energy and are inseparable from accretion process. This intimate link, still poorly understood, is the main focus of this thesis. Through multi-wavelength observations of X-ray binary Systems hosting a black hole, I will try to bring new constraints on the physics of relativistic jets and the accretion - ejection coupling. We strive first to compare the simultaneous infrared, optical and X-ray emissions of the binary GX 339-4 over a period of five years. We study the nature of the central accretion flow, one of the least understood emission components of X-ray binaries, both in its geometry and in term of the physical processes that take place. This component is fundamental since it is could be the jets launching area or be highly connected to it. Then we focus on the infrared emission of the jets to investigate the physical conditions close to the jets base. We finally study the influence of irradiation of the outer accretion disc by the central X-ray source. Then, we present the results of a long-term radio and X-ray study of the micro-quasar H1743- 322. This System belongs to a population of accreting black holes that display, for a given X-ray luminosity, a radio emission fainter than expected. We make several assumptions about the physical origin of this phenomenon and show in particular that these sources could have a radiatively efficient central accretion flow. We finally explore the phases of return to the hard state of GX 339-4. We follow the re-emergence of the compact jets emission and try to bring new constraints on the physics of jet formation. (author) [fr

  1. The effects of protostellar jet feedback on turbulent collapse (United States)

    Murray, Daniel; Goyal, Shivam; Chang, Philip


    We present results of hydrodynamic simulations of massive star-forming regions with and without protostellar jets. We show that jets change the normalization of the stellar mass accretion rate, but do not strongly affect the dynamics of star formation. In particular, M*(t) ∝ f2(t - t*)2, where f = 1 - fjet is the fraction of mass accreted on to the protostar, fjet is the fraction ejected by the jet, and (t - t*)2 is the time elapsed since the formation of the first star. The star formation efficiency is non-linear in time. We find that jets have only a small effect (of order 25 per cent) on the accretion rate on to the protostellar disc (the `raw' accretion rate). We show that the small-scale structures - the radial density, velocity, and mass accretion profiles - are very similar in the jet and no-jet cases. Finally, we show that the inclusion of jets does drive turbulence but only on small (parsec) scales.

  2. A common central engine for long gamma-ray bursts and Type Ib/c supernovae (United States)

    Sobacchi, E.; Granot, J.; Bromberg, O.; Sormani, M. C.


    Long-duration, spectrally soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with Type Ic core collapse (CC) supernovae (SNe), and thus arise from the death of massive stars. In the collapsar model, the jet launched by the central engine must bore its way out of the progenitor star before it can produce a GRB. Most of these jets do not break out, and are instead 'choked' inside the star, as the central engine activity time, te, is not long enough. Modelling the long-soft GRB duration distribution assuming a power-law distribution for their central engine activity times, ∝ t_e^{-α } for te > tb, we find a steep distribution (α ∼ 4) and a typical GRB jet breakout time of tb ∼ 60s in the star's frame. The latter suggests the presence of a low-density, extended envelope surrounding the progenitor star, similar to that previously inferred for low-luminosity GRBs. Extrapolating the range of validity of this power law below what is directly observable, to te < tb, by only a factor of ∼4-5 produces enough events to account for all Type Ib/c SNe. Such extrapolation is necessary to avoid fine-tuning the distribution of central engine activity times with the breakout time, which are presumably unrelated. We speculate that central engines launching relativistic jets may operate in all Type Ib/c SNe. In this case, the existence of a common central engine would imply that (i) the jet may significantly contribute to the energy of the SN; (ii) various observational signatures, like the asphericity of the explosion, could be directly related to jet's interaction with the star.

  3. High-redshift gamma-ray bursts: observational signatures of superconducting cosmic strings? (United States)

    Cheng, K S; Yu, Yun-Wei; Harko, T


    The high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), GRBs 080913 and 090423, challenge the conventional GRB progenitor models by their short durations, typical for short GRBs, and their high energy releases, typical for long GRBs. Meanwhile, the GRB rate inferred from high-redshift GRBs also remarkably exceeds the prediction of the collapsar model, with an ordinary star formation history. We show that all these contradictions could be eliminated naturally, if we ascribe some high-redshift GRBs to electromagnetic bursts of superconducting cosmic strings. High-redshift GRBs could become a reasonable way to test the superconducting cosmic string model because the event rate of cosmic string bursts increases rapidly with increasing redshifts, whereas the collapsar rate decreases.

  4. Localised Microwave Bursts During ELMs on MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freethy Simon


    Full Text Available Bursts of microwave emission are observed during ELM events on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak. In agreement with observations on other machines, these bursts are up to 3 orders of magnitude more intense than the thermal background, but are electron cyclotron in nature. The peak in microwave emission is ~20μ before the peak in midplane Dα emission. Using the Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging radiometer, we are able to demonstrate that these bursts are often highly spatially localised and preferentially occur at the tokamak midplane. It is hypothesised that the localisation is a result of Doppler resonance broadening for electron Bernstein waves and the high perpendicular electron energies could be the result of pitch angle scattering in high collisionality regions of the plasma.

  5. Gamma Ray Bursts Observations and Theoretical Conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Alagoz, E; Carrillo, C; Golup, G T; Grimes, M; Herrera, Mora C; Gallo, Palomino J L; López, Vega A; Wicht, J


    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short bursts of very high energy photons which were discovered in the late 1960s. Ever since their discovery, scientists have wondered about their origin. Nowadays it is known that they originate outside the Milky Way because of their high red shift rst measured in the afterglows thanks to the Beppo-SAX satellite and ground-based observations. However, theoreticians still do not agree about the mechanism that generates the bursts, and different competing models are animatedly debated. Current GRB experiments include the Swift satellite and the Pierre Auger Observatory that could detect GRBs with an increase of the background. A forthcoming dedicated experiment is GLAST, a satellite observatory for detecting gamma rays with energies up to 300 GeV, whose launch is scheduled for early 2008.

  6. Jet lag prevention (United States)

    ... Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  7. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  8. Measurements of Jets in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Nattrass, Christine


    The ALICE detector can be used for measurements of jets in pp , p Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions. Measurements of jets in pp collisions are consis- tent with expectations from perturbative calculations and jets in p Pb scale with the number of nucleon–nucleon collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are not observed for jets. Measurements in Pb–Pb collisions demonstrate suppression of jets relative to expectations from binary scaling to the equivalent number of nucleon–nucleon collisions

  9. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels


    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  10. Jets in hadronic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, F.E.


    Recent experimental data on the properties of jets in hadronic reactions are reviewed and compared with theoretical expectations. Jets are clearly established as the dominant process for high E/sub T/ events in hadronic reactions. The cross section and the other properties of these events are in qualitative and even semiquantitative agreement with expectations based on perturbative QCD. However, we can not yet make precise tests of QCD, primarily because there are substantial uncertainties in the theoretical calculations. 45 references. (WHK)

  11. Pellet injectors for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Buechl, K.; Lang, R.S.; Schilling, H.B.; Ulrich, M.


    Pellet injection for the purpose of refuelling and diagnostic of fusion experiments is considered for the parameters of JET. The feasibility of injectors for single pellets and for quasistationary refuelling is discussed. Model calculations on pellet ablation with JET parameters show the required pellet velocity ( 3 ). For single pellet injection a light gas gun, for refuelling a centrifuge accelerator is proposed. For the latter the mechanical stress problems are discussed. Control and data acquisition systems are outlined. (orig.)

  12. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Orhanlı Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)


    We present our broadband (2–250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550−5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806−20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ( RXTE ) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  13. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts (United States)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin


    We present our broadband (2-250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550-5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806-20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  14. From Enigma to Tool: Gamma-Ray Burst Reveals Secrets of Host Galaxy (United States)


    Five years ago, astronomers knew almost nothing about Gamma Ray Bursts. Now, a team of observers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope has used a gamma-ray burst as a powerful tool to unveil the nature of the galaxy in which it occurred, more than 7 billion light-years away. VLA Images of GRB980703 Host Galaxy "We believe that gamma-ray bursts may become one of the best available tools for studying the history of star formation in the universe," said Edo Berger, a graduate student at Caltech. Berger worked with Caltech astronomy professor Shri Kulkarni and Dale Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, to study a gamma-ray burst first seen on July 3, 1998. The astronomers presented their results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, CA. "For the first time, we've seen the host galaxy of a gamma-ray burst with a radio telescope," Berger said. "Previously, gamma-ray-burst host galaxies have been seen with optical telescopes, but detecting this galaxy with a radio telescope has given us new clues about the nature of the galaxy itself -- clues we couldn't have gotten any other way," he added. For example, based on optical-telescope studies, astronomers estimated that new stars are forming in the host galaxy at the rate of about the mass equivalent of 20 suns per year. However, data from the radio observations show that the actual star-formation rate is 25 times greater -- the mass equivalent of 500 suns per year. "With the VLA, we are seeing the entire region of star formation in this galaxy, including the areas so dusty that visible light can't get out," said Frail. Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions since the Big Bang. First discovered in 1967 by a satellite launched to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban treaty, gamma-ray bursts remained one of astronomy's premier mysteries for 30 years. For three decades

  15. Probing the inner jet of M87; from the jet base to HST-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada Kazuhiro


    Full Text Available The giant radio galaxy M87 accompanies one of the nearest Active-Galactic-Nuclei jets showing the intense radiation through radio to TeV gamma-ray. Its proximity and the large mass of the central black hole provide an excellent advantage to probe the sites of jet formation and gamma-ray production. Here we review some of our recent studies for the inner jet of M87 based on the multi-frequency and multi-epoch VLBI observations, especially focusing on the two remarkable regions i.e., the jet base near the black hole and the peculiar feature HST-1. Our multi-frequency observations with the phase-referencing technique revealed the detailed structure of the jet base region regarding the location of the central engine and the collimation profile. In terms of HST-1, the intense multi-epoch VLBI monitoring constrained the accurate kinematic properties and the structural variations in this complicated feature, together with a possible connection to the gamma-ray activities. At the end of this contribution, we briefly describe our new monitoring project for M87 with VERA, which permits a detailed study on the structural evolution in the jet base region.

  16. BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. 2: Peak energy evolution in bright, long bursts (United States)

    Ford, L. A.; Band, D. L.; Matteson, J. L.; Briggs, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Paciesas, W. S.; Teegarden, B. J.; Palmer, D. M.; Schaefer, B. E.


    We investigate spectral evolution in 37 bright, long gamma-ray bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) spectroscopy detectors. High-resolution spectra are chracterized by the energy of the peak of nu F(sub nu), and the evolution of this quantity is examined relative to the emission intensity. In most cases it is found that this peak energy either rises with or slightly precedes major intensity increases and softens for the remainder of the pulse. Interpulse emission is generally harder early in the burst. For bursts with multiple intensity pulses, later spikes tend to be softer than earlier ones, indicating that the energy of the peak of nu F(sub nu) is bounded by an envelope which decays with time. Evidence is found that bursts in which the bulk of the flux comes well after the event which triggers the instrument tend to show less peak energy variability and are not as hard as several bursts in which the emission occurs promptly after the trigger. Several recently proposed burst models are examined in light of these results and no qualitative conflicts with the observations presented here are found.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukwatta, T. N. [Director' s Postdoctoral Fellow, Space and Remote Sensing (ISR-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hurley, K. [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); MacGibbon, J. H. [Department of Physics, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Pal' shin, V. D. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Goldsten, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Boynton, W. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kozyrev, A. S. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von; Zhang, X. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Connaughton, V. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Yamaoka, K. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan); Ohno, M. [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohmori, N. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Feroci, M. [INAF/IAPS-Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Frontera, F., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); and others


    The detection of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the solar neighborhood would have very important implications for GRB phenomenology. The leading theories for cosmological GRBs would not be able to explain such events. The final bursts of evaporating primordial black holes (PBHs), however, would be a natural explanation for local GRBs. We present a novel technique that can constrain the distance to GRBs using detections from widely separated, non-imaging spacecraft. This method can determine the actual distance to the burst if it is local. We applied this method to constrain distances to a sample of 36 short-duration GRBs detected by the Interplanetary Network (IPN) that show observational properties that are expected from PBH evaporations. These bursts have minimum possible distances in the 10{sup 13}–10{sup 18} cm (7–10{sup 5} au) range, which are consistent with the expected PBH energetics and with a possible origin in the solar neighborhood, although none of the bursts can be unambiguously demonstrated to be local. Assuming that these bursts are real PBH events, we estimate lower limits on the PBH burst evaporation rate in the solar neighborhood.

  18. Radon and rock bursts in deep mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulashevich, Yu.P.; Utkin, V.I.; Yurkov, A.K.; Nikolaev, V.V.


    Variation fields of radon concentration in time to ascertain stress-strain state of the North Ural bauxite mines have been studied. It is shown that dynamic changes in the stress-strain state of the rocks prior to the rock burst bring about variations in radon concentration in the observation wells. Depending on mutual positioning of the observation points and the rock burst epicenter, the above-mentioned variations differ in principle, reduction of radon concentration in the near zone and its increase in the far zone are observed [ru

  19. Spike Bursts from an Excitable Optical System (United States)

    Rios Leite, Jose R.; Rosero, Edison J.; Barbosa, Wendson A. S.; Tredicce, Jorge R.

    Diode Lasers with double optical feedback are shown to present power drop spikes with statistical distribution controllable by the ratio of the two feedback times. The average time between spikes and the variance within long time series are studied. The system is shown to be excitable and present bursting of spikes created with specific feedback time ratios and strength. A rate equation model, extending the Lang-Kobayashi single feedback for semiconductor lasers proves to match the experimental observations. Potential applications to construct network to mimic neural systems having controlled bursting properties in each unit will be discussed. Brazilian Agency CNPQ.

  20. Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Spectral Evolution of GRB Jets (United States)

    Cuesta-Martínez, C.


    In this thesis we study the progenitor systems of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using numerical models of their dynamics and the electromagnetic emission. Of all the possible classes of events, we focus on those showing a prominent component of thermal emission, which might be generated due to the interaction of a relativistic jet with the medium into which it is propagating. The main part of the thesis is devoted to modelling GRBs from two different clases of progenitors: ultra-long GRBs dominated by blackbody emission and GRBs associated with core-collapse supernovae (SNe). The study of GRB jets and their radiative emission has been basically divided into two steps. First, the dynamical evolution of relativistic jets can be simulated by means of multidimensional special relativistic hydrodynamic simulations which have been performed with the MRGENESIS code. Second, the synthetic emission from such jets is computed with the relativistic radiative transfer code SPEV in a post-processing stage assuming different radiative processes in which we follow the temporal and spectral evolution of the emitted radiation. An instrumental part of this project consisted in extending SPEV to include thermal processes, such as thermal bremsstrahlung, in order to account for the thermal signal that may arise in some GRBs. In the first part of this thesis, we extend an existing theoretical model to explain the class of blackbody-dominated GRBs (BBD-GRBs), i.e., long lasting events characterized by the presence of a notable thermal component trailing the GRB prompt emission, and a rather weak traditional afterglow. GRB 101225A, the "Christmas burst", is the most prominent member of this class. It has been suggested that BBD-GRBs could result from the merger of a binary system formed by a neutron star and the Helium core of an evolved, massive star. We model in 2D the propagation of ultrarelativistic jets through the environments created by such mergers. We outline the most relevant

  1. The Composition of GRB Jets and the ICMART Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bing [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Models of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are drawn from observations of light curves, spectra, and spectral evolution. The ICMART (Internal Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection & Turbulence) model and some of its features are presented. Increasing evidence points towards Poynting-flux-dominated jets in at least some (even a good fraction of) GRBs. The main emission component (Band) is of a synchrotron emission origin, produced by electrons accelerated in the emission region. The data seem to require that magnetic reconnection in the moderately-high sigma regime is the mechanism to accelerate particles. Extensive numerical simulations are needed to verify physical details of such a model, and some encouraging results have been obtained.

  2. The long, the short and the weak: the origin of gamma-ray bursts. (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Bromberg, Omer; Nakar, Ehud; Sari, Re'em


    The origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is one of the most interesting puzzles in recent astronomy. During the last decade a consensus has formed that long GRBs (LGRBs) arise from the collapse of massive stars, and that short GRBs (SGRBs) have a different origin, most likely neutron star mergers. A key ingredient of the collapsar model that explains how the collapse of massive stars produces a GRB is the emergence of a relativistic jet that penetrates the stellar envelope. The condition that the emerging jet penetrates the envelope imposes strong constraints on the system. Using these constraints we show the following. (i) Low-luminosity GRBs (llGRBs), a subpopulation of GRBs with very low luminosities (and other peculiar properties: single-peaked, smooth and soft), cannot be formed by collapsars. llGRBs must have a different origin (most likely a shock breakout). (ii) On the other hand, regular LGRBs must be formed by collapsars. (iii) While for BATSE the dividing line between collapsars and non-collapsars is indeed at approximately 2 s, the dividing line is different for other GRB detectors. In particular, most Swift bursts longer than 0.8 s are of a collapsar origin. This last result requires a revision of many conclusions concerning the origin of Swift SGRBs, which were based on the commonly used 2 s limit.

  3. A Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer Study of Photospheric Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Parsotan, Tyler; Lazzati, Davide


    We present the analysis of photospheric emission for a set of hydrodynamic simulations of long duration gamma-ray burst jets from massive compact stars. The results are obtained by using the Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer code (MCRaT) to simulate thermal photons scattering through the collimated outflows. MCRaT allows us to study explicitly the time evolution of the photosphere within the photospheric region, as well as the gradual decoupling of the photon and matter counterparts of the jet. The results of the radiation transfer simulations are also used to construct light curves and time-resolved spectra at various viewing angles, which are then used to make comparisons with observed data and outline the agreement and strain points between the photospheric model and long duration gamma-ray burst observations. We find that our fitted time-resolved spectral Band β parameters are in agreement with observations, even though we do not consider the effects of nonthermal particles. Finally, the results are found to be consistent with the Yonetoku correlation, but bear some strain with the Amati correlation.

  4. Radio Loud AGN Unification: Connecting Jets and Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Eileen T.


    Full Text Available While only a fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei are observed to host a powerful relativistic jet, a cohesive picture is emerging that radio-loud AGN may represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies and the growth of the central super-massive black hole. I will review my own recent observational work in radio-loud AGN unification in the context of understanding how and why jets form and their the connection to different kinds of accretion and growing the black hole, along with a brief discussion of possible connections to recent modeling work in jet formation. Starting from the significant observational advances in our understanding of jetted AGN as a population over the last decade thanks to new, more sensitive instruments such as Fermi and Swift as well as all-sky surveys at all frequencies, I will lay out the case for a dichotomy in the jetted AGN population connected to accretion mode onto the black hole. In recent work, we have identified two sub-populations of radio-loud AGN which appear to be distinguished by jet structure, where low-efficiency accreting systems produce ‘weak’ jets which decelerate more rapidly than the ’strong’ jets of black holes accreting near the Eddington limit. The two classes are comprised of: (1The weak jet sources, corresponding to the less collimated, edge-darkened FR Is, with a decelerating or spine-sheath jet with velocity gradients, and (2 The strong jet sources, having fast, collimated jets, and typically displaying strong emission lines. The dichotomy in the vp-Lp plane can be understood as a "broken power sequence" in which jets exist on one branch or the other based on the particular accretion mode (Georganopolous 2011.We suggest that the intrinsic kinetic power (as measured by low-frequency, isotropic radio emission, the orientation, and the accretion rate of the SMBH system are the the fundamental axes needed for unification of radio-loud AGN by studying a well-characterized sample

  5. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham


    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  6. Spectral Tests of the Homogeneity of Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Band, David L.


    We proposed to determine whether the spectral-hardness-intensity relation found when comparing dim and bright bursts is also found within the set of bright bursts. In the simplest cosmological burst paradigm all bursts have the same intrinsic brightness (they are "standard candles") and the faintest BATSE bursts are at a redshift of approx. 1. The cumulative intensity distribution, which is a -3/2 power law at the bright end but flatter at the low intensity end, is explained by the cosmological curvature of space. Thus bursts at the bright end should be at such low redshifts that they do not suffer cosmological redshifting of their spectra or time dilation of their lightcurves. The spectral-hardness and burst intensity are correlated when dim and bright bursts are compared, consistent with cosmological redshifting. However, the actual redshifts of a number of bursts have been determined, showing that bursts are not standard candles, and that their redshifts are frequently greater than approx. 1; the maximum redshift is 3.4! Consequently many bright bursts are at redshifts where cosmological effects are significant. We had proposed to determine A,hether the redshifting effect continued into the bright bursts; even moderately bright bursts should be at cosmological distances.

  7. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon (United States)


    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  8. Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet-heating active galactic nucleus feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations (United States)

    Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain


    We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion

  9. GRB 091024A and the nature of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Harrison, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Steele, I. A.; Mottram, C. J.; Clay, N. R. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Pal' shin, V. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Guidorzi, C. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Margutti, R.; Chornock, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Melandri, A. [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Henden, A. [AAVSO, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Updike, A. C. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cucchiara, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gomboc, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Levan, A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Cano, Z., E-mail: [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); and others


    We present a broadband study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 091024A within the context of other ultra-long-duration GRBs. An unusually long burst detected by Konus-Wind (KW), Swift, and Fermi, GRB 091024A has prompt emission episodes covering ∼1300 s, accompanied by bright and highly structured optical emission captured by various rapid-response facilities, including the 2 m autonomous robotic Faulkes North and Liverpool Telescopes, KAIT, S-LOTIS, and the Sonoita Research Observatory. We also observed the burst with 8 and 10 m class telescopes and determine the redshift to be z = 1.0924 ± 0.0004. We find no correlation between the optical and γ-ray peaks and interpret the optical light curve as being of external origin, caused by the reverse and forward shock of a highly magnetized jet (R{sub B} ≈ 100-200). Low-level emission is detected throughout the near-background quiescent period between the first two emission episodes of the KW data, suggesting continued central-engine activity; we discuss the implications of this ongoing emission and its impact on the afterglow evolution and predictions. We summarize the varied sample of historical GRBs with exceptionally long durations in gamma-rays (≳1000 s) and discuss the likelihood of these events being from a separate population; we suggest ultra-long GRBs represent the tail of the duration distribution of the long GRB population.

  10. Jetted GRBs, afterglows and SGRs from quark stars birth

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon


    Recent studies suggest that when cold nuclear matter is compressed to high nuclear densities, diquarks with spin zero and antisymmetric color wave function Bose condensate into a superfluid/superconducting state that is several times as dense. Various astrophysical phenomena may be explained by gravitational collapse of neutron stars (NSs) to (di)quark stars (QSs) as a result of a first order phase transition in NSs within $\\sim 10^{4}$ years after their birth in supernova explosions, when they cooled and spun down sufficiently (by magnetic braking ?). The gravitational energy release drives an explosion which may eject both highly relativistic narrowly collimated jets and a mildly relativistic ``spherical'' shell. The slow contraction/cooling of the remnant QSs can power soft gamma ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), without invoking a huge magnetic energy storage. The jets can produce the observed gamma ray bursts (GRBs) in distant galaxies when they happen to point in our direction and...

  11. Study of structures and stability in nitrogen plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Nirupama; Meher, K.C.; Ghorui, Srikumar


    Stability of a dc non-transferred arc plasma jet and its internal structures are important for any application related to material processing like plasma spraying, nano synthesis etc. Plasma jet fluctuation and structure formation inside arc plasma jets occur due to reasons like arc root rotation, power supply fluctuation, air entrainment and interaction between electromagnetic and fluid dynamic body forces. Isolated temperature islands originated through such interactions affects particle trajectory, physical processes and process chemistry in a significant manner. In this paper, plasma jet images are recorded at frame rate 7000 FPS for argon and nitrogen plasma. Images are synchronized with voltage signal using camera trigger signal as a trigger to the digital storage oscilloscope. In the experiment, gas flow rate is varied from 10 lpm to 30 lpm in step of 5 lpm keeping torch power constant. All parameter of the camera (exposure time, aperture, focal length) are kept fixed throughout. It has been observed that the luminous length of the plasma jet decreases with increase in gas flow rate for nitrogen, while the reverse happens for argon. It is also observed that while the plasma jet remains fairly steady for low flow rate, variety of different interesting structures are observed inside the plasma jet at higher flow rates. The intensity variation and intensity contours inside the plasma jet are probed using image analysis software. It has been observed that these structures are relatively independent of the arc voltage but highly dependent on gas flow rate and torch power. Reasons for observed behavior are investigated. As thermal and chemical processes are highly dependent on temperature, observed isolated temperature zones inside the plasma jet are of great importance from application point of view. Plasma blob movement observed inside the jet is used for a rough estimate of the plasma jet velocity. (author)

  12. Effects of Goldstone bosons on gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Huitzu; Ng, Kin-Wang, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Sec. 2, Academia Rd., Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic explosion events in the universe. An amount of gravitational energy of the order of the rest-mass energy of the Sun is released from a small region within a short time. This should lead to the formation of a fireball of temperature in the MeV range, consisting of electrons/positrons, photons, and a small fraction of baryons. We exploit the potential of GRB fireballs for being a laboratory for testing particle physics beyond the Standard Model, where we find that Weinberg's Higgs portal model serves as a good candidate for this purpose. Due to the resonance effects, the Goldstone bosons can be rapidly produced by electron-positron annihilation process in the initial fireballs of the gamma-ray bursts. On the other hand, the mean free path of the Goldstone bosons is larger than the size of the GRB initial fireballs, so they are not coupled to the GRB's relativistic flow and can lead to significant energy loss. Using generic values for the GRB initial fireball energy, temperature, radius, expansion rate, and baryon number density, we find that the GRB bounds on the parameters of Weinberg's Higgs portal model are indeed competitive to current laboratory constraints.

  13. BACODINE/3rd Interplanetary Network burst localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.


    Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs

  14. Radio Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gamma ray bursts; radio astronomy. ... Even though radio band is the least explored of the afterglow spectrum, it has played an important role in the progress of GRB physics, specifically in confirming the hypothesized relativistic effects. ... Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Trivandrum 695 547, India.

  15. Search for bursts in air shower data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, T.E.G.; Clay, R.W.; Dawson, B.R.; Protheroe, R.J.; Blair, D.G.; Cinquini, P.


    There have been reports in recent years of the possible observation of bursts in air shower data. If such events are truly of an astrophysical nature then, they represent an important new class of phemonenon since no other bursts have been observed above the MeV level. The spectra of conventional gamma ray bursts are unknown at higher energies but their observed spectra at MeV energies appear generally to exhibit a steepening in the higher MeV range and are thus unlikely to extrapolate to measurable fluxes at air shower energies. An attempt has been made to look for deviations from randomness in the arrival times of air showers above approx. 10 to the 14th power eV with a number of systems and results so far are presented here. This work will be continued for a substantial period of time with a system capable of recording bursts with multiple events down to a spacing of 4 microns. Earlier data have also been searched for the possible association of air shower events with a glitch of the Vela pulsar

  16. Magnetized environs of a repeating radio burst (United States)

    Metzger, Brian D.


    One of the astrophysical sources that gives rise to the mysterious transients known as fast radio bursts is embedded in a highly magnetized environment, such as the vicinity of an accreting massive black hole or the birth nebula of a highly magnetized neutron star.

  17. Spectral Lag Evolution among -Ray Burst Pulses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We analyse the spectral lag evolution of -ray burst (GRB) pulses with observations by CGRO/BATSE. No universal spectral lag evolution feature and pulse luminosity-lag relation within a GRB is observed.Our results suggest that the spectral lag would be due to radiation physics and dynamics of a given ...

  18. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.


    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive

  19. Positron annihilation in gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.


    Emission features appear at energies of 350 to 450 keV in the spectra of a number of gamma ray burst sources. These features were interpreted as electron-positron annihilation lines, redshifted by the gravitational field near the surface of a neutron star. Evidence that gamma ray bursts originate at neutron stars with magnetic field strengths of approx. 10(exp 12) Gauss came from recent observations of cyclotron scattering harmonics in the spectra of two bursts. Positrons could be produced in gamma ray burst sources either by photon-photon pair production or by one-photon pair production in a strong magnetic field. The annihilation of positrons is affected by the presence of a strong neutron star magnetic field in several ways. The relaxation of transverse momentum conservation causes an intrinsic broadening of the two-photon annihilation line and there is a decrease in the annihilation cross section below the free-space value. An additional channel for one-photon annihilation also becomes possible in high magnetic fields. The physics of pair production and annihilation near strongly magnetized neutron stars will be reviewed. Results from a self-consistent model for non-thermal synchrotron radiation and pair annihilation are beginning to identify the conditions required to produce observable annihilation features from strongly magnetized plasmas.

  20. Jets Launching Radius in Low-Power Radio-Loud AGNs In Advection-Dominated Accretion Flows (United States)

    Le, Truong; Newman, William; Edge, Brinkley


    Using our theory for the production of relativistic outflows, we estimate the jet launching radius and the inferred mass accretion rate for 52 low-power radio-loud AGNs based on the observed jet powers. Our analysis indicates that (1) a significant fraction of the accreted energy is required to convert the accreted mass to relativistic energy particles for the production of the jets near the event horizon, (2) the jets launching radius moves radially toward the horizon as the mass accretion rate or jets power increases, and (3) no jet/outflow formation is possible beyond 44 gravitational radii.

  1. Initiation of the Worthington jet on the droplet impact (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ken; Motosuke, Masahiro; Ogata, Satoshi


    The deformation of liquid droplets upon impact induces Worthington jets for a certain range of impact velocities. Although the growth of such a jet and its tip velocity are predicted from cases similar to droplet impact, the mechanism behind jet formation is yet to be understood. The present study uses high-speed visualization of droplet impact on a superhydrophobic surface to understand jet initiation in terms of the collapse of an air cavity. Water droplets with diameters of 2.0 and 3.0 mm are generated with the droplet Weber number varying from 2 to 20. The jet velocity is measured from the captured images, from which the maximum velocity is found to be We ˜ 7. The jet velocity at We ˜ 7 is approximately 15 times greater than the impact velocity. Moreover, surface waves are generated upon impact with the solid surface, and they induce an oscillation of the droplet cap as they propagate from the solid-liquid contact line to the top portion of the droplet. Furthermore, we find that the phase of the oscillation is related to the Weber number and greatly influences the jet velocity because it determines the initial conditions for jet generation.

  2. BurstMem: A High-Performance Burst Buffer System for Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Teng [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Yandong [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama


    The growth of computing power on large-scale sys- tems requires commensurate high-bandwidth I/O system. Many parallel file systems are designed to provide fast sustainable I/O in response to applications soaring requirements. To meet this need, a novel system is imperative to temporarily buffer the bursty I/O and gradually flush datasets to long-term parallel file systems. In this paper, we introduce the design of BurstMem, a high- performance burst buffer system. BurstMem provides a storage framework with efficient storage and communication manage- ment strategies. Our experiments demonstrate that BurstMem is able to speed up the I/O performance of scientific applications by up to 8.5 on leadership computer systems.

  3. Is there cosmological time dilation in gamma-ray bursts? (United States)

    Band, David L.


    Norris et al. report that the temporal structure of faint gamma-ray bursts is longer than that of bright bursts, as expected for time dilation in the cosmological models of burst origin. I show that the observed trends can easily be produced by a burst luminosity function and thus may not result from cosmological effects. A cosmological signature may be present, but the tests Norris et al. present are not powerful enough to detect these signatures.

  4. Using wavelet decomposition for time event localisation of JET soft-X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.


    It has been shown that wavelet decomposition can be used to localise the time dependent oscillations in the soft-X-ray time signals, which have a strong stochastic component, trend and transients like bursts. The next step in the future should be the spectrum analysis of the wavelet levels containing the oscillation to find the characteristic frequencies. We recommend to use the Wigner-Ville time-frequency distribution for that in future work at JET. We have developed the IDL package for that, which could be used by JET personnel

  5. A Turbo-Coded Burst-by-Burst Adaptive Wide-Band Speech Transceiver


    Keller, T.; Münster, M.; Hanzo, L.


    Turbo-coded burst-by-burst adaptive orthogonal frequency division multiplex (AOFDM) wide-band speech transceivers are proposed. A constant throughput adaptive OFDM transceiver was designed and benchmarked against a time-variant rate scheme. The proposed joint adaptation of source-codec, channel-codec, and modulation regime results in attractive, robust, high-quality audio systems, capable of conveying near-unimpaired wide-band audio signals over fading dispersive channels for signal-to-noise ...

  6. Sweeping Jet Optimization Studies (United States)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Koklu, Mehti; Andino, Marlyn; Lin, John C.; Edelman, Louis


    Progress on experimental efforts to optimize sweeping jet actuators for active flow control (AFC) applications with large adverse pressure gradients is reported. Three sweeping jet actuator configurations, with the same orifice size but di?erent internal geometries, were installed on the flap shoulder of an unswept, NACA 0015 semi-span wing to investigate how the output produced by a sweeping jet interacts with the separated flow and the mechanisms by which the flow separation is controlled. For this experiment, the flow separation was generated by deflecting the wing's 30% chord trailing edge flap to produce an adverse pressure gradient. Steady and unsteady pressure data, Particle Image Velocimetry data, and force and moment data were acquired to assess the performance of the three actuator configurations. The actuator with the largest jet deflection angle, at the pressure ratios investigated, was the most efficient at controlling flow separation on the flap of the model. Oil flow visualization studies revealed that the flow field controlled by the sweeping jets was more three-dimensional than expected. The results presented also show that the actuator spacing was appropriate for the pressure ratios examined.

  7. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.


    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Lighting Up the High-Redshift Universe (United States)

    Toy, Vicki Louise

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous events in the Universe with Egamma,iso ˜ 1048-54 erg. Leading models hypothesize that GRBs are created from inter- nal collisions within collimated and ultrarelativistic jets. The jets then shock-heat the surrounding material (e.g. interstellar medium) to create GRB afterglows. These afterglows are extremely useful probes of the Universe because long GRBs are (1) bright events that can be used as backlights for absorption studies, (2) able to probe at all redshifts massive stars exist, and (3) transient events that allow us to follow- up on the host galaxies at late times. In this thesis we study the environments of GRBs. We first explore the relationship between GRB and supernova (SN) using a nearby GRB-SN (GRB 130702A/SN 2013dx) at z = 0.145. There are only nine other GRB-SNe that were close enough to have extensive spectroscopic and photometric follow-up of the SN at late times. We create a quasi-bolometic light curve of SN 2013dx and fit an analytical equation to the quasi-bolometric light curve combined with measurements of the photospheric velocity to determine SN parameters: mass of 56Ni, kinetic energy, and ejecta mass. We examine the relationship between SN parameters and E gamma,iso for the 10 well-studied GRB-SNe, but find no correlations despite numerical simulation predictions that the mass of 56Ni should correlate with the degree of asymmetry. We then move to larger distance scales and use GRB afterglows as bright back- lights to study distant galaxies. We examine the galactic environments of Damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs; NHI ≥ 1020.3 cm-2 ) identified with GRB afterglows at z ˜ 2 - 6. We use late-time photometry after the GRB afterglow has faded to determine star formation rates (SFRs) from rest-frame ultraviolet measurements or spectral energy distribution (SED) models from multiband photometry. We com- pare our sample's SFRs to a sample of quasars (QSOs) DLA host galaxies. Despite the

  9. IGR J17254-3257, a new bursting neutron star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.; Kuulkers, E.


    Aims. The study of the observational properties of uncommonly long bursts from low luminosity sources is important when investigating the transition from a hydrogen - rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime and from helium burning to carbon burning as predicted by current burst theories. On ...

  10. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of...

  11. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; Van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rierveld, L.


    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst

  12. 47 CFR 90.250 - Meteor burst communications. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meteor burst communications. 90.250 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.250 Meteor burst communications. Meteor burst communications may be authorized for the use of private radio stations subject to...

  13. In situ acceleration in extragalactic radio jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicknell, G.V.; Melrose, D.B.


    We have examined the energy dissipated by large-scale turbulence in an extragalactic jet. The turbulence is driven by a shear instability which does not disrupt the jet. Fluid theory should be used to treat the evolution of the turbulence, and this allows us to estimate the rate of dissipation without detailed knowledge of the dissipation process. Dissipation occurs due to Fermi acceleration at a scale length approx.10 -3 R and that resonant acceleration plays no role. The Alfvenic component in the turbulent spectrum is dissipated by first being converted into magneto-acoustic waves. An alternative dissipation process due to formation of weak shocks is shown to be equivalent in some respects to Fermi acceleration. Dissipation in the thermal gas should not exceed that due to Fermi acceleration. The effect of Fermi acceleration, adiabatic losses, and radiative losses on an initial power-law distribution with an upper cutoff is studied. Radio emission extending to at least 100 GHz is shown to be possible, and no spectral index gradients are introduced by the acceleration. The upper cutoff can increase due to the acceleration alone or when the acceleration is balanced by radiative losses. The northern jet in NGC 315 is studied in detail. Using our model for the acceleration, we estimate a jet velocity > or approx. =5000 km s -1 with Mach number not much greater than 1, and a density -4 f -1 cm -3 at the turn-on of the jet at 6 cm, where 0.05 5 yr, and it is predicted that the radius of the jet at the turn-on point should vary with frequency either as ν/sup 2/3/ or as ν/sup 3/2/, or there may be no frequency dependence, contingent upon the details of the acceleration

  14. Hyper-massive cloud, shock and stellar formation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, Fabien


    O and B types stars are of paramount importance in the energy budget of galaxies and play a crucial role enriching the interstellar medium. However, their formation, unlike that of solar-type stars, is still subject to debate, if not an enigma. The earliest stages of massive star formation and the formation of their parent cloud are still crucial astrophysical questions that drew a lot of attention in the community, both from the theoretical and observational perspective, during the last decade. It has been proposed that massive stars are born in massive dense cores that form through very dynamic processes, such as converging flows of gas. During my PhD, I conducted a thorough study of the formation of dense cores and massive stars in the W43-MM1 supermassive structure, located at 6 kpc from the sun. At first, I showed a direct correlation between the star formation efficiency and the volume gas density of molecular clouds, in contrast with scenarios suggested by previous studies. Indeed, the spatial distribution and mass function of the massive dense cores currently forming in W43-MM1 suggests that this supermassive filament is undergoing a star formation burst, increasing as one approaches its center. I compared these observational results with the most recent numerical and analytical models of star formation. This comparison not only provides new constraints on the formation of supermassive filaments, but also suggests that understanding star formation in high density, extreme ridges requires a detailed portrait of the structure of these exceptional objects. Second, having shown that the formation of massive stars depends strongly on the properties of the ridges where they form, I studied the formation processes of these filaments, thanks of the characterization of their global dynamics. Specifically, I used a tracer of shocks (SiO molecule) to disentangle the feedback of local star formation processes (bipolar jets and outflows) from shocks tracing the pristine

  15. Aeroacoustic Experiments with Twin Jets (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Henderson, Brenda S.


    While the noise produced by a single jet is azimuthally symmetric, multiple jets produce azimuthally varying far-field noise. The ability of one jet to shield another reduces the noise radiated in the plane of the jets, while often increasing the noise radiated out of the plane containing the jets. The present study investigates the shielding potential of twin jet configurations over subsonic and over-expanded supersonic jet conditions with simulated forward flight. The experiments were conducted with 2 in. throat diameter nozzles at four jet spacings from 2.6d to 5.5d in center-to-center distance, where d is the nozzle throat diameter. The current study found a maximum of 3 dB reduction in overall sound pressure level relative to two incoherent jets in the peak jet noise direction in the plane containing the jets. However, an increase of 3 dB was found perpendicular to the plane containing the jets. In the sideline direction, shielding is observed for all jet spacings in this study.

  16. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.


    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  17. Relativistic AGN jets I. The delicate interplay between jet structure, cocoon morphology and jet-head propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walg, S.; Achterberg, A.; Markoff, S.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.


    Astrophysical jets reveal strong signs of radial structure. They suggest that the inner region of the jet, the jet spine, consists of a low-density, fast-moving gas, while the outer region of the jet consists of a more dense and slower moving gas, called the jet sheath. Moreover, if jets carry

  18. On the Prospects of Gamma-Ray Burst Detection in the TeV Band (United States)

    Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei M.


    A gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet running into an external medium is expected to generate luminous GeV-TeV emission lasting from minutes to several hours. The high-energy emission results from inverse Compton upscattering of prompt and afterglow photons by shock-heated thermal plasma. At its peak the high-energy radiation carries a significant fraction of the power dissipated at the forward shock. We discuss in detail the expected TeV luminosity, using a robust “minimal” emission model. Then, using the statistical properties of the GRB population (luminosity function, redshift distribution, afterglow energy), we simulate the expected detection rates of GRBs by current and upcoming atmospheric Cherenkov instruments. We find that GRBs exploding into a low-density interstellar medium must produce TeV emission that would have already been detected by the currently operating Cherenkov telescopes. The absence of detections is consistent with explosions into a dense wind of the GRB progenitor. If, as suggested by the recent analysis of Fermi LAT data, the typical environment of long GRBs is a Wolf-Rayet progenitor wind with the density parameter A˜ {10}11 g cm-1, then 10%-20% of the bursts that trigger the space-borne detectors should also be detectable by the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) under favorable observing conditions. Since absorption by the extragalactic background light limits the detectability above 0.1 TeV for all but the most nearby bursts (z≲ 1), the reduced energy threshold of CTA is the key improvement over current instruments, which should increase the number of detectable bursts by at least a factor of 3 compared with currently operating facilities.

  19. A 'kilonova' associated with the short-duration γ-ray burst GRB 130603B. (United States)

    Tanvir, N R; Levan, A J; Fruchter, A S; Hjorth, J; Hounsell, R A; Wiersema, K; Tunnicliffe, R L


    Short-duration γ-ray bursts are intense flashes of cosmic γ-rays, lasting less than about two seconds, whose origin is unclear. The favoured hypothesis is that they are produced by a relativistic jet created by the merger of two compact stellar objects (specifically two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole). This is supported by indirect evidence such as the properties of their host galaxies, but unambiguous confirmation of the model is still lacking. Mergers of this kind are also expected to create significant quantities of neutron-rich radioactive species, whose decay should result in a faint transient, known as a 'kilonova', in the days following the burst. Indeed, it is speculated that this mechanism may be the predominant source of stable r-process elements in the Universe. Recent calculations suggest that much of the kilonova energy should appear in the near-infrared spectral range, because of the high optical opacity created by these heavy r-process elements. Here we report optical and near-infrared observations that provide strong evidence for such an event accompanying the short-duration γ-ray burst GRB 130603B. If this, the simplest interpretation of the data, is correct, then it confirms that compact-object mergers are the progenitors of short-duration γ-ray bursts and the sites of significant production of r-process elements. It also suggests that kilonovae offer an alternative, unbeamed electromagnetic signature of the most promising sources for direct detection of gravitational waves.

  20. Multichannel discharge between jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakirova, E. F.; Gaitsin, Al. F.; Son, E. E.

    We present the results of an experimental study of multichannel discharge between a jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode within a wide range of parameters. We pioneer the reveal of the burning particularities and characteristics of multichannel discharge with jet electrolyte and droplet

  1. Black Holes in Gamma Ray Bursts and Galactic Nuclei (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Argüelles, C. R.; Fraga, B. M. O.; Geralico, A.; Quevedo, H.; Rueda, J. A.; Siutsou, I.


    Current research marks a clear success in identifying the moment of formation of a Black Hole of 10M⊙, with the emission of a Gamma Ray Burst. This explains in terms of the 'Blackholic Energy' the source of the energy of these astrophysical systems. Their energetics up to 1054 erg, make them detectable all over our Universe. Concurrently a new problematic has been arising related to: (a) The evidence of Dark Matter in galactic halos; (b) The origin of the Super Massive Black Holes in active galactic nuclei and Quasars and (c) The purported existence of a Black Hole in the Center of our Galaxy. These three aspects of this new problematic have been traditionally approached independently. We propose an unified approach to all three of them based on a system of massive self-gravitating neutrinos in General Relativity. Perspectives of future research are presented.

  2. Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage test series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.; Osetek, D.J.; Ploger, S.A.


    The Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) tests planned for the Power Burst Facility (PBF) are described. Bundles containing 32 zircaloy-clad, PWR-type fuel rods will be subjected to severe overheating transients in a high-pressure, superheated-steam environment. Cladding temperatures are expected to reach 2400 0 K, resulting in cladding ballooning and rupture, severe cladding oxidation, cladding melting, fuel dissolution, fuel rod fragmentation, and possibly, rubble bed formation. An experiment effluent collection system is being installed and the PBF fission product monitoring system is being upgraded to meet the special requirements of the SFD tests. Scoping calculations were performed to evaluate performance of the SFD test design and to establish operational requirements for the PBF loop

  3. High-z Universe with Gamma Ray Bursts (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.


    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in space and trace the cosmic star formation history back to the first generations of stars. Their bright afterglows allow us to trace the abundances of heavy elements to large distances, thereby measuring cosmic chemical evolution. To date GRBs have been detected up to distances of z=8.23 and possibly even beyond z9. This makes GRBs a unique and powerful tool to probe the high-z Universe up to the re-ionization era. We discuss the current status of the field, place it in context with other probes, and also discuss new mission concepts that have been planned to utilize GRBs as probes.

  4. Gamma ray bursts, supernovae and metallicity in the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, S; De Rújula, Alvaro; Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon


    The mean iron abundance observed in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters is consistent with the mean amount of iron injected in the universe per unit volume by standard supernova (SN) explosions with a rate proportional to the cosmic star-formation rate. But very little is known about field SNe at high red-shifts. Such SNe could have occurred primarily in highly obscured environments, avoiding detection. Supporting evidence for field SNe is provided by SNe associated with gamma ray bursts (GRBs) without a host galaxy and by the ratio of well localized GRBs with and without a host galaxy. A direct test of the field-SN origin of iron in the intergalactic medium would require the measurement of their rate per comoving unit volume as function of red-shift. This is feasible with IR telescopes, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  5. Phantom bursting is highly sensitive to noise and unlikely to account for slow bursting in beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram


    Pancreatic beta-cells show bursting electrical activity with a wide range of burst periods ranging from a few seconds, often seen in isolated cells, over tens of seconds (medium bursting), usually observed in intact islets, to several minutes. The phantom burster model [Bertram, R., Previte, J...

  6. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  7. How to Burst into Contemporaneity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zagvyazinsky


    Full Text Available The paper, written by V. I. Zagvyazinsky, academician and Chief Editor of «Education and Science» journal, is a comment on the previous issue’s publication of «Pedagogy in the Era of Non-Classical Science» by V. L. Benin. The author continues the discussion about the low quality pedagogic research of the recent years. Among the main reasons for insufficient research level, it is emphasized that young scientists are not quite ready for entering the socio-cultural reality because of their methodological illiteracy and non-compliance with the principles declared by the researchers themselves – i.e. systematism, competence, social and personal orientation, cultural conformity, activity approach, value-semantic orientation of education, foot-hold on the internal mechanisms, variability, dialogism, pedagogic cooperation, etc. The author criticizes the latest trends of so called «breaking into contemporaneity» by pedagogical science - the poly-paradigmatic idea as a new methodological basis of pedagogy; and synergetics as a general pedagogical methodology. Free paradigm constructing by the authors brought about the unreasonable methodological pluralism; whereas the failure of synergetics as methodological basis of pedagogy is related to its incompatibility with the person-oriented individual approach to personality formation. To get rid of the existing shortcomings of pedagogic research the author recommends to organize methodological training courses, schools, seminars, workshops, internship in the scientifically advanced centers that already have postgraduate and doctorate courses along with the fundamental scientific schools. 

  8. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong


    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' shin, V. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, P. P.; Ulanov, M. V. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K., E-mail: [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others


    Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the Interplanetary Network (IPN) consisted of up to 11 spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 271 bursts were obtained. We present the most comprehensive IPN localization data on these events. The short burst detection rate, {approx}18 yr{sup -1}, exceeds that of many individual experiments.

  10. X-ray burst observations of Serpens X-1 (United States)

    Sztajno, M.; Basinska, E. M.; Cominsky, L. R.; Marshall, F. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.


    Fifty-seven X-ray bursts observed with SAS 3 in the period 1976 July to 1979 March are reported. Their general features (e.g., maximum burst flux, integrated burst flux, spectral hardness, and rise time) and the relations between them are discussed. Also a comparison is made between these burst features and the associated persistent X-ray flux. The latter appears to be correlated with the maximum burst flux; the temperature of the plasma that produces the persistent flux is roughly proportional to this flux.

  11. Bulk Lorentz factors of gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Marcarini, G.; Nava, L.; Salafia, O. S.; Campana, S.; Salvaterra, R.


    Knowledge of the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allows us to compute their comoving frame properties shedding light on their physics. Upon collisions with the circumburst matter, the fireball of a GRB starts to decelerate, producing a peak or a break (depending on the circumburst density profile) in the light curve of the afterglow. Considering all bursts with known redshift and with an early coverage of their emission, we find 67 GRBs (including one short event) with a peak in their optical or GeV light curves at a time tp. For another 106 GRBs we set an upper limit tpUL. The measure of tp provides the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of the fireball before deceleration. We show that tp is due to the dynamics of the fireball deceleration and not to the passage of a characteristic frequency of the synchrotron spectrum across the optical band. Considering the tp of 66 long GRBs and the 85 most constraining upper limits, we estimate Γ0 or a lower limit Γ0LL. Using censored data analysis methods, we reconstruct the most likely distribution of tp. All tp are larger than the time Tp,γ when the prompt γ-ray emission peaks, and are much larger than the time Tph when the fireball becomes transparent, that is, tp>Tp,γ>Tph. The reconstructed distribution of Γ0 has median value 300 (150) for a uniform (wind) circumburst density profile. In the comoving frame, long GRBs have typical isotropic energy, luminosity, and peak energy ⟨ Eiso ⟩ = 3(8) × 1050 erg, ⟨ Liso ⟩ = 3(15) × 1047 erg s-1, and ⟨ Epeak ⟩ = 1(2) keV in the homogeneous (wind) case. We confirm that the significant correlations between Γ0 and the rest frame isotropic energy (Eiso), luminosity (Liso), and peak energy (Ep) are not due to selection effects. When combined, they lead to the observed Ep-Eiso and Ep-Liso correlations. Finally, assuming a typical opening angle of 5 degrees, we derive the distribution of the jet baryon loading which is centered around a few 10-6M⊙.

  12. Modeling Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift-Fermi era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascoet, Romain


    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short flashes (≅ 10 ms-100 s) of gamma-rays (keV-MeV). These very bright and variable events are followed by an afterglow detected from the X-ray to the optical and radio domains, which decays rapidly and vanishes in a few days/weeks. Their extreme luminosity make them detectable up to cosmological distances (at least to a redshift of 9). They are produced by relativistic jets launched by a newborn compact object. The gamma-ray emission is attributed to internal mechanisms occurring within the jet and the afterglow to the deceleration by the circum-burst medium. The Swift satellite launched in 2004 has improved our knowledge of the afterglow (especially the early phase), while the Fermi satellite launched in 2008 has opened a new spectral window at high energy (above 100 MeV). My research work is in line with these recent observational breakthroughs which challenge the 'standard' GRB model that was established in the 90's. I have developed numerical tools that are well adapted to model in a consistent way the different emission phases experienced by the relativistic jet, from the photosphere to the deceleration. Using these tools, I have obtained several results that contribute to a better understanding of GRB physics. Regarding the GRB itself, I developed a new approach to compute precisely the opacity seen by a high-energy photon that propagates within a ultra-relativistic jet. By comparing predictions to Fermi observations, I obtain critical constraints on the physical conditions in the relativistic jet (especially the Lorentz factor). I have also tried to identify observational signatures that could help to discriminate between different emission models: spectral (optical and high energy emission, thermal component) and temporal (transition to the afterglow) signatures. Regarding the afterglow, I have carried on the development of an alternative model - the 'reverse shock' model - recently proposed to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masque, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Beltran, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)


    We present 6 and 20 cm Jansky Very Large Array/Very Large Array observations of the northern head of the HH 80/81/80N jet, one of the largest collimated jet systems known so far, aimed to look for knots farther than HH 80N, the northern head of the jet. Aligned with the jet and 10' northeast of HH 80N, we found a radio source not reported before, with a negative spectral index similar to that of HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N. The fit of a precessing jet model to the knots of the HH 80/81/80N jet, including the new source, shows that the position of this source is close to the jet path resulting from the modeling. If the new source belongs to the HH 80/81/80N jet, its derived size and dynamical age are 18.4 pc and >9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr, respectively. If the jet is symmetric, its southern lobe would expand beyond the cloud edge resulting in an asymmetric appearance of the jet. Based on the updated dynamical age, we speculate on the possibility that the HH 80/81/80N jet triggered the star formation observed in a dense core found ahead of HH 80N, which shows signposts of interaction with the jet. These results indicate that parsec-scale radio jets can play a role in the stability of dense clumps and the regulation of star formation in the molecular cloud.

  14. Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and synoptic eddies in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea (United States)

    Koshlyakov, Mikhail; Savchenko, Darya; Tarakanov, Roman


    Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and ocean synoptic eddies in the surface layer of the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea is studied on the base of the satellite altimeter data for the period from 1993 to 2014 with the assumption that every ACC jet is enclosed between some fixed isopleths of the ocean surface absolute dynamics topography (ADT). All the ACC jets are dynamically unstable what results in the jet meandering, formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies inside the meanders, intensification of the eddies up to reaching their maximum energy, subsequent eddy attenuation and their reverse merging with the mother jets. Corresponding fluctuations of the kinetic energy of the ACC jets and the eddies, generated by different jets, in the surface ocean layer were computed and analysed for the above mentioned 22 years period. As a main result of the analysis, if was confirmed that the kinetic energy of the ACC jets depends strongly on the intensivity of jet meandering and processes of eddy formation and reverse eddy absorption by the jets. Mean and extreme energy parameters of the jets and eddies were also estimated. The northern and middle jets of the South Polar Current are in the lead with respect to the formation of the ocean synoptic eddies.

  15. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, in many engineering applications the jet does not issue into a quies- cent stream but interacts with an external stream. This interaction can be classified as co-flow, crossflow or counterflow depending on the direction of interaction between the jet and the exter- nal stream. Of these interactions, the jet in counterflow ...

  16. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...

  17. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Baring, Matthew G.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Finger, Mark H.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Preece, Robert; Chaplin, Vandiver; Bhat, Narayan; Woods, Peter M.; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Scargle, Jeffrey; Granot, Jonathan; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Watts, Anna L.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Gehrels, Neil; Harding, Alice


    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the gamma-ray burst monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during 13 days of the source's activation in 2008 (August 22- September 3). We find that the T 90 durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ∼123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i.e., using their deconvolved spectra) and find that these are very similar to the T 90 values estimated in count space (following a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ∼124 ms). We fit the time-integrated spectra for each burst and the time-resolved spectra of the five brightest bursts with several models. We find that a single power law with an exponential cutoff model fits all 29 bursts well, while 18 of the events can also be fit with two blackbody functions. We expand on the physical interpretation of these two models and we compare their parameters and discuss their evolution. We show that the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra reveal that E peak decreases with energy flux (and fluence) to a minimum of ∼30 keV at F = 8.7 x 10 -6 erg cm -2 s -1 , increasing steadily afterward. Two more sources exhibit a similar trend: SGRs J1550-5418 and 1806-20. The isotropic luminosity, L iso , corresponding to these flux values is roughly similar for all sources (0.4-1.5 x 10 40 erg s -1 ).

  19. Are Quasar Jets Dominated by Poynting Flux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M


    The formation of relativistic astrophysical jets is presumably mediated by magnetic fields threading accretion disks and central, rapidly rotating objects. As it is accelerated by magnetic stresses, the jet's kinetic energy flux grows at the expense of its Poynting flux. However, it is unclear how efficient is the conversion from magnetic to kinetic energy and whether there are any observational signatures of this process. We address this issue in the context of jets in quasars. Using data from all spatial scales, we demonstrate that in these objects the conversion from Poynting-flux-dominated to matter-dominated jets is very likely to take place closer to the black hole than the region where most of the Doppler boosted radiation observed in blazars is produced. We briefly discuss the possibility that blazar activity can be induced by global MHD instabilities, e.g., via the production of localized velocity gradients that lead to dissipative events such as shocks or magnetic reconnection, where acceleration of relativistic particles and production of non-thermal flares is taking place.

  20. A Collapsar Model with Disk Wind: Implications for Supernovae Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tomoyasu; Maeda, Keiichi


    We construct a simple but self-consistent collapsar model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and SNe associated with GRBs (GRB-SNe). Our model includes a black hole, an accretion disk, and the envelope surrounding the central system. The evolutions of the different components are connected by the transfer of the mass and angular momentum. To address properties of the jet and the wind-driven SNe, we consider competition of the ram pressure from the infalling envelope and those from the jet and wind. The expected properties of the GRB jet and the wind-driven SN are investigated as a function of the progenitor mass and angular momentum. We find two conditions that should be satisfied if the wind-driven explosion is to explain the properties of the observed GRB-SNe: (1) the wind should be collimated at its base, and (2) it should not prevent further accretion even after the launch of the SN explosion. Under these conditions, some relations seen in the properties of the GRB-SNe could be reproduced by a sequence of different angular momentum in the progenitors. Only the model with the largest angular momentum could explain the observed (energetic) GRB-SNe, and we expect that the collapsar model can result in a wide variety of observational counterparts, mainly depending on the angular momentum of the progenitor star.

  1. Multi-jet production and jet correlations at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor


    Hadronic jet production at the LHC is an excellent testing ground for QCD. Essential components of QCD, necessary for the description of the experimental data on hadronic jets, are hard parton radiation and multiple parton interactions. The importance of these components increases for final states including multiple jets. We will show results on observables sensitive to the hard parton radiation, like the azimuthal (de)correlation between jets with small and large rapidity separation. Dijet events with a rapidity gap between them will also be presented and their fraction measured as a function of jet transverse momentum and collision energy.

  2. Burst Mode ASIC-Based Modem (United States)


    The NASA Lewis Research Center is sponsoring the Advanced Communication Technology Insertion (ACTION) for Commercial Space Applications program. The goal of the program is to expedite the development of new technology with a clear path towards productization and enhancing the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers. The industry has made significant investment in developing ASIC-based modem technology for continuous-mode applications and has made investigations into East, reliable acquisition of burst-mode digital communication signals. With rapid advances in analog and digital communications ICs, it is expected that more functions will be integrated onto these parts in the near future. In addition custom ASIC's can also be developed to address the areas not covered by the other IC's. Using the commercial chips and custom ASIC's, lower-cost, compact, reliable, and high-performance modems can be built for demanding satellite communication application. This report outlines a frequency-hop burst modem design based on commercially available chips.

  3. Coherent combining pulse bursts in time domain (United States)

    Galvanauskas, Almantas


    A beam combining and pulse stacking technique is provided that enhances laser pulse energy by coherent stacking pulse bursts (i.e. non-periodic pulsed signals) in time domain. This energy enhancement is achieved by using various configurations of Fabry-Perot, Gires-Tournois and other types of resonant cavities, so that a multiple-pulse burst incident at either a single input or multiple inputs of the system produces an output with a solitary pulse, which contains the summed energy of the incident multiple pulses from all beams. This disclosure provides a substantial improvement over conventional coherent-combining methods in that it achieves very high pulse energies using a relatively small number of combined laser systems, thus providing with orders of magnitude reduction in system size, complexity, and cost compared to current combining approaches.

  4. Explaining fast radio bursts through Dicke's superradiance (United States)

    Houde, Martin; Mathews, Abhilash; Rajabi, Fereshteh


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs), characterized by strong bursts of radiation intensity at radio wavelengths lasting on the order of a millisecond, have yet to be firmly associated with a family, or families, of astronomical sources. It follows that despite the large number of proposed models, no well-defined physical process has been identified to explain this phenomenon. In this paper, we demonstrate how Dicke's superradiance, for which evidence has recently been found in the interstellar medium, can account for the characteristics associated with FRBs. Our analysis and modelling of previously detected FRBs suggest they could originate from regions in many ways similar to those known to harbour masers or megamasers, and result from the coherent radiation emanating from populations of molecules associated with large-scale entangled quantum mechanical states. We estimate this entanglement to involve as many as ˜1030 to ˜1032 molecules over distances spanning 100-1000 au.

  5. Kuwornu-Adjaottor, JET

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kuwornu-Adjaottor, JET. Vol 33, No 1 (2013) - Articles God and the Suffering of His People Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  6. Vortex diode jet (United States)

    Houck, Edward D.


    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  7. Triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipsham, E.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.


    Triton burnup measurements have been made at JET using time-integrated copper activation and time-resolved silicon detector techniques. The results confirm the classical nature of both the confinement and the slowing down of the 1 MeV tritons in a plasma. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs

  8. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  9. Digital Analysis of EBW Burst Waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembke; J.R.; Tindall, A.L.; Latimer, C.


    A dual-channel digitizing capability has been established to digitally record and analyze electrical waveforms associated with exploding bridgewire (EBW) burst. The system is interfaced to a computer for data management and analysis. Programs for calibration and for analysis of voltage and current waveforms have been written. Error sources have been reduced to an acceptable level, and provisions have been made for generation of a waveform data library.

  10. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu


    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  11. Thermonuclear model for γ-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.


    The evolution of magnetized neutron stars with field strengths of approx. 10 12 gauss that are accreting mass onto kilometer-sized polar regions at a rate of approx. 13 M 0 yr -1 is examined. Based on the results of one-dimensional calculations, one finds that stable hydrogen burning, mediated by the hot CNO-cycle, will lead to a critical helium mass in the range 10 20 to 10 22 g km -2 . Owing to the extreme degeneracy of the electron gas providing pressure support, helium burning occurs as a violent thermonuclear runaway which may propagate either as a convective deflagration (Type I burst) or as a detonation wave (Type II burst). Complete combustion of helium into 56 Ni releases from 10 38 to 10 40 erg km -2 and pushes hot plasma with β > 1 above the surface of the neutron star. Rapid expansion of the plasma channels a substantial fraction of the explosion energy into magnetic field stress. Spectral properties are expected to be complex with emission from both thermal and non-thermal processes. The hard γ-outburst of several seconds softens as the event proceeds and is followed by a period, typically of several minutes duration, of softer x-ray emission as the subsurface ashes of the thermonuclear explosion cool. In this model, most γ-ray bursts currently being observed are located at a distance of several hundred parsecs and should recur on a timescale of months to centuries with convective deflagrations (Type I bursts) being the more common variety. An explanation for Jacobson-like transients is also offered

  12. The cannonball model of gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon


    The cannonball model (CB) of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) is incredibly more successful than the standard blast-wave models (SM) of GRBs, which suffer from profound inadequacies and limited predictive power. The CB model is falsifiable in its hypothesis and results. Its predictions are summarized in simple analytical expressions, derived, in fair approximations, from first principles. It provides a good description on a universal basis of the properties of long-duration GRBs and of their afterglows (AGs).

  13. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes (United States)

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk


    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  14. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel


    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  15. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)


    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  16. Glutamate-induced glutamate release: A proposed mechanism for calcium bursting in astrocytes (United States)

    Larter, Raima; Craig, Melissa Glendening


    Here we present a new model for the generation of complex calcium-bursting patterns in astrocytes, a type of brain cell recently implicated in a variety of neural functions including memory formation. The model involves two positive feedback processes, in which the key feedback species are calcium ion and glutamate. The latter is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to be involved in bidirectional communication between astrocytes and nearby neurons. The glutamate feedback process considered here is shown to be critical for the generation of complex bursting oscillations in the astrocytes and to, perhaps, code for information which may be passed from neuron to neuron via the astrocyte. These processes may be involved in memory storage and formation as well as in mechanisms which lead to dynamical diseases such as epilepsy.

  17. Automatic Cloud Bursting under FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [Fermilab; Shangping, Ren [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Bernabeu, Gerard [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chadwick, Keith; Jang, Haengjin [KISTI, Daejeon; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon


    Cloud computing is changing the infrastructure upon which scientific computing depends from supercomputers and distributed computing clusters to a more elastic cloud-based structure. The service-oriented focus and elasticity of clouds can not only facilitate technology needs of emerging business but also shorten response time and reduce operational costs of traditional scientific applications. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is currently in the process of building its own private cloud, FermiCloud, which allows the existing grid infrastructure to use dynamically provisioned resources on FermiCloud to accommodate increased but dynamic computation demand from scientists in the domains of High Energy Physics (HEP) and other research areas. Cloud infrastructure also allows to increase a private cloud’s resource capacity through “bursting” by borrowing or renting resources from other community or commercial clouds when needed. This paper introduces a joint project on building a cloud federation to support HEP applications between Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Korea Institution of Science and Technology Information, with technical contributions from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In particular, this paper presents two recent accomplishments of the joint project: (a) cloud bursting automation and (b) load balancer. Automatic cloud bursting allows computer resources to be dynamically reconfigured to meet users’ demands. The load balance algorithm which the cloud bursting depends on decides when and where new resources need to be allocated. Our preliminary prototyping and experiments have shown promising success, yet, they also have opened new challenges to be studied


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, C. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Melandri, A., E-mail: [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)


    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  19. Content Aware Burst Assembly - Supporting Telesurgery and Telemedicine in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Orosco


    Full Text Available The emerging Telemedicine and Telesurgery technologies allow patients to share medical experts remotely through communication networks. However, network bandwidth, network latency and jitter (variation of latency, are the obstacles to the widespread use of this technology remotely. Optical Burst Switching (OBS networks greatly expand network bandwidth in existing network infrastructure by utilizing multiple DWDM channels within a single fiber, enabling high bandwidth applications. However, the burst assembly process in OBS networks introduces latency and jitter, making it unsuitable for high bandwidth, latency sensitive applications such as telesurgery and telemedicine. In this paper, we propose a content aware burst assembly scheme which dynamically adjusts the burst assembly parameters based on the content being assembled. The proposed content aware burst assembly minimizes the latency and jitter within a video frame, as well as across the left-view and right-view frames for 3D vision generation. Simulation results have shown that the proposed scheme can effectively reduce the latency and jitter experienced by video streams, making OBS a promising candidate for supporting telesurgery and telemedicine applications.

  20. Secured Hash Based Burst Header Authentication Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.


    The optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising technology that could meet the fast growing network demand. They are featured with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of applications that demand intensive bandwidth. OBS proves to be a satisfactory technology to tackle the huge bandwidth constraints, but suffers from security vulnerabilities. The objective of this proposed work is to design a faster and efficient burst header authentication algorithm for core nodes. There are two important key features in this work, viz., header encryption and authentication. Since the burst header is an important in optical burst switched network, it has to be encrypted; otherwise it is be prone to attack. The proposed MD5&RC4-4S based burst header authentication algorithm runs 20.75 ns faster than the conventional algorithms. The modification suggested in the proposed RC4-4S algorithm gives a better security and solves the correlation problems between the publicly known outputs during key generation phase. The modified MD5 recommended in this work provides 7.81 % better avalanche effect than the conventional algorithm. The device utilization result also shows the suitability of the proposed algorithm for header authentication in real time applications.

  1. Deciphering jet quenching with JEWEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In heavy ion collisions jets arising from the fragmentation of hard quarks and gluons experience strong modifications due to final state re-scattering. This so-called jet quenching is related to the emergence of collectivity and equilibration in QCD. I will give an introduction to jet quenching and its modeling in JEWEL, a Monte Carlo implementation of a dynamical model for jet quenching. I will then discuss examples highlighting how JEWEL can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms relevant for jet quenching.  

  2. Millisecond Magnetars as the Central Engine of Gamma-ray Bursts (United States)

    Wang, L. J.


    The durations of GRBs (gamma-ray bursts) have a bimodal distribution with short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) lasting for less than ˜ 2 s and long-duration GRBs (LGRBs) greater than ˜ 2 s. A large number of observations indicate that LGRBs originate from the collapses of massive stars and are therefore associated with supernovae (SNe). SGRBs, on the other hand, are believed to be the results of binary compact object mergers. Now the study of GRBs has progressed to the stage of identifing the nature of central engines, i.e., black holes or millisecond magnetars. We elaborate the progress in Chapter 1. Numerical simulations support the idea of black holes as the central engine of GRBs since the simulations find the formation of jets by black holes. Some observational features, however, cannot be easily integrated into the black hole model, for example, the X-ray plateau lasting for 100-104 s, the extended emission of SGRBs, X-ray flares, etc. The most concise interpretation for these features is that they are powered by rapidly rotating magnetars. If the central engine is a magnetar, it will dissipate its rotational energy by injecting Poynting flux to the ejecta. Such energy injection will enable an observer outside the jet angle of the SGRB to detect the electromagnetic signals. In Chapter 2, we assume that the Poynting flux from the magnetar will quickly transform into the wind dominated by the ultrarelativistic electron-positron, and then a reverse shock will develop when the wind encounters the ejecta. We find that the recently discovered optical transient PTF11agg can be interpreted as synchrotron emission of reverse shock powered by a millisecond magnetar. In Chapter 3, we consider the absorption of reverse shock emission by the ejecta which is ignored when we study PTF11agg. We also adopt a more realistic dynamics of the blast wave than that adopted in Chapter 2. The ejecta is believed to be pure r-process material which is difficult to study in laboratory. We

  3. Post-transcriptional bursting in genes regulated by small RNA molecules (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo


    Gene expression programs in living cells are highly dynamic due to spatiotemporal molecular signaling and inherent biochemical stochasticity. Here we study a mechanism based on molecule-to-molecule variability at the RNA level for the generation of bursts of protein production, which can lead to heterogeneity in a cell population. We develop a mathematical framework to show numerically and analytically that genes regulated post transcriptionally by small RNA molecules can exhibit such bursts due to different states of translation activity (on or off), mostly revealed in a regime of few molecules. We exploit this framework to compare transcriptional and post-transcriptional bursting and also to illustrate how to tune the resulting protein distribution with additional post-transcriptional regulations. Moreover, because RNA-RNA interactions are predictable with an energy model, we define the kinetic constants of on-off switching as functions of the two characteristic free-energy differences of the system, activation and formation, with a nonequilibrium scheme. Overall, post-transcriptional bursting represents a distinctive principle linking gene regulation to gene expression noise, which highlights the importance of the RNA layer beyond the simple information transfer paradigm and significantly contributes to the understanding of the intracellular processes from a first-principles perspective.

  4. Miniature Filament Eruptions and their Reconnections in X-Ray Jets: Evidence for a New Paradigm (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.


    We investigate the onset of approximately10 random X-ray jets observed by Hinode/XRT. Each jet was near the limb in a polar coronal hole, and showed a ``bright point'' in an edge of the base of the jet, as is typical for previously-observed X-ray jets. We examined SDO/AIA EUV images of each of the jets over multiple AIA channels, including 304 Ang, which detects chromospheric emissions, and 171, 193, and 211 Ang, which detect cooler-coronal emissions. We find the jets to result from eruptions of miniature (size less than approximately 10 arcsec) filaments from the bases of the jets. Much of the erupting-filament material forms a chromospheric-temperature jet. In the cool-coronal channels, often the filament appears in absorption and the jet in emission. The jet bright point forms at the location from which the miniature filament is ejected, analogous to the formation of a standard solar flare in the wake of the eruption of a typical larger-scale chromospheric filament. Thus these X-ray jets and their bright points are made by miniature filament eruptions. They are evidently produced the same way as an on-disk coronal jet we observed in Adams et al. (2014); that on-disk jet had no obvious emerging magnetic field in its base. We conclude that, for many jets, the standard idea of X-ray jets forming from reconnection between emerging flux and preexisting coronal field is incorrect. ACS and RLM were supported by funding from NASA/LWS, Hinode, and ISSI.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Kenji; Sakamoto, Takanori; Hill, Joanne E.; Zhang, Bing; McConnell, Mark L.; Bloser, Peter F.; Yamazaki, Ryo; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakamura, Takashi


    The emission mechanism and the origin and structure of magnetic fields in gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets are among the most important open questions concerning the nature of the central engine of GRBs. In spite of extensive observational efforts, these questions remain to be answered and are difficult or even impossible to infer with the spectral and light-curve information currently collected. Polarization measurements will lead to unambiguous answers to several of these questions. Recent developments in X-ray and γ-ray polarimetry techniques have demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity, enabling several new mission concepts, e.g., Polarimeters for Energetic Transients (POET), providing wide field of view and broadband polarimetry measurements. If launched, missions of this kind would finally provide definitive measurements of GRB polarizations. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to derive the distribution of GRB polarizations in three emission models; the synchrotron model with a globally ordered magnetic field (SO model), the synchrotron model with a small-scale random magnetic field (SR model), and the Compton drag model (CD model). The results show that POET, or other polarimeters with similar capabilities, can constrain the GRB emission models by using the statistical properties of GRB polarizations. In particular, the ratio of the number of GRBs for which the polarization degrees can be measured to the number of GRBs that are detected (N m /N d ) and the distributions of the polarization degrees (Π) can be used as the criteria. If N m /N d > 30% and Π is clustered between 0.2 and 0.7, the SO model will be favored. If, instead, N m /N d 0.8 are observed, then the CD model will be favored.

  6. Start-up of the ohmic phase in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanga, A.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Ejima, S.; Kellman, A.; Lazzaro, E.; Lomas, P.J.; Thomas, P.R.


    JET has been designed to permit the study of plasmas in which alphaparticle heating is a significant part of the power balance. In order to have a sufficient thermonuclear yield and to trap the resulting alphaparticles, JET is similar in its dimensions and plasma current to the next generation of reactor-like devices such as NET, FER and INTOR. For this reason, the authors see the results from the study of the start-up of ohmically heated plasmas in JET as highly relevant. Discussed is the range that has been achieved in all major parameters with ohmic heating. Experiences with the wall conditioning technique and the results of ion cyclotron heating experiments in JET are outlined. This paper also describes the stages of plasma formation, current rise and ohmic flat-top

  7. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.


    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (SEP events of solar cycle 23. The Type III durations are distributed symmetrically at 1 MHz yielding a mean value of approximately 33 min (median = 32 min) for the large SEP events. When the SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE,) are considered, the distribution is essentially unchanged (mean = 32 min, median = 30 min). To test the importance of type III bursts in indicating SEP events, we considered a set of six type III bursts from the same active region (AR 10588) whose durations fit the "long duration" criterion. We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type II radio bursts associated with the type III bursts. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type II burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type II burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  8. Fibre structure of decametric type II radio bursts as a manifestation of emission propagation effects in a disturbed near-solar plasma


    A. N. Afanasiev


    This paper addresses the fine structure of solar decametric type II radio bursts in the form of drifting narrowband fibres on the dynamic spectrum. Observations show that this structure appears in those events where there is a coronal mass ejection (CME) traveling in the near-solar space ahead of the shock wave responsible for the radio burst. The diversity in observed morphology of fibres and values of their parameters implies that the fibres may be caused by different formation mechanisms. ...

  9. DeepJet: a deep-learned multiclass jet-tagger for slim and fat jets

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Qu, Huilin; Stoye, Markus; Kieseler, Jan; Verzetti, Mauro


    We present a customized neural network architecture for both, slim and fat jet tagging. It is based on the idea to keep the concept of physics objects, like particle flow particles, as a core element of the network architecture. The deep learning algorithm works for most of the common jet classes, i.e. b, c, usd and gluon jets for slim jets and W, Z, H, QCD and top classes for fat jets. The developed architecture promising gains in performance as shown in simulation of the CMS collaboration. Currently the tagger is under test in real data in the CMS experiment.

  10. Exploring the Pulse Structure of the Gamma-Ray Bursts from the Swift Burst Alert Telescop (United States)

    Martinez, Juan-Carlos; Team 1: Jon Hakkila, Amy Lien, Judith, Racusin, Team 2: Antonino Cucchiara, David Morris


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are one of the brightest and most intense explosions in our universe. For this project, we studied the shape of 400 single pulse GRBs using data gathered from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Hakkila et al. (2015) have discovered a mathematical Model that describes the GRB’s pulse shapes. Following the method in Hakkila et al. (2015), we fit GRB pulses with the Norris function and examined the residual in the fitting, to see whether the results are consistent with the one reported in Hakkila et al. (2015).

  11. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomon, M.


    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established

  12. A perturbative framework for jet quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Zapp, Korinna C; Wiedemann, Urs A


    We present a conceptually new framework for describing jet evolution in the dense medium produced in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions using perturbative QCD and its implementation into the Monte Carlo event generator JEWEL. The rescattering of hard partons in the medium is modelled by infrared continued pQCD matrix elements supplemented with parton showers. The latter approximate higher order real-emission matrix elements and thus generate medium-induced gluon emissions. The interplay between different emissions is governed by their formation times. The destructive interference between subsequent scattering processes, the non-Abelian version of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect, is also taken into account. In this way the complete radiation pattern is consistently treated in a uniform way. Results obtained within this minimal and theoretically well constrained framework are compared with a variety of experimental data susceptible to jet-quenching effects at both RHIC and the LHC. Overall, a go...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenko, S. B.; Butler, N. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Frail, D. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Nakar, E.; Chandra, P. C.; Fox, D. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Kelemen, J.; Moon, D.-S.; Price, P. A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Werner, M. W.; Bock, D. C.-J.


    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be highly collimated explosions (bipolar conical outflows with half-opening angle θ∼ 1 0 -10 0 ). As a result of this beaming factor, the true energy release from a GRB is usually several orders of magnitude smaller than the observed isotropic value. Measuring this opening angle, typically inferred from an achromatic steepening in the afterglow light curve (a 'jet' break), has proven exceedingly difficult in the Swift era. Here, we undertake a study of five of the brightest (in terms of the isotropic prompt γ-ray energy release, E γ,iso ) GRBs in the Swift era to search for jet breaks and hence constrain the collimation-corrected energy release. We present multi-wavelength (radio through X-ray) observations of GRBs 050820A, 060418, and 080319B, and construct afterglow models to extract the opening angle and beaming-corrected energy release for all three events. Together with results from previous analyses of GRBs 050904 and 070125, we find evidence for an achromatic jet break in all five events, strongly supporting the canonical picture of GRBs as collimated explosions. The most natural explanation for the lack of observed jet breaks from most Swift GRBs is therefore selection effects. However, the opening angles for the events in our sample are larger than would be expected if all GRBs had a canonical energy release of ∼10 51 erg. The total energy release we measure for the 'hyper-energetic' (E tot ∼> 10 52 erg) events in our sample is large enough to start challenging models with a magnetar as the compact central remnant.

  14. Jet photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frixione, S.


    We compute various kinematical distributions for one-jet and two-jet inclusive photoproduction at HERA. Our results are accurate to next-to-leading order in QCD. We use the subtraction method for the cancellation of infrared singularities. We perform a thorough study of the reliability of QCD predictions; in particular, we consider the scale dependence of our results and discuss the cases when the perturbative expansion might break down. We also deal with the problem of the experimental definition of the pointlike and hadronic components of the incident photon, and briefly discuss the sensitivity of QCD predictions upon the input parameters of the calculation, like α S and the parton densities. (orig.)

  15. SparkJet Efficiency (United States)

    Golbabaei-Asl, Mona; Knight, Doyle; Anderson, Kellie; Wilkinson, Stephen


    A novel method for determining the thermal efficiency of the SparkJet is proposed. A SparkJet is attached to the end of a pendulum. The motion of the pendulum subsequent to a single spark discharge is measured using a laser displacement sensor. The measured displacement vs time is compared with the predictions of a theoretical perfect gas model to estimate the fraction of the spark discharge energy which results in heating the gas (i.e., increasing the translational-rotational temperature). The results from multiple runs for different capacitances of c = 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 micro-F show that the thermal efficiency decreases with higher capacitive discharges.

  16. PWR clad ballooning: The effect of circumferential clad temperature variations on the burst strain/burst temperature relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.


    By experiment, it has been shown by other workers that there is a reduction in the creep ductility of Zircaloy 4 in the α+β phase transition region. Results from single rod burst tests also show a reduction in burst strain in the α+β phase region. In this report it is shown theoretically that for single rod burst tests in the presence of circumferential temperature gradients, the temperature dependence of the mean burst strain is not determined by temperature variations in creep ductility, but is governed by the temperature sensitivity of the creep strain rate, which is shown to be a maximum in the α+β phase transition region. To demonstrate this effect, the mean clad strain at burst was calculated for creep straining at different temperature levels in the α, α+β and β phase regions. Cross-pin temperature gradients were applied which produced strain variations around the clad which were greatest in the α+β phase region. The mean strain at burst was determined using a maximum local burst strain (i.e. a creep ductility) which is independent of temperature. By assuming cross-pin temperature gradients which are typical of those observed during burst tests, then the calculated mean burst strain/burst temperature relationship gave good agreement with experiment. The calculations also show that when circumferential temperature differences are present, the calculated mean strain at burst is not sensitive to variations in the magnitude of the assumed creep ductility. This reduces the importance of the assumed burst criterion in the calculations. Hence a temperature independent creep ductility (e.g. 100% local strain) is adequate as a burst criterion for calculations under PWR LOCA conditions. (author)

  17. Plasma jet takes off.


    Frazer, L


    Thanks to a series of joint research projects by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Beta Squared of Allen, Texas, and the University of California at Los Angeles, there is now a more environmentally sound method for cleaning semiconductor chips that may also be effective in cleaning up chemical, bacterial, and nuclear contaminants. The Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet uses a type of ionized gas called plasma to clean up contaminants by binding to them and lifting them away. In contrast to the cor...

  18. Active control of continuous air jet with bifurcated synthetic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová Petra


    Full Text Available The synthetic jets (SJs have many significant applications and the number of applications is increasing all the time. In this research the main focus is on the primary flow control which can be used effectively for the heat transfer increasing. This paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of two SJs worked in the bifurcated mode used for control of an axisymmetric air jet. First, the control synthetic jets were measured alone. After an adjustment, the primary axisymmetric jet was added in to the system. For comparison, the primary flow without synthetic jets control was also measured. All experiments were performed using PIV method whereby the synchronization between synthetic jets and PIV system was necessary to do.

  19. Greenland plateau jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William Kent Moore


    Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.

  20. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Derived Jet Fuels Compositional Factors Affecting Thermal Degradation of Jet Fuels (United States)


    115 3.3 FTIR spectra of dodecane stressed under 100 psi air at 425C ..................... 118 3.4 Deoxygenated fuel at 100 psi (0.1 ppm of 02...formation of higher molecular weight compounds, such as alkanes larger than the starting compound; other cyclic compounds, such as indenes and naphthalenes...Studies Thermal stress studies were performed on additive free Jet A-I fuel at 425TC under 100 psi nitrogen or air. Fourier transform infrared ( FTIR

  1. Emergent synchronous bursting of oxytocin neuronal network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rossoni


    Full Text Available When young suckle, they are rewarded intermittently with a let-down of milk that results from reflex secretion of the hormone oxytocin; without oxytocin, newly born young will die unless they are fostered. Oxytocin is made by magnocellular hypothalamic neurons, and is secreted from their nerve endings in the pituitary in response to action potentials (spikes that are generated in the cell bodies and which are propagated down their axons to the nerve endings. Normally, oxytocin cells discharge asynchronously at 1-3 spikes/s, but during suckling, every 5 min or so, each discharges a brief, intense burst of spikes that release a pulse of oxytocin into the circulation. This reflex was the first, and is perhaps the best, example of a physiological role for peptide-mediated communication within the brain: it is coordinated by the release of oxytocin from the dendrites of oxytocin cells; it can be facilitated by injection of tiny amounts of oxytocin into the hypothalamus, and it can be blocked by injection of tiny amounts of oxytocin antagonist. Here we show how synchronized bursting can arise in a neuronal network model that incorporates basic observations of the physiology of oxytocin cells. In our model, bursting is an emergent behaviour of a complex system, involving both positive and negative feedbacks, between many sparsely connected cells. The oxytocin cells are regulated by independent afferent inputs, but they interact by local release of oxytocin and endocannabinoids. Oxytocin released from the dendrites of these cells has a positive-feedback effect, while endocannabinoids have an inhibitory effect by suppressing the afferent input to the cells.

  2. Smashing a Jet into a Cloud to Form Stars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What happens when the highly energetic jet from the center of an active galaxy rams into surrounding clouds of gas and dust? A new study explores whether this might be a way to form stars.The authors simulations at an intermediate (top) and final (bottom) stage show the compression in the gas cloud as a jet (red) enters from the left. Undisturbed cloud material is shown in blue, whereas green corresponds to cold, compressed gas actively forming stars. [Fragile et al. 2017]Impacts of FeedbackCorrelation between properties of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest that there is some means of communication between them. For this reason, we suspect that feedback from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the form of jets, for instance controls the size of the galaxy by influencing star formation. But how does this process work?AGN feedback can be either negative or positive. In negative feedback, the gas necessary for forming stars is heated or dispersed by the jet, curbing or halting star formation. In positive feedback, jets propagate through the surrounding gas with energies high enough to create compression in the gas, but not so high that they heat it. The increased density can cause the gas to collapse, thereby triggering star formation.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Chris Fragile (College of Charleston) modeled what happens when an enormous AGN jet slams into a dwarf-galaxy-sized, inactive cloud of gas. In particular, the team explored the possibility of star-forming positive feedback with the goal of reproducing recent observations of something called Minkowskis Object, a stellar nursery located at the endpoint of a radio jet emitted from the active galaxy NGC 541.The star formation rate in the simulated cloud increases dramatically as a result of the jets impact, reaching the rate currently observed for Minkowskis Objects within 20 million years. [Fragile et al. 2017]Triggering Stellar BirthFragile and collaborators used a

  3. Infrared and X-ray bursts from the rapid burster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Chitre, S.M.


    Studies on sudden bursts from the cosmic X-ray sources are reported. The processes occuring from the rise in luminosity of an x-ray source to its collapse are described. Records of the x-ray burst from the globular cluster NGC 6624 and the 'Rapid Burster' are shown. The Infra-red bursts from the Rapid Burster are also explained. (A.K.)

  4. Physical characterization of the Skua fast burst assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternoster, R.; Bounds, J.; Sanchez, R.; Miko, D.


    In this paper we discuss the system design and ongoing efforts to characterize the machine physics and operating properties of the Skua fast burst assembly. The machine is currently operating up to prompt critical while we await approval for super-prompt burst operations. Efforts have centered on characterizing neutron kinetic properties, comparing calculated and measured temperature coefficients and power distributions, improving the burst reproducibility, examining the site-wide dose characteristics, and fitting the machine with cooling and filtration systems

  5. The velocities of type II solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlamicha, A.; Karlicky, M.


    A list is presented of type II radio bursts identified at Ondrejov between January 1973 and December 1974 in the frequency range of the dynamic spectrum 70 to 810 MHz. The velocities of shock waves in the individual cases of type II bursts are given using the fourfold Newkirk model. Some problems associated with type II radio bursts and with the propagation of the shock wave into the interplanetary space and into the region of the Earth are also discussed. (author)

  6. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods


    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rietveld, L.


    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detection method, which continuously compares forecasted and measured values of the water demand. The forecasts of the water demand were generated by an adaptive water demand forecasting model. To test th...

  7. Self-regulation of turbulence bursts and transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floriani, E; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Sarazin, Y; Lima, R


    The interplay between turbulent bursts and transport barriers is analyzed with a simplified model of interchange turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. The turbulent bursts spread into the transport barriers and, depending on the competing magnitude of the burst and stopping capability of the barrier, can burn through. Simulations of two models of transport barriers are presented: a hard barrier where interchange turbulence modes are stable in a prescribed region and a soft barrier with external plasma biasing. The response of the transport barriers to the non-linear perturbations of the turbulent bursts, addressed in a predator–prey approach, indicates that the barriers monitor an amplification factor of the turbulent bursts, with amplification smaller than one for most bursts and, in some cases, amplification factors that can significantly exceed unity. The weak barriers in corrugated profiles and magnetic structures, as well as the standard barriers, are characterized by these transmission properties, which then regulate the turbulent burst transport properties. The interplays of barriers and turbulent bursts are modeled as competing stochastic processes. For different classes of the probability density function (PDF) of these processes, one can predict the heavy tail properties of the bursts downstream from the barrier, either exponential for a leaky barrier, or with power laws for a tight barrier. The intrinsic probing of the transport barriers by the turbulent bursts thus gives access to the properties of the barriers. The main stochastic variables are the barrier width and the spreading distance of the turbulent bursts within the barrier, together with their level of correlation. One finds that in the case of a barrier with volumetric losses, such as radiation or particle losses as addressed in our present simulations, the stochastic model predicts a leaky behavior with an exponential PDF of escaping turbulent bursts in agreement with the simulation

  8. Burst Alert Robotic Telescope and Optical Afterglows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Polášek, Cyril; Štrobl, Jan


    Roč. 18, 3/4 (2009), s. 374-378 ISSN 1392-0049. [INTEGRAL/BART workshop 2009. Karlovy Vary, 26.03.2009-29.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : gamma rays bursts, * observations * robotic telescopes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2009

  9. Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.

  10. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott


    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  11. Decay time of type III solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F.T.


    Sixty-four Type III bursts that drifted to frequencies below 600 kHz between March 1968 and February 1970 were analyzed. Decay times were measured and combined with published data ranging up to about 200 MHz. By fitting power functions to the computed and observed decay times, and using the local plasma hypothesis, it was found that the ratio rho of computed to observed values varies with radiocentric radial distance according to a power function rho = 3r 0 . 7 . (U.S.)

  12. Burst-Mode Asynchronous Controllers on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte L. Oliveira


    Full Text Available FPGAs have been mainly used to design synchronous circuits. Asynchronous design on FPGAs is difficult because the resulting circuit may suffer from hazard problems. We propose a method that implements a popular class of asynchronous circuits, known as burst mode, on FPGAs based on look-up table architectures. We present two conditions that, if satisfied, guarantee essential hazard-free implementation on any LUT-based FPGA. By doing that, besides all the intrinsic advantages of asynchronous over synchronous circuits, they also take advantage of the shorter design time and lower cost associated with FPGA designs.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.


    We present two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the relativistic outflows of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors. We analyze the properties of the outflows at wide off-axis angles, produced by the expansion of the hot cocoon that surrounds the jet inside the progenitor star. We find that the cocoon emission at wide angles may have properties similar to those of the subclass of short-duration GRBs with persistent X-ray emission. We compute the predicted duration distribution, redshift distribution, and afterglow brightness, and we find that they are all in agreement with the observed properties of short GRBs with persistent emission. We suggest that a supernova component, the properties of the host galaxies, and late afterglow observations can be used as a crucial test to verify this model.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin, Yi-Qing [School of Opto-electronic and Communication Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, Fujian 361024 (China); Hou, Shu-Jin, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)


    Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) surrounded by neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) are plausible sources of power for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) via neutrino emission and their annihilation. The progenitors of short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) are generally considered to be compact binary mergers. According to the simulation results, the disk mass of the NDAF is limited after merger events. We can estimate such disk masses using the current SGRB observational data and fireball model. The results show that the disk mass of a certain SGRB mainly depends on its output energy, jet opening angle, and central BH characteristics. Even for the extreme BH parameters, some SGRBs require massive disks, which approach or exceed the limits in simulations. We suggest that there may exist alternative MHD processes or mechanisms that increase the neutrino emission to produce SGRBs with reasonable BH parameters and disk masses.

  15. Neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple internal shocks in gamma-ray bursts. (United States)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Baerwald, Philipp; Murase, Kohta; Winter, Walter


    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short-lived, luminous explosions at cosmological distances, thought to originate from relativistic jets launched at the deaths of massive stars. They are among the prime candidates to produce the observed cosmic rays at the highest energies. Recent neutrino data have, however, started to constrain this possibility in the simplest models with only one emission zone. In the classical theory of GRBs, it is expected that particles are accelerated at mildly relativistic shocks generated by the collisions of material ejected from a central engine. Here we consider neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple emission regions since these internal collisions must occur at very different radii, from below the photosphere all the way out to the circumburst medium, as a consequence of the efficient dissipation of kinetic energy. We demonstrate that the different messengers originate from different collision radii, which means that multi-messenger observations open windows for revealing the evolving GRB outflows.

  16. The threat to life from Eta Carinae and gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Dar, Arnon


    Eta Carinae, the most massive and luminous star known in our galaxy, is rapidly boiling matter off its surface. At any time its core could collapse into a black hole, which may result in a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that can devastate life on Earth. Auspiciously, recent observations indicate that the GRBs are narrowly beamed in cones along the rotational axis of the progenitor star. In the case of Eta Carinae the GRBs will not point to us, but will be ravaging to life on planets in our galaxy that happen to lie within the two beaming cones. The mean rate of massive life extinctions by jets from GRBs, per life-supporting planet in galaxies like ours, is once in 100 million years, comparable to the rate of major extinctions observed in the geological records of our planet. GRB extinctions also provide an answer to Fermi's question about alien visitors: ``Where are they?''

  17. Multiple Jets at the LHC with High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Smillie, Jennifer M.


    We present a flexible Monte Carlo implementation of the perturbative framework of High Energy Jets, describing multi-jet events at hadron colliders. The description includes a resummation which ensures leading logarithmic accuracy for large invariant mass between jets, and is matched to tree......-level accuracy for multiplicities up to 4 jets. The resummation includes all-order hard corrections, which become important for increasing centre-of-mass energy of the hadronic collision. We discuss observables relevant for confronting the perturbative framework with 7 TeV data from the LHC, and the impact...

  18. Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Fee, David; Garcés, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Donald A.


    The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ~219 m and volume ~3 x 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.

  19. The Bursting Universe: New Tools for Cosmology and Physics (United States)

    Osten, Rachel A.; ngVLA Science Advisory Council


    The Very Large Array's versatile operations enable it to respond quickly to track and study transient phenomena in the universe. This was one of the main science drivers for the recent upgrade to what is now the Jansky VLA, and results have demonstrated the fundamental role of radio observations in the follow-up of transients. Radio frequency measurements of rapidly variable phenomena enable important constraints on the energy budget of astrophysical explosions and study of how these explosions interact with the local environment, to name a few. Radio studies of the bursting universe also provide new tools for making important advances in cosmology and fundamental physics. The study of pulsars and their precision timing enables superior constraints on fundamental physics as well as astrophysical questions of stellar dynamics, star formation histories, and stellar evolution. Pulsars in the Galactic center move in the space-time potential of a supermassive black hole and afford many opportunities for fundamental tests of gravity. The myriad of open questions regarding the formation and growth of black holes over many orders of magnitude in mass require sensitive radio measurements with high resolution imaging to begin to address. I will describe how the ngVLA project, a combination of increase in sensitivity and capability to observe at microwave frequencies and above, is necessary to make these advances, such as potential radio transients associated with the merger of supermassive black holes, stellar radio flares complementing future multiwavelength observations, the use of pulsars for physics and astrophysics, and others.

  20. Photospheric Emission from Collapsar Jets in 3D Relativistic Hydrodynamics (United States)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.


    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  1. The Second SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; hide


    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts. (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples.. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs.

  2. Limits of the memory coefficient in measuring correlated bursts (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Hiraoka, Takayuki


    Temporal inhomogeneities in event sequences of natural and social phenomena have been characterized in terms of interevent times and correlations between interevent times. The inhomogeneities of interevent times have been extensively studied, while the correlations between interevent times, often called correlated bursts, are far from being fully understood. For measuring the correlated bursts, two relevant approaches were suggested, i.e., memory coefficient and burst size distribution. Here a burst size denotes the number of events in a bursty train detected for a given time window. Empirical analyses have revealed that the larger memory coefficient tends to be associated with the heavier tail of the burst size distribution. In particular, empirical findings in human activities appear inconsistent, such that the memory coefficient is close to 0, while burst size distributions follow a power law. In order to comprehend these observations, by assuming the conditional independence between consecutive interevent times, we derive the analytical form of the memory coefficient as a function of parameters describing interevent time and burst size distributions. Our analytical result can explain the general tendency of the larger memory coefficient being associated with the heavier tail of burst size distribution. We also find that the apparently inconsistent observations in human activities are compatible with each other, indicating that the memory coefficient has limits to measure the correlated bursts.

  3. Frequency of fast, narrow γ-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.P.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Cline, T.L.; Desai, U.D.; Teegarden, B.J.


    The paper describes the existence of two γ-ray burst populations detected by the ISEE-3 experiment. Data from the distribution of 123 Venera 13 and 14 events (60 detected by both spacecraft) also suggests two γ-ray burst populations in each experiment sample, the domains separated with a minimum near 1 or 2 s. The authors point out that the results of the Goddard ISEE-3 γ-ray burst spectrometer actually enhance the appearance of two burst populations suggested in the Venera data. (author)

  4. Observations of cosmic gamma ray bursts with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.


    19 Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts were detected by the WATCH wide field X-ray monitor during the 11 months flight of EURECA. The identification of the bursts were complicated by a high frequency of background of events caused by high energy cosmic ray interactions in the detector and by low energy......, trapped particle streams. These background events may simulate the count rate increases characteristic of cosmic gamma bursts. For 12 of the detected events, their true cosmic nature have been confirmed through consistent localizations of the burst sources based on several independent WATCH data sets...

  5. Burst-Compression And -Expansion For TDMA Communication (United States)

    Budinger, James M.


    Burst-compression and -expansion technique enables interconnection of users transmitting and receiving data at rates asynchronous with respect to clocks within ground terminals of satellite-switched, time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) communication network. Matrix switch aboard satellite routes bursts of data from source users received on uplink antennas to downlink antennas illuminating ground areas containing destination users. TDMA ground terminal compresses streams of data from source users into rapid bursts for transmission and reexpands bursts of received data into slower streams of data for delivery to destination users. Greater flexibility in interconnecting widely dispersed users achieved by use of hopping beams.

  6. Study on cosmic gamma bursts in the ''KONUS'' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazets, E.P.; Golenetskij, S.V.; Il'inskij, V.N.; Panov, V.N.; Aptekar', R.L.; Gur'yan, Yu.A.; Sokolov, I.A.; Sokolova, Z.Ya.; Kharitonova, T.V.


    Made are the investigations of cosmic gamma bursts with the help of the ''Konus'' apparatus, positioned on the ''Venera 11'' and ''Venera 12'' automatic interplanetary stations. 37 gamma bursts have been recorded in the energy range from 50 to 150 keV during the observation period from September to December 1978. Time profiles of bursts on 4, 9 and 24.11.1978 are presented. For the most events the time of burst increase and decrease constitute parts and units of seconds. Differential energy spectra are measured for all recorded bursts. In many cases the spectrum shape is similar to the grade one with the 1.5-2.3 index. In a graphical form built up are the integral distributions of gamma bursts appearence frequency in dependence on their intensity and maximum capacity in the burst peak. Galaxy coordinates of the 17-teen bursts, for which a simple localization is possible, are put on the celestial sphere map. The type of the integral distributions and the source distribution about the celestial sphere show that the gamma burst sources are whithin the Galaxy

  7. Pileup subtraction for jet shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Soyez, Gregory; Kim, Jihun; Dutta, Souvik; Cacciari, Matteo


    Jet shapes have the potential to play a role in many LHC analyses, for example in quark-gluon discrimination or jet substructure analyses for hadronic decays of boosted heavy objects. Most shapes, however, are significantly affected by pileup. We introduce a general method to correct for pileup effects in shapes, which acts event-by-event and jet-by-jet, and accounts also for hadron masses. It involves a numerical determination, for each jet, of a given shape's susceptibility to pileup. Together with existing techniques for determining the level of pileup, this then enables an extrapolation to zero pileup. The method can be used for a wide range of jet shapes and we show its successful application in the context of quark/gluon discrimination and top-tagging.

  8. Heavy Flavored Jets with CMS (United States)

    Jung, Kurt


    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the mass and flavor of the initiating parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching with tagged partons place powerful constraints on the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Furthermore, recent results that constrain the jet production mechanism will shed additional light on the contributions of leading and next-to-leading order heavy flavor jet production with regard to the global energy loss picture. To this end, we present recent results measuring spectra and nuclear modification factors of jets associated to charm and bottom quarks in both pPb and PbPb collisions, as well as measurements of dijet asymmetry of pairs of b-jets in PbPb collisions.

  9. Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.J.


    A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)

  10. Jet initiation of PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, J.M.


    This report details the progress of an effort to determine the quantitative aspects of the initiation of PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) by copper jets. The particular jet used was that produced by the LAW warhead (66-mm diameter, 42/sup 0/ angle cone, copper-lined, conical shaped charge). Fifteen experiments, in various configurations, have been fired to define the essential parameters for quantitatively measuring the jet performance and initiation of bare PBX 9502. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Jet Reconstruction with Pileup Subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, V; Oulianov, A; Vardanian, I N


    At nominal design luminosity LHC is expected to deliver on average about 17 proton-proton interactions per beam crossing. Pileup of particles from different interactions will produce energy clusters in the calorimeters which can be misidentified as jets. In addition the energy scale of real jets will be affected in a luminosity dependent way. Methods to reduce pileup effects on the jet reconstruction are analysed in this note.

  12. Dynamics of Newtonian annular jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, D.D.


    The main objectives of this investigation are to identify the significant parameters affecting the dynamics of Newtonian annular jets, and to develop theoretical models for jet break-up and collapse. This study has been motivated by recent developments in laser-fusion reactor designs; one proposed cavity design involves the use of an annular lithium jet to protect the cavity wall from the pellet debris emanating from the microexplosion

  13. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in γ-ray bursts (United States)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Wren, J. A.; Wozniak, P. R.; Aptekar, R.; Golentskii, S.; Pal'Shin, V.; Sakamoto, T.; White, R. R.; Evans, S.; Casperson, D.; Fenimore, E.


    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a γ-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt γ-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the γ-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  14. Gamma-ray Burst X-ray Flares Light Curve Fitting (United States)

    Aubain, Jonisha


    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the Universe. These electromagnetic explosions produce jets demonstrated by a short burst of prompt gamma-ray emission followed by a broadband afterglow. There are sharp increases of flux in the X-ray light curves known as flares that occurs in about 50% of the afterglows. In this study, we characterized all of the X-ray afterglows that were detected by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), whether with flares or without. We fit flares to the Norris function (Norris et al. 2005) and power laws with breaks where necessary (Racusin et al. 2009). After fitting the Norris function and power laws, we search for the residual pattern detected in prompt GRB pulses (Hakkila et al. 2014, 2015, 2017), that may indicate a common signature of shock physics. If we find the same signature in flares and prompt pulses, it provides insight into what causes them, as well as, how these flares are produced.

  15. Quark-Nova Explosion inside a Collapsar: Application to Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Ouyed


    Full Text Available If a quark-nova occurs inside a collapsar, the interaction between the quark-nova ejecta (relativistic iron-rich chunks and the collapsar envelope leads to features indicative of those observed in Gamma Ray Bursts. The quark-nova ejecta collides with the stellar envelope creating an outward moving cap (Γ∼ 1–10 above the polar funnel. Prompt gamma-ray burst emission from internal shocks in relativistic jets (following accretion onto the quark star becomes visible after the cap becomes optically thin. Model features include (i precursor activity (optical, X-ray, γ-ray, (ii prompt γ-ray emission, and (iii afterglow emission. We discuss SN-less long duration GRBs, short hard GRBs (including association and nonassociation with star forming regions, dark GRBs, the energetic X-ray flares detected in Swift GRBs, and the near-simultaneous optical and γ-ray prompt emission observed in GRBs in the context of our model.

  16. Anatomy of a cosmic jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, J.


    Cosmic jets are thought to arise from a supermassive, compact object at the center of a galaxy or quasar - probably a rotating black hole with a mass of several billion suns. According to current theory, gas spiraling in toward the black hole becomes compressed and superheated. Much of the gas falls into the black hole, but the rest is discharged along the poles of the hole, either squirted out by radiation pressure in the disk or caught up in magnetic field lines issuing from the black hole. These whirling magnetic field lines act like eggbeaters, churning out gas at very high velocities. Among well-observed ratio galaxies and quasars, jets are not uncommon features: hundreds have been cataloged in a variety of configurations. What distinguishes the M87 jet from all other jets, however, is its proximity to our Galaxy. Lying only 55 million light-years away, the M87 jet is the nearest known jet observable from the Northern Hemisphere. This makes it the most accessible for detailed study. One of the most important results learned from the VLA observations is that the interior of the jet may be hollow. Instead of being filled with hot, rapidly flowing material, the jet may be a nonradiating conduit for high-energy electrons rushing out of the galaxy's nucleus. Optical and radio emission would be produced when the electrons encountered the boundary between the jet and the denser interstellar medium

  17. What did we learn from gamma-ray burst 080319B? (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Panaitescu, A.


    The optical and gamma-ray observations of GRB 080319B allow us to provide a broad-brush picture for this remarkable burst. The data indicate that the prompt optical and gamma-ray photons were possibly produced at the same location but by different radiation processes: synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton, respectively (but we note that this interpretation of the gamma-ray data faces some difficulties). We find that the burst prompt optical emission was produced at a distance of 1016.3 cm by an ultrarelativistic source moving at Lorentz factor of ~500. A straightforward inference is that about 10 times more energy must have been radiated at tens of GeV than that released at 1 MeV. Assuming that the GRB outflow was baryonic and the gamma-ray source was shock-heated plasma, the collimation-corrected kinetic energy of the jet powering GRB 080319B was larger than 1052.3 erg. The decay of the early afterglow optical emission (up to 1 ks) is too fast to be attributed to the reverse-shock crossing the GRB ejecta but is consistent with the expectations for the `large-angle' emission released during the burst. The pure power-law decay of the optical afterglow flux from 1 ks to 10 d is most naturally identified with the (synchrotron) emission from the shock propagating into a wind-like medium. However, the X-ray afterglow requires a departure from the standard blast-wave model.

  18. What did we learn from gamma-ray burst 080319B?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panaitescu, Alin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kumar, Pawan [UNIV OF TEXAS


    The optical and gamma-ray observations of GRB 080319B allow us to provide a broad-brush picture for this remarkable burst. The data indicate that the prompt optical and gamma-ray photons were possibly produced at the same location but by different radiation processes: synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton, respectively (but we note that this interpretation of the gamma-ray data faces some difficulties). We find that the burst prompt optical emission was produced at a distance of 10{sup 16.3} cm by an ultrarelativistic source moving at Lorentz factor of -500. A straightforward inference is that about 10 times more energy must have been radiated at tens of GeV than that released at 1 MeV. Assuming that the GRB outflow was baryonic and the gamma-ray source was shock-heated plasma, the collimation-corrected kinetic energy of the jet powering GRB 080319B was larger than 10{sup 52.3} erg. The decay of the early afterglow optical emission (up to 1 ks) is too fast to be attributed to the reverse-shock crossing the GRB ejecta but is consistent with the expectations for the 'large-angle' emission released during the burst. The pure power-law decay of the optical afterglow flux from 1 ks to 10 d is most naturally identified with the (synchrotron) emission from the shock propagating into a wind-like medium. However, the X-ray afterglow requires a departure from the standard blast-wave model.

  19. Bouncing and bursting in a wedge (United States)

    Reyssat, Etienne; Cohen, Caroline; Quere, David


    Placed into an inhomogeneous confined medium, non-wetting drops tend to be expelled from the tightest regions, where their contact with the walls would be maximized. They preferentially explore more open areas which are favorable from the point of view of capillary energy. Following this principle, one may thus use the geometry of confined environments to control fluid droplets in various ways : displacing, filtering, fragmenting... In this communication, we present experimental results on the dynamics of Leidenfrost drops launched into a wedge formed by two quasi-horizontal glass plates. Influenced by the gradient of confinement, these non-wetting liquid pucks approach the apex of the wedge to a minimal distance where they bounce back. At higher impact velocity, we observe that drops tend to penetrate deeper into the wedge but often burst into a large number of small fragments. We also discuss ways to control the deviation of droplets from their initial trajectory. We propose scaling law analyses to explain the characteristics of the observed bouncing and bursting phenomena.

  20. Are 'negative bursts' due to absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, C.


    Optical activity near the time of two microwave negative bursts is distinctive enough to demonstrate a real relation, but does not occur simultaneously with the radio events. Such a loose association between microwave flux decreases and Hα prominence or filament activity is typical of a sample of 23 negative bursts. A model of a microwave occulting cloud differs from that of an Hα absorber: the Hα dark flocculus is relatively low, dense and compact: the microwave occulter is higher in the corona, larger, and more completely ionized. The two types of absorption are not expected to been seen simultaneously, although they could be separate phases of an ejection of chromospheric material into the corona. The association of microwave decreases with Hα activity in some cases, and their usual non-simultaneity, is consistent with interpretation of the decrease as absorption, but it does not rule out alternative interpretation such as an intrinsic change in the emission of the microwave source. The location of decrease-associated activity has a suggestive, though not statistically significant, bias toward east limb that leads one toward an absorption interpretation, with asymmetry introduced by a tendency for ejected material to move from the leading part of an active region toward the following part, agreeing with Liska's observation of asymmetry in the line-of-sight velocities of prominences. (Auth.)

  1. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus


    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Q-Burst Origins in Africa (United States)

    Boldi, R.; Hobara, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Satori, G.; Bor, J.; Lyons, W. A.; Nelson, T.; Russell, B.; Williams, E.


    The generation of electromagnetic transient signatures in the SR frequency range (Q-bursts) from the energetic lightning originating in Africa were intensively studied during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) field program centered on Niamey, Niger in 2006. During this wet season many active westward- moving MCSs were observed by the MIT C-band Doppler radar. The MCSs exhibited a gust front, a leading squall line and a large spatially-extended (100-200 km) stratiform region that often passed over the observation site. Many transient events were recorded in association with local lightning both with a slow antenna and a DC electric field mill installed near the radar. During the gust front and squall line traverse, the majority of lightning exhibited normal polarity. A remarkable transition of polarity is observed once the radar site is under the stratiform region and a pronounced radar bright band has had time to develop. The majority of the ground flashes then exhibit a positive polarity (positive ground flash). In particular, very intense positive ground flashes (often topped with spider lightning structure) are registered when the radar "hbright band"h is most strongly developed. These positive flashes exhibit a large DC field change in comparison to ones observed during the earlier squall line passage. Video observations of nighttime events support the existence of the lateral extensive spider lightning. Daytime events exhibit thunder durations of a few minutes. ELF Q-bursts were recorded at MIT's Schumann resonance station in Rhode Island U.S.A. (about 8 Mm distance from Niamey) associated with several large well-established positive ground flashes observed locally near Niamey. The event identification is made by accurate GPS timing and arrival direction of the waves. The onset times of the Q-burst are in good agreement with the electric field measurement near Niamey. The arrival directions of the waves are also in good agreement assuming

  3. A Peculiar GRB 110731A: Lorentz Factor, Jet Composition, Central Engine, and Progenitor (United States)

    Lü, HouJun; Wang, XiangGao; Lu, RuiJing; Lan, Lin; Gao, He; Liang, EnWei; Graham, Melissa L.; Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zhang, Bing


    The jet compositions, central engines, and progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain open questions in GRB physics. Applying broadband observations, including GRB prompt emission and afterglow properties derived from Fermi and Swift data, as well as from Keck host-galaxy observations, we address these questions for the peculiar, bright GRB 110731A. By using the pair-opacity method, we derive Γ0 > 190 during the prompt emission phase. Alternatively, we derive Γ0 ≈ 580 and Γ0 ≈ 154 by invoking the early-afterglow phase within the homogeneous density and wind cases, respectively. On the other hand, nondetection of a thermal component in the spectra suggests that the prompt emission is likely powered by dissipation of a Poynting-flux-dominated jet leading to synchrotron radiation in an optically thin region. The nondetection of a jet break in the X-ray and optical bands allows us to place a lower limit on the jet opening angle θ j > 5.°5. Within a millisecond magnetar central engine scenario, we derive the period P 0 and polar magnetic field strength B p, which have extreme (but still allowed) values. The moderately short observed duration (7.3 s) and relatively large redshift (z = 2.83) place the burst as a “rest-frame short” GRB, so the progenitor of the burst is subject to debate. Its relatively large {f}{eff,z} parameter (ratio of the 1 s peak flux of a pseudo-GRB and the background flux) and a large physical offset from a potential host galaxy suggest that the progenitor of GRB 110731A may be a compact-star merger.

  4. SgrbWorldModel: Short-duration Gamma-Ray Burst World Model (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Nemiroff, Robert J.


    SgrbWorldModel, written in Fortran 90, presents an attempt at modeling the population distribution of the Short-duration class of Gamma-Ray Bursts (SGRBs) as detected by the NASA's now-defunct Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). It is assumed that the population distribution of SGRBs is well fit by a multivariate log-normal distribution, whose differential cosmological rate of occurrence follows the Star-Formation-Rate (SFR) convolved with a log-normal binary-merger delay-time distribution. The best-fit parameters of the model are then found by maximizing the likelihood of the observed data by the BATSE detectors via a native built-in Adaptive Metropolis-Hastings Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (AMH-MCMC)Sampler that is part of the code. A model for the detection algorithm of the BATSE detectors is also provided.

  5. A Solar Stationary Type IV Radio Burst and Its Radiation Mechanism (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Chen, Yao; Cho, Kyungsuk; Feng, Shiwei; Vasanth, Veluchamy; Koval, Artem; Du, Guohui; Wu, Zhao; Li, Chuanyang


    A stationary Type IV (IVs) radio burst was observed on September 24, 2011. Observations from the Nançay RadioHeliograph (NRH) show that the brightness temperature (TB) of this burst is extremely high, over 10^{11} K at 150 MHz and over 108 K in general. The degree of circular polarization (q) is between -60% ˜ -100%, which means that it is highly left-handed circularly polarized. The flux-frequency spectrum follows a power-law distribution, and the spectral index is considered to be roughly -3 ˜ -4 throughout the IVs. Radio sources of this event are located in the wake of the coronal mass ejection and are spatially dispersed. They line up to present a formation in which lower-frequency sources are higher. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the IVs was generated through electron cyclotron maser emission.

  6. Gyrofluid computation of magnetic perturbation effects on turbulence and edge localized bursts (United States)

    Peer, J.; Kendl, A.; Ribeiro, T. T.; Scott, B. D.


    The effects of non-axisymmetric resonant magnetic perturbation fields (RMPs) on saturated drift-wave turbulence and on ballooning mode bursts in the edge pedestal of tokamak plasmas are investigated by numerical simulations with a nonlinear six-moment electromagnetic gyrofluid model including zonal profile evolution. The vacuum RMP fields are screened by plasma response currents, so that magnetic transport by perturbed parallel motion is not significantly changed. Radial transport of both particles and heat is dominated by turbulent convection even for large RMP amplitudes, where formation of quasi-stationary convective structures leads to edge profile degradation. Modelling of ideal ballooning mode unstable edge profiles for single bursts including RMP fields causes resonant mode locking and destabilization.

  7. Bubbles, jets, and clouds in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.; Smarr, L.; Norman, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.


    The Blandford and Reese 1974 fluid twin-exhaust model for jet formation is thoroughly investigated. We perform detailed analytic calculations of all aspects of the cavity-nozzle structures for the nonrelativistic case: the preshock flow, the central shock, cavity flow, and the nozzle. Our analytic results are in excellent agreement with recent sophisticated numerical calculations. We find that for a given central confining gas cloud, only a finite range of jet powers is possible. The sound speed ratio between cavity and cloud must be less than 30. Central masses of approx.10 9 M/sub sun/ within 1 pc are necessary for high-powered (10 46 ergs s -1 ) extragalactic jets. For a fixed confining cloud sound speed C 0 , there are three regimes determined by the central engine's luminosity. For low luminosity, a stream of bubbles emerges; for a middle range of luminosities, a jet forms; for too high a luminosity, large clouds are emitted. In the jet regime we find that L/sub j/approx.C 0 5 . The critical dependence of jet power on confining cloud sound speed enables a schematic picture for active galactic nuclei to be proposed. Seyfert galaxies and quasars are placed in the bubble regime. Variable compact radio sources reach the cloud regime. Evolutionary paths are suggested and may provide an indirect test for this picture

  8. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.


    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  9. Numerical study of jets secondary instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancher, Pierre


    The work presented in this dissertation is a contribution to the study of the transition to turbulence in open shear flows. Results from direct numerical simulations are interpreted within the framework of hydrodynamic stability theory. The first chapter is an introduction to the primary and secondary instabilities observed in jets and mixing layers. The numerical method used in the present study is detailed in the second chapter. The dynamics of homogeneous circular jets subjected to stream wise and azimuthal perturbations are investigated in the third chapter. A complete scenario describing the evolution of the jet is proposed with emphasis on the dynamics of vorticity within the flow. In the fourth chapter a parametric study reveals a three-dimensional secondary instability mainly controlled in the linear regime by the Strouhal number of the primary instability. In the nonlinear regime the dynamics of the azimuthal harmonies are described by means of model equations and are linked to the formation of stream wise vortices in the braid. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the convective or absolute nature of the secondary instabilities in plane shear layers. It is shown that there are flow configurations for which the two-dimensional secondary instability (pairing) is absolute even though the primary instability (Kelvin-Helmholtz) is convective. Some preliminary results concerning the three-dimensional secondary instabilities arc presented at the end of this chapter. The last chapter summarizes the main results and examines possible extensions of this work. (author) [fr

  10. 21 CFR 880.5475 - Jet lavage. (United States)


    ... Jet lavage. (a) Identification. A jet lavage is a device used to clean a wound by a pulsatile jet of...) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in...

  11. Can a Double Component Outflow Explain the X-Ray and Optical Lightcurves of Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts? (United States)

    De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Evans, P.; Oates, S.; Page, M.; Zane, S.; Schady, P.; Breeveld, A.; Holland, S.; Still, M.


    An increasing sample of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by Swift show evidence of 'chromatic breaks', i.e. breaks that are present in the X-ray but not in the optical. We find that in a significant fraction of these GRB afterglows the X-ray and the optical emission cannot be produced by the same component. We propose that these afterglow lightcurves are the result of a two-component jet, in which both components undergo energy injection for the whole observation and the X-ray break is due to a jet break in the narrow outflow. Bursts with chromatic breaks also explain another surprising finding, the paucity of late achromatic breaks. We propose a model that may explain the behaviour of GRB emission in both X-ray and optical bands. This model can be a radical and noteworthy alternative to the current interpretation for the 'canonical' XRT and UVOT lightcurves, and it bears fundamental implications for GRB physics.

  12. Blue Supergiant Model for Ultra-long Gamma-Ray Burst with Superluminous-supernova-like Bump (United States)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Suwa, Yudai; Nakamura, Takashi


    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ~30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ~104 s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ~20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  13. Jet, Missing ET, Jet Substructure and Tagging Performance in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lacey, J; The ATLAS collaboration


    ATLAS has implemented and commissioned several new techniques to aid in the analysis and interpretation of the complex hadronic final states produced at the LHC. ATLAS’s high resolution longitudinally segmented calorimeters and inner detector allow for the development of advanced clustering and reconstruction algorithms, their validation and calibration in data is made possible with the large 2012 dataset. Included are event-by-event pile-up subtraction methods for jets and missing ET, along with jet tagging, quark-gluon discrimination, and jet substructure techniques for the identification of Lorentz boosted heavy particles. Presented here is a summary of the state of the art jet, missing ET, jet substructure and tagging techniques and tools developed in ATLAS, and their calibrations.

  14. The BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog. 1; High Time Resolution Spectroscopy of Bright Bursts Using High Energy Resolution Data (United States)

    Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Band, David L.


    This is the first in a series of gamma-ray burst spectroscopy catalogs from the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Abstract: Observatory, each covering a different aspect of burst phenomenology. In this paper, we present time-sequences of spectral fit parameters for 156 bursts selected either for their high peak flux or fluence.

  15. Jetting of a ultrasound contrast microbubble near a rigid wall (United States)

    Sarkar, Kausik; Mobadersany, Nima


    Micron sized gas-bubbles coated with a stabilizing shell of lipids or proteins, are used as contrast enhancing agents for ultrasound imaging. However, they are increasingly being explored for novel applications in drug delivery through a process called sonoporation, the reversible permeabilization of the cell membrane. Under sufficiently strong acoustic excitations, bubbles form a jet and collapse near a wall. The jetting of free bubbles has been extensively studied by boundary element method (BEM). Here, for the first time, we implemented a rigorous interfacial rheological model of the shell into BEM and investigated the jet formation. The code has been carefully validated against past results. Increasing shell elasticity decreases the maximum bubble volume and the collapse time, while the jet velocity increases. The shear stress on the wall is computed and analyzed. A phase diagram as functions of excitation pressure and wall separation describes jet formation. Effects of shell elasticity and frequency on the phase diagram are investigated. Partially supported by National Science Foundation.

  16. Gamma-ray Bursts May Originate in Star-Forming Regions (United States)


    New findings from two X-ray satellites suggest that gamma-ray bursts, some of the most intense blasts in the universe, may be created in the same area where stars are born. Dr. Luigi Piro of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) in Rome, Italy, presented data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Italian-Dutch ASI BeppoSAX observatory today at the Gamma Ray 2001 conference in Baltimore, MD. "We know that when a gamma-ray burst explodes, it produces a blast of material called a fireball, which expands at relativistic speeds like a rapidly inflating bubble," said Piro, who works within CNR's Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. "Our team found evidence that the blast wave caused by the fireball brakes against a wall of very dense gas, which we believe is the crowded region where stars form." Several theories exist about what causes gamma-ray bursts. Among more popular theories are that gamma-ray bursts come from various combinations of merging neutron stars and black holes, or, from the explosion of massive stars, called hypernovae. "Because gamma-ray bursts are going off in extremely distant galaxies, it is difficult to 'see' the regions that harbor them," said Piro. "We can only gather circumstantial evidence as to where and how they form." Piro's observations support the hypernova model. Scientists believe that within dense star-forming regions, the massive star required for a hypernova explosion evolves extremely rapidly. On astronomical time scales, the supermassive star would evolve over the course of only about one million years. Thus, the hypernova explosion may occur in the same stellar environment that originally produced the massive star itself, and perhaps may trigger even more star formation. The hint that gamma-ray bursts can occur in dense media came during a Chandra observation of an afterglow that occurred on September 26, 2000. Prof. Gordon Garmire of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, found X-ray emission to be greater

  17. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets


    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.


    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...

  18. Supernova sheds light on gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Multimedia


    On 29 March the HETE-II satellite detected the most violent explosion in the universe to date - an enormous burst of gamma rays. Observers across the world recorded and studied the event. It appears to prove that gamma ray bursts originate in supernovae (1 page)

  19. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-chao Hu


    Full Text Available Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-induced stress and microseismic signals before the occurrence of fault-slip rock burst are proposed, and multiparameter integrated early warning methods including mining-induced stress and energy are established. Finally, pressure relief methods targeting large-diameter boreholes and coal seam infusion are presented in accordance with the occurrence mechanism of fault-slip rock burst. The research results have been successfully applied in working faces 2310 of the Suncun Coal Mine, and the safety of the mine has been enhanced. These research results improve the theory of fault-slip rock burst mechanisms and provide the basis for prediction and forecasting, as well as pressure relief, of fault-slip rock bursts.

  20. Gamma ray bursts observed with WATCH‐EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A. J.


    The WATCH wide field x‐ray monitor has the capability of independently locating bright Gamma Ray Bursts to 1° accuracy. We report the preliminary positions of 12 Gamma Ray Bursts observed with the WATCH monitor flown on the ES spacecraft EURECA during its 11 month mission. Also the recurrence...