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Sample records for bursera graveolens triana

  1. Triterpenos aislados de corteza de Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae y su actividad biologica

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    Jorge Robles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae, known in Colombia as "sasafrás", is useful for its medicinal properties and is rich in secondary metabolites. In our research, we carried out antimicrobial tests of several fractions and ethanolic extracts from aerial parts against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, that showed growth inhibitory activity when applied at 250 mg/mL for extracts and 150 mg/mL for fractions. We carried out an antiinflamatory assay also, that showed 71% of inhibition by extracts (81% of Indomethacin and 70% of inhibition by fractions (78% of Indomethacin. Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae yielded three tetracyclic triterpene acids that have oxygenation in C-3, carboxylic acid in C-21 and unsaturation in C-24 and have been identified as 3-oxotirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (b-elemonic acid, 3a-hydroxytirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (a-elemolic acid and 3a-hydroxytirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid. The isolated compounds were identified using spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY experiments and comparison with published data. This is the first report of the isolated compounds in Bursera graveolens and they have a very important chemotaxonomic significance within the Burseraceae family and related families from the order Rutales.

  2. Efectos citotoxicos in vitro de extractos y fracciones de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a lineas celulares tumorales humanos Efeitos citotóxicos in vitro de extratos e frações de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a linhagens celulares tumorais humanos In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, against human tumor cell

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    Jorge E. Robles Camargo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A los extractos, fracciones y subfracciones obtenidos de hojas, flores y corteza de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, se les evalúo su actividad citotóxica preliminar frente a las líneas celulares CSC-1595 y Colo 205, siguiendo el método de fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayo de citotoxicidad MTT. Los resultados obtenidos de esta prueba muestran a la subfracción en diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5 obtenida de la fracción acetato de etilo del extracto en éter de petróleo de hojas, como la que presentó las sustancias bioactivas con una marcada actividad citotóxica, con porcentajes de viabilidad del 3% y 15.3% a la concentración 30 µg/mL en las líneas tumorales humanas Colo 205 y CSC-1595 respectivamente.A atividade citotóxica de extratos frações e subfrações obtidas das folhas e cascas de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, foram preliminarmente avaliados pelo método MTT frente a linhagens celulares tumorais CSC-1595 e Colo 205. Os resultados mostraram que a subfração diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5, obtidos a partir da fração acetato de etila do extrato em éter de petróleo das folhas, como sendo a que apresenta substâncias bioativas com forte atividade citotóxica, taxa de viabilidade de 3% e de 15,3% na concentração de 30 µg/mL em linhagens de células tumorais humanas Colo 205 e CSC-1595, respectivamente.To the extracts, fractions and subfractions obtained from leaves, flowers and bark of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, its preliminary cytotoxic activity against to the cellular lines CSC-1595 and Colo 205 were evaluated, following the MTT method. The results showed that dichloromethane-methanol (9.5:0.5 subfraction obtained of ethyl acetate part from petroleum extract of leaves, like to display the bioactives substances with a strong cytotoxic activity, showing viability percentage of 3% and 15,3% to the concentration 30 µg/mL in human tumor cellular

  3. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  4. Ruta Graveolens intoxication.

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    Seak, Chen-June; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of unintentional poisoning from Ruta Graveolens, a medicinal herb that is used for heart protection in Taiwan. A 78-year-old woman developed bradycardia, acute renal failure with hyperkalemia, and coagulopathy after three days of consuming a decoction made from Ruta Graveolens for the treatment of palpitations and heart protection. She was treated with hemodialysis in the emergency department for hyperkalemia. Her bradycardia and hypotension improved gradually three days later. Ruta use might cause multi-organ toxicity. We believe this case report helps in the recognition of the systemic toxicity of Ruta Graveolens.

  5. El puente de Triana y su tiempo

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    Ávila Jalvo, José Miguel

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Before the XIX century, nobody dare to construct a bridge on Guadalquivir river, from Córdoba to Sanlucar. It was, really, a great venture. In Sevilla, one of the most flourishing towns by the time in Spain, this problem was solved with a boat's bridge. That means that the technicians did not trust in the river bed. But, thanks to the fact of Sevilla’s prosperity and of the new technologies and new materials, they decided, finally, to undertake the work. The industrial use of the iron concerning communications and the success of the first suspension bridges -with span alike or higher to those herewith stated-, encouraged the technicians to jump over the one hundred and fifty meters between Sevilla and Triana . The choice of the suspension bridge was taken because it was useful to introduce other options, like this of the masonry, with Silvestre Pérez not used from the XV century, and this of iron (arcs or beams. But, no one of them solved the bed problems.La labor de construir un puente sobre el Guadalquivir no debía de ser empresa fácil si consideramos que desde Córdoba a Sanlúcar nadie se atreviera a emprenderla hasta mediado el siglo XIX. Que en la Sevilla de la Casa de Contratación, una de las ciudades más prósperas de la época moderna, este salto estuviera resuelto con un puente de barcas, explica, sin necesidad de otra justificación, lo insensato que le debía parecer a los expertos de la zona el fiarse del lecho del río. Esa misma prosperidad hizo que, gracias a nuevas técnicas y nuevos materiales, se retomara la intención de emprender la obra. El uso industrial del hierro, su aplicación a las comunicaciones y el éxito de los primeros puentes suspendidos -con luces iguales y superiores a la que aquí se plantea-, anima a resolver el salto de ciento cincuenta metros que, hablando en términos de distancia, separan a Sevilla de Triana. La opción de un puente colgante prospera porque salva limpiamente los problemas

  6. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation...

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  8. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

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    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  9. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

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    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  10. Acremonium camptosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

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    This paper draws on morphological and molecular analyses to determinate the systematic position of an interesting endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba, a tree of semideciduous dry tropical forest at El Eden Ecological Reserve. The cultured strain develops the characteristic...

  11. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

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    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  12. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera

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    Columba-Palomares, M. F. María C.; Villareal, Dra. María L.; Acevedo Quiroz, M. C. Macdiel E.; Marquina Bahena, M. C. Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra. Laura P.; Rodríguez-López, Dra. Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera. PMID:26664022

  13. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    OpenAIRE

    R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez; EGUIARTE, LUIS E.; María del Coro Arizmendi; Pablo Corcuera

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements....

  14. Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests: the diversification of Bursera (Burseraceae, Sapindales).

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    De-Nova, J Arturo; Medina, Rosalinda; Montero, Juan Carlos; Weeks, Andrea; Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2012-01-01

    • Mesoamerican arid biomes epitomize neotropical rich and complex biodiversity. To document some of the macroevolutionary processes underlying the vast species richness of Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), and to evaluate specific predictions about the age, geographical structure and niche conservatism of SDTF-centered woody plant lineages, the diversification of Bursera is reconstructed. • Using a nearly complete Bursera species-level phylogeny from nuclear and plastid genomic markers, we estimate divergence times, test for phylogenetic and temporal diversification heterogeneity, test for geographical structure, and reconstruct habitat shifts. • Bursera became differentiated in the earliest Eocene, but diversified during independent early Miocene consecutive radiations that took place in SDTFs. The late Miocene average age of Bursera species, the presence of phylogenetic geographical structure, and its strong conservatism to SDTFs conform to expectations derived from South American SDTF-centered lineages. • The diversification of Bursera suggests that Mesoamerican SDTF richness derives from high speciation from the Miocene onwards uncoupled from habitat shifts, during a period of enhanced aridity resulting mainly from global cooling and regional rain shadows.

  15. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

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    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  16. Rutin from Ruta graveolens L

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    Dj. Afshar

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of rutin in Ruta Graveolens, L. which is easily cultivated in Iran, is necessary for its economic importance, diversity of specialities and their pharmacological activity in blood vessels disorders. For this purpose, the plant was cultivated in botanical garden of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and rutin was determinated at different stages of plant growth. The extraction was done from the crude plants by ethanol, boiling water and hydroalcoholic solvents. Rutin was subsequently purified by crystalization."nStructure elucidation was confirmed by the U.V spectrum in the presence of shift-producing reagents, and TLC by using different systems, HPLC and HPTLC in the presence of standard."nSugars and their sequence of bonding to genine were known by acidic hydrolysis, sequential hydrolysis and TLC in the presence of standards. For quantitative determinations of rutin two methods were selected i.e. HPLC and colorimetery. In the colorimetrey method, cyanidin reaction was used for color producing and the absorbances of other compounds of extract were eliminated in coincidence with rutin absorption.. In the HPLC method, separation was done on CN- column with mobile phase including dioxan/phosphate bnffer (pH=2.6; 2:8. In the end the results of two methods were compared.

  17. Diagnóstico del potencial empresarial: análisis de la zona comercial Triana 

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    Batista Canino, Rosa María

    1999-01-01

    [ES] El objeto de este trabajo es articular el proceso a seguir y determinar los factores que permiten medir el potencial empresarial de un individuo, una organización o un entorno concreto. La aplicación de la metodología propuesta se desarrolla en la Zona Comercial Triana.

  18. Estudios morfoanatómicos en Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae. I. Etapas tempranas del desarrollo del fruto

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    Miguel Ángel Gamboa-Gaitán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La flor nacional de Colombia, Cattleya trianae, es un emblemático ejemplo de las orquídeas ornamentales de importancia económica. Si bien algunos estudios se han realizado en aspectos como reproducción y ecología, no hay estudios morfoanatómicos registrados para esta especie, por lo que con el presente manuscrito se pretende iniciar una serie de publicaciones que aporten información en este campo acerca de una especie particularmente atractiva por ser un símbolo nacional. Este estudio se centra en la anatomía del ovario y en los cambios que experimenta en los siguientes días a la polinización. El ovario muestra dos cavidades longitudinales, una para atraer al polinizador y otra para contener los óvulos que serán semillas tras la fertilización. Varios cambios anatómicos como la acumulación de un material de depósito que tapona el acceso a los óvulos y la formación de haces vasculares, son notables en los primeros días luego de la polinización en esta especie. La importancia de dichos cambios así como el uso de la anatomía para el estudio de la historia natural de las especies se discute aquí, ya que hay posiciones contradictorias al respecto.

  19. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

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    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction.

  20. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams.

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    Ekiert, H; Czygan, F-Ch

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dynamics of accumulation of linear furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, imperatorin) and their biogenetic precursor, umbelliferone, in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The metabolites under study were almost exclusively accumulated in the cultured biomass. The total content of all metabolites increased 4.8- and 2.0-fold, in R. graveolens and R. graveolens ssp. divaricata cultures, respectively. Xanthotoxin and bergapten, which are the most important therapeutic compounds, were the dominating metabolites in cultures of both plants. The maximum content of xanthotoxin (25.0 mg/100 g dry wt.) and bergapten (18.4 mg/100 g dry wt) and the maximum content of all metabolites (64.0 mg/100 g dry wt) in R. graveolens ssp. divaricata callus obtained on the 35th culture day were relatively low. However, maximum contents of xanthotoxin (136.8 mg/100 g dry wt), bergapten (210.4 mg/100 g dry wt.) and isopimpinellin (96.7 mg/100 g dry wt), and total content of all metabolites in R. graveolens shoots (520.8 mg/100 g dry wt) obtained on the 42nd culture day are interesting from a practical point of view.

  1. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

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    R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha, serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  2. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  3. EVALUACIÓN BIOINSECTICIDA DE EXTRACTOS DE BURSERA COPALLIFERA (D.C.) BULLOCK Y BURSERA GRANDIFOLIA (SCHLTDL.) ENGL. EN GUSANO COGOLLERO SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

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    L. Aldana Llanos; D.O. Salinas Sánchez; Ma.E. Valdés Estrada; M. Gutiérrez Ochoa; M.G. Valladares Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la actividad bioinsecticida de extractos orgánicos de Bursera copallifera y B. grandifolia sobre larvas L1 de Spodoptera frugiperda. Es probable que el extracto acetónico (500 ppm) de hojas de B. copallifera tenga actividad antialimentaria sobre el gusano cogollero al reducir en un 50% el peso larval a los 14 días. También produjo 47% de mortalidad larval, mientras que el extracto hexánico produjo un 44% de pupas deformes, y de la población que emergió, el 14% se des...

  4. Hardening of the national flower of Colombia, the threatened Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae), from in vitro culture with previous invigoration phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Mesa, Neftali; Urueña, Gloria

    2007-06-01

    Cattleya trianae is an endemic species from the tropical rainforest in the Colombian Andes. Its survival is currently threatened due to habitat loss and commercial overexploitation. This study evaluates ten substrates, some organic (pine bark, coconut fiber and wood shavings), some inert icopor (polystyrene foam), vegetable coal and their combinations, and the effects these have on morphometric and phenotypic traits in the hardening phase of 250 plants of C. trianae cultivated in vitro. Recorded data include percent survival, length of longest leaf, biomass (wet weight) and number of roots and leaves at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After the hardening phase, the plants were taken to a greenhouse and later to the natural environment. Coconut fiber alone or mixed in equal parts with pine bark and coal was the most efficient substrate when percent survival (80+/-SE=0.3742), biomass, and leaf length were evaluated. Hardened plants displayed qualitative characteristics such as vigor, hardness and waxy texture, strength of green coloration in the leaves, and velamen formation. Under greenhouse conditions, plants grew better with filtered light, relative humidity bordering on 80 %, permanent aeration, misting with water, and an average temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C. Invigorated plants were firmly anchored on their host trees.

  5. Discrete nanoparticles of ruta graveolens induces the bacterial and fungal biofilm inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Deepa, Oyyappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-08-01

    Ruta graveolens silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed the color change within 30 min and characterized using UV-visible spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). UV-visible spectrum of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the sharp peak at the wavelength of 440-560 nm. XRD patterns confirmed that crystalline nature of R. graveolens AgNPs and FTIR results revealed that phytochemical reaction of these R. graveolens is responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. TEM results showed the size of the R. graveolens AgNPs around 30-50 nm with spherical and triangular nature. Further, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the effective inhibitory activity against clinically important Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Our findings suggest that R. graveolens AgNPs can be exploited toward the development of potential antibacterial agents for various biomedical and environmental applications.

  6. Ontogenetic modulation of branch size, shape, and biomechanics produces diversity across habitats in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Aguirre-Hernández, Rebeca; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Organismal size and shape inseparably interact with tissue biomechanical properties. It is therefore essential to understand how size, shape, and biomechanics interact in ontogeny to produce morphological diversity. We estimated within species branch length-diameter allometries and reconstructed the rates of ontogenetic change along the stem in mechanical properties across the simaruba clade in the tropical tree genus Bursera, measuring 376 segments from 97 branches in nine species in neotropical dry to rain forest. In general, species with stiffer materials had longer, thinner branches, which became stiffer more quickly in ontogeny than their counterparts with more flexible materials. We found a trend from short stature and flexible tissues to tall statures and stiff tissues across an environmental gradient of increasing water availability, likely reflecting a water storage-mechanical support tradeoff. Ontogenetic variation in size, shape, and mechanics results in diversity of habits, for example, rapid length extension, sluggish diameter expansion, and flexible tissues results in a liana, as in Bursera instabilis. Even species of similar habit exhibited notable changes in tissue mechanical properties with increasing size, illustrating the inseparable relationship between organismal proportions and their tissue mechanics in the ontogeny and evolution of morphological diversity.

  7. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  8. Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

    2007-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent.

  9. Orbit Determination (OD) Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission and for the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    The Triana spacecraft was designed to be launched by the Space Shuttle. The nominal Triana mission orbit will be a Sun-Earth L1 libration point orbit. Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination (OD) error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana mission from the first correction maneuver through approximately launch plus 6 months. Results are also presented for the science data collection phase of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission concept with momentum unloading thrust perturbations during the tracking arc. The Triana analysis includes extensive analysis of an initial short arc orbit determination solution and results using both Deep Space Network (DSN) and commercial Universal Space Network (USN) statistics. These results could be utilized in support of future Sun-Earth libration point missions.

  10. COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF IAJULA VISCOSA, I.GRAVEOLENS AND I. HELENIUM SUBSP. TURCORACEMOSA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Steam distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Inula viscosa, I. graveolens andfrom rhizomes of I. helenium subsp. turcoracemosa (Asteraceae) were analysed by GCMS. The main components of essential oils were identified as carvacrol(18.6 %) in I. viscosa, L-borneol (63.96 %) in I. graveolens and alantolactone (59.6 %) in I. helenium subsp. turcoracemosa.Key Words: Inula viscosa, Inula graveolens, Inula helenium subsp. turcoracemosa,essential oils.

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvre, Karine; Tran, Thi Lê Minh; Doerper, Sébastien; Hehn, Alain; Lacoste, Paul; Thomasset, Brigitte; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Gontier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to develop a genetic transformation method for a medicinal plant Ruta graveolens. The direct plant regeneration strategy is preferred to callus line establishment. In vitro seedlings, 2- -to 3-wk-old, are used to excise hypocotyls and co-cultivated for 3 d with A. tumefaciens strain C58C1Rif containing plasmid pTDE4 harbouring neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II, kanamycin resistance) and beta-glucuronidase encoding genes. The Southern blot analysis has shown that 78% kanamycin resistant plants contain gene encoding beta-glucuronidase. The GUS histochemical assay shows that 67% transgenic plants exhibit the corresponding enzymatic activity. Routine transformation efficiency of R. graveolens L. is 11% and could reach up to 22%. Transgenic plants are grown in the greenhouse within 4 months after the initial seedlings.

  12. Furanocoumarins: novel topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2009-10-01

    Topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens are reported for the first time. Potent topoisomerase I inhibitory activity from in vitro culture extracts R. graveolens were observed. Stabilization of DNA-topoisomerase covalent complex was observed in all the tested extracts. The mechanism of topoisomerase inhibition was determined by preincubation studies. The irreversible topoisomerase I mediated relaxation of plasmid in enzyme-substrate preincubation study, indicated that the observed inhibitory activity of extract constituents was not mediated through conformational changes in the DNA. Furthermore, the affinity of inhibitors with the enzyme was tested by enzyme-extract preincubation study. Increase in inhibition of topoisomerase activity and promotion of DNA-enzyme complex was observed after enzyme-extract preincubation. The activity could be assigned to furanocoumarins-psoralen, bergapten and xanthotoxin, identifying them as novel, potent topoisomerase I inhibitors.

  13. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  14. A New Cytotoxic Clerodane Diterpene from Casearia graveolens Twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Sripisut, Tawanun; Maneerat, Wisanu; Machan, Theeraphan; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The first phytochemical investigation of Casearia graveolens twigs led to the isolation and identification of a new clerodane diterpene, caseariagraveolin (1), together with six known compounds (2-7). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity against oral cavity and breast cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 2.48 and 6.63 µM, respectively.

  15. Hallazgo de Pelliciera Rhizophorae Triana & Planchon (Theaceae en la Costa del Atlántico, con observaciones taxonómicas y biogeográficas preliminares Hallazgo de Pelliciera Rhizophorae Triana & Planchon (Theaceae en la Costa del Atlántico, con observaciones taxonómicas y biogeográficas preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón Sáenz Eduardo

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Pelliciera rhizopharae Triana & Planchon es reported for the first time in the Atlantic Coast. This species has been considered so far as an endemics in the tropical American Pacific coast. Some biogeographical and taxonomic observations are included, as well as a description of the material found.

    Se reporta por primera vez el "mangle piñuelo" Pelliciera rhizophorae Triana & Planchon para la costa del Atlántico. Esta especie es considerada hasta la fecha endémica en la costa tropical del Pacifico americana. Acompañan el reporte algunas observaciones de carácter biogeográfico y taxonómico, así como una descripción de los ejemplares encontrados.

  16. Efecto de lignificación de estacas sobre enraizamiento de Bursera morelensis Ram. y Bursera galeottiana Engl. en la Universidad de la Cañada en Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Loeza-Corte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Burseras son características de la selva baja caducifolia, se distribuyen desde el sur de Estados Unidos hasta Perú y son utilizadas para la extracción de resinas como el copal y talla de madera como los alebrijes. Por ello, se estableció un experimento de bloques completos al azar con arreglo factorial; los elementos de estudio fueron Bursera morelensis Ram. y Bursera galeottiana Engl. El grado alto y bajo de lignificación de estacas fue utilizado para evaluar el porcentaje de enraizamiento, volumen de raíz y número de brotes aéreos. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje mayor de enraizamiento en B. morelensis se logra con poco grado de lignificación, mientras que en B. galeottiana es mayor. Esto muestra que la reproducción asexual puede ser una alternativa para la propagación de este género en el estado de Oaxaca.

  17. Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tanise Gonçalves; Augusto, Patrice Martins; Montanari, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is used in many countries, including Brazil, as an abortifacient. To determine its effect on pregnancy, the lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of its aerial parts was administered orally at a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day to mice between the first and third day of pregnancy (DOP), between the fourth and sixth DOP or between the seventh and ninth DOP. The extract did not cause preimplantation embryonic loss or reabsorptions. Fetal death was found. Estrogenic activity was not exhibited by the extract.

  18. Free phenolic acids in Ruta graveolens L. in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A; Kuś, A

    2009-10-01

    Eight phenolic acids were determined using HPLC method in methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) shoots cultured in vitro on four variants of Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium differing in contents of growth regulators, NAA and BAP (ranging between 0.1-3.0 mg/l). Four compounds: protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and p-coumaric acid were detected and quantified. The total content of metabolites was dependent on LS medium variants. The contents of protocatechuic acid, quantitatively dominating on all tested LS medium variants, were considerable (from 67.15 to 93.24 mg/100 g d.w.) in comparison with its contents in the plant material under analysis (46.36 to 218.27 mg/ 100 g d.w.). This is the first report of the isolation of protocatechuic acid from an in vitro plant culture.

  19. Fototoxicidad tras exposición a ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zayas-Pinedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La fototoxicidad es un tipo de reacción cutánea inflamatoria que se produce como consecuencia de la exposición a una sustancia química en combinación con la exposición a radiaciones lumínicas. Ruta graveolens, comúnmente llamada ruda, ha sido descrita en numerosas publicaciones como sustancia causante de reacciones de fototoxicidad. Presentamos el caso de una pareja que sufrió una reacción de fototoxicidad que requirió ingreso en la Unidad de Quemados como consecuencia del contacto con una infusión de ruda y posterior exposición solar. Consideramos que todo profesional que se ocupa del tratamiento de quemaduras debe incluir las fitofotodermatitis dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de las pérdidas cutáneas de espesor parcial.

  20. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae Baker, en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gómez María Argenis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se trataron algunos aspectos sobre la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae, una bromelia terrestre de los páramos colombianos. Se observó una separación espacio-temporal de los órganos
    reproductivos que determina la condición de protoginia en las flores a partir del inicio de la antesis, fase de la
    flor cuyo estigma se torna receptivo y la producción de néctar es significativa. Se encontró en P. trianae un sistema reproductivo auto compatible, lo que permitió a las inflorescencias auto polinizarse y ser fecundadas con polen foráneo; la fructificación de la población bajo condiciones naturales (éxito reproductivo estuvo limitada por la predación y los polinizadores. Las rosetas solo asignaron el 13% de su biomasa en su esfuerzo reproductivo, el porcentaje restante fue invertido en su crecimiento vegetativo. Se registró la floración de la población hacia la época húmeda (junio-agosto de 2003, el clima fue poco favorable para los polinizadores, pero adecuado para evitar la deshidratación de las flores y la evaporación del néctar. La fructificación ocurrió en la época seca (diciembre-febrero de 2004, tiempo propicio para la dehiscencia de los frutos y la dispersión eólica de las semillas. Se observaron y determinaron los colibríes Aglaeactis cupripennis y Pterophanes cyanopterus como polinizadores eficientes, además de los insectos residentes de las familias Nitidulidae (Coleoptera y Phoridae (Diptera, cuyas larvas fueron predadores importantes de la inflorescencia.

  1. Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin by Pelargonium graveolens essential oil against selected uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tripti; Singh, Padma; Pant, Shailja; Chauhan, Nirpendra; Lohani, Hema

    2011-08-01

    The recent approach of using herbs and antibiotics in combination constitutes a strategy to overcome the problems of resistance and side effects associated with conventional antibiotics. In the present study, the antimicrobial effect of Pelargonium graveolens L' Hér essential oil in combination with ciprofloxacin was evaluated on uropathogens, namely, Klebsiella pneumoniae KT2, Proteus mirabilis PRT3 and Staphylococcus aureus ST2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin were determined by the microbroth dilution method and further, the interaction between these two agents was studied by a checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated to be 0.375 for both K. pneumoniae KT2 and P. mirabilis PRT3, while for S. aureus ST2 it was found to be 0.5. The values of FICI for the tested microorganisms were found to be ≤0.5, which indicates synergism between P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin. The concave shaped curve in the isobolograms also depicted a synergistic effect of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin against the tested microorganisms. Hence, the synergistic action of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin may be applied for the treatment of UTIs, which have hitherto been treated by using only synthetic drugs.

  2. Infraspecific morphological variations in Acinos graveolens (M.B. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Talebi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of ecological factors on phenotype plasticity in the natural populations of Acinos graveolens in Iran. In total, twenty six quantitative and qualitative morphological traits were examined in the sixteen populations at two sections: inter- and intrapopulation. In the interpopulation section, averages amounts of morphological characteristics of populations were examined, while in the intrapopulation, morphological features of the seventy six plant samples of the populations were investigated. The obtained data showed that these characteristics differed between and within the populations and the analysis of variance test and one-sample test have shown significant differences of all quantitative characteristics. The biplot Principal Correspondence Analysis (PCA-biplot of traits showed some populations had indicator morphological characteristic(s which were useful in detecting of these populations. Significant correlations were found between some quantitative characteristics with ecological factors. The studied populations were separated from each other in the PCA and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO plots and the Unweighted Paired Group using Average method (UPGMA tree. The PCA plot of morphological features showed that some characteristics separated from others and the rest ones were together and had overlapping. The individuals of the studied populations were separated from others in the PCA and PCO plots and the UPGMA tree of the morphological characteristics. Individuals of some populations arranged separately and placed far from others, but this condition was reverse in the rest populations and most of individuals placed near each other. The obtained data confirmed high variations within some populations.

  3. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily for 2 months. The blood lipids including total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol from each group were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Use of gemfibrozil brought about increased HDL-cholesterol by 3.91% (P < 0.05 and reduced triglyceride and total cholesterol by 32.7% (P < 0.05 and 9.41% (P < 0.05, respectively. Applying Dill tablet for 2 months resulted in reduction of total cholesterol up to 18% (P < 0.05 and triglyceride by 7.38% (P < 0.05. However, circulating HDL-cholesterol was not affected by this treatment. In this study, gemfibrozil decreased triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol more than anethum (P < 0.05. Anethum decreased total cholesterol more than gemfibrozil (P < 0.05. Patients treated with anethum did not report any side effects. Conclusion: The results of this trial indicate that Dill might be beneficial for hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglycemic patients.

  4. [Fatal poisoning caused by oil of epazote, Chenopodium graveolens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Cabrera, M A; Escalante-Galindo, P; Meckes-Fisher, M; Sánchez-Vaca, G; Flores-Alvarez, E; Reynoso-García, M

    1996-01-01

    We present a case of acute lethal poisoning by oil of "epazote" (oil of chenopodium), in a 2 y 9 m female. The volatile oil was administered according to the advice of a "curandera" (female healer), in a total quantity of 40 ml. Clinical features of the poisoning were: vomiting, deep coma, seizures, mydriasis, apnea, metabolic acidosis, neurogenic shock and death. The EEG suggested a diffuse encephalopathy, the CT scan with an image of severe brain edema and ventricular collapse. Relevant postmortem findings were brain edema and neuronal necrosis, pneumonia, enteritis, pericholangitis, mild pancreatitis and tubular necrosis. The phytochemical analysis of volatile oil identified ascaridol, the main active compound of the chenopodium herbs, in a quantity of 39 mg/ml (1,560 mg in the dose administered), and Chenopodium graveolens as the plant employed to prepare it. According to the age of the patient, 60 mg of ascaridol would be the recommended dose formerly used in the treatment of parasitic disease. Thus 1,560 mg was 26 times higher than the recommended dose, and exceeded by 56% the dose of 1,000 mg reported as lethal in humans.

  5. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  6. Inhibitory effects of Ruta graveolens L. extract on guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, Saieed; Saieed, Pirouzpanah; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Reza, Rashidi Mohammad; Delazar, Abbas; Abbas, Delazar; Razavieh, Seyyed-Vali; Seyyedvali, Razavieh; Hamidi, Aliasghar; Aliasghar, Hamidi

    2006-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plant with various biological properties. In the present study, the effects of R. graveolens extract on aldehyde oxidase, a molybdenum hydroxylase, are investigated. Aldehyde oxidase was partially purified from liver homogenates of mature male guinea pigs by heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation. The total extract was obtained by macerating the aerial parts of R. graveolens in MeOH 70% and the effect of this extract on the enzyme activity was assayed using phenanthridine, vanillin and benzaldehyde as substrates. Quercetin and its glycoside form, rutin were isolated, purified and identified from the extract and their inhibitory effects on the enzyme were investigated. R. graveolens extract exhibited a high inhibition on aldehyde oxidase activity (89-96%) at 100 microg/ml which was comparable with 10 microM of menadione, a specific potent inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effect of extract against the oxidation of benzaldehyde, vanillin and phenanthridine were 10.4, 10.1, 43.2 microg/ml, respectively. Both quercetin and rutin at 10 microM caused 70-96% and 27-52% inhibition on the enzyme activity, respectively. Quercetin was more potent inhibitor than rutin, but both flavonols exerted their inhibitory effects mostly in a linear mixed-type.

  7. Extraction, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was extract, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. The leaves and stems of S. graveolens were collected in the district of Puquio 3800 m.s.n.m., Lucanas province, and department of Ayacucho. The essential oil was obtained by steam water destilation dried leaves and stems with yield 1.26% (w/w to which physical testing were performed. The chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS. Antibacterial activity of S. graveolens oil was tested by agar diffusion method in wells against Gram positive strains such as S. aureus ATCC 29923 and Gram negative as E. coli. The density a 20 ºC was 0.8755 g/ml; the index refraction was 1.4726 and the rate rotation was 102° 85' and the solubility miscible in ethanol. The GC-MS showed the main components sabinene (52.39 %, (+-4-carene (8.20 %, τ-terpinen (7.11 %, β-myrcene (6.74 %, 4-terpinenol (3.78 % and pulegone (3.67 %. The results showing activity strong antibacterial activity and moderate, respectively, for the strains tested, observing formation of inhibition halos for essential oil concentrations at 80, 90 and 100 % in both strains. The essential oil of S. graveolens presented with promising antibacterial activity.

  8. In Vitro Trials of Dittrichia graveolens Essential Oil Combined with Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Kocić, Branislava D; Marković, Marija S; Miladinović, Ljiljana C

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter essential oil were examined. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil. The antibacterial activity was investigated by the broth microdilution method against thirteen bacterial strains. The interactions of the essential oil and three standard antibiotics: chloramphenicol, tetracycline and streptomycin toward five selected strains were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay in combination with chemometric methods: principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant compound class in the essential oil (40.6%), with bomyl acetate (21.7%) as the major compound. The essential oil exhibited slight antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains in vitro, but the combinations D. graveolens essential oil-chloramphenicol and D. graveolens-tetracycline exhibited mostly synergistic or additive interactions. These combinations reduced the minimum effective dose of the antibiotics and, consequently, minimized their adverse side effects. In contrast, the association of D. graveolens essential oil and streptomycin was characterized by strong antagonistic interactions against E. coli ATCC 25922, S. aureus ATCC 29213 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), streptomycin against these bacterial strains stood out and formed a separate group.

  9. Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varamini, P; Soltani, M; Ghaderi, A

    2009-01-01

    There are reports on the presence of various compounds exerting different biological activities in Ruta graveolens, a plant of Rutaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the total extract of R. graveolens against tumor cell lines of different origin. Aerial parts of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol by sonication method and cytotoxic activity was examined on RAJI, RAMOS, RPMI8866, U937, Jurkat, MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, LNCap-FGC-10, 5637, HeLa, SK-OV-3, A549, Mehr-80 and also peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the use of WST-1 assay. Results were expressed as IC(50) values. R. graveolens extract showed high cytotoxic activity against RAJI and RAMOS, two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, with an IC(50) equal to 24.3 microg/ml and 35.2 microg/ml respectively and LNCap-FGC-10, a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line with an IC(50) equal to 27.6 microg/ml as well as Mehr-80, a newly established Large Cell Lung Carcinoma (IC(50)=46.2 microg/ml). No significant anti-proliferative activity was observed on other cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, HeLa, 5637, JURKAT and RPMI8866. Adverse cytotoxic effect of R. graveolens was investigated against PBMCs and a significantly lower effect of this extract (IC(50)=104 microg/ml) was seen on normal cells compared with RAJI and RAMOS, two haematopoietic cell lines.

  10. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  11. Lippia graveolens and Carya illinoensis Organic Extracts and there in vitro Effect Against Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn

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    Francisco D. Hernandez-Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter, water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50×101 and C. illinoensis (4.33×102 extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.

  12. Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Multivariate Analysis, and Antimicrobial Activity.

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    Mitic, Violeta; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Ilic, Marija; Jovanovic, Olga; Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter essential oil was studied. Moreover, using agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHC) and principal component analyses (PCA), the interrelationships of the D. graveolens essential-oil profiles characterized so far (including the sample from this study) were investigated. To evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil, GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were performed. Altogether, 54 compounds were identified, accounting for 92.9% of the total oil composition. The D. graveolens oil belongs to the monoterpenoid chemotype, with monoterpenoids comprising 87.4% of the totally identified compounds. The major components were borneol (43.6%) and bornyl acetate (38.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that the compounds borneol and bornyl acetate exerted the greatest influence on the spatial differences in the composition of the reported oils. The antimicrobial activity against five bacterial and one fungal strain was determined using a disk-diffusion assay. The studied essential oil was active only against Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  14. BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DEL ORÉGANO MEXICANO (Lippia graveolens Kunth) EN TRES CONDICIONES DE APROVECHAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) se recolecta de casi todo el territorio nacional y su aprovechamiento coincide con el periodo de floración de la planta limitando la formación de frutos y semillas. Se estudiaron aspectos de la reproducción de L. graveolens en individuos de una población silvestre sin aprovechamiento (San Juan Raya, estado de Puebla, México) y de otra población silvestre pero con aprovechamiento constante (La Salitrera, estado de Guanajuato), y de una población cu...

  15. Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Nair, Cherappally K K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well as a flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presents evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathic preparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. The percentage of aberrated cells in the 400mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with 1,000 mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The value for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to the 3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract (400 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight) and Ruta 200C for 30 days. Administration of the extract (1,000 mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of the bone marrow cells increased from 4.5 to 50.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7. These results indicate that Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals.

  16. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  17. Pelargonium oil and methyl hexaneamine (MHA): analytical approaches supporting the absence of MHA in authenticated Pelargonium graveolens plant material and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Weerasooriya, Aroona; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas; Eichner, Amy; Bowers, Larry D

    2012-09-01

    Methylhexaneamine (MHA) has been marketed in dietary supplements based on arguments that it is a constituent of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaves, stems, roots or oil, and therefore qualifies as a dietary ingredient. The purpose of this study is to determine whether P. graveolens plant material (authenticated) or its oil contains detectable quantities of MHA. Two analytical methods were developed for the analysis of MHA in P. graveolens using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results were further confirmed using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty commercial volatile oils, three authenticated volatile oils and authenticated P. graveolens leaves and stems (young and mature, and fresh and dried) were analyzed for MHA content. In addition, three dietary supplements containing MHA that alleged P. graveolens as the source are analyzed for their MHA content. The data show that none of the authenticated P. graveolens essential oils or plant material, nor any commercial volatile oil of Pelargonium (geranium oil) contain MHA at detectable levels (limit of detection: 10 ppb). The dietary supplements that contained MHA as one of their ingredients (allegedly from geranium or geranium stems) contained large amounts of MHA. The amounts of MHA measured are incompatible with the use of reasonable amounts of P. graveolens extract or concentrate, suggesting that MHA was of synthetic origin.

  18. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F Ch

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate dynamics of accumulation of five linear furanocoumarins and umbelliferone in stationary liquid cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The contents of individual metabolites in biomass increased 1.8-3.5 times while their total content rose 2.3 times. Maximum contents of xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin (112.3, 76.2 and 84.0mg/100g d.w., respectively) and maximum total content of all metabolites (283.4 mg/100 g d.w.), obtained on 35th culture day, are interesting from practical point of view.

  19. Identification of Ruta graveolens L. metabolites accumulated in the presence of abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Kumirska, Jolanta; Maliński, Edmund; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Gajdus, Jerzy; Lojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to elucidate the effects of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and saccharin on the biosynthesis of simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins, and furoquinolone alkaloids in shoots of R. graveolens cultivated in vitro. The biosynthesized metabolites were analyzed and identified by GC-MS and by comparison of Kovats indices. Eight coumarin metabolites were identified: bergapten, chalepin, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, rutacultin, rutamarin, and xanthotoxin, and also four alkaloids: dictamnine, gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, and kokusaginine. Each of the tested BTH concentrations induced a significant production of furanocoumarins and furoquinolone alkaloids. The use of saccharin also increased the production of bergapten, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, and xanthotoxin several times.

  20. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant induced model of arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Helen, A

    2009-04-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens (MER) exhibited maximum percentage of oedema inhibition at a dose of 20 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug indomethacin. The activities of cycloxygenase-2 and myeloperoxidase and concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C & E and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with MER. The increment in ESR and total WBC, reduction in RBC count and haemoglobin and aberrant changes to the C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin levels observed in the arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in MER treated rats. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased oedema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with MER. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

  1. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  2. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Zakir; Shad, Anwar Ali; Bakht, Jehan; Ullah, Inam; Jan, Saleem

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluates the phytochemical screenings, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assay of Apium graveolens L. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids in Apium graveolens while terpenoids was absent. The total phenolic content was slightly higher in methanolic fraction (63.46 ± 12.00 mg GAE/g) followed by ethanol (36.60 ± 12.28 mg GAE/g) and hexane fractions (34.86 ± 6.96 mg GAE/g). The flavonoid content was high in methanolic extract (56.95 ± 7.14 mg Quorcetin/g) and low level of the content was found in methylated spirit extract (29.2 ± 3.15 mg Quercitin/g). Antioxidant activity assayed by FRAP was higher in methanolic fraction (12.48 ± 1.06 mmole of FeSO₄equivalent/litre of extract) compared with other extracts. Likewise, good antimicrobial activity was measured by crude ethanol fraction against S. aureus (MIC=0.12 ± 0.03 μg/ml) and S. typhi (MIC= 0.5 ± 0.2 μg/ml). Results also that ethanolic fraction was effective against A. flavus (MIC= 05 ± 1.0 μg/ml).

  4. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

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    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  5. Application of chitin and chitosan as elicitors of coumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids in Ruta graveolens L. (common rue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Malinski, Edmund; Kumirska, Jolanta; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Łojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    Common rue (Ruta graveolens L.) accumulates various types of secondary metabolites, such as coumarins furanocoumarins, acridone and quinolone alkaloids and flavonoids. Elicitation is a tool extensively used for enhancing secondary-metabolite yields. Chitin and chitosan are examples of elicitors inducing phytoalexin accumulation in plant tissue. The present paper describes the application of chitin and chitosan as potential elicitors of secondary-metabolite accumulation in R. graveolens shoots cultivated in vitro. The simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids biosynthesized in the presence of chitin and chitosan were isolated, separated and identified. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of R. graveolens shoots in the presence of either chitin or chitosan. Moreover, the results of the elicitation of coumarins and alkaloids accumulated by R. graveolens shoots in the presence of chitin and chitosan show that both compounds induced a significant increase in the concentrations of nearly all the metabolites. Adding 0.01% chitin caused the increase in the quantity (microg/g dry weight) of coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7, rutacultin up to 287.0, bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5 and rutamarin up to 133.7). The higher concentration of chitosan (0.1%) induced production of simple coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7 and rutacultin up to 287.0), furanocoumarins (bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5) and dihydrofuranocoumarins (chalepin up to 18 and rutamarin up to 133.7). Such a dramatic increase in the production of nearly all metabolites suggests that these compounds may be participating in the natural resistance mechanisms of R. graveolens. The application of chitin- and chitosan-containing media may be considered a promising prospect in the biotechnological production of xanthotoxin

  6. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

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    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  7. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L. on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Kooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, volume (5, issue (2, year 2015, an article entitled “Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats” was published and the papers like this should be appreciated. However, the paper has some drawbacks which if not resolve, could be misleading for researchers who tend to use it or do research in its direction. So, with all due respect to the research team, we decided to evaluate the paper ambiguities in order to improve the quality of future articles.

  8. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

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    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006 and AGEs formation (P=0.003 significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications.

  9. Effect of polyamines on shoot multiplication and furanocoumarin production in Ruta graveolens cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2012-07-01

    The influence of the polyamines putrescine (Put), spermine (Spr) and spermidine (Spd) on growth and furanocoumarin production was investigated by exogenous addition, at different concentrations, to shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens at different phases of growth. Preliminary studies indicated that addition of Put (20 microM) and Spr (80 microM) had a promotive effect on shoot multiplication rate and number of multiple shoots formed. Spd was toxic, even at lower concentrations. The growth-phase of the culture at the time of exogenous addition of polyamines was found to be an important factor. Put was most effective when added at the lag phase, while Spr was most effective when added in the log phase. Time course studies of growth and furanocoumarin content were carried out for each polyamine and phase of addition. It was seen that maximum production of furanocoumarins (256.8 mg/10 g DW) occurred in the second week when Put was added in the lag phase and 260.5 mg/10 g DW in the fourth week when Spr was added in the log phase. Put addition resulted in a 3.10 fold increase in psoralen, 6.12 in xanthotoxin and 1.46 fold in bergapten production. Spr addition resulted in a 1.31 fold increase in psoralen, 4.11 fold in xanthotoxin and 1.49 fold in bergapten production. Results indicate that alteration of growth and furanocoumarin production kinetics is a combined outcome of choice of polyamine and the phase of culture at the time of exogenous addition. Polyamine addition enabled significant enhancement in production of pharmaceutically important bergapten and xanthotoxin in shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens, which could be explored for commercial production.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, S K; Gupta, B; Agrawal, C; Goswami, K; Das, H R

    2006-03-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is used for several therapeutic purposes worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of plant extract of Ruta graveolens on murine macrophage cells (J-774) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induces inflammatory response by stimulating the production of nitric oxide and other mediators. Significant inhibition (p=0.01 to p<0.002) of the LPS-induced nitric oxide production was observed in cells treated with plant extract in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition observed for the extract was significantly higher than that observed for rutin, a flavonoid constituent of the plant. At 40 microM rutin, a comparable concentration of this flavonoid in the highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of plant extract was used in this study; a 20% inhibition (p=0.058) was observed. Inhibition in inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene expression in the cells treated with the plant extract suggests an inhibition at the transcription level. Interestingly, a concomitant decrease in transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene has also been observed in cells treated with the plant extract and this inhibition is significantly higher than that observed with the highest concentration of rutin (80 microM) used in the study. As an inflammatory response, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 enzymes leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. Hence, the significant inhibitory effects on both of these inflammatory mediators unravel a novel anti-inflammatory action of this plant.

  11. In silico target fishing for rationalized ligand discovery exemplified on constituents of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Danzl, Birgit; Schwaiger, Stefan; Markt, Patrick; Schmidtke, Michaela; Gertsch, Jürg; Raduner, Stefan; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    The identification of targets whose interaction is likely to result in the successful treatment of a disease is of growing interest for natural product scientists. In the current study we performed an exemplary application of a virtual parallel screening approach to identify potential targets for 16 secondary metabolites isolated and identified from the aerial parts of the medicinal plant RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. Low energy conformers of the isolated constituents were simultaneously screened against a set of 2208 pharmacophore models generated in-house for the IN SILICO prediction of putative biological targets, i. e., target fishing. Based on the predicted ligand-target interactions, we focused on three biological targets, namely acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the human rhinovirus (HRV) coat protein and the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB (2)). For a critical evaluation of the applied parallel screening approach, virtual hits and non-hits were assayed on the respective targets. For AChE the highest scoring virtual hit, arborinine, showed the best inhibitory IN VITRO activity on AChE (IC (50) 34.7 muM). Determination of the anti-HRV-2 effect revealed 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and arborinine to be the most active antiviral constituents with IC (50) values of 11.98 muM and 3.19 muM, respectively. Of these, arborinine was predicted virtually. Of all the molecules subjected to parallel screening, one virtual CB (2) ligand was obtained, i. e., rutamarin. Interestingly, in experimental studies only this compound showed a selective activity to the CB (2) receptor ( Ki of 7.4 muM) by using a radioligand displacement assay. The applied parallel screening paradigm with constituents of R. GRAVEOLENS on three different proteins has shown promise as an IN SILICO tool for rational target fishing and pharmacological profiling of extracts and single chemical entities in natural product research.

  12. Specific accumulation and revised structures of acridone alkaloid glucosides in the tips of transformed roots of Ruta graveolens.

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    Kuzovkina, Inna; Al'terman, Irina; Schneider, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    The root tips of Ruta graveolens (common rue) show strong autofluorescence of acridone alkaloids, which are characteristic secondary metabolites of this plant. To study the specific distribution and accumulation of acridone alkaloids in various root segments of Ruta graveolens, root material was harvested from genetically transformed root cultures and extracts were investigated by chromatographic techniques and HPLC-(1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cells of the elongation and differentiation zones contained acridone glucosides and large amounts of acridone alkaloids, mainly rutacridone. Gravacridondiol glucoside was identified as the dominant secondary compound of the root tips and its structure revised by means of spectroscopic methods. In addition, minor acridones, including the structurally revised gravacridontriol glucoside and unknown natural products, were found in the root tip.

  13. Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannadi, A; Bagherinejad, MR; Abedi, D.; Jalali, M; Absalan, B; Sadeghi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities. Materials and Methods The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. ...

  14. Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

    2011-11-10

    Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/μL extract.

  15. Protective effects of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fractions of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation.

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    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2010-02-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India, were evaluated for their protective effect in acute and chronic models of inflammation. Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and adjuvant induced arthritis were employed as the experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation respectively. Isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction (AFR) from Ruta graveolens and evaluated its anti inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced acute model. AFR with a dose 10 mg/kg showed higher anti inflammatory effect than polyphenols and standard drug diclofenec. AFR significantly decreased the paw edema in arthritic rats. TBARS, COX-2, 5-LOX and MPO level were decreased and the levels of antioxidant enzymes and GSH level were increased on treatment with AFR. The increment in CRP level and ceruloplasmin level observed in arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in AFR treated rats. The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats.

  16. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  17. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia

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    Hsouna Anis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Ferrous Ion Chelating, Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Pure and Commercial Essential Oils of Anetrhum Graveolens

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    Sh Darvish Alipour Astaneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite slight toxicities of essential oils, they are not under strict control in many countries. Anethum graveolens is widely consumed and its essential oils are at public reach. This study was designed to study essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Methods: The biological properties of pure and commercial essential oils of Anethum graveolens were investigated. In fact, Ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging property, tyrosinase inhibition and total flavonoids of the oils were determined. Results: Chelating activity of 7.8 µg of EDTA was equivalent to 2 µg of the pure oil. The oils had superoxide anion radical scavenging activities which may be related to their total phenol and flavonoid contents. IC50 of ferrous ion chelating, antityrosiase and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of pure and commercial oils were 1.3, 1.4, 1 and (171.6, 589, 132 µg respectively. Antityrosiase activity of 6.4 µg pure oil was equal to 1000 µg of the commercial oil. Conclusion: Anethum possesses antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties. This oil chelates ferrous ions and superoxide radicals. It is effective in formation of reactive toxic products. Anethum has good potentials regarding its applications in food and drug industries.

  19. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

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    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  20. Unusually divergent 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Alexander; Martens, Stefan; Wellmann, Frank; Matern, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Most angiosperms encode a small family of 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases (4CLs) activating hydroxycinnamic acids for lignin and flavonoid pathways. The common rue, Ruta graveolens L., additionally produces coumarins by cyclization of the 4-coumaroyl moiety, possibly involving the CoA-ester, as well as acridone and furoquinoline alkaloids relying on (N-methyl)anthraniloyl-CoA as the starter substrate for polyketide synthase condensation. The accumulation of alkaloids and coumarins, but not flavonoids, was enhanced in Ruta graveolens suspension cultures upon the addition of fungal elicitor. Total RNA of elicitor-treated Ruta cells was used as template for RT-PCR amplification with degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from conserved motifs in AMP-binding proteins, and two full-size cDNAs were generated through RACE and identified as 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases, Rg4CL1 and Rg4CL2, by functional expression in yeast cells. The recombinant enzymes differed considerably in their preferential affinities to cinnamate (Rg4CL1) or ferulate (RgCL2) besides 4-coumarate, but did not activate hydroxybenzoic or (N-methyl)anthranilic acid. Most notably, the Rg4CL1 polypeptide included an N-terminal extension suggesting a chloroplast transit peptide. The genes were cloned and revealed four exons, separated by 1056, 94 and 54 bp introns for RgCL1, while Rg4CL2 was composed of five exons interupted by four introns from 113 to 350 bp, and the divergent heritage of these genes was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Both genes were expressed in shoot, leaf and flower tissues of adult Ruta plants with preference in shoot and flower, whereas negligible expression occurred in the root. However, Rg4CL1 was expressed much stronger in the flower, while Rg4CL2 was expressed mostly in the shoot. Furthermore, considerable transient induction of only Rg4CL1 was observed upon elicitation of Ruta cells, which seems to support a role of Rg4CL1 in coumarin biosynthesis.

  1. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

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    Rahim Golmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively. In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  2. [The fatty acid composition of Ruta graveolens seed oil and its byological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B Iu; Zurabishvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Nikolaĭshvili, M N

    2013-11-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography methods are qualitatively and quantitatively identified most biological important high fatty acids, contained in Ruta graveolens seed oil grown on the experimental plot of Kutateladze Institute of Pharmakochemistry (Georgia) and compare its biological activity. Their relative concentration is expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. The sample contained the range of fatty acids from С12:0 to С22:0. The investigation showed different sensitivity of components. In order of elution the list of compound are reported. The oil contained 2,08±0,1 mg% lauric, 2,18±0,1 mg% miristic, 3,98±0,1 mg% palmitic, 30,90±1,2 mg% stearic, 41,92±1,8 mg% oleic, 10,14±0,4 mg% linolic, 6,50±0,3 mg% linolenic, 2,00±0,1 mg% arachinic and 2,10±0,1 mg% begenic acid. The chromatography signals with retention values 7,96 and 14,08 minuts are qualitatively not identified.

  3. Algicidal and antifungal compounds from the roots of Ruta graveolens and synthesis of their analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Schrader, Kevin K; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2005-11-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens roots yielded rutacridone epoxide with potent selective algicidal activity towards the 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB)-producing blue-green alga Oscillatoria perornata, with relatively little effect on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. The diol-analog of rutacridone epoxide, gravacridondiol, which was also present in the same extract, had significantly less activity towards O. perornata. Rutacridone epoxide also showed significantly higher activity than commercial fungicides captan and benomyl in our micro-bioassay against the agriculturally important pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, and Botrytis cineara and Fusarium oxysporium. Rutacridone epoxide is reported as a direct-acting mutagen, precluding its use as an agrochemical. In order to understand the structure-activity relationships and to develop new potential biocides without toxicity and mutagenicity, some analogs containing the (2-methyloxiranyl)-dihydrobenzofuran moiety with an epoxide were synthesized and tested. None of the synthetic analogs showed comparable activities to rutacridone epoxide. The absolute stereochemistry of rutacridone was determined to be 2'(R) and that of rutacridone epoxide to be 2'(R), 3'(R) by CD and NMR analysis.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Ruta graveolens L. on oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteromic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in reducing oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. For the study rats were divided into three groups - control group, hypercholesteremic group and treatment group (20 mg MER/kg/d orally) - and were fed for 90 days. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, total WBC count, CRP level, TBARS, atherogenic index, activities of COX, 15 LOX in monocyte and serum myeloperoxidase were increased in cholesterol fed rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration reduced glutathione in liver and heart tissue and serum HDL-C were decreased in cholesterol fed rats. The results showed that level of total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index was decreased and HDL-C was increased in MER treated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be increased and the activity of MPO, COX and 15 LOX were decreased on supplementation with MER. Concentration of TBARS and total WBC count were decreased and GSH was increased on supplementation with MER. Histopathology of aorta of cholesterol fed rat showed marked alterations whereas the aorta of MER administrated rat showed no significant changes. These results suggested that MER reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. Thus the plant may therefore be useful for therapeutic treatment of clinical conditions associated atherosclerosis.

  5. Immobilising effect of Ruta graveolens L. on human spermatozoa: coumarin compounds are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Harat, Z; Lakpour, N; Sadeghipoor, H R; Kamalinejad, M; Eshraghian, M R; Naghibi, B; Akhondi, M M; Binaafar, S; Sadeghi, M R

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to find out Ruta graveolens L. functional components, which have immobilisation effect on human spermatozoa for contraceptive use. A five-step fractionation method was used to derive different components from rue aqueous extract by using hexane, chloroform, ethanol, acetone and ultrapure water. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometery (GC-MS) of all fractions and the aqueous extract were performed to determine the chemical components. The immobilisation assay and membrane integrity test were also performed with four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Hexane, chloroform, acetone and ethanol fractions could significantly decrease motility of sperms within the first and the second hours. Hexane fraction had also significant immediate effect. The aqueous fraction had no effect on sperm motility. Meanwhile, GC-MS revealed that aqueous extract and effective fractions had similar coumarin compounds. We performed the immobilisation assay on four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Reduction of sperm motility was only significant for xanthotoxin. In the sperm viability and membrane integrity tests, hexane and ethanolic fractions could impair sperm vitality significantly, in contrast to coumarins. These results indicated that a part of immobilising effect of rue could be due to its coumarins. The possible mechanism could be blocking of spermatozoa potassium channels.

  6. New quinoline alkaloid from Ruta graveolens aerial parts and evaluation of the antifertility activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Josline Y; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Hassan, Emad M; Shafik, Nabila H; Abdel-Latif, Sally M; Brouard, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanol extract of Ruta graveolens L. leaves yielded a new quinoline alkaloid, (4S) 1,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-1,4-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)quinoline 2,7-diol, and nine phenolic compounds including rutin as a major compound. Structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using chromatography, UV, HR-ESI-MS and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The uterotonic activity of methanol extract fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction) as well as the isolated major compounds was tested in the isolated mouse uterus in vitro. The n-butanol-soluble fraction was found to demonstrate the most potent uterotonic activity in a dose-dependent manner, also the major isolated compound rutin revealed the occurrence of an uterotonic response, which was maximum at a concentration level of 0.25 mg/mL, accounting for 68.7% of that exhibited by the chosen concentration of oxytocin.

  7. Biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ruta graveolens (L.) and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, K.; Raja Naika, H.; Manjunath, K.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.; Suresh, D.

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by biological method using aqueous stem extract of Ruta graveolens act as reducing agent. Formation of ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were subjected to biological properties such as antibacterial and antioxidant studies. The PXRD pattern reveals that ZnO sample belongs to hexagonal phase with Wurtzite structure. The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows an absorption band at 355 nm due to ZnO nanoparticles. SEM images show that the particles have spherical like structure with large surface area and the average crystallite sizes were found to be in the range ~28 nm. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis. The ZnO nanoparticles are found to inhibit the antioxidant activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals effectively. ZnO Nps exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Gram -ve bacterial strains such as Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Gram +ve Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion method.

  8. The effect of radiation of LED modules on the growth of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

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    Frąszczak Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light quality is thought to affect the growth and development of plants. We examined how light influences the growth and content of some chemical compounds in dill (Anethum graveolens L.. The plants were grown under different light quality. The share of orange and green light in the spectrum was constant and amounted to 10% for either colour. In the first combination (A, 70/10, there was 70% of red light and 10% of blue light. Other combinations had the following proportions: B 60/20, C 50/30, D 40/40 and E 30/50 of red and blue light. The PPFD was about 155 μmol m-2 s-1. Blue light inhibited the elongation growth as well as leaf area. It had positive influence on the accumulation of dry mass, glucose and fructose in the herb. In the combinations with higher percentage of red light the plants were characterised by higher content of essential oils, macronutrients and zinc. To sum up, we can say that the proportion of red and blue light has significant influence on the morphological qualities, chemical composition and dynamics of photosynthesis in these plants. On the other hand, the selection of spectral composition of LEDs will depend on the result we want to achieve.

  9. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  10. The effects of Anethum graveolens essence on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice

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    Azadeh Mesripour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Anethum graveolens (Dill has phytoestrogenic compounds and it is proven that estrogens exert beneficial effects on cognition; the aim of this study was to understand if this plant can improve memory performance. Male Balb/c mice weighing 25-30 g were used in this study and memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task. In this method, the difference in the exploration time between a familiar object and a novel object is taken as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI. Scopolamine significantly reduced memory index (RI = -15.5% ± 3.0. Dill essence (100 mg/kg, ip prevented the harmful effects of scopolamine on memory (RI = 40% ± 5.5, thus RI did not differ with control animals (RI = 50% ± 5.8. In addition, 17-β estradiol also prevented memory impairment in animals (0.2 mg/kg, ip; RI = 35.8% ± 6.5. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of dill essence were antagonized by prior injection of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg, ip; RI = -30% ± 7.8. Although phytoesrogens are not steroids, the beneficial effect of dill on memory, at least in part, may have been achieved by estrogenic receptors present in the brain. Thus dill essence could be promising in improving memory and cognition, mainly in postmenopausal women.

  11. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively).

  12. IMPROVED PLANT REGENERATION AND IN VITRO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN Ruta graveolens

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    Zuraida AR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro callus cultures initiated from stem segments of Ruta graveolen which later on differentiated into somatic embryoids and subsequently regenerated whole plants. Callus formation was observed in culture medium containing low concentrations of the plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. At 0.2 mg/L NAA was showing the highest rate (85% of callus induction. The callus appeared watery, but showed no sign of browning after a month of culture. Sub-culturing the callus on to medium with 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D showed enhanced the callus proliferation rate up to 95%. Somatic embryogenesis from callus was most successful on MS medium containing either 6 g/L agar and supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP, or with 9 g/L agar, supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN. The former medium was more successful in plantlet regeneration when the embryoids were subsequently transferred to regeneration medium with 3 g/L agar and 0.5 mg/L BAP.

  13. 驱蚊草挥发物化学成分分析%Chemical components of Pelargonium graveolens volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 金荷仙; 蔡宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Under the condition of TDS, the volatile matter was extracted by dynamic headspace collection method with good adult Pelargonium graveolens, and the composition of the extract was detected by gas chrom atograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There were 58 kinds of volatile matter,including ten types of compounds, such as alkane, olefins etc. There were 32 types terpenoid (relative content of 61. 35% ), and the content of citronellal was the highest in simple carbohydrate (relative content of 14.46% ). Then, our work demonstrated that retention index could provide a complementary and convenient method for accurate analysis of the volatile matter from leaves of P. Graveolens. The results obtained may be helpful for the further exploitation of P. Graveolens.%以长势优的成年驱蚊草为研究材料,采用顶空套袋法收集挥发物,并在TDS条件下用气相色谱一质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对收集挥发物进行分析检测,测出叶片挥发物有58种.包括烷烃、烯烃等10类化合物,烯烃中的萜烯类化合物有32种(相对含量为61.35%),其中香茅醛含量最多(相对含量为14.46%);同时结合保留指数分析驱蚊草叶片挥发物化学成分,比单独使用GC-MS其结果更加准确、可靠,有助于驱蚊草的进一步开发利用.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be β-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium.

  15. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  16. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

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    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  17. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME.

  18. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2008-06-01

    Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production.

  19. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  20. Antibacterial Activity and Composition of Essential Oils from Pelargonium Graveolens L’Her and Vitex Agnus-Castus L

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    Alireza Ghannadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities.Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity.Results and Conclusion: Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes. The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

  1. Isolation of Insecticidal Constituent from Ruta graveolens and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies against Stored-Food Pests (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Isolates from essential oil extracted from the flowers and leaves of Ruta graveolens and commercial phenolic analogs were evaluated using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against adults of the stored-food pests Sitophilus zeamais, Sitophilus oryzae, and Lasioderma serricorne. The insecticidal activity of these compounds was then compared with that of the synthetic insecticide dichlorvos. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol and its analogs was examined against these stored-food pests. Based on the 50% lethal dose, the most toxic compound against S. zeamais was 3-isopropylephenol, followed by 2-isopropylphenol, 4-isopropylphenol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and 2-methylphenol. Similar results were observed with phenolic compounds against S. oryzae. However, when 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol isolated from R. graveolens oil and its structurally related analogs were used against L. serricorne, little or no insecticidal activity was found regardless of bioassay. These results indicate that introducing and changing the positions of functional groups in the phenol skeleton have an important effect on insecticidal activity of these compounds against stored-food pests.

  2. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

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    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  3. Investigation of cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines of arborinine and furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthy, Borbála; Zupkó, István; Minorics, Renáta; Hohmann, Judit; Ocsovszki, Imre; Falkay, George

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of a series of furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) and of two further acridone alkaloids (arborinine and evoxanthine) were investigated by means of the MTT assay, using the human cell lines HeLa, MCF7 and A431. Arborinine proved best in inhibiting the proliferation of all three cell lines. The cytotoxic potency of the furacridone alkaloids was a function of their lipid solubility, which was determined by means of PAMPA. The capacity of the most effective furanoacridones to induce apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and by staining with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. This finding was reinforced by determining the apoptosis-regulating factors Bcl-2 and Bax, which were revealed by means of RT-PCR to change dose-dependently. The data presented here indicate that naturally occurring furanoacridones can be regarded as excellent starting structures for the potential development of new anticancer agents.

  4. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  5. Effective biotic elicitation of Ruta graveolens L. shoot cultures by lysates from Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, A; Sidwa-Gorycka, M; Malinski, E; Czerwicka, M; Kumirska, J; Golebiowski, M; Lojkowska, E; Stepnowski, P

    2008-03-01

    Growth of Ruta graveolens shoots was induced when Bacillus sp. cell lysates were added to the culture medium. Elicitation of coumarin by this lysate was also very effective; the concentrations of isopimpinelin, xanthotoxin and bergapten increased to 610, 2120 and 1460 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively. It also had a significant effect on the production of psoralen and rutamarin (680 and 380 microg g(-1) dry wt) and induced the biosynthesis of chalepin, which was not detected in the control sample, up to 47 microg g(-1) dry wt With lysates of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum, their effect on growth was not so significant and had no effect on the induction of coumarin accumulation. But elicitation with this lysate was much more effective for inducing the production of furoquinolone alkaloids; the concentrations of gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, dictamnine and kokusaginine rose to 99, 680, 172 and 480 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively.

  6. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Seledri ( Apium graveolens L. terhadap Kumbang Kacang Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae

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    NI NENGAH DARMIATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Activity Test of Celery Leaf Extract (Apium graveolens L. Against Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus cinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease Management,Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the activity of celery leaf extract against bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L. The experiment was Randomized Complete Design, with five treatments of formulation concentration. The activities of celery leaf extract was indicated through i.e. contact poison test, repellent test, and the placement of eggs (oviposition test. The results showed that the celery leaf extract has activity as a contact poison with concentration 75% formulations caused over 50% death of the total insect. The extract with 100% concentration acted as a repellent and anti oviposition as well.

  7. In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Antonio; Vitali, Cesare; Piarulli, Monica; Mazzotta, Manuela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Mallamaci, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    In this study we investigated a synergistic effect between the essential oils Origanum vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens and Melaleuca alternifolia and the antifungal compound Nystatin. Nystatin is considered a drug of choice in the treatment of fungal infections, but it can cause some considerable problems through its side effects, such as renal damage. Finding a new product that can reduce the Nystatin dose via combination is very important. Our findings showed an experimental occurrence of a synergistic interaction between two of these essential oils and Nystatin. The essential oil O. vulgare appeared to be the most effective, inhibiting all the Candida species evaluated in this study. Some combinations of Nystatin and P. graveolens essential oil did not have any synergistic interactions for some of the strains considered. Associations of Nystatin with M. alternifolia essential oil had only an additive effect.

  8. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais de Pelargonium graveolens l'Herit e Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith

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    Edenilson dos S. Niculau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens, Lippia alba and compounds geraniol, linalool, 1,8-cineole, limonene, carvone, citral and Azamax® were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Topical application assay showed essential oil of P. graveolens has acute toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (third instar with LD50 1.13 µg/mg per insect and LD90 2.56 µg/mg per insect. Three essential oils of L. alba also exhibited insecticidal activity with LD50 ranging from 1.20 to 1.56 µg/mg per insect and LD90 from 2.60 to 3.75 µg/mg per insect. Geraniol, linalool, carvone and citral caused significant mortality of 30, 90, 84 and 64% respectively, compared to negative control. The bioinsecticide, Azamax®, caused lower mortality than the compounds of the essential oils.

  9. Overview of Pharmaceutical Research on Pelargonium graveolens L%香叶天竺葵药学研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党璇; 张晓珍; 姚默; 高昂; 巩江; 倪士峰

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of extensive literature search, the flora, composition, pharmacology and clinical application of Pelargonium graveolens L. Have been reviewed, to provide reference for further development and utilization.%在广泛检索文献基础上,综述了香叶天竺葵种属、成分、药理及临床应用,为深入开发利用提供参考依据.

  10. Extracción, caracterización y evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue extraer, caracterizar y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya frente a Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. Las hojas y tallos se recolectaron a una altitud de 3800 m.s.n.m. en el distrito de Puquio, provincia de Lucanas, departamento de Ayacucho. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por destilación por arrastre con vapor de agua, a partir de las hojas y tallos desecados de S. graveolens, con rendimiento de 1,26 % (p/p. La muestra extraída fue caracterizada a través de ensayos físicos. La composición química del aceite se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gas con detector de masa (CG-SM. La actividad antibacteriana del aceite de S. graveolens se realizó por el método de difusión en agar en pocillos, utilizando cepas de microorganismos gram positivo como S. aureus y gram negativo como E. coli. La densidad del producto resultó 0,8755 g/ml a 20 ºC; índice de refracción 1,4726; índice de rotación 102°85’ y soluble en etanol; el cromatograma mostró componentes mayoritarios con un contenido de 52,39 % Sabineno, 8,20 % (+-4-careno, 7,11 % τ-terpineno, 6,74 % β-myrceno, 3,78 % 4-terpinenol, 3,67 % Pulegona. Los resultados mostraron actividad antibacteriana marcada y moderada, para S. aureus y E. coli, respectivamente, observándose formación de halos de inhibición para concentraciones del aceite esencial a 80, 90 y 100 %. El aceite esencial de S. graveolens se presenta con actividad antibacteriana promisoria.

  11. Energy management with TRIANA on FPAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen A.; Hurink, Johann L.; Konsman, Mente J.

    2015-01-01

    The current growth of smart grid capable appliances motivates the development of general and flexible software systems to support these devices. The FlexiblePower Application Infrastructure (FPAI) is such a system, which classifies devices by their type of flexibility. Subsequently, energy applicati

  12. UJI IRITASI DAN AKTIVITAS PERTUMBUHAN RAMBUT TIKUS PUTIH: EFEK SEDIAAN GEL APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerasan seledri (Apium graveolens L. biasa dipergunakan untuk memacu pertumbuhan rambut. Salah satu senyawa utama yang terkandung di dalam seledri adalah apigenin. Penelitian ini membahas tentang pengaruh pemakaian gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri sebagai penumbuh rambut, meliputi uji iritasi dan aktivitas pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih jantan galur Spraque-Dawley. Uji iritasi menggunakan metode Kamkaen dan Rao, sedangkan uji aktivitas penumbuh rambut menggunakan metode Hattori-Ogawa dan Suzuki-Hamada. Berdasarkan indeks iritasi primer, semua formulasi gel tidak potensial menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit tikus putih (p>0,05. Gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik dalam memacu pertumbuhan rambut (p<0,05 dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan. Apigenin menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik (p<0,05 dalam meningkatkan ketebalan rambut dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Namun perlakuan perasan herba seledri tidak nyata (p>0,05 meningkatkan ketebalan rambut. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Kata kunci : seledri, apigenin, gel, iritasi kulit, penumbuh rambutAbstractCelery (Apium graveolens L. juice is widely used for promoting hair growth. One of the main compounds in celery is apigenin. This research discusses about the effect of gel containing apigenin and celery juice application as hair growth in term of skin irritation and its hair growth activity on Spraque-Dawley male mice. The irritation test was Kamkaen and Rao methods, while hair growth activity was HattoriOgawa and Suzuki-Hamada methods. Based on primary index irritation, all of the gel formulations did not signifiantly potential in resulting skin irritation on the mice (p>0,05. Gel containing apigenin andcelery juice showed better activity in promoting hair growth (p<0,05 than

  13. Study on the Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides to prevent Leucocytozoonosis%驱蚊草驱除库蠓预防鸡白冠病的应用试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代友洪; 蒋清蓉; 叶兆美; 赖守勋

    2012-01-01

    This test. used sticky paper to collect Culicoides, understanding the effect of Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides inside and outside henhouse. The resuhs showed that using Pelargonium graveolens could effectively reduce the number of Culicoides in the range of 1.5 m (P〈0.05). Placing Pelargonium graveolens in the house dispelling Culicoides better than without placing Pelargonium graveolens significantly (P〈0.05). Pelargonium graveolen had no significant effect on laying rate and death rate for laying hens. So we summarized that Pelargonium graveolens had significant effect of dispelling Culicoides, also reached the purpose of preventing white-crowned disease.%本试验采用粘蚊帖收集库蠓的方法,了解在鸡舍内和鸡舍外使用驱蚊草对库蠓的驱除作用。试验结果证明:使用驱蚊草在鸡舍外能够在1.5m范围内有效地减少库蠓的数量(P〈0.05):放置了驱蚊草的鸡舍相比未放置驱蚊草的鸡舍其库蠓数量明显减少(P〈0.05);另外,驱蚊草对蛋鸡的产蛋率与死淘率无明显影响。由此可见,驱蚊草有明显的驱库蠓效果,能达到预防鸡白冠病的目的,

  14. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

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    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  16. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shagun; Tandon, Simran

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of various potencies of Ruta graveolens (Ruta) on COLO-205 cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, migration, clonogenecity, morphological and biochemical changes and modification in the levels of genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle. On treatment of COLO-205 cells maximal effects were seen with mother tincture (MT) and 30C potencies, wherein decrease in cell viability along with reduced clonogenecity and migration capabilities were noted. In addition morphological and biochemical alterations such as nuclear changes (fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin) and DNA ladder-like pattern (increased amount of fragmented DNA) in COLO-205 cells indicating apoptotic related cell death were seen. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory genes assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed an up-regulation of caspase 9, caspase-3, Bax, p21 and p27 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The mode of cell death was suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic pathway along with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals present in Ruta showed potential for natural therapeutic product development for colon carcinoma.

  17. Unusual pseudosubstrate specificity of a novel 3,5-dimethoxyphenol O-methyltransferase cloned from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Laura; Wellmann, Frank; Lukacin, Richard; Witte, Simone; Schwab, Wilfried; Schröder, Joachim; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-08-01

    A cDNA was cloned from Ruta graveolens cells encoding a novel O-methyltransferase (OMT) with high similarity to orcinol or chavicol/eugenol OMTs, but containing a serine-rich N-terminus and a 13 amino acid insertion between motifs IV and V. Expression in Escherichia coli revealed S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent OMT activity with methoxylated phenols only with an apparent Km of 20.4 for the prime substrate 3,5-dimethoxyphenol. The enzyme forms a homodimer of 84 kDa, and the activity was insignificantly affected by 2.0 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+, whereas Fe2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ or Hg2+ were inhibitory (78-100%). Dithiothreitol (DTT) suppressed the OMT activity. This effect was examined further, and, in the presence of Zn2+ as a potential thiol methyltransferase (TMT) cofactor, the recombinant OMT methylated DTT to DTT-monomethylthioether. Sets of kinetic OMT experiments with 3,5-dimethoxyphenol at various Zn2+/DTT concentrations revealed the competitive binding of DTT with an apparent Ki of 52.0 microM. Thus, the OMT exhibited TMT activity with almost equivalent affinity to the thiol pseudosubstrate which is structurally unrelated to methoxyphenols.

  18. Effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum and dill (Anethum graveolens leaves

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    Sahar Mostafa Kamel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum and dill (Anethum graveolens leaves. Water blended parsley and dill were heated for one, two and three min. Total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and color indices were determined before and after treatment. Dill leaves had higher total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoid and antioxidant activity (1287.00 mg / 100g, 33.97 mg/kg, 45.98 mg/kg and 48.14%, respectively than parsley leaves (1031.39 mg / 100g, 32.47 mg/kg, 40.00mg/kg and 40.10%, respectively. Total phenols and antioxidants activity of water blended parsley leaves were decreased after 2 min by 32.4 and 8%, as well as after 3 min by 80.2 and 38.27% respectively compared to the unheated sample. Meanwhile, total phenols and antioxidants activity of dill sample recorded 23.7and 30.3% decrease after 2 min reached to 33.0 and 54.8% after 3 min. This work indicated that most of the bioactive compounds of parsley and dill were stable only after one min of microwave heating, however, after 3 min of heating a marked decrease was observed in the tested parameters.

  19. Biotransformation of menthol and geraniol by hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens: effect on growth and volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Nunes, Inês S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

    2009-06-01

    Two oxygen-containing monoterpene substrates, menthol or geraniol (25 mg l(-1)), were added to Anethum graveolens hairy root cultures to evaluate the influence of the biotransformation capacity on growth and production of volatile compounds. Growth was assessed by the dissimilation method and by fresh and dry weight measurement. The volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The total constitutive volatile component was composed, in more than 50%, by falcarinol (17-52%), apiole (11-24%), palmitic acid (7-16%), linoleic acid (4-9%), myristicin (4-8%) and n-octanal (2-5%). Substrate addition had no negative influence on growth. The relative amount of menthol quickly decreased 48 h after addition, and the biotransformation product menthyl acetate was concomitantly formed. Likewise, the added geraniol quickly decreased over 48 h alongside with the production of the biotransformation products. The added geraniol was biotransformed in 10 new products, the alcohols linalool, alpha-terpineol and citronellol, the aldehydes neral and geranial, the esters citronellyl, neryl and geranyl acetates and linalool and nerol oxides.

  20. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

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    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  1. Comparative Study of the Analgesic Activity of Two Iraqi Medicinal Plants, Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla Extracts

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    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to compare the analgesic activity of different fractions of the extracts of Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted with 70% ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of each plant were evaporated to dryness and analyzed by HPLC. The analgesic activity of these extracts was evaluated using writhing reflex test and compared with that produced by a standard drug (Diclofenac sodium. Results: Flavonoids were found in all fractions of both plants (i.e ethyl acetate and n-butanol, while trace of alkaloids in were found in the ethyl acetate fraction of Ruta. The prepared extracts showed better analgesic activity than the standard drug; when compared with each other, Matricaria extracts showed better analgesic activity compared to Ruta extracts. Conclusion: There is similar efficacy of chamomile and common rue as analgesic agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 79-83

  2. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Thawatchai PRABSATTROO; Wannisa SUKHORUM; Supaporn MUCHIMAPURA; Panee SRISAARD; Nongnut UABUNDIT; Wipawee THUKHAMMEE

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency,histology of testis and epididymis,and sperm physiology.Methods:Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50,150,and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1,7,and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency,testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting,sperm concentration,sperm acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis,respectively.Results:AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group.Additionally,rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group.In histological analyses,AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration,acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis.Conclusions:AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  3. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil.

  4. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Ciniglia, Claudia; Reccia, Mafalda G; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  5. The Effects of Anethum graveolens L. Seeds on the Male Reproductive Functions and CREM Gene Expression in the Testis of Rat

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    Parisa Shojaee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the increasing of the population in the developing countries is an anxiety, therefore finding safe and effective contraceptive materials can be very useful. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Anethum graveolens L. on the reproductive system of male rat and CREM gene expression in testis of rat. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of control (treated with normal salin for the period of 56 days, n = 8 and experimental (treated with 150 mg/kg/day of Anethum graveolens extract for 56 days, n = 8. RT-PCR and histological studies, hormonal assay and sperm analysis were carried out for evaluating of extract on reproductive function of rat. Results indicated no significant differences between body weights of control and experimental groups. Sperm counts and motility were reduced however there was an increase sperm abnormality by applying of extract. Indeed existence of disorganized germinal epitheliums, degeneration, necrotic cells in some of seminiferous tubules and lower concentration of sperms in the center of seminiferous tubules of experimental group was noticeable. Results also showed reduction in the diameter of seminiferous tubules of experimental groups comparing with control groups. Administration of extract caused a significant decline in the plasma level of testosterone. Our RT-PCR data revealed that CREM mRNA levels decreased significantly in testes from the experimental group in compared to control group. In conclusionAnethum graveolens has strong anti-spermatogenic activity by decreasing sperm parameters. This study strongly proposes that this plant can be a good candidate for manufacturing antifertility drugs.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

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    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  7. 蚊净香草叶片离体培养研究%Study on leaves in vitro culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊辉; 杨妙贤; 冼元香

    2005-01-01

    以蚊净香草(Pelargonium graveolens L'herit)不同叶龄的叶片为外植体进行离体培养,结果表明,只有成熟的叶片可诱导形成愈伤组织,培养基MS+6-BA 1.00mg/L+NAA 0.20mg/L最适于愈伤组织的诱导、不定芽分化和丛生芽的增殖,培养基MS+NAA 0.20 mg/L最适合根系诱导及幼苗生长.

  8. Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50 µL on Petri dish of 8.5 cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5 µL/20 mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses.

  9. Optimization Experiment to Extract Citronellol from Pelargonium graveolens with Ethanol%利用乙醇提取香叶天竺葵中香茅醇研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 谭乐和; 徐飞; 刘向阳; 郝朝运; 吴刚; 张翠玲

    2012-01-01

    本文利用香叶天竺葵的叶片,对香叶天竺葵中香茅醇的提取率进行研究.对提取香茅醇的最适乙醇浓度、温度、时间、料液比分别进行了测定.结果表明,乙醇提取法的最佳工艺条件为乙醇浓度75%、温度40℃、时间4h、料液比1:20的最佳组合,在该条件下香茅醇提取率可达0.88 mg/g.%The extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens were determined. The optimum ethanol concentration, temperature, time, and solid-liquid ratio for extracting the citronellol were examined. The results of statistical analysis showed that the ideal extraction condition was as follows; 75 % ethanol concentration, 40℃, 4 h, and 1:20 of the solid-liquid ratio. Under this condition, the extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens was 0.88 mg/g.

  10. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética Efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, nos níveis de glucose, colesterol e triacilglicerídeos num modelo do rato diabético Induced effects by Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, and Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, on glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerides levels in a diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (Diversas plantas com propriedades hipoglicêmicas foram usadas na medicina popular e em sistemas tradicionais de curas em torno do mundo. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L, Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, em modelo do rato diabético onde níveis da glucose foram determinados a cada 24 h em um mês antes da administração gástrica do extrato das plantas. Colesterol e triacilglicerídeos foram avaliados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Os resultados mostraram que a administração de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dose de 0,5 a 1,5 g/kg induz um aumento hipoglicêmico ( 200 mg/dL. Outros resultados, mostraram que Citrus aurantium exerce mudanças na concentração de triacilglicerídeos (158-172 mg/dL e colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, a administração de Ruta graveolens na dose de 0.5 g/kg induziu um efeito hipoglicêmico (Several plants with hypoglycemic properties have

  11. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

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    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  12. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  13. A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Ruta graveolens L. exhibits p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase activity (C2'H): a missing step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialart, Guilhem; Hehn, Alain; Olry, Alexandre; Ito, Kyoko; Krieger, Celia; Larbat, Romain; Paris, Cedric; Shimizu, Bun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2012-05-01

    Coumarins are important compounds that contribute to the adaptation of plants to biotic or abiotic stresses. Among coumarins, umbelliferone occupies a pivotal position in the plant phenylpropanoid network. Previous studies indicated that umbelliferone is derived from the ortho-hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid by an unknown biochemical step to yield 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, which then undergoes spontaneous lactonization. Based on a recent report of a gene encoding a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibited feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase activity (Bourgaud et al., 2006), we combined a bioinformatic approach and a cDNA library screen to identify an orthologous ORF (Genbank accession number JF799117) from Ruta graveolens L. This ORF shares 59% amino acid identity with feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and converted feruloyl CoA into scopoletin and p-coumaroyl CoA into umbelliferone with equal activity. Its bi-functionality was further confirmed in planta: transient expression of JF799117 in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded plants with leaves containing high levels of umbelliferone and scopoletin when compared to control plants, which contained barely detectable traces of these compounds. The expression of JF799117 was also tightly correlated to the amount of umbelliferone that was found in UV-elicited R. graveolens leaves. Therefore, JF799117 encodes a p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase in R. graveolens, which represents a previously uncharacterized step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants. Psoralen, which is an important furanocoumarin in R. graveolens, was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, and it may exert this effect through negative feedback on the enzyme at an upstream position in the pathway.

  14. Comparison of leaf morphology and anatomy among Malva sylvestris ("gerânio-aromático", Pelargonium graveolens ("falsa-malva" and Pelargonium odoratissimum ("gerânio-de-cheiro" Comparação da Morfologia e da anatomia foliar entre as espécies Malva sylvestris (gerânio-aromático, Pelargonium graveolens (falsa-malva e Pelargonium odoratissimum (gerânio-de-cheiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Romitelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris is generally confused with Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium odoratissimum due to similarities in their leaf morphology. The leaves of M. sylvestris have anthocyanins with scientifically proven cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. The leaves of P. odoratissimum have essential oil with antibacterial and spasmolytic properties, while the essential oil from P. graveolens has antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to morpho-anatomically analyze the leaves of these species, indicating differences that can be used to clarify controversies about their use as medicinal plants. To anatomically compare the structure of each plant, samples were observed by Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Leaf anatomy among species was quite different. Malva sylvestris showed capitate starry tector trichomes, as well as druses and mucilaginous cells. P. graveolens and P. odoratissimum differed as to trichomes. Both species had tector and glandular trichomes, and P. graveolens is distinguished for the greater height of tector trichomes and less quantity of the latter relative to P. odoratissimum. This study allowed the detection of anatomical differences, assisting in the taxonomy and classification of these species.Malva sylvestris é comumente confundida com Pelargonium graveolens e Pelargonium odoratissimum devido às semelhanças na morfologia foliar. As folhas de M. sylvestris possuem antocianinas com propriedades citotóxicas, antiinflamatória, antitumoral e antioxidante já comprovadas cientificamente. As folhas de P. odoratissimum apresentam óleo essencial com propriedades antibacteriana e espasmolítica, e o óleo essencial da folha de P. graveolens possui atividade antimicrobiana e antifúngica. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar morfo-anatomicamente as folhas destas espécies, apontando diferenças que possam ser utilizadas para esclarecer controvérsias na

  15. Field evaluation of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical repellent, against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Wannasan, A; Pitasawat, B

    2009-02-01

    The potential of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical product, as a repellent against natural mosquito populations was evaluated in comparison to commercial (Insect Block 28) and standard (25% DEET) repellents in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. These repellent products afforded encouragingly excellent personal protection against a broad range of mosquito species belonging to various genera, including Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia. No mosquito bite was observed on the volunteers treated with G10 and Insect Block 28 throughout the field study, whereas two species, i.e., six A. barbirostris and two A. subalbatus, came to bite or land on 25% DEET-treated volunteers. Thus, it can be concluded that while G10 and Insect Block 28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with complete (100%) protection, 25% DEET was effective in minimizing bites with 99.68% protection. G10 formula was also studied for physical properties and biological stability after being kept under two conditions; a heating and cooling cycle, and varying temperature and time storage. Most samples of stored G10 not only demonstrated a similarity in appearance and physical properties, but also provided comparable repellency to that of the fresh preparation. These findings encourage commercial development of G10 formula as an alternative to conventional synthetic repellents.

  16. Observation on Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells in Apium graveolens%芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 张蜀宁; 张宇; 李俊星; 刘惠吉

    2011-01-01

    The flower buds of celery (Apium graveolens ) were used to study the mitosis in pollen mother cells with enzyme - dye -squash technique.The results showed that the pollen mother cells carried on their meiosis and cytokinesis simultaneously and their tetrads were tetrahedral or decussate type; at metaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there showed a small number of chromosomes scattered outside their equatorial plate; at anaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there appeared chromosome bridges and lagged chromosomes in some pollen mother cells.%以中国芹品种铁杆芹花蕾为材料,采用改良卡宝染色压片法对芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂进行了细胞学研究.结果表明:花粉母细胞减数分裂为胞质同时型,四分体为正四面体型或十字交叉型,中期Ⅰ和中期Ⅱ细胞可见赤道板外染色体,后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ部分细胞出现染色体桥及落后染色体.

  17. Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (V): coumarins and alkaloids from Boenninghausenia japonica and Ruta graveolens.

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    Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Matsuda, Narumi; Kouguchi, Ai; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei

    2017-01-01

    During the course of our studies towards the identification of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against two human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2), we screened 17 extracts from 9 rutaceous plants against MT-1 and MT-2 cells. The extracts from the aerial parts and roots of Boenninghausenia japonica, as well as the leaves and roots of Ruta graveolens showed potent antiproliferative effects. After activity-guided fractionation, we isolated 44 compounds from two rutaceous plants, including three new compounds (1-3), which were classified into 26 coumarin analogs (13 coumarins, 8 furanocoumarins, 4 dihydrofuranocoumarins and one dihydropyranocoumarin), 15 alkaloid analogs (7 quinolone alkaloids, 4 acridone alkaloids, 3 furanoquinoline alkaloids and one tetrahydroacridone alkaloid) and 3 flavonoid glycosides. Structure-activity relationship studies were also evaluated. The coumarin compounds (2, 3 and 7-9) bearing a 3-dimethylallyl moiety showed potent activity. Similarly, of all the furanocoumarins evaluated in the current study, compound 17 bearing a 3-dimethylallyl group also showed potent activity. A dihydrofuranocoumarin (27) bearing a 3-dimethylallyl moiety showed the most potent activity. Following 27, compound 28 showed potent activity. These results therefore suggested that the presence of a 3-dimethylallyl moiety was important to the antiproliferative activity of these coumarin analogs.

  18. Graveoline isolated from ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens triggers apoptosis and autophagy in skin melanoma cells: a novel apoptosis-independent autophagic signaling pathway.

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    Ghosh, Samrat; Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Anti-cancer drugs generally kill cancer cells by apoptosis but fail to do so when they become resistant and escape apoptosis signals. But these resistant cells can still be killed by autophagy. Therefore, drugs having both apoptotic and autophagic abilities are solicited in effective cancer management. In search of such a drug, we examined the efficacy of graveoline, a bioactive compound isolated from Ruta graveolens on skin melanoma A375 cells through the use of specific signaling cascades and their inhibitors. Cytotoxicity of graveoline was tested by conducting MTT assay. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis was checked. Expression of related proteins and their localization were studied by conducting immunoblot assay and through confocal microscopy, respectively. We found graveoline-induced Beclin-1 associated autophagy in A375 cells and 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy did not affect apoptosis. Conversely, caspase inhibitor that blocked apoptosis did not affect autophagic cell death, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers inhibited cell death, but blocking autophagy did not affect graveoline-induced ROS generation, suggesting that ROS generation ensued autophagy. Thus, graveoline-induced both apoptotic and autophagic cell death in skin melanoma cells, a desirable quality in effective anti-cancer drug design.

  19. Bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming Yang; Zhongren Nan; Zhuanjun Zhao; Zhaowei Wang; Shengli Wang; Xia Wang; Wangqiang Jin; Cuicui Zhao

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium (Cd) in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the Cd-polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China.The results showed that Cd in the unpolluted oasis soil was mainly bound to carbonate fraction (F2) and Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3).However,marked change of Cd fractions was observed with increasing soil Cd concentrations,in which the concentration of Cd in F1 (exchangeable fraction),F2 and F3 increased significantly (p < 0.001 for F1,F2 and F3).The growth of cole and celery could be facilitated by low concentrations of Cd,but inhibited by high concentrations.The correlation analysis between the fraction distribution coefficient of Cd in the soil and Cd concentration accumulated in the two vegetables showed that Cd in FI in the soil made the greatest contribution on the accumulation of Cd in the two vegetables.The high bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor of Cd in both cole and celery were observed,and Cd had higher accumulation in the edible parts of the two vegetables.Therefore,both cole and celery grown in Cd-polluted oasis soil have higher risk to human health.And the two vegetables are not suitable to be cultivated as vegetables consumed by human in the Cd-polluted oasis soil.

  20. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

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    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  1. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  2. An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her for potential use by resource-limited animal owners

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    B.M. Botha

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary needs appraisals in rural, peri-urban and urban areas have indicated a need for affordable and accessible veterinary health care. It was also found that farmers and animal owners used indigenous plants for treating animals. In Africa, insects such as Culex, Culicoides and Stomoxys may transmit diseases, cause irritation to animals or prevent wound healing. Insect repellents used topically are generally safer and cheaper than insecticides. Using readily available commercial sources of ethanol 43 %v/v (brandy and cane spirits, it was shown that citronellol could be extracted from uncrushed leaves of the indigenous shrub Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. Efficacy of extraction was compared to that using reagent grade absolute ethanol. The peak concentration of citronellol was achieved within 7 days of extraction and thereafter remained constant for 4 months. Extraction methods using tap water and cooking oil were not successful. The extraction was also less successful when the leaves were crushed or macerated before being placed into ethanol. Gas chromatography was used to monitor the concentration of citronellol in the different extracts.

  3. 驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导和增殖%Effects on induction and proliferation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春燕; 刘树楠; 周吉源

    2006-01-01

    以驱蚊香草(Pelargonium graveolens)的幼嫩叶片为外植体,接种于附加不同浓度的NAA、2,4-D、6-BA、KT及其组合的MS固体培养基上,结果表明:单独使用4种植物生长调节物质对驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导在一定浓度范围内都有效果,其中单独使用KT时效果不太明显;最佳的组合培养基为MS+2,4-D0.2 mg/L +6-BA0.5 mg/L.在黑暗和光照培养条件下,愈伤组织的增殖呈"S"型,且生长周期均为30 d.

  4. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano.

  5. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) Oregano Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  6. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K. and European (Origanum vulgare L. Oregano Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Hernández-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO’s of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO’s was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME. The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO’s was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO’s and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO’s varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol and γ-terpinene (pentane as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO’s showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO’s remained the same, while free EO’s decreased 41% (MXO and 67% (EUO from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO’s from oregano.

  7. Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun ZHANG; Jianbing WANG; Zhongyi YANG; Guorong XIN; Jiangang YUAN; Junliang XIN; Charlie HUANG

    2013-01-01

    To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggang- kangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.

  8. Ethnopharmacology, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter. Which Has Been Used as Remedies Antirheumatic, Anti-inflammation and Antiinfection against Leishmaniasis in the Traditional Medicine of Gorgan, Iran

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    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was survey to investigate of ethnopharmacology, antibacterial and antioxidant capacity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter extract in in vitro from waste ground region of Gorgan, Iran, which has been used in traditional as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene, and antiinfection. Materials and Methods: Ethnopharmacological data were obtained among well-known indigenous herbal practitioner (70 ages in Gorgan, Iran. Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Gorgan waste ground (80 m in October 2013. Methanol and acetone extracts were obtained by maceration, antioxidant activity were evaluated spectrophotometrically by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power to compare of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole antioxidant standard and antibacterial activity were determined by disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs method against tree Gram-positive and negative pathogenic bacteria. Results: D. graveolens (L. W. Greuteris is usually wild grow in Golestan Province and has been used in traditional medicine as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene and antiinfection specially in treat of leishmaniosis metanolic extract of plant has strong antioxidant activity against free radical scavenging specially in DPPH methode than aceton extract with IC50 (6.2 ± 0.13 μg/ml and Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus with inhibition zone 35, 30, 26, 21 mm were the most sensitive bacteria, with MIC ranging from 12.6 to 112 μg/ml, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium have moderate sensitivity and other bacteria were resistant to the plant extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the methanolic extract of D. graveolens can become good potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity for controlling certain Gram

  9. Estudio comparativo de la composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ruta graveolens L. recolectada en los estados Mérida y Miranda, Venezuela.

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    Janne Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from two R. graveolens samples collected from Mérida and Miranda states, Venezuela, were analyzed by GC/MS identifying as major components: 2-undecanone, 2-nonanonae and pregeijerene. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity assays showed the wide range of activity of the oils that inhibited the bacterial strains grow not only for the Gram positive (S. aureus and E. faecalis but the Gram negative (E. coli and K. pneumonie as well, displaying MIC values between 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL.

  10. The Effects of Drought Stress on Morphological Traits and Yield of Three Medicinal Plants ( Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens in Greenhouse Conditions.

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    S. R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the important problems in arid and semi_arid regions. drought stress take place in plants when available water is lesser than evapotranspiration. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on morphological traits and yield of three medicinal plants an experiment was carried out during the 2010 year in research greenhouse of faculity of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in a factoriel arrengement based on a Completely Randomized Block Design with four replications. factors include 4 drought stress levels: Field capacity (100%, 75%, 50% and FC25% and 3 medicinal plants include: Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Aniethum graveolens. The traits such as plant height, leaf number per plant, number of lateral branches per plant, umbrellas per plant, umbels per umbrellas, seed number per plant, seed weight per plant, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were measured. Results showed that decreasing content of water in soil lesser than field capacity had significant effects on all of these traits. Coriandrum sativum in FC25% had maximum seed number in umbrellas(14 number, seed number per plant(27 number, Umbrellas per plant(4 number, umbels per umbrellas(10 number and 1000 seeds weight (6.5 gr. also Foeniculum vulgare in FC25% had minimum seed number in umbrellas(2 number, seed number per plant(2 number. Umbrellas per plant(0.25number, umbels per umbrellas(0.5 number and 1000 seeds weight (0.15 gr. Harvest index positive correlation with seed weight per plant and 1000 seeds weight.

  11. The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial

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    Mansouri Masoume

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clustering of metabolic abnormalities defined as metabolic syndrome is now both a public health and a clinical problem .While interest in herbal medicine has greatly increased, lack of human evidence to support efficacies shown in animals does exist. This clinical trial study designed to investigate whether herbal medicine, Anethum graveolens (dill extract, could improve metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design was conducted. 24 subjects who had metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria (update of ATP III were randomly assigned to either dill extract (n = 12 or placebo (n = 12 for 3 months. Results Across lipid component of metabolic syndrome, no significant differences in triglyceride (TG concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen between the two groups. However TG improved significantly from baseline (257.0 vs. 201.5p = 0.01 with dill treatment but such a significant effect was not observed in placebo group. Moreover, no significant differences in waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were seen between two groups after 3 months follow up period. Conclusion In this small clinical trial in patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of dill extract treatment had a beneficial effect in terms of reducing TG from baseline. However dill treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control group. Larger studies might be required to prove the efficacy and safety of long-term administration of dill to resolve metabolic syndrome components.

  12. The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of metabolic abnormalities defined as metabolic syndrome is now both a public health and a clinical problem .While interest in herbal medicine has greatly increased, lack of human evidence to support efficacies shown in animals does exist. This clinical trial study designed to investigate whether herbal medicine, Anethum graveolens (dill extract, could improve metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome.MethodsA double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design was conducted. 24 subjects who had metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria (update of ATP III were randomly assigned to either dill extract (n = 12 or placebo (n = 12 for 3 months.ResultsAcross lipid component of metabolic syndrome, no significant differences in triglyceride (TG concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen between the two groups. However TG improved significantly from baseline (257.0 vs. 201.5p = 0.01 with dill treatment but such a significant effect was not observed in placebo group. Moreover, no significant differences in waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were seen between two groups after 3 months follow up period.ConclusionIn this small clinical trial in patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of dill extract treatment had a beneficial effect in terms of reducing TG from baseline. However dill treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control group. Larger studies might be required to prove the efficacy and safety of long-term administration of dill to resolve metabolic syndrome components.

  13. Atividade in vitro de plantas condimentares (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. contra o calicivírus felino

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    Thaís Felli Kubiça

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O calicivírus felino (FCV é um importante patógeno de gatos que causa lesões ulcerativas orais e infecções respiratórias. O vírus tem sido utilizado como modelo experimental para avaliação de agente antivirais contra norovírus (NoVs. Nesse estudo, investigou-se a ação dos óleos essenciais de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L., orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens HBK. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. frente ao FCV, in vitro. A toxicidade celular foi testada pelo método de MTT e os ensaios antivirais pelo teste de redução de placas. Três protocolos foram aplicados: a diferentes concentrações não tóxicas dos óleos essenciais (CNTOE foram incubadas com o vírus por 1 hora antes da inoculação (ensaio virucida; b CNTOE foram adicionadas às células CRFK e incubadas por 1 hora antes da adsorção viral (ensaio de pré-tratamento; c CNTOE foram adicionadas às células após a inoculação do FCV e mantidas por 18 horas (ensaio de pós-tratamento. A CC50 para os óleos de alecrim, orégano mexicano e tomilho foram: 1300,21 μg mL-1; 435,92 μg mL-1 e 675,34 μg mL-1; respectivamente. O óleo essencial de tomilho apresentou índice de seletividade [IS=CC50/CI50] de 8,57 para o ensaio de pré-tratamento e 6,2 no ensaio virucida. O óleo de alecrim mostrou atividade antiviral no ensaio virucida (IS=6,54 e de pós-tratamento (IS=6,86. O orégano mexicano apresentou IS de 5,75 no ensaio virucida e 5,59 no de pós-tratamento. Conclui-se que os óleos essenciais de tomilho e alecrim apresentaram atividade frente ao FCV em diferentes momentos da infecção viral.Palavras-chave: Norovírus. FCV. óleos essenciais. Citotoxicidade. MTT. ensaio de placa. ABSTRACTIn vitro activity of plants used as condiments (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. against the feline calicivirusThe feline calicivirus (FCV is an important pathogen of feline causing oral ulcerative lesions and respiratory disease. This virus

  14. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

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    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germinativa, los menores tiempos de germinación y el vigor más alto. La pérdida total de vigor en las semillas varió según el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento así: al cabo de un mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 7 y 10ºC, al sexto mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 20 y 33ºC y al undécimo mes cuando fueron almacenadas a temperatura ambiente entre 12 y 18ºC. El tipo de empaque no influyó significativamente en los resultados finales.Two studies of diomate seeds (Astronium graveolens Jacq were conducted. The first was conducted to determine the effect that substrate and light condition has on germination. The second was to evaluate the germinative response of seeds stored over differing time periods and under temperature and packaging conditions. The diomate seeds sowed in full exposure in soil substrate had the greatest germinative potential, the fastest germination times and the highest vigor. The total loss of vigor in the seeds varied according to time and temperature of storage, as follows: after a month of storage at temperatures between 7 and 10ºC, after six months of storage at temperatures between 20 and 33ºC and after eleven months of storage at ambient temperatures between 12 and 18ºC. The type of packing did not significantly influence the final results.

  15. Larvicidal, Repellent and Irritant Potential of the Seed-derived Essential oil of Apium graveolens against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sarita eKumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti L., the primary carrier for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever is widespread over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. Keeping in view the adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures; the eco-friendly, bio-degradable essential oil extracted from the seeds of celery, Apium graveolens; was investigated for anti-mosquito potential against Ae. aegypti. Evaluation of larvicidal potential of celery seed oil against early fourth instars of Ae. aegypti resulted in LC50 and LC90 values of 16.10 ppm and 29.08 ppm, respectively, after an exposure to 24 h; the toxic effect of the oil increasing by 1.2 fold with an LC50 value of 13.22 ppm after an exposure to 48h. Interestingly, the seed oil did not cause rapid mortality, suggesting a delayed type of larval killing effect. The remarkable finding of the present study was effective repellency of the essential oil leading to 100% protection till 165 min as compared to control that did not show any repellency against mosquitoes. Only 1 bite was recorded in the 165th minute after which only 2 bites were scored until 180 min of exposure of the oil to the adult mosquitoes. An exciting observation was the knocked-down of mosquitoes caused by the exposure to 10% oil-impregnated papers. The exposure to 1% oil resulted in first flight only after 4 sec and a total of 63.66 average flights during 15 min exposure revealing the relative irritability of 26.97.The qualitative phytochemical study of the oil showed the presence of terpenoids, lactones and flavonoids as the major constituents suggesting their possible role in the toxicity. Present investigations proved celery seed essential oil to be an efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the active principles involved, their mode of action, formulated preparations for enhancing potency and stability, toxicity and effects on non-target organisms and the

  16. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC50=25.6μL·L(-1)), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC50=49.8μL·L(-1)) and A. citriodora (LC50=65.6μL·L(-1)), while the other essential oils showed LC50 values higher than 90μL·L(-1). The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC50=18.3μL·L(-1)). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC50 (72.5μL·L(-1)) higher than the LC50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito larvicides.

  17. Analysis on Content and Composition of Essential Oil in Different Month of Growth in Pelargonium graveolens%不同月份香叶天竺葵精油的含有率与成分变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2006-01-01

    对生长在上海地区的香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L.)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在1月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  18. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase mechanism-based inactivation by psoralen derivatives: cloning and characterization of a C4H from a psoralen producing plant-Ruta graveolens-exhibiting low sensitivity to psoralen inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravot, Antoine; Larbat, Romain; Hehn, Alain; Lièvre, Karine; Gontier, Eric; Goergen, Jean Louis; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) complete cDNA was cloned from the leaves of Ruta graveolens, a psoralen producing plant. The recombinant enzyme (classified CYP73A32) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mechanism-based inactivation was investigated using various psoralen derivatives. Only psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were found to inactivate C4H. The inactivation was dependent on the presence of NADPH, time of pre-incubation, and inhibitor concentration. Inactivation stoichiometry was 0.9 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A1 and 1.1 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A32. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that [3H]psoralen was irreversibly bound to the C4H apoprotein. K(i) and k(inact) for psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen inactivation on the two C4H revealed a lower sensitivity for CYP73A32 compared to CYP73A1. Inactivation kinetics were also determined for CYP73A10, a C4H from another furocoumarin-producing plant, Petroselinum crispum. This enzyme was found to behave like CYP73A32, with a weak sensitivity to psoralen and 8-MOP inactivation. Cinnamic acid hydroxylation is a key step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds, psoralen derivatives included. Our results suggest a possible evolution of R. graveolens and P. crispum C4H that might tolerate substantial levels of psoralen derivatives in the cytoplasmic compartment without a depletive effect on C4H and the general phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  19. Karyotype analysis for pollen mother cells meiosis diakinesis of Apium graveolens L.%中国芹花粉母细胞减数分裂终变期的核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 张蜀宁; 郑金双; 刘惠吉; 侯喜林

    2011-01-01

    Using flower buds, karyotype analysis of Apium graveolens L during meiosis diakinesis in pollen mother cells was conducted,compared with chromosome karyotypc of root tip,and the best way to obtain diakinesis chromosomes was discussed. The results were the same: karyotype formula of Apium graveolens L. was K (2n) = 2x = 22 = 6m+2sm+8st+6t, both of which had 3 pairs of metacentric chromosomes (5,7,9), 1 pair of submetacentric chromosomes(6) ,4 pairs of with acrocentric chromosomes (2,3,8, 11 ) and 3 pairs of telocentric chromosomes(1,4,10). Relative length was 2n = 2S+2M 1 +6 M2 + 1 L, belonging to 3 B type.%以中国芹品种铁杆芹花蕾为材料.选取花粉母细胞减数分裂终变期进行染色体核型分析,将其与根尖染色体核型进行比较研究,并探讨了获得终变期分裂相的最佳制片方法.结果表明:二者核型公式均为K(2n)=2x=22=6m+2sm+8st+6t,其中第5、7、9对为中部着丝粒染色体,第6对为亚中部着丝粒染色体,第2、3、8、11对为近端部着丝粒染色体,第1、4、10对为端部着丝粒染色体,其染色体相对长度组成为2n=2S+2M1+6M2+1L,染色体核型为3B型.

  20. 不同倍性种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Ploidy Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the aroma characteristics of essential oils of different ploidy seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens,oils from tissue-cultured seedlings with normal and doubling chromosomes were analyzed by gas chromatography,respectively.It was shown that the aroma chemical constituents from two different seedlings were identical but differed in amounts.The contents of geraniol and iso-menthone were higher in polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings,while the contents of citronellol,citronellyl formate and citronellyl acetate were higher in normal tissue-cultured seedlings.The main constituents are citronellol 30.83 %-38.25 %,geraniol 5.30 %-9.72 %,and β-gurjunene 3.71 %-5.50 %,for normal tissue-cultured seedlings ; citronellol 26.1%-38.8%,geraniol 5.94%-14.81%,and β-gurjunene 3.21%-6.16%,for polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings.%以香叶天竺葵的不同倍性组培苗为研究材料,对不同采样时间的香叶油进行气相色谱分析,比较其香气特征.结果表明:常规组培苗和染色体加倍苗的香叶油的化学成分相同,且各个成分含量随月份变化的规律一致,但在各成分的含量上有差异.多倍体组培苗香叶油中香叶醇、异薄荷酮的含量较高,而常规组培苗香叶油中香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、乙酸香茅酯的含量较高.常规组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇30.83%~38.25%、香叶醇5.30%~9.72%、β-古芸烯3.71%~5.50%,多倍体组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇26.1%~38.8%、香叶醇5.94%~14.81%、β-古芸烯3.21%~6.16%.

  1. 芹菜黄酮合成酶Ⅰ基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of flavone synthase I gene in Apium graveo-lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸云; 王枫; 徐志胜; 谭国飞; 李梦瑶; 熊爱生

    2014-01-01

    The flavone synthase I gene (AgFS I), the key gene for flavonoids synthesis, was cloned from Apium graveolens cultivars Liuhehuangxinqin, Jinnanshiqin and Meiguoxiqin, respectively. The length of AgFS I gene was 1 616 bp, containing 359-bp intronⅠ and 190-bp intronⅡ. The AgFS I gene encodes 355 amino acids, belonging to the 20G-FeII Oxy superfamily. There were differences in 5 nucleotide sites and 5 amino acid sites among the three cultivars of Api-um graveolens. Multiple sequence alignment of AgFS Is with FSIs from other plants showed that FSⅠs were highly conser-vative. Phylogenetic tree revealed the AgFS Is had the closest relationship to Daucus carota and Cuminum cyminum, which belong to the Apiaceae. Amino acid sequence analyses indicate that AgFS I belong to the hydrophobic protein. The AgFS Is from three cultivars of Apium graveolens are similar in three dimentional structure.%选用3个芹菜材料六合黄心芹、津南实芹和美国西芹,分别从中克隆了合成黄酮类化合物的关键酶基因---芹菜黄酮合成酶I基因( AgFS I)。该基因全长均为1616 bp,含有359 bp的内含子I和190 bp的内含子II。芹菜AgFS I基因编码355个氨基酸,属于20G-FeII Oxy超级家族。序列分析结果显示,3种芹菜中AgFS I基因在核苷酸水平上有5个碱基的差异,编码的氨基酸有5个位点的差异。芹菜黄酮合成酶I( AgFS I)与其他来源植物的FSI氨基酸多重序列比对分析结果表明,该酶具有高度保守性。对AgFS I进行进化树分析,氨基酸序列的疏水性/亲水性分析,三级结构预测与分析,结果显示AgFS I与同属于伞形科的胡萝卜和孜然芹的FSI进化关系最近, AgFS I属于疏水性蛋白质,3种芹菜AgFS I的空间结构相似。

  2. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-1beta through suppression of NF-kappaB activation by 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin isolated from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Bhawna; Shrivastava, Anju; Das, Hasi Rani

    2007-03-29

    The Ruta graveolens L. plant is used in traditional medicine to treat a large number of diseases. The methanol (50%) extract of the whole plant was observed to inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells (J774A.1, [Raghav, S.K., Gupta, B., Agrawal, C., Goswami, K., Das, H.R., 2006b. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104, 234-239]). The effect of whole plant extract on the expression of other pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kappaB) were investigated in LPS stimulated macrophage cells. An active compound was isolated from this methanol extract by further solvent fractionation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The purified compound was identified as 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin having IUPAC nomenclature of 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-methyl but-3-en-2yl)-2H-chromen-2-one by ESI-MS, MALDI, FT-IR and NMR. Effect of this purified compound was assessed on iNOS, COX-2 and various pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and was observed to inhibit both the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1beta in LPS challenged macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analyses indicated that the plant extract and the isolated active compound blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB through the prevention of inhibitor-kB (IkB) degradation. The purified compound also showed the anti-oxidant activity. The active compound at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight was observed to inhibit the iNOS and IL-1beta gene expression significantly in endotoxin-induced inflammatory model of BALB/c mice. The low level of nitric oxide production was also observed in the sera of compound treated mice

  3. Determination of Luteolin and Apigenin in Apium graveolen L. by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定旱芹中木犀草素和旱芹素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 孙莲; 孟磊

    2014-01-01

    建立HPLC法同时测定旱芹中木犀草素和旱芹素含量的方法。采用C18(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)柱,流动相为乙腈∶0.01 mol/L醋酸铵(pH=4.8)=40∶60,等强度洗脱,检测波长330 nm,柱温25℃,流速1.0 mL/min。木犀草素和旱芹素的质量浓度分别在0.93μg/mL~4.94μg/mL(r=0.9991)及1.03μg/mL~5.06μg/mL(r=0.9994)范围内与峰面积呈现良好的线性关系,平均加样回收率依次为99.7%(RSD为2.4%),99.0%(RSD为1.8%)。%To establish a method for simultaneous determination of Luteolin and Apigenin in Apium graveolen L. by HPLC. The sepration was performed on an C18 column with acetonitrile 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH=4.8)=60∶40 as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 330 nm at 25℃. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentrations and the peak areas of luteolin and apigenin in the ranges of 0.93μg/mL-4.94μg/mL(r=0.999 1)and 1.03μg/mL-5.06μg/mL (r=0.999 4) respectively. The average recoveries were 99.7%with RSD 2.4%and 99.0%with RSD 1.8%respectively. The method was quick,simple and repeatable for the determination of Luteolin and Apigenin in Apium graveolen L.

  4. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Ruta graveolens L. sob influência de fenantreno e benzo[a]pireno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomara Dias da Costa Lemos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A exposição a contaminantes orgânicos como os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos tem atraído considerável atenção devido aos efeitos dessas substâncias sobre a saúde humana, o ambiente e o desenvolvimento vegetal. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do fenantreno e do benzo[a]pireno sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal in vitro de R. graveolens. Sementes comerciais descontaminadas foram inoculadas em tubos de ensaio com meio MS suplementado com 0 (controle; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e 0 (controle; 0,001; 0,01 e 0,1 mg L-1 de benzo[a]pireno. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sementes germinadas, o índice de velocidade de germinação e a entropia. Após dois meses, avaliou-se o comprimento da parte aérea e radicular e contabilizou-se o número de folhas desenvolvidas. Durante o primeiro mês, a presença do fenantreno não alterou o processo germinativo, enquanto que o benzo[a]pireno na concentração de 0,01 mg L-1 proporcionou aumento significativo da germinação (p≤0,05. Durante o segundo mês, as concentrações de 5,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e de 0,001 mg L-1 benzo[a]pireno resultaram em desenvolvimento radicular significativamente superior. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas quanto à fitomassa, ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e número de folhas por plântulas. Tais resultados sugerem potencial para o cultivo de R. graveolens em áreas contaminadas, nos níveis investigados.

  5. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  6. The Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil in Pelargonium graveolens Polyloid Seedlings%香叶天竺葵多倍体精油的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰

    2014-01-01

    探讨香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L‘He’rit)染染色体加倍后精油的香气特征,为香叶新品种选育提供理论基础.对香叶天竺葵扦插苗、组培苗和多倍苗的香叶油进行GC-9A分析,并与玫瑰香叶油、法国波尔蓬香叶油的主成分进行对比.这5种油的化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异.组培苗及多倍苗香叶油中香叶醇、甲酸香叶酯、芳樟醇的含量显著提高,而香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、玫瑰醚的含量有所下降.其中,多倍苗香叶油含:香茅醇26.1%,香叶醇14.81%,p-古芸烯4.77%,这3个主香成分接近法国波尔蓬香叶油中的含量.香叶天竺葵染色体加倍后能改善其精油的品质,其精油中香茅醇、香叶醇的含量更接近法国波尔蓬等国外香叶油中的含量.

  7. 2个芹菜品种泛变应原Api g 4基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of panallergen Api g 4 gene from two cultivars of Apium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦瑶; 王枫; 侯喜林; 蒋倩; 马静; 熊爱生

    2013-01-01

    从芹菜(Apium graveolens Linn.)品种‘津南实芹’(‘Jinnanshiqin’)和‘美国西芹’(‘Meiguoxiqin’)中分别克隆获得泛变应原基因Api g 4;2个品种的Api g4基因均包含1个长度为405 bp的开放阅读框,二者间有3个核苷酸位点的差异.2个品种的Api g4基因均能编码134个氨基酸,但二者编码的氨基酸序列有2个位点的差异.多重比对以及进化树分析结果均表明:2个芹菜品种Api g 4基因编码的氨基酸序列与其他植物的泛变应原氨基酸序列同源性较高,氨基酸序列高度保守;与同科植物欧芹[Petroselinum crispum (Miller) Nyman ex A.W.Hill]和胡萝卜(Daucus carota Linn.)的泛变应原氨基酸序列的同源性均达到90%以上,在进化树上也归为同一支.2个品种的泛变应原Api g 4均为疏水性蛋白,具有相似的三维空间结构,均包含3个α螺旋和7个β折叠.实时定量PCR分析结果显示:Api g 4基因在‘津南实芹’和‘美国西芹’根中的表达水平均最高,在茎和茎尖分生组织中的表达水平相对较低,在叶中的表达水平很弱,且2个品种间同一组织的Api g4基因表达水平也有差异,表明Api g 4基因的表达具有明显的组织特异性.

  8. TRIANA, a control strategy for Smart Grids : forecasting, planning and real-time control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand, extra fluctuation and a large share of distributed electricity generation will put more stress on the electricity supply chain. Therefore, changes are required in the supply chain to maintain a properly functioning, stable and affordable grid. Currently the supply chain is complet

  9. Muscodor yucatenensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the dry tropical forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or huk´up by indigenous mayas. ...

  10. 两种天竺葵不同生长时期的精油含有率及成分研究%Monthly Variation of the Content and Composition of Essential Oils of Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium × fragrans in Different Growth Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2007-01-01

    本文对生长在上海地区的香天竺葵(Pelargonium × fragrans)和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,香天竺葵在一月份精油含有率最低,七月份达到了最高点.其精油成分的含量在各个月份不稳定.香叶天竺葵精油成分在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在一月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  11. Comparison of Current Chemical and Stereochemical Tests for the Identification and Differentiation of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. (Geraniaceae Essential Oils: Analytical Data for (--(1S, 4R, 5S-Guaia-6,9-diene and (--(7R,10S-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain sesquiterpenes, viz., (-- guaia-6,9-diene and (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol. The stereochemical tests include the stereochemical distribution of i citronellol, ii menthone and isomenthone, and iii rose oxides. The most reliable chemical test was the presence or absence of the sesquiterpene probes. The stereochemical tests proved to be less reliable. Most of the tests could be used to classify geranium oils into general types; however, none of the tests provided a foolproof method to distinguish cultivars or country of origin. During this study, the ambiguity in the absolute stereochemistry of (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol and (--guaia-6,9-diene was addressed, and these two sesquiterpenes could serve as effective markers for the authentication of P. graveolens essential oils.

  12. Determination of the contents of monosaccharide components in non-starch polysaccharides of aerial part of Apium graveolens L. By pre-column derivatization GC%柱前衍生化GC法测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亮; 杨洋; 张琦; 霍鑫; 毕开顺; 贾英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish pre-column derivatization GC method for determination of monosaccharide component of non-starch polysaccharides of the aerial part of Apium graveolens L. Methods The derivatives were determined by GC and DB-17 column(30 m ×0. 25 mm,0. 25 μm)was used. The inlet temperature was maintained for 270 ℃. The column oven was begun at 180 ℃ ,then programmed from 180 ℃ to 225℃ at 3 ℃- min -1, hold for 2 min, then programmed from 225 ℃ to 260 ℃ at 6 ℃· min -1, and finally, hold for 7 min. Manner of sample injection was splitless. Detector temperature was maintained at 270 ℃. Sample amount was I. 0 μL. Results Seven monosaccharides L-( + )-rhamnose,L-( + )-arabinose,D-( + )-fucose, D-( + )-xylose,D-( + )-mannose,D-( + )-glucose and D-( + )-galactose were determined in INSP. Except D-( + )-fucose,other six monosaccharides were the same as from INSP in SNSP. Conclusions The method is accurate and reproducible,which is suitable for the determination of monosaccharide component in soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides in Apium graveolens L.%目的 建立测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量的柱前衍生化GC法.方法 非淀粉多糖经衍生化生成糖腈乙酯,采用GC法进行分析.色谱柱:DB-17柱(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25 μm);柱温:程序升温;载气:N2;进样温度:270℃;进样方式:不分流;检测器温度:270℃;进样量:1.0μL.结果 水不溶性非淀粉多糖(insoluble non-starch polysaccharides,INSP)水解后得到7种单糖,分别是:L-(+)-鼠李糖、L-(+)-阿拉伯糖、D-(+)-岩藻糖、D-(+)-木糖、D-(+)-甘露糖、D-(+)-葡萄糖和D-(+)-半乳糖;水溶性非淀粉多糖(soluble non-starch polysaccharides,SNSP)水解后得到6种单糖,除无D-(+)-岩藻糖外,其余均同INSP水解后单糖.结论 本方法准确度高,重现性好,可用于测定旱芹水溶性和水不溶性非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分的含量.

  13. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensisPlanch. & Triana againstAedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Anholeti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone, against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L, however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis.

  14. Atividade citotóxica de fungos endofíticos associados à Clusia arrudae Planchon & Triana (Clusiaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, Antonio Cesar Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Os fungos são organismos capazes de sobreviver isoladamente ou em relações simbióticas com outros organismos. Nos tecidos vegetais os fungos colonizam espaços intracelulares de plantas sem causar dano aparente ao seu hospedeiro, os quais são chamados de endofíticos e por colonizar estes espaços e apresentar constante interação com seu hospedeiro, estes fungos são capazes de produzir diferentes metabólitos bioativos. O câncer, ainda hoje, é uma doença que acomete milhares de pessoas ao redor d...

  15. Occurrence of antioxidant and radical scavenging proanthocyanidins from the Indian minor spice nagkesar (Mammea longifolia planch and triana syn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan; Yada, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2004-01-02

    Nagkesar (buds of Mammea longifolia) is extensively used in culinary preparations especially in spice blend in India. Previously thirteen compounds were identified from the medium polar fractions of methanol extract of buds of M. longifolia. In continuation of the study, the polar fraction of methanol extract exhibited stronger antioxidative and radical scavenging activities. An attempt was made to separate and identify the active compounds and found that those were proanthocyanidin oligomers with mean degree of polymerisation ranges from 2 to 10. This is the first report to indicate that Mammea buds contain antioxidant and radical scavenging procyanidin oligomers.

  16. Micropropagación de Ilex kunthiana Triana & Planchon (Aquifoliaceae, una especie de gran importancia en programas de revegetalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Pedroza–Manrique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúo el cultivo de tejidos vegetales in vitro como una alternativa en la propagación y preservación de Ilex kunthiana, especie endémica de gran interés en programas de revegetalización. Se determinó que el efecto del Benlate® a 0,5% durante 12 horas y el hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5% por 1 min., como agentes desinfectantes de las semillas, permiten obtener el 100% de explantes adaptados a condiciones in vitro. Las semillas son cultivadas en medio MS con Ácido Giberélico (AG3 (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L. Cuando las plántulas germinaron, se aislaron los nudos con yemas axilares y se cultivaron en medio MS enriquecido con la Auxina Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L y la citoquinina 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L. A fin de inducir su enraizamiento, posteriormente los brotes regenerados se cultivaron con las Auxinas Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L y Ácido Naftalén Acético (ANA (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg/L. Se estableció que 0,5 mg/L de AG3 favoreció la 100% de germinación de las semillas que fueron la fuente de los nudos. El mejor índice de formación de brotes se logró cuando los nudos se cultivaron con 0,5 mg/L del BAP y 0,5 mg/L del AIB que posteriormente fueron exitosamente enraizados con 0,5 mg/L de AIB, estableciendo las condiciones mas adecuadas para la propagación in vitro de Ilex kunthiana. Palabras clave: Ilex kunthiana; micropropagación; plantas en vías de extinción; AIB; BAP; micropropagatio; endangered plant.

  17. Yo quiero ser Marifé de Triana. Experiencia para el desarrollo de la Inteligencia Emocional a través de la Musicoterapia / I want to be Marifé de Triana. An experience for the development of Emotional Intelligence through Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Prieto Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Presentamos el desarrollo de un programa denominado “¡Escúchame!” basado en la experiencia “Mami Sounds” llevada a cabo en Argentina por Federico (2007, teniendo como hilo conductor la Musicoterapia. Nuestro propósito es desarrollar la inteligencia emocional de personas con Síndrome de Down, mediante la estimulación sensorial a través de la música, que genera y despierta toda clase de sentimientos y emociones. Para la evaluación del programa, se han elaborado instrumentos de carácter cualitativo y cuantitativo que nos indican una mejora en las conductas sociales y afectivas de la muestra participante tras la implementación del programa.Abstract: We show the results of a study called “Listen to me”, based on the experience developed in Argentina by Federico (2007, where the leitmotiv is the Music therapy in a sample of people with disabilities, specifically Down syndrome. We implement a programme which mainly works emotional intelligence by using music of different styles. Our aim is to develop the emotional intelligence of people with Down syndrome, by the sensory stimulation through music, which generates and raises all types of feelings and emotions. Results show there is an improvement in social and affective attitudes and behaviors of the people participating in this experience after the implementation of the programme.

  18. Chemistry, technology, and nutraceutical functions of celery (Apium graveolens L.): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbhagya, H B

    2014-01-01

    Celery is a commercially important seed spice belonging to the family Umbelliferrae. Celery is used in various forms such as fresh herb, stalk, seeds, oil, and oleoresin for flavoring of foods and for medicinal purposes. Celery seed contains 2% volatile oil that finds application for flavoring of foods and also in perfumery industry. Limonene and selinene form about 60% and 20% of the oil, respectively. However, the important flavor constituents of the oil responsible for the typical aroma are 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide (sedanenolide), 3-n-butyl phthalide, sedanolide, and sedanonic anhydride present in very low levels (1-3%). Celery contains 15% fatty oil with the fatty acids: petroselenic (64.3%), oleic (8.1%), linoleic (18%), linolenic (0.6%), and palmitic acids. Phthalides especially sedanenaloide possess many health benefits. Celery extracts are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties, viz., antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anti-platelet aggregation. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of celery and the components responsible are discussed.

  19. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  20. Environ: E00434 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit Anethi fructus Crude drug Carvone [CPD:C01767 C1138...3], Limonene [CPD:C06078] Anethum graveolens [TAX:40922] Apiaceae (carrot family) Anethum graveolens fruit (...dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit ...

  1. Hoya thuathienhuensis and Hoya graveolens (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species and a new record for the Flora of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodda, M.; Trân, Thê Bách; Simonsson Juhonewe, N.; Sâm, Lý Ngọc

    2012-01-01

    A new species from the Annamite mountain range of central Vietnam, Hoya thuathienhuensis, is here described and illustrated. Its flowers bear similarity with Hoya lockii, a taxon recently described from the same area with which it shares the reflexed corolla and the thin coriaceous laves. Hoya locki

  2. Effects of calcium peroxide on arsenic uptake by celery (Apium graveolens L.) grown in arsenic contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-ping; Luo, Chun-ling; Xu, Xiang-hua; Wu, Chuang-an; Li, Fang-bai; Zhang, Gan

    2012-03-01

    The ability of calcium peroxide (CaO(2)) to immobilize As of contaminated soil was studied using pot and field experiments. In pot experiment, CaO(2) applied at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) significantly increased celery shoot weight and decreased shoot As accumulation, which was ascribed to the formation of stable crystalline Fe and Al oxides bound As and the reduction of labile As fractions in the soil. The labile As fractions were pH dependent and it followed a "V" shaped profile with the change of pH. In field experiment, the dose of CaO(2) application at 750 kg ha(-1) was optimal and at which the celery was found to produce the highest biomass (63.4 Mg ha(-1)) and lowest As concentration (0.43 mg kg(-1)). CaO(2) probably has a promising potential as soil amendment to treat As contaminated soils.

  3. 芸香根系生物学研究%Biological reserch on ruta graveolens root system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 秦荣; 齐红

    2003-01-01

    在时芸香根的外观形态、内部解剖、根系变化一般观察研究的基础上,重点研究了根中淀粉含量的变化,揭示芸香的根为须根状直根系,根的次生木质部有明显的年轮;芸香根一年中淀粉积累高峰有二个,一个在花前期(6月下旬),一个在入冬前(10月下旬).并对芸香的营养积累与抗寒性关系问题进行了讨论.

  4. De novo assembly, gene annotation and marker development using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences in celery (Apium graveolens L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery is an increasing popular vegetable species, but limited transcriptome and genomic data hinder the research to it. In addition, a lack of celery molecular markers limits the process of molecular genetic breeding. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is an efficient method to generate a large transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery, molecular marker development and marker-assisted selection breeding. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Celery transcriptomes from four tissues were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 42,280 unigenes (average length of 502.6 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. 78.43% and 48.93% of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant protein database (Nr and Swiss-Prot database respectively, and 10,473 (24.77% unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. 21,126 (49.97% unigenes harboring Interpro domains were annotated, in which 15,409 (36.45% were assigned to Gene Ontology(GO categories. Additionally, 7,478 unigenes were mapped onto 228 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG. Large numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs were indentified, and then the rate of successful amplication and polymorphism were investigated among 31 celery accessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information by Illumina paired-end sequencing and efficient assembling. Our results provide a valuable resource for celery research. The developed molecular markers are the foundation of further genetic linkage analysis and gene localization, and they will be essential to accelerate the process of breeding.

  5. EVALUASI, UJI STABILITAS FISIK DAN SINERESIS SEDIAAN GEL YANG MENGANDUNG MINOKSIDIL, APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMinoxidil, apigenin and celery are believed to have the same bioactivity as a vasodilator that can widen blood vessels. This study discusses about the gel formulation in the scope of evaluation of gel preparation, using carbomer as a gelling agent each containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice. The method used in gel evaluation were organoleptic observation, homogeneity, pH, consistency and viscosity; physical stability at 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C and syneresis. Based on the result, all gel formulations showed their consistency and viscosity were higher after 8 weeks of storage at room temperature. The rheogram of three gel formulations in term of flow properties remain unchanged after 8 weeks of storage. It was indicated that the flow properties of gel formulation was pseudoplastis tixotropic. The gel containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice showed good physical stability at 28±2 °C and 40±2 °C, but less stable at 4±2 °C after 14 weeks of storage. The highest number of syneresis was found in a gel containing celery juice.Keywords : Celery, Apigenin, Gel, StabilityAbstrakMinoksidil, apigenin dan seledri memiliki aktivitas biologi yang sama sebagai vasodilator yang dapat memperlebar pembuluh darah. Penelitian ini sebagai evaluasi sediaan gel, menggunakan karbomer sebagai gelling agentyang mengandung masing-masing minoksidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri. Metode yang digunakan dalam evaluasi gel adalah pengamatan organoleptis, homogenitas, pH, konsistensi dan viskositas; stabilitas fisik pada suhu 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C dan sineresis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ketiga formula gel menunjukkan konsistensi dan viskositas yang lebih tinggi setelah 8  minggu  penyimpanan  pada  temperatur  ruang.  Hasil  rheogram  dari  ketiga  formula gel  menunjukkan  sifat  alir  yang  tetap  tidak  berubah  setelah  8  minggu  penyimpanan, yaitu pseudoplastis tiksotropik. Gel yang mengandung minoxidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan stabil fisik pada penyimpanan suhu 28±2 °C dan 40±2 °C, tetapi kurang stabil pada suhu 4±2 °C setelah 14 minggu penyimpanan. Angka sineresis tertinggi terdapat pada gel yang mengandung perasan herba seledri.Kata kunci : Seledri, Apigenin, Gel, Stabilitas

  6. The Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Dill (Anethum graveolens on Morphine Withdrawal Symptoms in Addicted Male NMRI Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bakhtiyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Medicinal herbs with natural materials can be effective and have fewer side effects than drugs with chemical composition in reducing withdrawal symptoms and are more effective in treating addiction. In recent years, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-anxiety effects of Dill has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Dill ethanol extract on some withdrawal syndrome behaviors such as jumping, standing, climbing in male mice addicted to morphine. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 21 male NMRI mice with weighting 25 to 30 gr. Animals were divided into three groups: Group 1 received saline + naloxone (SN,  group 2 received morphine + saline + naloxone (MSN and the third group received   morphine + ethanol extract of dill (500 mg kg ip + naloxone (MDN respectively. Simultaneous with the injection of morphine, the dill extract was injected at the same time. In order to induce the development of morphine dependence, the mice received increasing doses of morphine (10, 20, 30, and 40 mg during four days for ten times, respectively. To induce the withdrawal symptom, two hours after the last injection of morphine, naloxone at a dose of 5 mg kg was injected intraperitoneally. Two hours after the last injection of morphine, naloxone at a dose of 5 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally. Jumping, standing on both feet and climbing the walls were counted during 30 minutes. The data were analyzed using the software Graph Pad prism. Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract of plant significantly reduces the number of jumping due to naloxone injection in the addicted rats (p <0.001, but in the rearing behaviors and climb the walls of the container, a significant difference was observed with morphine. Conclusions: The findings suggested that the Dill Ethanolic extract can decrease the jumping number due to Naloxone-induced effect.  Therefore, Dill Ethanolic extract may have an impact in reducing of withdrawal induction by morphine.

  7. The role of the white-eyed vireo in the dispersal of bersera fruit on the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; Foster, M.S.; Marquez-Valdelamar, L.

    1995-01-01

    White-eyed vireos (Vireo griseus) winter in the forests and secondary growth of the Yucatan Peninsula where Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is an abundant tree Twenty-five per cent of all white-eyed vireos observed foraging visited Bursera trees In addition, presence and abundance of territorial white-eyed vireos in small forest patches were correlated with the size of the Bursera crop Vireos were the most reliable dispersers of Bursera seeds These birds visited 32 of 35 trees observed for at least three hours. They accounted for approximately half of all bird visits, and two-thirds of the seeds dispersed. Most of the other species rarely visited (seeds from the tree. Peculiarities of phenology and fruit structure may contribute to the tendency of Bursera to be dispersed by relatively few species The capsules of Bursera fruits do not open when the fruit ripens; birds apparently locate ripe fruit using visual cues, although these are few In addition, only a small portion of the crop ripens daily over a 7- or 8-month period. The vireo-Bursera simaruba relationship, found regionally on the Yucatan Peninsula, may result from the prolonged fruit ripening period (October-March), the relatively depauperate frugivore community and the relatively high density of small Bursera trees in the hurricane-disturbed dry forests. Small trees at all times, and all trees from October to February, depend upon territorial vireos for continuous, highly efficient local dispersal of a small number of fruits In March and April residual fruits ripen rapidly and synchronously, attracting a greater variety of visitors for broad spectrum dispersal during a period of food scarcity. Thus, Bursera has an unusual two-phase phenological pattern, perhaps alternately to take advantage of both specialized and opportunistic dispersers.

  8. Uptake and phytotoxicity of anthracene and benzo[k]fluoranthene applied to the leaves of celery plants (Apium graveolens var. secalinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Jolanta; Sienkiewicz, Stanisław; Pietrzak, Monika; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2015-05-01

    The above-ground parts of celery plants were exposed to two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): 3-ring anthracene (ANT) and 5-ring benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), and the combination of ANT and BkF. After 43 days of exposure (overall dose of 1325µg/plant), celery plants retained only 1.4% of the total dose of ANT and 17.5% of the total dose of BkF. After exposure to a combination of ANT and BkF (1325µg of each compound per plant), the average ANT concentrations were more than twofold higher in/on leaf blades, whereas BkF levels were insignificantly higher. Under natural photoperiod conditions equivalent to a normal day, the combined application of ANT and BkF to the above-ground parts of celery plants slowed down physicochemical transformations of ANT. A similar effect was observed when PAHs were applied to glass surfaces. The combination of both PAHs probably led to stacking interactions, which decreased volatilization, in particular of ANT. Phytotoxicity of ANT and BkF could not be unambiguously established based on the results of this study. In all analyzed treatments, the chlorophyll content of leaf blades remained unchanged. Foliar application of ANT reduced ascorbic acid levels in all analyzed plant parts and increased the total acidity of celery leaves. In all experimental treatments, the total phenolic content of leaves increased up to 15%. Interestingly, ANT and BkF did not produce cumulative effects when applied in combination (when total PAH concentrations per plant were twofold higher).

  9. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Mejdi Snuossi; Najla Trabelsi; Sabrine Ben Taleb; Ameni Dehmeni; Guido Flamini; Vincenzo De Feo

    2016-01-01

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leav...

  10. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L. y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisell Martelo C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura, considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1 y atmosférica (X y g, y la porosidad disponible (Ee al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por efecto de la posición. En las etapas de proceso se obtuvieron para el apio y el pepino valores de X1 (-14.32 ± 2.75 y -5.51±1.76%, g1 (-0.587±0.69 y -0.079±0.99%, X(13.49±2.32 y 6.72±2.72%, g (-1.40±1.042% y -2.33±1.26% y Ee (15.73±2.31 y 9.35±2.57%, respectivamente. Estos resultados indicaron una salida de líquido nativo (X1<0 y una ligera contracción volumétrica de las estructuras (g y g1<0, lo cual se evidenció microestructuralmente. Conclusiones. La respuesta a la IV en apio y pepino, permite identificar estas matrices alimentarias, como aptas para la incorporación de componentes que le proporcionen un valor agregado a estos productos.

  11. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L.) y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yisell Martelo C.; Misael Cortés R.; Diego Restrepo M.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV) en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura), considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1) y atmosférica (X y g), y la porosidad disponible (Ee) al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por e...

  12. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples.

  13. 低温对芸香抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Ruta Graveolens Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺; 曾丽; 徐娜

    2010-01-01

    通过在低温胁迫下对芸香的研究,结果表明:在5℃低温胁迫下,芸香叶片的脂膜相对透性与MDA呈上升趋势;O2-呈波动性变化,H2O2呈线性增加;SOD先升高后下降,而POD呈波动性变化.证明,芸香通过体内一系列生理特性的变化来抵抗低温.

  14. Biological Study on overground organs of Ruta Graveolens%芸香地上器官的生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞

    2004-01-01

    对芸香的茎、叶及花等器官的形态结构进行了较为系统的观察研究,对花芽形成及开花过程进行了客观描述.芸香花有顶生和侧生两种,柱头为"湿柱头",叶片具有典型旱生型植物特点,茎叶中均含有簇晶和油腔,这些特征可作为分类学上鉴别该物种的性状.茎的淀粉积累过程:花前期淀粉积累很少(6月下旬),10月下旬达高峰,之后略有减少并保持稳定直至被冻死.对此结合当地温度及水分条件进行了抗寒、抗旱的讨论.

  15. Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-01-11

    Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  16. Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid: A randomized, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has negative effects on women′s life. Due to side-effects of chemical drugs, there is growing trend toward herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Dill compared to mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial study was conducted on 75 single female students between 18 and 28 years old educating in Nursing and Midwifery School and Paramedical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences of Iran in 2011. They were allocated randomly into one of the three groups: In Dill group, they took 1000 mg of Dill powder q12h for 5 days from 2 days before the beginning of menstruation for two cycles. Other groups received 250 mg mefenamic acid or 500 mg starch capsule as placebo, respectively. Dysmenorrhea severity was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analog scale (VAS. Students with mild dysmenorrhea were excluded. Data were analyzed by SPSS using the descriptive statistic, paired-samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There were no significant differences between three groups for demographic or descriptive variables. Comprising the VAS showed that the participants of Dill and mefenamic acid groups had lower significant pain in the 1 st and the 2 nd months after treatment, whereas in the placebo group this was only significant in the 2 nd month (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dill was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding side-effects of Dill and its interactivity are recommended.

  17. 不同种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 任洪涛; 周斌

    2010-01-01

    为探讨不同种苗香叶油的香气特征,对7~9月扦插苗和组培苗的香叶油进行GC-9A气相色谱分析,结果发现,两者化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异,其中:扦插苗香叶油含香茅醇31.81%~34.79%,香叶醇6.84%~7.43%,β-古芸烯5.91%~6.59%;组培苗香叶油含香茅醇30.02%~31.64%,香叶醇10.21%~10.29%,β-古芸烯5.24%~5.33%.

  18. Study on tissue culture and rapid regeneration of Pelargonium graveolens%香叶天竺葵组培快繁体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申玉华; 刘冰; 田艳春; 李学风

    2010-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵无菌苗叶片为外植体,MS为基本培养基进行组培快繁研究,结果表明:愈伤组织诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+2,4-D 0.1 mg/L;不定芽诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;不定芽增殖最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L,生根率达100%,且根系长势良好.

  19. 云南热区柑桔套种香叶天竺葵技术%Intercropping of citrus and Pelargonium graveolens in Yunnan hot area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文翠; 唐文冲; 李云平; 万福术; 陈艺齐; 袁理春

    2010-01-01

    为了提高云南热区柑桔种植区土地利用率,实施柑桔套种香叶天竺葵的栽种模式,有效地解决了果树幼龄期土地产出率低的问题,每年每公顷可增加经济收入12万元左右,为果树套种香料作物提供了可行的栽培模式,该模式具有很好的推广前景.

  20. 香叶天竺葵的组织培养和快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芳; 娄利华

    2003-01-01

    培养条件 种子萌发培养基:(1)MS。分化培养基:(2)MS+6-BA0.5mg·L-1(单位下同);(3)MS+6-BA0.5+NAA0.1;(4)MS+6-BA1.0;(5)MS+6-BA1.0+NAA0.1。壮苗培养基:(6)MS+6.BA0.5+GA1.0。生根培养基:(7)1/2MS+IBA1.0;(8)1/2MS+IBA0.5+NAA0.1:(9)1/2MS+IBA0.25。

  1. 香叶天竺葵的离体培养研究%Studies on Technology of Isolated Culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚莲; 李绅崇; 吴丽芳; 杨春梅; 贾玉梅; 黎霞

    2007-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵的嫩茎为外植体进行组织培养研究,结果表明:培养基MS+BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L既适合于愈伤组织的诱导,也适合于不定芽的分化增殖;培养基1/2MS+BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.7 mg/L为生根诱导的最佳配方.组培苗的过渡成活率可达到90%以上.

  2. Effects of aqueous fraction of Anethum graveolens L. (dill extracts on fertility and terminal sugar of female rat\\\\\\'s reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihezaman Monsefi

    2013-02-01

    Results: Duration of diestrus phase under high dose of aqueous extract increased 2 times compared to the control group. Uterus thickness, longitudinal and transverse diameters of ovaries, granulosa cells of corpus luteum diameters of the experimental groups decreased 1.5 to 2 times compared to the control group's. Female rats of the experimental groups did not get pregnant. Intensity of reactions of α-mannose, N-acetyl glucosamine, and N-acetyl galactoseamine of endometrium and ovarian cell surfaces changed after being stained by ConA, DBA and SBA. Conclusion: Oral administration of ethanol fraction and aqueous dill seeds extracts can induce infertility in female rats.

  3. Itinerario de la comisión corográfica: parte IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Soriano Lleras

    1967-04-01

    Full Text Available Esto vino a ser prácticamente el final de la Comisión Corográfica. Los contratos de Triana y de Paz se concluyeron el 31 de diciembre de ese año. Algunos años más tarde Triana, comentando los viajes en que había tomado parte como miembro de la Comisión, decía: "Los caminos de la Nueva Granada son en general las mismas rutas que habían trazado en la cordillera los habitantes primitivos.

  4. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4–5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds. PMID:28158320

  5. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Romero, Elizabeth; Valencia-Díaz, Susana; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  6. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L. Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)%旱芹籽粗提取物对埃及伊蚊的效果评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wej Choochote; 郑剑宁; 裘炯良; 杨定波

    2005-01-01

    埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti)是众所周知的虫媒病毒性疾病——登革热的传播媒介,分布于东南亚、太平洋岛屿、非洲和美洲。它也是中美、南美和西非传播黄热病的媒介。登革热因报告的病例数逐年上升,尤其是因该病有多种类型——登革出血热、登革休克综合症和其他诸如侵犯中枢神经系统等少见类型,已成为当今社会严重的公共卫生问题。据2003年世界卫生组织的报告,全球受到登革热威胁的人口约占全球人口总数的40%。目前,减少该病发生的最有效措施是加强个人防护和控制埃及伊蚊。

  7. Study on the Bacteriostasis in Vitro of Compound Ruta graveolens L. Tablets%复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2001-01-01

    目的:实验研究复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用.方法:采用抑菌实验,观察复方芸香片及其组成的水提物、醇提物对所选用的8种细菌的最低抑菌浓度和相对抑菌浓度作用程度.结果:醇提的复方芸香片对化脓性链球菌、藤黄八叠球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、B群链球菌、肺炎链球菌、绿脓杆菌、大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌,均有同等的较弱的抑菌作用.复方芸香药材醇提物对上述细菌的抑菌作用大为增强,其中最强的是前两种,其次是金黄色葡萄球菌和B群链球菌.芸香醇提物对前4种菌的抑菌作用也较强.H对上述细菌也有一定抑制作用.结论:复方芸香片对一般细菌有抑菌作用.

  8. 香叶天竺葵精油及单体抗氧化能力比较%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Its Monomer from Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 徐志敏; 王淳凯; 瞿伟菁; 林承杰

    2005-01-01

    根据试样对二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH·)的清除作用,评价了香叶天竺葵茎和叶精油及其单体,以及蒸馏后的残渣和废水的抗自由基活性.所试样品中几乎都有一定的抗氧化作用,以中午采集的叶片提取物的DPPH·清除率最高,达99.70%.废水和残渣的清除率分别达97.56%和90.24%.提示天然香料工业所弃的废水和残渣可提取到具有较强的抗自由基活性的物质,为种植香叶天竺葵综合利用提供了可能.

  9. 香叶天竺葵离体芽的培养及生产应用研究%Study on in vitro Shoot Culture of Pelargonium graveolens and Its Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 江明; 任洪涛

    2010-01-01

    香叶天竺葵生产上采用扦插繁殖,存在病害加重,品种退化的现象.本实验用离体芽进行诱导培养,探索产业化快繁优质种苗的方法,从而达到改良品种的目的.试验表明:MS+BA 0.5~2.0 mg/L+NAA 0~0.2 mg/L的配比可直接诱导产生较多的不定芽;MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L可作为微型扦插的继代培养基;MS+IBA 0.5 mg/L为最佳生根培养基,试管苗移栽成活率可达95 %.

  10. Study on tissue culture and high frequency propagation of Pelargonium graveolens L.Her%香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷开荣

    2005-01-01

    对香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术进行了研究,建立了种苗快速繁殖技术规程.结果:适宜的增殖培养基为MS+6-BA为0.5~1.0 mg/ L,继代周期为25~30 d,繁殖系数5以上;生根培养基为1/ 2MS+IBA 0.2 mg/ L,生根诱导率达100 %;生根培养20 d后,将试管苗移栽到菜园土:河沙=1:1的混合基质中,保湿培养,移栽成活率达98.6 %.

  11. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  12. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  13. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens) y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris) en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco; Juan José Luna Guevara; Francisco Javier Pérez Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE) de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1), 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2), 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3), 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4), 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5); 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6) y agua destilada estéril (T7) que se utilizó como...

  14. 78 FR 13670 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal..., From UNION GROVE, AL, To TRIANA, AL; REED BROADCASTING, LLC, Station WRAB, Facility ID 2552, BP-20130207ABK, From ARAB, AL, To UNION GROVE, AL; SOUTHERN STONE BROADCASTING, INC., Station WMGZ,...

  15. Llenando un vacío en la historia cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Silva

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Las lenguas indígenas en la historia social del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Humberto Triana y Antorveza. Instituto Caro y Cuervo (Biblioteca Ezequiel Uricoechea, Bogotá, 1987, 608 págs., más ilustraciones.

  16. Raadiosse jõudsid eesti laulud Lätist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Raadiosse jõudsid Eurovisiooni eelvõistlusel Lätis teise koha võitnud Läti ansambli Triana Park eestikeelsed laulud "Kesköine tramm" (muusika Aivars Rakovskis) ja "Reeda mind" (muusika Agnese Rakovska), mille tekstid on kirjutanud Lääne-Virumal Lehtses suvitav raadioajakirjanik Ivan Makarov

  17. Live Outdoor Webcams and the Construction of Virtual Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2008-01-01

    perception of the Internet as a globally distended and thus "geographical" medium. Moreover, due to its role in the NASA Triana mission, the never-realised flagship of the Clinton-Gore administration's Digital Earth project, the live webcam seemed to play an important part in the construction of what leading...

  18. An expanded nuclear phylogenomic PCR toolkit for Sapindales1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth S.; Gostel, Morgan R.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We tested PCR amplification of 91 low-copy nuclear gene loci in taxa from Sapindales using primers developed for Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae). Methods and Results: Cross-amplification of these markers among 10 taxa tested was related to their phylogenetic distance from B. simaruba. On average, each Sapindalean taxon yielded product for 53 gene regions (range: 16–90). Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicales), by contrast, yielded product for two. Single representatives of Anacardiaceae and Rutacaeae yielded 34 and 26 products, respectively. Twenty-six primer pairs worked for all Burseraceae species tested if highly divergent Aucoumea klaineana is excluded, and eight of these amplified product in every Sapindalean taxon. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that customized primers for Bursera can amplify product in a range of Sapindalean taxa. This collection of primer pairs, therefore, is a valuable addition to the toolkit for nuclear phylogenomic analyses of Sapindales and warrants further investigation. PMID:28101434

  19. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  20. Humus forms in two secondary semi-evergreen tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Loranger, Gladys; Ponge, Jean-François; Lavelle,Patrick

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The dynamics and function of humus forms in tropical forests are still poorly understood. Humus profiles in two secondary semi-evergreen woodlands in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) were analysed micromorphologically. The humus forms are described under the canopy of five dominant tree species at two sites: under Pisonia subcordata and Bursera simaruba in a secondary forest on a Leptosol (Rendzina), and under Swietenia macrophylla, Tabebuia heterophylla and B. simaruba...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1698 - Rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1698 Rue. (a) Rue is the perennial herb of several species of Ruta (Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L.). The leaves, buds, and...

  2. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  3. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.

  4. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Zeeyauddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

  5. Activities of Apiaceae essential oils against armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Rose Marie O F; Rosa, José S; Oliveira, Luisa; Cunha, Ana; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fourth-instar larvae. EOs from Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare var. vulgare, Anethum graveolens , Petroselinum crispum , and Cuminum cyminum were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. Anti-insect activity varied according to plant specie/composition, type, and exposure period. EOs from P. crispum and A. graveolens fruits, trans-anethole and cuminaldehyde, exerted acute effects on larvae feeding and growth (FDI and GI > 70%). A. graveolens , C. cyminum , and F. vulgare EOs and some of their constituents were effective by fumigation (≥ 80%). Satisfactory contact toxicities (>70%) were observed for five compounds and all EOs, except F. vulgare EOs, when tested by the filter paper impregnation method. For the most active EOs/compounds, dose-dependent toxicity was determined and inverse relationships of LC50 with time were established.

  6. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration.

  7. AcEST: DK954867 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pulus ... 162 1e-39 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 162 1e-39 sp|P37115|...140 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 5...TGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta graveolen... 161 3e-38 tr|Q6IV46|Q6IV46_CAMAC Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase OS

  8. Performance of an Optimized Eta Model Code on the Cray T3E and a Network of PCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouatchou, Jules; Rancic, Miodrag; Geiger, Jim

    2000-01-01

    In the year 2001, NASA will launch the satellite TRIANA that will be the first Earth observing mission to provide a continuous, full disk view of the sunlit Earth. As a part of the HPCC Program at NASA GSFC, we have started a project whose objectives are to develop and implement a 3D cloud data assimilation system, by combining TRIANA measurements with model simulation, and to produce accurate statistics of global cloud coverage as an important element of the Earth's climate. For simulation of the atmosphere within this project we are using the NCEP/NOAA operational Eta model. In order to compare TRIANA and the Eta model data on approximately the same grid without significant downscaling, the Eta model will be integrated at a resolution of about 15 km. The integration domain (from -70 to +70 deg in latitude and 150 deg in longitude) will cover most of the sunlit Earth disc and will continuously rotate around the globe following TRIANA. The cloud data assimilation is supposed to run and produce 3D clouds on a near real-time basis. Such a numerical setup and integration design is very ambitious and computationally demanding. Thus, though the Eta model code has been very carefully developed and its computational efficiency has been systematically polished during the years of operational implementation at NCEP, the current MPI version may still have problems with memory and efficiency for the TRIANA simulations. Within this work, we optimize a parallel version of the Eta model code on a Cray T3E and a network of PCs (theHIVE) in order to improve its overall efficiency. Our optimization procedure consists of introducing dynamically allocated arrays to reduce the size of static memory, and optimizing on a single processor by splitting loops to limit the number of streams. All the presented results are derived using an integration domain centered at the equator, with a size of 60 x 60 deg, and with horizontal resolutions of 1/2 and 1/3 deg, respectively. In accompanying

  9. TIENDA DE INSTRUMENTOS MUSICALES ORBIS [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Calificación del suelo: URBANO CONSOLIDADO Clasificación del suelo: URBANO Declaración BIC:No EL COMERCIO SE ENCUENTRA EN LA CALLE TRIANA ESQUINA A LA CALLE TRAVIESO. EL ESTABLECIMIENTO APENAS HA SUFRIDO TRANSFORMACIONES O ALTERACIONES, ÚNICAMENTE SE HA ADAPTADO DESDE LA VENTA DE ELECTRODOMÉSTICOS A LA DE INSTRUMENTOS MUSICALES, INCORPORANDO LAS VIGAS. EL MOSTRADOR PRINCIPAL ES DE LOS AÑOS 70 DEL SIGLO XX. EL LOCAL ES EN PLANTA EN "L". SE LOCALIZA ENTRE ...

  10. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa, two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia, one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii, one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii. Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  11. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A. [Departamento de Cristallografia, Mineralogia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, avenida Reina Mercedes s/n (Spain); Castaing, J. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jacques.castaing@culture.fr; Aucouturier, M. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  12. DSCOVR High Time Resolution Solar Wind Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), previously known as Triana, spacecraft is expected to be launched in late 2014. It will carry a fluxgate magnetometer, Faraday Cup solar wind detector and a top-hat electron electrostatic analyzer. The Faraday Cup will provide an unprecedented 10 vectors/sec time resolution measurement of the solar wind proton and alpha reduced distribution functions. Coupled with the 40 vector/sec vector magnetometer measurements, the identification of specific wave modes in the solar wind will be possible for the first time. The science objectives and data products of the mission will be discussed.

  13. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae. I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species significant range extension is documented, including new records for France, Canada, United States, and Sweden. New host data are also provided for several species. The species name Apanteles masmithi Fernández-Triana is considered a syn. n. of Dolichogenidea britannica (Wilkinson.

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFI740 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 CN254864 |CN254864.1 BIP1132 BIP up-regulated phloem library after plant infestation with Myzus persic...ae Apium graveolens cDNA, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 BE608405 |BE608405.1 sq30e12.y1

  15. Over Oenanthe crocata L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.; Meijden, van der R.; Weeda, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    In 1975 two specimens of O. crocata were found in the dunes of Voorne. Since then the number increased to c. 50. The species is described and compared to other umbelliferous species, as it is likely to be mistaken for Petroselinum crispum or Apium graveolens vegetatively. Different observations on t

  16. 21 CFR 184.1699 - Oil of rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... distillation of the fresh blossoming plants of rue, the perennial herb of several species of Ruta—Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L. (b) Oil of rue meets...

  17. Study of antinociceptive effects of Pelargonium geraveolens L. leaves hydroethanolic extract in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Heydari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Anti nociceptive, Pelargonium graveolens Abstract: Introduction: Pain is a somatosensory sense that as an indicator to diagnoses for diseases . Pelargonium graveolens is known as a medicinal plant with use in traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens leaves extract (PGE in male mice Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male mice were divided in 6 groups (n=7. The control group(taking normal saline,0.25 ml, i.p, morphine group( 1mg/kg, i.p, treated groups with PGE at doses of 100, 200 and 600mg/kg and group induced with naloxone (0.1mg/kg, i.p + 200mg/kg of PGE. In order to evaluate the analgesic effects of PGE the tail flick and writhing tests were used. The data for each test were compared with One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post test. Results: Our results showed that PGE (200 and 600 mg/kg increased pain thershold compared with control group in writhing and tail flick test significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion: The PGE has anitinociceptive effects in male mice. This analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens extract probably related to its flavonoids composition which has effect on opioid system.

  18. The antibacterial activity of some essential oils against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is categorized as a red alert pathogen that is increasingly associated with a high mortality rate in infected patients due to its resistance to extensive antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of some essential oils (Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Eugenia caryophyllata, Ziziphora tenuir and Trachyspermum copticum oils against 32 clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The antibacterial evaluations and chemical composition of essential oils was determined. Thymol, eugenol, -terpineol, -citronellol and thymol were the chief portions of T. copticum, E. caryophyllata, Z. tenuir, O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils, respectively. The MIC values of oils against these clinical isolates revealed the three subsets of oils including 1- T. copticum, E. caryophyllata and O. decumbens, 2- Z. tenuir and 3- P. graveolens oils. These oils showed the synergistic activity with amikacin, the lower Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI was for P. graveolens oil (0.23 and the higher FICI was for E. caryophyllata (0.325.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  20. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIZPURU, I., APERRIBAY, J.A., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cuscuta scandens Brot. subsp. cesatiana (BERTOL. Soó, Fallopia sachalinensis (FRIEDERICH SCHMIDT PETROP. Ronse Decraene, Galium debile Desv., Geum hispidum Fries y Myosurus minimus L.; se combina, además, Apium graveolens L. subsp. butronensis (D. GOMEZ and G. MONTSERRAT I. AIZPURU, stat. nov.

  1. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  2. First Report of Apium Virus Y on Cilantro, Celery, and Parsley in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently Apium virus Y (ApVY) was detected in field grown cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in California. Previously, in 2003, cilantro plants from 3 different fields in California showed symptoms of mosaic, vein clearing and stunting. Whe...

  3. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype analysis in Carrot and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome localization of the rDNA gene clusters was determined for the first time in several Apiaceae using double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twenty-one Apioideae species including taxa of economic importance (e.g. Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Cumin cyminum, Daucus c...

  4. Distributing Workflows over a Ubiquitous P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Al-Shakarchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses issues in the distribution of bundled workflows across ubiquitous peer-to-peer networks for the application of music information retrieval. The underlying motivation for this work is provided by the DART project, which aims to develop a novel music recommendation system by gathering statistical data using collaborative filtering techniques and the analysis of the audio itsel, in order to create a reliable and comprehensive database of the music that people own and which they listen to. To achieve this, the DART scientists creating the algorithms need the ability to distribute the Triana workflows they create, representing the analysis to be performed, across the network on a regular basis (perhaps even daily in order to update the network as a whole with new workflows to be executed for the analysis. DART uses a similar approach to BOINC but differs in that the workers receive input data in the form of a bundled Triana workflow, which is executed in order to process any MP3 files that they own on their machine. Once analysed, the results are returned to DART's distributed database that collects and aggregates the resulting information. DART employs the use of package repositories to decentralise the distribution of such workflow bundles and this approach is validated in this paper through simulations that show that suitable scalability is maintained through the system as the number of participants increases. The results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  5. Memorandum sobre la Sierra de la Macarena y Estación Biológica "José Jerónimo Triana”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo Salcedo Santiago

    1949-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos permitimos presentar, a manera de información general, un "Memorandum sobre la Sierra de La Macarena y la Estación Biológica José Jerónimo Triana" y lo referente a su reglamentación legal. El Instituto de Enfermedades Tropicales "Roberto Franco", bajo cuya dependencia está la Reserva de La Macarena y la Estación Triana, tiene su sede en Villavicencio y cuenta con una dotación suficiente para ser puesta al servicio de los investigadores que, temporal o permanentemente, deseen vincularse al proyecto de La Macarena, El Instituto se hace cargo de los gastos de sostenimiento del personal, transporte de equipos y material dentro de la zona comprendida entre Villavicencio y La Macarena y en el lugar mismo de la Estación Biológica. Es nuestro deseo que los trabajos de investigación que vayan a realizarse en esa zona estén basados en la colaboración estrecha de entidades nacionales y extranjeras y se verifiquen con espíritu de continuidad. Asimismo, queremos que el fruto de esto trabajos beneficie tanto a científicos extranjeras como a entidades colombianas. Agradeceremos toda sugestión que pueda hacernos sobre este proyecto y esperamos su importante colaboración.

  6. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  7. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  9. Estructura y composición de la vegetación leñosa de selvas en diferentes estadios sucesionales en el Ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B García-Licona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la diversidad florística de la selva mediana subperennifolia del ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, Campeche, en diferentes estadios sucesionales en un área de 2700 m2. En nueve parcelas de 300 m2 se representó vegetación secundaria (acahual con siete años de abandono, 15 años de abandono y selvas maduras, en las cuales se identifi caron y midieron todos los individuos leñosos con un DAP = 1 cm. Se encontraron 996 individuos de 78 especies distribuidas en 29 familias, las familias con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Fabaceae, Rubiaceae y Sapindaceae. Las especies con mayor abundancia en el área de estudio fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Pouteria reticulata, Croton icche y Bursera simaruba, esta última especie fue la única que se presentó en todas las parcelas de estudio. Las especies con mayor valor de importancia relativo (VIR en los acahuales con siete años de abandono fueron Lysiloma latisiliquum, Bursera simaruba y Guettarda combsii; en los acahuales con 15 años de abandono las especies con mayor VIR fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Piscidia piscipula y Dendropanax arboreus; mientras en las parcelas de selva madura fueron Brosimum alicastrum, Manilkara zapota y Pouteria reticulata. Además se presentaron 15 especies sólo en parcelas de acahuales con siete años de abandono, cinco especies únicas en las parcelas de acahuales de 15 años y 18 especies únicas en las parcelas de selvas maduras. Concluimos que analizar la estructura y composición florística en vegetación en distintas fases sucesionales permite documentar mejor la diversidad florística de áreas que han sido altamente impactadas por distintos disturbios

  10. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense.

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM SOME TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuyan Anupam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Traditional Indian Spices, Anethum Graveolens (Umbelliferae, Foeniculum Vulgare (Umbelliferae and Coriandrum Sativum (Umbelliferae were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus Coagulase, E.Coli, Streptococcus fecaelis and Staphylococcus aureus, by paper disc diffusion method, using Amoxicillin as standard drug.The results indicated that all the Volatile Oil samples from Anethum Graveolens (Dill, Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel and Coriandrum Sativum (Coriender has antimicrobial potential and were active against almost all the microorganisms but in a dose dependent manner. Foeniculum Vulgare by far was the most potent volatile oil showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus Coagulase.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from Pelargonium graveolens Ait. (family Geraniaceae, against one standard S. aureus strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical S. aureus strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from P. graveolens has strong activity against all of the clinical S. aureus isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  13. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  14. R-(+)-ABP a novel derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide possesses anti-convulsant and neuroprotective properties in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ELESTAGE; A.ROGER; L.DANOBER; ERENARD; X-Q.PENG; Z.GUO; J.T.ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    ABP is a novel phthalide derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide (NBP) synthesized at the Beijing Institute of Materia Medica.NBP was isolated from several plants including Apium graveolens Linn. The juice squeezed from fresh celery leaves has long been used in Southeastern China for the treatment of epilepsy, and NBP has been reported to possess anti-convulsant properties (Drugs Future 2000; 25: 16-23). The present study

  15. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  16. Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon

    2003-05-01

    The essential oils from Cedrus atlantica, Styrax tonkinensis, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Pogesternon patchouli and Rosmarinus officinalis were analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the oils were investigated by disk diffusion assay and the broth dilution method against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The effects of geraniol and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens on the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and ketoconazole were examined using a checkerboard microtiter assay against both Aspergillus fungi. Most of the tested essential oils, with the exception of C. atlantica, J. communis, and P. patchouli, significantly inhibited growth of A. niger and to a lesser extent that of A. flavus, with MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) in the range 0.78-12.5 mg/mL. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited additive effects with amphotericin B and with ketoconazole against both Aspergillus species, resulting in fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.52 to 1.00.

  17. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  18. Launch and Commissioning of the Deep Space Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Nicholas P.; Davis, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), formerly known as Triana, successfully launched on February 11th, 2015. To date, each of the five space-craft attitude control system (ACS) modes have been operating as expected and meeting all guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) requirements, although since launch, several anomalies were encountered. While unplanned, these anomalies have proven to be invaluable in developing a deeper understanding of the ACS, and drove the design of three alterations to the ACS task of the flight software (FSW). An overview of the GN&C subsystem hardware, including re-furbishment, and ACS architecture are introduced, followed by a chronological discussion of key events, flight performance, as well as anomalies encountered by the GN&C team.

  19. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots.

  20. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F.; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots. PMID:28144250

  1. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas

  2. 6种芳香植物精油的提取及综合品质评价%Extraction of Essential Oils from 6 Aromatic Plants and Evaluation on Their Comprehensive Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小兰; 赵林森; 李恒安; 张蕴薇

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为芳香精油的生产提供理论指导.[方法]分别从蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘中提取芳香精油,然后比较其出油率并采用灰色关联度法对6种精油的品质进行综合评价.[结果]蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘的平均出油率分别为0.86%、0.33%、0.24%、1.29%、1.27%和1.88%.精油颜色由亮到暗为:猴樟>薄荷>蓝桉>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>柑橘;香味强弱为:柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>猴樟>蓝桉>薄荷>柑橘;香味持久性为:蓝桉>柑橘>香叶天竺葵>柠檬草>猴樟>薄荷;透明度为:猴樟>薄荷>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>蓝桉>柑橘;香味好感度为:柠檬草>猴樟>香叶天竺葵>薄荷>柑橘>蓝桉.综合评价值最高的是柠檬草精油.[结论]该试验建立了精油品质的综合评价体系.%[Objective] The purpose was to provide theoretical direction for the production of aromatic essential oil. [Method] The aromatic essential oils were extracted from Eucalyptus globules, Cinnamomum bodinier, Pelargonium graveolens, Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha haploca-lyx and Citrus reticulata. Then their oil yielding rates were compared and the qualities of 6 essential oils were evaluated comprehensively by gray related degreeMethod. [Result] The average oil yielding rates of E. globules, C. bodinier, P. graveolens, C. citralus, M. haplocalyx and C. reticulata were 0. 86% , 0.33% , 0.24% , 1.29% , 1. 27% and 1. 88% resp. The colors of these essential oils from bright to dark were; C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > E. globules > C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. reticulata; their fragrance intensities were; C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. bodinier > E. globules > M. haplocalyx > C. reticulata; their fragrance endurances were: E. globules > C. reticulate > P. graveolens > C. citrates > C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx; their transparencies were: C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > C. citrates > P. graveolens > E. globules > C. reticulata and

  3. Habitat use by desert bighorn sheep in sonora, México

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    Tarango, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of habitat components by desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis was examined to explain sexual segregation of sheep in Sierra el Viejo, Sonora, Mexico. We evaluated 265 plots used by bighorns and 278 random plots from April 1997 to December 1998. Groups of segregated males and females preferred the elephant tree (Bursera microphylla-salvia (Salvia mellifera-limber bush (Jatropha cuneata association (ESL and avoided the foothill palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum-desert ironwood (Olneya tesota association (FDD. Segregated females selected the ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens-desert agave (Agave spp.yhop bush (Dodonoea viscosa (OAH vegetation association, formed larger groups, were closer to escape terrain, and occupied more rugged areas during autumn and spring than males. Segregated females selected areas that provided more opportunities to evade predation than did males.

    [fr]
    Nous avons étudié les différents composants de l'utilisation de l'habitat par le mouflon américain (Ovis canadensis afin d'expliquer sa ségrégation sexuelle dans la Sierra el Viejo, à Sonora, Mexique. D'avril 1997 à Décembre 1998, on a évalué 265 parcelles utilisées par les mouflons et 278 parcelles au hasard. Différents groupes séparés de mâles et femelles préféraient l'association (ESL formée par l'arbre Bursera microphylla, la sauge (Salvia mellifera et l'arbuste Jatropa cuneata et ils évitaient l'association (FDD composée du Cercidium microphyllum et /'Olneya tesota. Les groupes de femelles sélectionaient l'association végétale (OAH de Fouquieria splendens. Agave spp. et l'arbuste Dodonoea viscosa; et par rapport aux mâles, elles formaient de plus grands groupes, étaient plus proches de la zone de fuite et elles occupaient des terrains plus accidentés en automne et au printemps. Les groupes de femelles, plus que les

  4. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

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    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  5. Riqueza y diversidad de especies leñosas del bosque tropical caducifolio El Tarimo, Cuenca del Balsas, Guerrero Richness and diversity of woody species in the tropical dry forest of El Tarimo, Cuenca del Balsas, Guerrero

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    Fernando Pineda-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la composición florística, la riqueza y la diversidad de especies de un bosque tropical caducifolio en la provincia florística Cuenca del Balsas, México. Se seleccionaron 4 sitios de 1000 m² cada uno, censándose los árboles, arbustos y lianas con d.a.p. >1 cm. En total se registraron 1456 individuos, pertenecientes a 82 especies, 56 géneros y 24 familias. Independientemente del sitio y de la forma de crecimiento, Leguminosae fue la familia con mayor número de especies y de individuos. Los géneros más diversos fueron Bursera (Burseraceae y Cordia (Boraginaceae con 9 y 4 especies, respectivamente. La riqueza entre los sitios varió de 43 a 55 especies y su similitud fue más alta en el nivel de familia que en el de especie. Los árboles fueron la forma de crecimiento con mayor riqueza de especies. Respectoa otros bosques tropicales caducifolios de México y del mundo, los sitios que se estudiaron en este bosque ocupan una posición baja en cuanto a sus valores de riqueza y estructura.Floristic composition, species richness, and diversity of the seasonally dry tropical forest in the floristic province of the Balsas Depression, México, is described. We sampled four 1,000 m² sites and recorded species and dbh of trees, shrubs and lianas >1 cm dbh. Data from 1,456 individuals were recorded, representing 82 species, 56 genera, and 24 families. Independently of site or growth form, Leguminosae was the family with the highest number of species and individuals. Bursera (Burseraceae and Cordia (Boraginaceae were the most speciose genera, with nine and four species, respectively. Species richness among sites ranged from 43-55 species and their similarity was higher at the family level than the species level. Trees had higher numbers of species than shrubs and lianas. Our results indicate that these forests have low values of species richness and structure attributes in relation with other tropical dry forests of Mexico and the world.

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

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    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  7. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

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    V. A. D’Ávila

    Full Text Available Abstract Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.

  8. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

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    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  9. Chinese herbal extract dl-3n-butylphthalide A commonly used drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke as a novel therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfang He; Wensheng Zhou; Zhiping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Dl-3n-butylphthalide is the active component isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. A number of pharmacological and clinical studies have proven that dl-3n-butylphthalide is highly po-tent and multi-targeted with low toxicity and has a long time-window for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying dl-3n-butylphthalide include improving mi-tochondrial function and microcirculation, inhibiting apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress. Fur-thermore, dl-3n-butylphthalide may also be promising for the treatment of neurodegenerative dis-eases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease.

  10. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and antioxidant effect of Mexican oregano-soy based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernández, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godínez, L A; Mendoza, S

    2008-08-01

    Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion.

  11. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  12. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  13. Characterization of a member of a new Potyvirus species infecting arracacha in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orílio, A F; Dusi, A N; Madeira, N R; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

    2009-01-01

    An arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) plant collected in Brazil was found to be infected by a new virus. This viral isolate (named C17) systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana and Apium graveolens. A polyclonal antibody was raised, and analysis of our arracacha germplasm collection showed a high infection rate of C17-like viruses (93% infection). Sequencing of the ca. 1.7 kb 3'-terminal genomic region revealed a typical potyvirus genome organization. It shared less than 70% nucleotide identity with any other potyvirus sequence, which thus indicated that it is possibly a member of a new Potyvirus species tentatively named Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV).

  14. 'Buchu' -Agathosma betulina and Agathosma crenulata (Rutaceae): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, A; Viljoen, A M

    2008-10-28

    South Africa has offered the world two indigenous aromatic plants from which commercially important natural products have been developed: Pelargonium graveolens (and its hybrids) the source of geranium oil and Agathosma betulina, from which 'Buchu' oil is produced. Despite the historical use of 'Buchu' and the commercial interest developed around this coveted indigenous resource the (limited) research has not been coherently assembled. This overview aims to unite aspects on the botany, traditional and modern day uses, chemistry and pharmacological data on 'Buchu' which is undeniably one of South Africa's most renowned botanical assets.

  15. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

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    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  16. Caracteres morfológicos e número de cromossomos em Pelargonium Morphological characters and chromosome numbers in Pelargonium

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    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reune observações morfológicas e citológicas em dez cultivares e cinco espécies de Pelargonium aromático e em onze cultivares ornamentais. Os cultivares aromáticos são, morfològicamente, muito semelhantes ao P. x asperum, do qual possivelmente devem ter-se originado; apresentam meiose irregular, com alta freqüência de monovalentes. Os cultivares ornamentais pertencem todos à espécie P. zonale, e dentre êles uns são diplóides e outros tetraplóides. Das espécies em coleção algumas se identificam com as descrições anteriores, mas outras devem ter sido introduzidas erroneamente classificadas. Considerando o material estudado, foram encontrados, para Pelargonium, três números básicos de cromossomos: x = 8, x = 9 e x = 11.Morphological characters and chromosome number of ten cultivars and five species of aromatic Pelargonium, as well as ornamental cultivars, were compared. The oil cultivars are very alike morphologically and they are supposed to be clones of P x asperum. They have irregular meiosis with high frequency of univalents and are male sterile; their chromosome number is 2n=77. Some of the species (P. graveolens from Italy, P. odoratissimum, P. tomentosuni and P. grossularioides agree with previous descriptions, but others, as P. graveolens from Argentina and P. radula from Italy, were probably introduced with a wrong classification. Their chromosome number were counted and compared to previous determinations with excelent agreement. No data was found concerning P. grossularioides; the present chromosome counting seems to be the first. The ornamental cultivars studied here belong to the species P. zonale; some are diploid, others tetraploid; in the diploid cultivars mixoploidy is frequent. As chromosome number is concerned, three basic numbers were established; x=8 for P. odoratissimum, x = 9 for P. grossularioides cv. cocoanut, P. graveolens from Italy and P. zonale (ornamental cultivars, and x=11

  17. Revisión de la producción, composición fitoquímica y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano mexicano Revision of the production, phytochemical composition, and nutraceutical properties of Mexican oregano

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    Enrique García-Pérez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El orégano es una planta de distribución mundial, el cual está representado principalmente por dos especies: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace nativo de Europa, y Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, originaria de América. México ocupa el segundo lugar como productor mundial de orégano con la especie L. graveolens H. B. K. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies explotadas son silvestres y su cultivo es aún tradicional y limitado. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las estrategias de propagación, composición química y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano. Los fitoquímicos presentes pueden clasificarse en tres categorías: compuestos volátiles, lípidos y fenólicos. Estos componentes presentan diversas propiedades nutracéuticas entre las que destacan la actividad antioxidante, hipoglucémica, hipotensiva, hipolipidémica y anticancerígena. Los avances en el estudio de la composición fitoquímica y su relación con nuevas propiedades nutracéuticas hacen del orégano un producto de alto valor comercial con amplias aplicaciones quimioterapéuticas.The oregano plant is distributed worldwide, and represented mainly by two species: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace native of Europa, and Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, native of America. Mexico is the second largest producer of oregano in the world, with the species L. graveolens H. B. K. However, most of the species used are wild, and raising them is done in a traditional and limited way. In this study we present an analysis of the dissemination strategies, chemical composition and nutraceutical properties of oregano. Phytochemicals present can be classified into three categories: volatile, lipids and phenolic compounds. These components present diverse neutraceutical properties, the most important of which are antioxidant activities, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypolypidemic and anti-carcinogenic. The advances in the study of the phytochemical composition and its relationship with new

  18. Desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices

    OpenAIRE

    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO; MISAEL CORTES RODRIGUEZ; HÉCTOR SUAREZ MAHECHA

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio), en terminos de la cuantificacio...

  19. Produtos naturais para o controle do ácaro Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Laércio Bragança Castagnino; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido oxálico e de óleos essenciais de plantas no controle da infestação pelo ácaro Varroa destructor em colônias de Apis mellifera africanizadas. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em 30 colônias, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As colmeias foram tratadas com óleos essenciais de arruda (Ruta graveolens), eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp.) e hortelã (Mentha piperita), além de timol, ácido oxálico e do tra...

  20. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

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    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  1. ANALYSIS OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Rout

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a preliminary data of occurrence of elemental concentration in medicinal plants i.e Apium graveolens (seed, Sida cordifolia (root, Solanum surattense (whole plant, Tribulus terrestris(fruit and Withania somnifera (root used in Ayurveda, using Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS following standard procedures. The elemental concentration i.e. Mn, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were found in various proportions. The data obtained from the study can be used to evaluate the potentiality of these plants in their used for Ayurvedic drugs

  2. Validity of content and face validity of the instrument "Perception of behaviors of harmonized care" Validez de contenido y validez facial del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado" Validade de conteúdo e validade facial do instrumento "Percepção de comportamentos de cuidado humanizado"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGAS ROSERO ELIZABETH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodological research was carried out whose objective was to determine the face validity and content validity of the instrument "Perception of behaviors of humanized nursing care" of Rivera and Triana, with twelve patients and/or their permanent care taker, who were hospitalized in the Clínica Country, and with eleven experts in the area of nursing research. The results of the validity process through psychometric tests show that said instrument has a high face validity with patients, with an agreement index of 0,94, a face validity with experts in the nursing area, with an average index, by an agreement index of 0,78 and a high content validity, with a content validity index of 0,83. However, in the qualitative analysis of face and content validity performed by the experts, several observations were found about the operationalization of the perception concept of nursing humanized care behaviors, that lead to suggest theoretical support of the instrument has to be revised again.Se presenta la realización de una investigación metodológica que tuvo como objetivo determinar la validez facial y la validez de contenido del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado de enfermería" de Rivera y Triana, con doce pacientes y/o su cuidador permanente, que estuvieron hospitalizados en la Clínica Country, y con once expertos en el área de investigación en enfermería. Los resultados del proceso de validez a través de las pruebas psicométricas señalan que el instrumento mencionado tiene una validez facial con pacientes alta, con un índice de acuerdo de 0,94, una validez facial con expertos en el área de enfermería, con un índice medio, por un índice de acuerdo de 0,78 y una validez de contenido alta, con un índice de validez de contenido de 0,83. Sin embargo, en el análisis cualitativo de la validez facial y de contenido realizado por los expertos se encontraron diversas observaciones acerca de la

  3. Validez de contenido y validez facial del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado" Validade de conteúdo e validade facial do instrumento "Percepção de comportamentos de cuidado humanizado" Validity of content and face validity of the instrument "Perception of behaviors of harmonized care"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIA CAROLINA REINA GAMBA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la realización de una investigación metodológica que tuvo como objetivo determinar la validez facial y la validez de contenido del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado de enfermería" de Rivera y Triana, con doce pacientes y/o su cuidador permanente, que estuvieron hospitalizados en la Clínica Country, y con once expertos en el área de investigación en enfermería. Los resultados del proceso de validez a través de las pruebas psicométricas señalan que el instrumento mencionado tiene una validez facial con pacientes alta, con un índice de acuerdo de 0,94, una validez facial con expertos en el área de enfermería, con un índice medio, por un índice de acuerdo de 0,78 y una validez de contenido alta, con un índice de validez de contenido de 0,83. Sin embargo, en el análisis cualitativo de la validez facial y de contenido realizado por los expertos se encontraron diversas observaciones acerca de la operacionalización del concepto de percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado de Enfermería, que llevan a sugerir que el respaldo teórico del instrumento debe ser revisado nuevamente.Esse estudo apresenta a realização de uma pesquisa metodológica que objetivou determinar a validade facial e de conteúdo do instrumento "Percepção de comportamentos de cuidado humanizado de enfermagem" de Rivera e Triana, com doze pacientes, e/ou a enfermeira permanente, hospitalizados na Clínica Country, e com onze especialistas na área de pesquisa em enfermagem. Os resultados do processo de validade através das provas sicométricas apontam para determinar que o instrumento acima tem uma validade facial alta com pacientes, com um índice de acordo de 0,94, uma validade facial com especialistas na área da enfermagem, com um índice meio, por um índice de acordo de 0,78 e uma validade de conteúdo alta, com um índice de validade de conteúdo de 0,83. Contudo, a análise qualitativa da validade

  4. Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Sudhakar Reddy; Shilpa Babar; Giriraj Amamath; Chiranjibi Pattanaik

    2011-01-01

    The changes in species composition,abundance and forest stand structure were analyzed across altitudinal regimes in tropical forests of Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh,India.Three 1-ha plots were established with one each in low,medium and high altitudes.A total of 153 species,2129 stems (709 stems ·ha-l) of>10 cm girth were enumerated.Species richness and diversity pattern varied along altitudinal gradient and increased with the altitude.Species richness varied from 52 to 110 species·ha-1 and stand density from 639 to 836 stems·ha-1 with average basal area of 34.39 m2·ha-1.Shannon-Wiener index (H) ranged from 4.55 to 5.17.Low altitude (i.e.,Site 1) is dominated by Xylia xylocarpa (59.22) and Lagerstroemia parviflora (23.90),medium altitude (i.e.,Site 2) by Xylia xylocarpa (45.50) Bursera serrata (17.29),and high altitude (i.e.,Site 3) has Schleichera oleosa (28.25) Pterocarpus marsupium (26.55) as predominant species.Taxonomically,Rubiaceae (12 species),Fabaceae (12),Euphorbiaceae (11),Rutaceae (7) and Lauraceae (7) were dominant families.Density-wise,Fabaceae,Combretaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Anacardiaceae and Myrtaceae were abundant.Thus,conservation assessment based on altitudinal regimes and the information on species structure and function can provide baseline information for monitoring and sustaining the biodiversity.

  5. The copal of the Chichen Itza offerings and of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan; El copal de las ofrendas de Chichen Itza y del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montufar L, A. [Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico INAH, Moneda No. 6, Col Centro, 06060 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez W, C.E.; Mendoza A, D. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres M, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, A.P. 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Literature from the post conquest shows that the Mayans used copal resins in their religious celebrations and ceremonial rites, specially as a sahumerio material. Historical precedents have been fully documented, establishing its use in the calendar ceremonies performed by the Aztecs towards their agricultural practices, mainly for the corn crop; and that according to the registries of sacred figures of their gods, they were made out of copal resin. Abundant fragments of this resin were found in a number of offerings at the digging of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. These facts indicate the intensive use of the copal as a link with divinities of life, maintenance and fertility, among many other aspects of existence, as stated by the Mexicas cosmos view. In order to determine the possible origin of the different types of copal, small samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, both from Chichen Itza and the pre hispanic from Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. Results show a great similarity between each absorption band, the one from Templo Mayor and the modern sample Bursera bipinnata and the one from Chichen Itza and the modem resin of Protium copal. This suggests that the pre hispanic copal form Chichen Itza was obtained from the Protium copal tree. (Author)

  6. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  7. [Original humus forms in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, G

    2001-08-01

    Humus profiles underneath the canopy of dominant tree species in two secondary semi-evergreen forest sites in Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) were analysed with a micromorphological method. In the vertisol of a tree plantation, the humus formed was rather similar under all tree species being an eumull and essentially due to the activity of the endoanecic earthworm Polypheretima elongata. In a natural secondary forest located on a steep slope and associated with a rendzina soil (without endoanecic earthworms), the humus forms were described at lower, mid- and upper slope. In this forest, two particular humus forms were observed. At the middle slope, underneath the canopy of Pisonia subcordata L. that produces nitrogen-rich litter, a calcareous amphimull, characterised by an OH horizon made of millipede faecal pellets, was formed. In the upper slope, underneath the canopy of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. that produces a litter rich in resins and aromatic compounds that are poorly consumed by soil animals, a dysmull with a thick root mat (OFRh horizon) developed. Other humus forms were intermediate. The formation of these humus forms is discussed.

  8. Viabilidad y germinación de semillas de tres especies arbóreas nativas de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México

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    Carolina Orantes-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la proporción de semillas viables y la pérdida de viabilidad debido al periodo de almacenamiento, así como el efecto de tratamientos pregerminativos que favorecen la germinación en semillas deCordia alliodora, Terminalia amazoniayBursera bipinnata, árboles nativos de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México. Se encontró que las semillas recién colectadas presentaron más del 90% de viabilidad, la cual fue disminuyendo hasta mostrar un 15% enB. bipinnata, 34% enC. alliodoray 18% enT. amazoniadespués de 12 meses de almacenamiento. De acuerdo con la germinación acumulada se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (pB. bipinnata63%,C. alliodora62% yT. amazonia54%. En conclusión, para poder obtener un mayor porcentaje de semillas germinadas en poco tiempo, es necesario dar un tratamiento previo a la siembra para las semillas de estas especies. El almacenamiento de las semillas durante un año provocó una declinación en la capacidad germinativa.

  9. Differential effects of landscape-level environmental features on genetic structure in three codistributed tree species in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L

    2012-10-01

    Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow.

  10. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  11. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  12. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  13. Leaf and whole-tree water use relations of Australian rainforest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoko; Laurance, Susan; Liddell, Michael; Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change induces drought events and may therefore cause significant impact on tropical rainforests, where most plants are reliant on high water availability - potentially affecting the distribution, composition and abundance of plant species. Using an experimental approach, we are studying the effects of a simulated drought on lowland rainforest plants at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO), in tropical northern Australia. Before to build up the rainout infrastructure, we installed sap flow meters (HRM) on 62 rainforest trees. Eight tree species were selected with diverse ecological strategies including wood density values ranging from 0.34 to 0.88 g/cm3 and could be replicated within a 1ha plot: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Argyrondendron peralatum (Malvaceae), Elaeocarpus angustifolius (Elaeocarpaceae), Endiandra microneura (Lauraceae), Myristica globosa (Myristicaceae), Syzygium graveolens (Myrtaceae), Normanbya normanbyi (Arecaceae), and Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae). Our preliminary results from sap flow data obtained from October 2013 to December of 2014 showed differences in the amount of water used by our trees varied in response to species, size and climate. For example Syzygium graveolens has used a maximum of 60 litres/day while Argyrondendrum peralatum used 13 litres/day. Other potential causes for differential water-use between species and the implications of our research will be discussed. We will continue to monitor sap flow during the rainfall exclusion (2014 to 2016) to determine the effects of plant physiological traits on water use strategies.

  14. Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičius, Mantas; Akuņeca, Ieva; Jãkobsone, Ida; Maruška, Audrius

    2011-06-01

    Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants was carried out by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. Six spice plant samples, namely onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots and leaves, celery (Apium graveolens) roots and leaves and leaves of dill (Anethum graveolens) were analyzed. Total amount of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity (RSA) was the highest in celery leaves and dill extracts and was the lowest in celery roots. Comparing commonly used spectrophotometric analysis of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) RSA of extracts with the results obtained using reversed-phase chromatographic separation with on-line post-column radical scavenging reaction detection, good correlation was obtained (R(2)=0.848). Studies using HPLC system with electrochemical detector showed that bioactive phytochemicals can be separated and antioxidant activities of individual compounds evaluated without the need of a complex HPLC system with reaction detector. The results obtained using electrochemical detection correlate with the RSA assayed using spectrophotometric method (R(2)=0.893).

  15. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

  16. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bingxin; Ban, Xiaoquan; Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paz Elia,1 Raya Zach,1 Sharon Hazan,2 Sofiya Kolusheva,2 Ze’ev Porat,1,3 Yehuda Zeiri1,3 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Ilse Katz Institute of Nanotechnology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 3Division of Chemistry, Negev Nuclear Research Center Beersheba, Israel Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Lippia citriodora, Salvia officinalis, Pelargonium graveolens, Punica granatum, antioxidants, size distribution, zeta potential

  18. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  19. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  20. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinato, Rafael; Volpato, Andréia; Baldissera, Matheus D; Santos, Roberto C V; Baretta, Dilmar; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Giongo, Janice L; Boligon, Aline A; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer

    2016-11-01

    The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10) in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis), palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii), cedar (Cedrus atlantica), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia) at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total), egg's weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  1. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  2. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, T; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R

    1999-12-01

    Artemia salina (brine shrimp) has been successfully used for toxicity testing, and a screening test for phototoxicity has been developed based on this method. The ability of the method to test the phototoxic potential of seven known compounds was investigated. Athamantin (an angular furanocoumarin) and umbelliferone (a simple coumarin) showed no phototoxicity, while linear furanocoumarins exhibited phototoxic activity in the following order: psoralen > bergapten > peucedanin > xanthotoxin. The applicability of this method was also tested in screening the phototoxicity of plant material. Six plants from Apiaceae [Aegopodium podagraria L., Anethum graveolens L., Angelica archangelica L., Levisticum officinalis Koch, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill) A. W. Hill., and Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench] and one from Rutaceae (Ruta graveolens L.) were selected, all of them known to contain furanocoumarins. Extracts from leaves collected at different times during the growth period were used in the screening. Our results were in accordance with the furanocoumarin content of these plants and with the results of other phototoxicity tests. The Artemia salina method proved to be rapid, simple and inexpensive, and is therefore ideal in the initial biological screening of large numbers of samples for simultaneous detection of both toxicity and phototoxicity.

  3. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  4. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae, with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for P. brunneus, only known from a single male, and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae. DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene were obtained for 30 species (83%, and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965, comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911, and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield: alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

  5. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

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    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new species and five species of Microplitis previously described from Mesoamerica. In ACG, all Microplitis were reared exclusively from Sphingidae, while all Snellenius were reared from Noctuoidea (Noctuidae and Erebidae. All of the wasp species with known host records are unambiguously specialists, parasitizing one or a few related hosts. Biological information (wasp cocoon and caterpillar hosts in the Neotropical region seems to differ from similar data reported in previous works for the Oriental region -but more studies on the world fauna are needed. Although the distinction between these two genera has been controversial, we consider that the available evidence, although not conclusive, suggests that these two genera are best kept as separate (based on the presence of at least a partial epicnemial carina in Snellenius, which is absent in Microplitis. The following 28 species, all authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described as species nova: Microplitis adrianguadamuzi, M. alexanderrojasi, M. francopupulini, M. hebertbakeri, M. jorgehernandezi, Snellenius billburgeri, S. bobdressleri, S. donstonei, S. felipechavarriai, S. gerardoherrerai, S. irenebakerae, S. isidrochaconi, S. johnkressi, S. jorgecampabadali, S. jorgegomezlauritoi, S. josesarukhani, S. kerrydresslerae, S. lucindamcdadeae, S. luisdiegogomezi, S. mariakuzminae, S. mariamartachavarriae, S. phildevriesi, S. quiricojimenezi, S. robertoespinozai, S. sandyknappae, S. velvaruddae, S. vickifunkae, S. warrenwagneri.

  6. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Kula, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for Pseudapantelesbrunneus, only known from a single male), and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene) were obtained for 30 species (83%), and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software) and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapantelesmoerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n., Pseudapantelesbrunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapantelesruficollis (Cameron, 1911), and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield): alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

  7. Optical, electrical and structural characterization of CuInSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, C.; Gordillo, G.; Romero, E.; Bolaños, W.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2005-07-01

    The present issue of physica status solidi (b) comprises papers presented at the XVII Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES 2004) in Havana, Cuba, 6-9 December 2004. Further papers from this conference are published in phys. stat. sol. (c) 2, No. 10 (2005).The cover picture refers to the article [1] on polycrystalline CuInSe2 films by Clara Calderón et al. and shows the crystal structure of CuInSe2 (right) and that of the In-rich phase CuIn3Se5 (left) which were used for the simulation and analysis of the X-ray diffraction spectra.Clara Lilia Calderón Triana is teacher at the Solar Cells Laboratory of Universidad Nacional de Colombia in Bogotá where she has been working on solar cells and semiconductor materials since 1995. In particular, she is fabricating thin film solar cells based on CuInSe2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2. At SLAFES 2004, Clara Calderón received the physica status solidi Young Researcher Award for her second presentation entitled Study of electrical transport properties of ZnO thin films used as front contact of solar cells [2] which is published as Editor's Choice of this issue.

  8. Validez de contenido y validez facial del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado"

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    NADIA CAROLINA REINA GAMBA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la realización de una investigación metodológica que tuvo como objetivo determinar la validez facial y la validez de contenido del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado de enfermería" de Rivera y Triana, con doce pacientes y/o su cuidador permanente, que estuvieron hospitalizados en la Clínica Country, y con once expertos en el área de investigación en enfermería. Los resultados del proceso de validez a través de las pruebas psicométricas señalan que el instrumento mencionado tiene una validez facial con pacientes alta, con un índice de acuerdo de 0,94, una validez facial con expertos en el área de enfermería, con un índice medio, por un índice de acuerdo de 0,78 y una validez de contenido alta, con un índice de validez de contenido de 0,83. Sin embargo, en el análisis cualitativo de la validez facial y de contenido realizado por los expertos se encontraron diversas observaciones acerca de la operacionalización del concepto de percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado de Enfermería, que llevan a sugerir que el respaldo teórico del instrumento debe ser revisado nuevamente.

  9. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  10. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  11. Effect of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda on Sandhigata Vata (osteoarthritis of knee joint).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Perera, Manaram; Kumarasinghe, Nishantha

    2014-01-01

    Reported case was a 63-year-old female with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) (Sandhigata Vata) of the left knee joint accompanied by exostoses. Radiology (X-ray) report confirmed it as a Kellgren-Lawrence grade III or less with exostoses. At the beginning, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were poor, and function score was fair. Srilankan traditional and Ayurveda medicine treatment was given in three regimens for 70 days. After 70 days, external treatment of oleation and 2 capsules of Shallaki (Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch) and two tablets of Jeewya (comprised of Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Millers. and Terminalia chebula Retz.), twice daily were continued over 5 months. Visual analogue scale for pain, knee scores in the Knee Society online rating system and a Ayurveda clinical assessment criteria was used to evaluate the effects of treatments in weekly basis. After treatment for 70 days, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were also improved up to good level and function score was improved up to excellent level. During the follow-up period, joint symptoms and signs and the knee scores were unchanged. In conclusion, this OA patient's quality of life was improved by the combined treatment of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda.

  12. Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of extracts from Clusia latipes leaves

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    Natalia Bailón-Moscoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some species of the Clusia genus have been shown to have important biomedical properties, including the ability to inhibit tumor growth in vitro and the usefulness for skin care. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Clusia latipes Planch. & Triana, Clusiaceae, leaves on survival of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, colon cancer cells (RKO, astrocytoma cells (D-384, and breast cancer cells (MCF-7. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the most substantial cytotoxic effect. However, using a Comet assay, we observed that the hexane extract induced a genotoxic effect (DNA damage on human lymphocytes in an in vitro model. Chromatographic purification of the C. latipes hexane extract led to the isolation and identification of friedelin, friedolan-3-ol, and hesperidin as active cytotoxic compounds in hexane extract, while β-amyrine was identified as an active cytotoxic compound in the ethyl acetate extract of C. latipes, thereby supporting further studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of these secondary metabolites on cancer cell survival.

  13. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  14. Sevilla, una encrucijada de caminos

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    Manuel Martín Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El mundo del flamenco, tan acostumbrado a contemplar la historia del género como una sucesión de nombres distinguidos que, por su significación expresiva o por su carácter de maestría incontestable, simbolizan una época, olvida con frecuencia el universo en que esa constelación de estrellas irradia su luminosidad más intensa, esto es, relega a un rol de menor importancia el ámbito en que se desarrollaron unos talentos especiales que, a lapostre, describirían situaciones y formas que el tiempo estimaría de verdadera trascendencia. Sin ánimo de caer en un determinismo localista demasiado forzoso, justo es decir que uno de los más grandes milagros de la música flamenca, se llama Sevilla, su barrio de Triana y muchos pueblos de la provincia. Una unidad demográfica que ofrece en grado sumo el origen de la complacencia en los goces de los sentidos.

  15. Starter substrate specificities of wild-type and mutant polyketide synthases from Rutaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacin, Richard; Schreiner, Stephan; Silber, Katrin; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-02-01

    Chalcone synthases (CHSs) and acridone synthases (ACSs) belong to the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) and condense the starter substrate 4-coumaroyl-CoA or N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs to produce flavonoids and acridone alkaloids, respectively. ACSs which have been cloned exclusively from Ruta graveolens share about 75-85% polypeptide sequence homology with CHSs from other plant families, while 90% similarity was observed with CHSs from Rutaceae, i.e., R. graveolens, Citrus sinensis and Dictamnus albus. CHSs cloned from many plants do not accept N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA as a starter substrate, whereas ACSs were shown to possess some side activity with 4-coumaroyl-CoA. The transformation of an ACS to a functional CHS with 10% residual ACS activity was accomplished previously by substitution of three amino acids through the corresponding residues from Ruta-CHS1 (Ser132Thr, Ala133Ser and Val265Phe). Therefore, the reverse triple mutation of Ruta-CHS1 (mutant R2) was generated, which affected only insignificantly the CHS activity and did not confer ACS activity. However, competitive inhibition of CHS activity by N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA was observed for the mutant in contrast to wild-type CHSs. Homology modeling of ACS2 with docking of 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone suggested that the starter substrates for CHS or ACS reaction are placed in different topographies in the active site pocket. Additional site specific substitutions (Asp205Pro/Thr206Asp/His207Ala or Arg60Thr and Val100Ala/Gly218Ala, respectively) diminished the CHS activity to 75-50% of the wild-type CHS1 without promoting ACS activity. The results suggest that conformational changes in the periphery beyond the active site cavity volumes determine the product formation by ACSs vs. CHSs in R. graveolens. It is likely that ACS has evolved from CHS, but the sole enlargement of the active site pocket as in CHS1 mutant R2 is insufficient to explain this process.

  16. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  17. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.

  18. Use and management of tree fodder resources on farms in central Veracruz, Mexico

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    L. Ascencio-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó este estudio para determinar el uso y potencial de árboles y arbustos en 60 explotaciones ganaderas de los municipios de Tlapacoyan, Misantla y Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México. Los productores fueron encuestados con el objetivo de identificar, localizar y describir el uso de especies leñosas promisorias de interés forrajero, en tres sistemas de producción animal. Las encuestas registraron información acerca de: tamaño de la explotación, miembros (edad, escolaridad, años de experiencia de la familia, sistema de producción animal, manejo de pasturas, principales productos de la explotación; y la identificación, manejo y uso de árboles y arbustos en el sitio. Los datos se analizaron por estadísticos descriptivos como promedios y frecuencias relativas. Se caracterizaron tres sistemas de producción animal. Doble propósito (57%, cría y finalización (30%, y finalización en pasturas (13%; donde se identificaron 145 especies de árboles, siendo Bursera simaruba, Gliricidia sepium y Cedrela odorata las más comunes. Las dos primeras, de 12 especies fueron las más consumidas por el ganado, principalmente en ramoneo (38.80% o corte y acarreo (3.50%. El uso principal de estas especies fue: leña, carbón, madera y cercos vivos. El estudio mostró que existe una alta diversidad de especies leñosas de uso forrajero, con múltiples funciones en las explotaciones, destacando algunas especies como forrajeras, con un valor añadido en los sistemas de producción animal durante las épocas críticas del año.

  19. Composición florística y estructura arbórea de la selva mediana subperennifolia del ejido "El Remolino", Papantla, Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Basáñez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la comunidad de “El Remolino”, municipio de Papantla, Veracruz, con la finalidad de caracterizar un sitio en la selva mediana subperennifolia que muestra diferentes altitudes y pendientes, hecho que permite diferenciar dos áreas. Se muestrearon aleatoriamente ocho cuadrantes. Se obtuvo la densidad, frecuencia y cobertura relativa, para estimar el Valor de Importancia; fueron censados 257 árboles > 4.77 cm de diámetro a la altura del pecho; la similitud se basó en el índice de Sorensen y la diversidad con los Índices de Shanon-Wiener y Fisher. Se registraron 30 especies y 20 familias; las especies con alto valor de importancia fueron: Heliocarpus microcarpus, Brosimum alicastrum, Bursera simaruba, Aphananthe monoica y Myrsine coriacea. El área basal del sitio 1 fue de 85.83 m2 ha-1 y 67.72 m2 ha-1 en el 2. El sotobosque registró el 27% de las especies, el estrato intermedio, 37%; y el dosel superior, 10%; el resto de las especies (26% ocupan varios estratos. El índice de Sorensen indica una similitud de 28% entre áreas; el análisis Cluster UPGM (Ligamiento de Grupos no Ponderado utilizando Promedios Aritméticos indica dos agrupamientos de cuadrantes, relacionados con las dos áreas. El índice de Shanon-Wiener registró en el área 2, 2.25; y para el Índice de Fisher se presentó en el área 1 un valor de 7.83. Se concluye que: la poca similitud entre las áreas de estudio estuvo fuertemente asociada con la presencia-ausencia de especies; mientras que por su riqueza se establece que ambas áreas son iguales

  20. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  1. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts.

  2. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  3. 生物灭鼠新探索——芸香雄性不育毒饵的实验研究%Study on Rat Male Sterility by Rue Bait to a Purpose of Biological Deratization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 秦荣; 杨艳芳; 刘路; 梁晓明; 曲万明

    2010-01-01

    目的:芸香(Ruta graveolens)是一种药用植物,其地上茎的产量高,制成植物灭鼠剂,为植物灭鼠剂的生产和应用提供理论基础.方法:芸香茎部制成高、中、低浓度的毒饵,饲喂雄性小鼠,现察体重、睾丸重量、小肠重量变化以及雄鼠不育率.结果:毒饵组与对照组比,体重、睾丸重量、小肠重量显著降低,雄鼠不育率提高.结论:芸香毒饵能够有效地抑制小鼠的繁殖速度.

  4. AcEST: DK953240 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q9AR74 Definition sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta...ns-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 124 4e-28 sp|Q43054|TCMO_POPKI Trans-...e-12 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = ...tr|Q5IDB4|Q5IDB4_PINTA Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (Fragment) OS=Pin... 130 6e-29 tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta...RTRNVVFDIFTGKGQDMVFTVY 129 >tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta

  5. 生物灭鼠新探索——制备芸香毒饵降低小鼠生育的实验研究%A New Exploration on Biological Rodenticide.Study on the Reproductive Ability of Mice Decreased by Rue Poison Bait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 杨艳芳; 秦荣; 赵东; 王建勃

    2009-01-01

    芸香(Ruta graveolens)是一种药用植物,有良好避孕效果,刺成植物灭鼠剂,为植物灭鼠剂的大批量生产和应用提供理论基础.实验把芸香全草包煎制成水煎剂,制成毒饵,孕前和孕后分别饲喂小鼠,观察体重变化、怀孕率和流产率.统计分析结果,毒饵组与对照组比,体重变化差异不显著,怀孕率明显降低,流产率明显增高.结论:芸香毒饵可以有效的抑制小鼠繁殖速度.

  6. New and remarkable records of microfungi from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Christiaans, B; Dündar, A E

    2003-01-01

    During a botanical excursion of the University of Essen in the year 2002 to North-, Central- and South-Anatolia we have collected representatives of about 100 genera of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for Turkey: Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis, Pseudocercospora ligustri on Ligustrum ovalifolium, Passalora smilacis on Smilax aspera, Uromyces limonii on Limonium spec., Puccinia jasmini on Jasminim spec., Sawadea bicornis on Acer negundo, Puccinia sii-falcariae on Falcaria vulgaris, Phomia hedericola on Hedera helix, Camorosporium pistaciae on Pistacia terebinthus, Erysiphe bahrii on Silene spec., Ramularia heraclei on Apium graveolens. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca parva, collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha.

  7. Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  8. Floral ontogeny of Ruteae (Rutaceae) and its systematic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L; Wang, Y-Z; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-01

    Floral development was investigated in Ruta graveolens and Psilopeganum sinense, representing two genera in the tribe Ruteae. Special attention was paid to the sequence of initiation of organ whorls in the androecium and gynoecium. The antepetalous stamens arise at the same level as the antesepalous stamens in both species. The carpels are antepetalous in both taxa, indicating the androecium in both genera is obdiplostemonous. Compared with floral ontogeny of the ancestral genus Phellodendron (Toddalioideae), the obdiplostemonous androecium is a derived condition. The floral apex in P. sinense is quadrangular before initiation of the two carpels. Additionally, there are four dorsal and four ventral traces in the ovary. Integrated morphological and anatomical evidence indicates that the bicarpellate gynoecium in Psilopeganum most likely evolved from a tetracarpellate ancestor. Considering the similarities in morphological, geographical and chromosomal features, the ancestor may be Ruta-like. Further molecular phylogenetic and genetic studies are needed to verify this assumption.

  9. Chemical composition of phytonciders from tw o aromatic plants by HS-SPM E and comparison with their essential oil%固相微萃取技术分析两种芳香植物精气成分及与其精油成分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓生; 庄东红; 吴清韩; 李妙清; 马瑞君

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱‐质谱(GC‐MS)联用技术对香叶天竺葵与柠檬香蜂草的精气进行分析鉴定,并用面积归一法测定其相对含量.结果显示,在香叶天竺葵和柠檬香蜂草中分别鉴定出62和43种化学成分,分别占总精气成分的99.5%和99.9%.其中,香叶天竺葵的主要成分为香叶醇(17.8%)、愈创蓝油烃(14.6%)、 d‐杜松烯(12.0%)、 香茅醇(8.7%),而柠檬香蜂草的主要成分则为β‐石竹烯(11.4%)、 异戊醇(9.5%)、 月桂烯(9.0%)、 3‐辛酮(8.4%),顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱‐质谱(GC‐MS)联用技术比动态顶空采样和热脱附/GC/MS 联用技术所得到精气成分种类多,且主要成分差异性明显.与精油相比,香叶天竺葵精气与精油的共有成分为香叶醇、香茅醇、α‐水芹烯、罗勒烯、芳樟醇、薄荷酮、异薄荷酮、丙酸香茅酯、α‐石竹烯;柠檬香蜂草精气和精油的共有成分是甲基庚烯酮、芳樟醇、香茅醇、α‐石竹烯.%The chemical composition of phytonciders from the Pelargonium graveolens L and Melissa officinalis L are collected and identified by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS‐SPME) with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) , and their relative contents are determined by normalization of area . A total of 62 and 43 compounds are identified from P graveolens and M officinalis , which account for 99.4% and 99.9% of the total aroma components , respectively . The main constituents of phytoncider are geraniol(17.8% ) , guaiazulenum(14.6% ) , d‐cadinene(12.0% ) and citronellol(8.7% ) in P graveolens , β‐caryophyllene (11.4% ) , isoamyl alcohol (9.5% ) , myrcene (9.0% ) and 3‐octanone (8.4% ) in M officinalis . The HS‐SPME can detect more volatile ingredients than the purge & trap‐thermal desorption(P & T‐TD) , and have obvious different in the

  10. [Pesticide detection in Costarican vegetables based on the inhibition of serum and erythrocytic human cholinesterases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevermann, Karl Schosinsky; Guzmán, Eugenia Quintana

    2004-12-01

    A simple and low cost method able to detect the presence of pesticides, organophosphates and carbamates based on the inhibition of serum and erythrocytic cholinesterases, was used in lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cilantro (Coriandum santivum) and celery (Apium graveolens) obtained from the Ferias del Agricultor from Valle Central of Costa Rica. The percentage inhibition of cholinesterases is related to the presence of plaguicide in the vegetable. Thirteen percent of the analyzed samples were positive for plaguicides using serum cholinesterase and 33% for erythrocytic cholinesterase. Washing and cooking the vegetables does not eliminate the presence of plaguicides but they lower slightly the concentration. Statistical evidence (p = 0.0001) indicates that erythrocytic cholinesterase has higher analytical sensitivity than serum cholinesterase. It is very important to establish the degree of contamination with pesticides in these agricultural products because they are exposed to direct contamination by fumigation, soil contamination and irrigation water, and are products that are often consumed without adequate cooking and washing.

  11. 小茴香及其混淆品莳萝子的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓君丽

    1998-01-01

    @@ 小茴香为常用中药,系伞形科植物茴香Foeniculum vulgare Mill.的干燥成熟果实.有些地区则把同科植物莳萝Anethum graveolens L.的干燥果实作小茴香入药.据文献[1~3]记载,小茴香和莳萝子是功效不同的2种中药,不宜混淆使用.为保证临床用药的准确,本文从性状、紫外吸收光谱和薄层色谱三方面进行了比较鉴别.

  12. 香桂、香叶林草间作试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖玉平; 陈岩冰; 何天平

    2005-01-01

    种植香桂(Cinnamomum petrophium N.Chao)前3年无收益,可以采用间种香叶(Pelargonium graveolens L.Herit.)加以弥补.本试验667m2定植香桂苗450株(1.5m×1.0m),行间种植香叶1 200株(40 cm×40cm),定植后1~3年的产值为2 100元、1 800元、1 222元.取得了以短养长的良好效果.

  13. 香桂、香叶林草间作试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖玉平; 陈岩冰; 何天平

    2005-01-01

    种植香桂(Cinnamornum petrophilum N.Chao)前3年无收益,可以采用间种香叶(Pelargonium graveolens L.Herit.)加以弥补。本试验667m2定植香桂苗450株(1.5m×1.0m),行间种植香叶1200株(40cm×40cm),定植后1-3年的产值为2100元、1800元、1222元。取得了以短养长的良好效果。

  14. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  15. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaquis, Pascal J; Stanich, Kareen; Girard, Benoit; Mazza, G

    2002-03-25

    Essential oils from dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (seeds of Coriandrum sativum L.), cilantro (leaves of immature C. sativum L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dives) were separated into heterogeneous mixtures of components by fractional distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined for the crude oils and their fractions. Essential oil of cilantro was particularly effective against Listeria monocytogenes, likely due to the presence of long chain (C6-C10) alcohols and aldehydes. The strength and spectrum of inhibition for the fractions often exceeded those determined in the crude oils. Mixing of fractions resulted in additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual test microorganisms.

  16. Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.; Shabaka, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  17. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  18. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca, Eruca Sativa (Arugula, Petroselinum crispum (Parsley, and Anethum Graveolens (Dill were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inhibited the corrosion process by a physical adsorption mechanism that followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters that were calculated include, free energy of adsorption (∆G°ads, activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH°ads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔS°ads are proposed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl in the absence and presence of GLV extract.

  19. Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanom, H; Azizah, A; Dzulkifly, M

    1999-12-01

    The effect of oven drying at 50ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 9 hour, 70ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. The medicinal plants selected were leaves of Apium graveolens (saderi), Averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), Centella asiatica (pegaga), Mentha arvensis (pudina), Psidium guajava (jambu batu), Sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), Solanum nigrum (terung meranti) and Polygonum minus (kesum ). Results revealed that both type and conditions of the drying treatments affected retention of all phytochemicals analysed. Herbal preparation developed using oven drying was found to have inferior phytochemicals content compared to that obtained by freeze dryer. Nevertheless, the herbal preparation developed using all treatments still retain appreciable amount of phytochemicals studied, especially carotenoids, ascorbic acid, niacin and riboflavin and thus have potential for commercial purposes.

  20. Extraction of antioxidants from plants using ultrasonic methods and their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Dobiás, Petr; Eisner, Ales; Ventura, Karel

    2009-01-01

    The analytical method based on the HPLC coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV) for the determination of selected antioxidants (i.e. esculetin, scopoletin, 7-hydroxycoumarine, rutin, xanthotoxin, 5-methoxypsoralen and quercetin) in plant material was developed. Two ultrasonic extraction methods for the isolation of these compounds from the plants such as Mentha longifolia L., Mentha spicata L., Ruta graveolens L., Achyllea millefolium L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were used. Both of these methods, i.e. ultrasonic probe and ultrasonic bath, were optimised and compared to each other. For the proposed HPLC-UV method LOQ values in the range from 22.7 (xanthotoxin) up to 97.2 ng/mL (rutin) were obtained. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was also determined. Obtained results ranged from 10.11 up to 73.50% of DPPH radical inhibition.

  1. Desarrollo de apio mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingeniería de matrices. / Development of minimally processed celery fortified with vitamin E, by matrix engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Martelo Castaño, Yisell Johan; Cortés Rodríguez, Misael; Suárez Mahecha, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingeniería de matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacío con dlαtocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solución isotónica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en función del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacío), en términos de la cuantificación...

  2. Compendium of dietary sources of vitamin A in the Thar desert

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    Desai Sanjiv

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The undisputed long term solution to prevent nutritional blindness lies in changing the dietary habits of a given population through nutritional education, nutritional supplementation, and nutritional rehabilitation. Before such strategies can be successfully implemented, it becomes necessary to study the existing dietary pattern of the population and to identify locally grown foods rich in vitamin A. Seventy eight rural women were interviewed to determine the common dietary items in western Rajasthan. These items were then matched with their B-carotene contents, only to discover that, 100 grams of any of them would not provide the RDA for a 1-3 year old child, with the exception of Suva (Peucedanum graveolens and Bathua (Chenopodium album leaves. The B-Carotene contents of several food items is unknown at present and there is an urgent need to evaluate them.

  3. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

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    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  4. From traditional European medicine to discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Frustaci, A; Del Bufalo, A; Fini, M; Cesario, A

    2013-01-01

    The leading Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics to date involves inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which should, in principle, elevate cholinergic signaling and limit inflammation. In spite of the effectiveness in 20%-30% of AD patients, more attention has been paid to find new anti-AChE agents from medicinal plants. Galanthamine, contained in the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus and related genera like Narcissus, represents a good example. The aim of this study is to review the role of possible AChE inhibitors (AChEI) present in plants traditionally used in European medicine for improving memory. Starting from Galanthamine, properties of Melissa species, Salvia officinalis, Arnica chamissonis and Ruta graveolens are discussed to point to the role of these plants as potential sources for the development of therapeutic agents for AD.

  5. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  6. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  7. 中国伞形科5个引种栽培的模式种果实比较解剖学研究%Comparative anatomical study on structural features of mericarp of 5 type species introduced into China in Apiaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 刘启新

    2006-01-01

    对中国伞形科中长期引种栽培的旱芹(Apium graveolens L.)、茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Miller)、欧当归(Levisticum officinale Koch)、欧防风(Pastinaca sativa L.)和莳萝(Anethum graveolens L.)5个模式种的果实进行了比较解剖学研究,详细描述了各种类分生果的解剖结构及主要特征,并从分生果横切面的轮廓形状、果棱、维管束、油管和合生面等解剖学性状系统分析了各种类的异同,提出果体腹面及合生面的长度及其比值、果棱间距离及其比值、果体侧面与腹面间的角度、侧棱与腹面间的角度、果体长宽比等新的数量化的伞形科解剖性状特征,并按果体压扁程度将5个种类分成几不压扁(旱芹)、轻度压扁(茴香)、中度压扁(莳萝和欧当归)和高度压扁(欧防风)4大类,同时探讨了果实解剖特征与它们的演化程度的关系.

  8. Potential interaction between the volatile and non-volatile fractions on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Jacqueline Y; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Van Vuuren, Sandy F

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have reported promising antimicrobial efficacy for the essential oils and solvent extracts of several indigenous Pelargonium species. This study aimed to determine if any pharmacological interaction (e.g. synergism or antagonism) exists between the volatile and non-volatile components when the different fractions were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the following fractions were tested; the essential oil prepared by hydrodistillation (EO), non-volatile fraction (NV), prepared by extraction of plant material remaining in the distilling apparatus (having no or negligible volatile constituents) and solvent extracts prepared from fresh (FC) and dried (DC) plant material containing both volatile and non-volatile constituents. Pelargonium quercifolium oil was dominated by p-cymene (42.1%) and viridiflorol (16.9%), while P. graveolens and P. tomentosum oil had high levels of isomenthone (84.0 and 58.8%, respectively). Menthone was noted as a major constituent in the P. tomentosum EO sample. It was evident from the results that the presence of volatile constituents in the three species; P. graveolens, P. quercifolium and P. tomentosum is generally not a pre-requisite for antimicrobial activity. The most significant variations of antimicrobial activity were noted for P. tomentosum where poorer activity was noted for the FC and EO fractions against Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans. Studies on Staphylococcus aureus, however, showed the converse, where best activity was noted for the FC fraction (3.0 mg/mL). For P. quercifolium, the DC fraction indicated a notable increase in anti-staphylococcal activity (2.0 mg/mL) when compared with the FC (8.0 mg/mL) and EO (16.0 mg/mL) fractions. For P. tomentosum, the FC fraction indicated much lower antimicrobial activity (against both B. cereus and C. albicans) when compared with all other fractions, suggesting that the essential oils may impact negatively on the antimicrobial activity when tested against

  9. Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10 ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10 ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10 ppb detection level of the procedure used.

  10. Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da flor preta do morangueiro Effect of plant extract on control of Colletotrichum acutatum the causal agent of the black spot of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Ferreira Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A flor preta do morangueiro, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, acarreta sérios problemas à cultura. Com o objetivo de verificar a utilização de extratos vegetais no controle da doença, testes "in vitro" foram realizados com 11 extratos vegetais hidroalcoólicos produzidos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular. Os extratos foram preparados a partir de diferentes partes da planta, de acordo com a espécie, utilizando água e álcool no processo de extração por maceração. Foi verificada a influência dos extratos no crescimento micelial, esporulação e germinaç��o de esporos de C. acutatum, e também no controle do patógeno em folhas e frutos destacados. De acordo com a metodologia utilizada, os extratos vegetais que apresentaram maior eficiência foram os de folha e ramos de Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium e bulbos de Allium sativum, indicando ter essas plantas potencial fungitóxico para o controle de C. acutatum.The black spot of strawberry plants caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, causes serious problems to the culture. To control the disease and minimize the use of fungicides, in vitro assays were accomplished with 11 different plant hydroalcoholic extract from plants species used in the popular medicine. The extracts were produced from plant parts (according to the species using water and alcohol in the extraction process for infusion. The influence of the extracts was verified in the micelial growth, esporulation and germination of the pathogen, besides a test with leaves and outstanding fruits. In agreement with the methodology used in this study, the extracts that showed the highest efficiency were the ones from Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium and Allium sativum, which indicate such plants as potential fungitoxics for the control of C. acutatum.

  11. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

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    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  12. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  13. Review of scientific evidence of medicinal convoy plants in traditional Persian medicine

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    Seyede Nargess Sadati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh. According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs, which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort, the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory, and Apium graveolens (celery seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, and Cucumis melo (melon seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper, Piper longum (long pepper, red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea, hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal, Anethum graveolens (dill, Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  14. Estratificación de riesgo en pie diabético Risk stratification in diabetic foot

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    Héctor González de la Torre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El pie diabético es una complicación crónica de la diabetes mellitus y constituye una problemática sanitaria al conllevar un enorme gasto económico a los servicios sanitarios y provocar a las personas que lo padecen y a su entorno familiar enormes repercusiones emocionales. La educación sanitaria en el cuidado de los pies de los diabéticos, así como la cuantificación del riesgo son aspectos que el enfermero debe incorporar en los planes de cuidados de los pacientes diabéticos. La detección de los posibles factores de riesgo es un paso previo imprescindible para estos cometidos. Este estudio tiene como finalidad analizar la presencia de determinados factores de riesgo en pie diabético en la población diabética del Centro de Salud de Triana, con el objetivo de poder realizar, así, una estratificación del riesgo. Para ello, se optó por la realización de un estudio observacional descriptivo. La muestra analizada estaba constituida por 96 sujetos diabéticos pertenecientes a dicho centro de salud. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó un sistema de tres niveles consistente en entrevista, exploración física y consulta de registros disponibles (a través de las historias clínicas de los sujetos. Los datos se registraron en un formulario de recogida de datos para pie diabético. Se determinó la existencia de factores de riesgo, analizando las relaciones entre éstos y permitiendo la estratificación del riesgo en la población estudiada.The diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and constitutes a sanitary problem which causes not only enormous expenses for the sanitary system but also provokes emotional repercussions for the person who suffers the illness and for the family. The sanitary education in taking care of the feet of diabetics and the identification of the health risk are both aspects that the nurse must include in the healthcare planning of diabetic patients. The detection of the possible risk

  15. Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses

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    Marcos Callisto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf mg.animal-1.day-1 (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae

  16. Regeneração de espécies nativas lenhosas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil Regeneration of wood natives species under Eucalyptus stand of Cerrado area in the Floresta Nacional of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Andreza Viana Neri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração de sub-bosques em plantios homogêneos tem estreita dependência de florestas vizinhas. Outros fatores exercem influência, como a ecologia da dispersão da espécie, os efeitos de borda e clareiras. Diante disto, procurou-se conhecer a florística e a estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de espécies nativas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, e verificar a variação da riqueza, da densidade e de indivíduos zoocóricos e anemocóricos da borda para o interior do talhão. Para tal, foram alocadas cinco parcelas de 5×40 m, subdivididas em parcelas 5×10 m. Foram encontradas 47 espécies e destas as que se destacaram foram Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil.e Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana, principalmente quanto à alta densidade. Das espécies amostradas 53% possuem dispersão zoocórica e 43% anemocórica. Verificou-se também a diminuição da riqueza, da densidade e da percentagem de indivíduos anemocóricos da borda para interior. Porém a percentagem de indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou no interior do talhão. A maior riqueza e densidade na borda dá-se pela dificuldade da dispersão de diásporos no interior do fragmento. O índice de diversidade (H'= 2,49 encontrado para este estudo foi próximo aos valores observados em estudos em regeneração sob Eucalyptus em áreas de Cerrado.The regeneration of understory in homogeneous stands is closely dependent of neighbour forests. Others factures also have influency such as the species dispersion ecology, the border effects and clearings. Therefore, the objective of this work were to study the floristic and structure of native woody plant species growing under stands of Eucalyptus in the Cerrado area in the Flona (Floresta Nacional - National Forest of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to determine the variations in richness, density and the zoochorous and anemochorous individual dispersions from the borders into the stand. To carry out

  17. THE POLEN PAULLINIEAE (SAPINDACEAE EL POLEN DE PAULLINIEAE (SAPINDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvia Ferrucci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A detailed study on the morphology of pollen on thirty one species of the tribe Paulliniieae, comprising seven genera, has been carried out by LM and SEM.
    The pollen grains of the following taxa were examined: subtribe Paulliniinae (Cardiospermum L., 4 spp., Houssayanthus Hunz., 2 spp., Lophostigma Radlk., 1 sp., Paullinia L., 3 spp., Serjania Miller, 16 spp., and Urvillea Kunth, 4 spp.; subtribe Tlúnouúnae (Thinouia Triana & Planchon, 1 sp.. All of them grow in Argentina, except L. plumosum Radlk. and H. monogynus (Schdl. Ferrucci, collected in Bolivia and Paraguay respectively.
    Four pollen types have been recognized: type A - isopolar, tricolporate, subspheroidal to oblate-spheroidal grains in Thinouia; type B - isopolar or subisopolar, trisyncolporate, heterocolpate, dicolpodiorate, monocolpate, prolate or prolate-spheroidal grains in Lophostigma; type C - heteropolar, hemitrisyncolporate, peroblate or oblate grains are shared by Serjania, Houssayanthus, Cardiospermum and Urvillea, (in these genera tbree groups are recognized based on details of structure and sculpture and type D - isopolar or subisopolar triporate, oblate or peroblate grains in Paullinia.
    The probable evolutionary trends of pollen morphology cbaracters are discussed. Based on shape and aperture types of the grains, a tentative phylogenetic line of the tribe is presented
    Un estudio detallado sobre la morfología del polen en treinta y una especie de la tribu Paullinieae, que comprende siete géneros, se ha llevado a cabo por LM y SEM.
    Fueron examinados los granos de polen de las siguientes especies: subtribu Paulliniinae (Cardiospermum L., 4 spp, Houssayanthus Hunz, 2 spp, Lophostigma Radlk, 1 sp, Paullinia L., 3 spp, Serjania Miller, 16 spp., y Urvillea Kunth, 4 spp;. subtribu Thinouiinae (Thinouia Triana & Planchon, 1 sp. Todas ellas crecen en la Argentina, salvo Radlk L.plumosum y H.monogynus (Schdl. Ferrucci

  18. Caracterização morfológica de minas foliares em espécies de Melastomataceae de Mata Atlântica, PE Morphological characterization of leaf mines in species of Melastomataceae in Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretuza B Brito-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a morfologia e a anatomia de folhas íntegras e minadas de cinco espécies de Melastomataceae, ocorrentes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, PE. As minas foram visualizadas em uma ou ambas as faces das folhas, possuindo padrão sinuoso ou retilíneo, distribuídas entre as nervuras ou por toda a lâmina, sendo estas características distintas para cada espécie. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada com estômatos presentes na face abaxial e tricomas dendríticos, multicelulares, estrelados e com mais de cinco ramos, em ambas ou apenas uma das faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e o sistema vascular em forma de arco. As larvas minadoras observadas em Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl. DC., M. albicans (Sw. Triana e Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don consomem o parênquima paliçádico e esponjoso, enquanto as de M. prasina (Sw. DC. e M. ciliata (Rich. DC. se alimentam do conteúdo e das paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas, caracterizando-as como do tipo epidérmica. Entretanto, em M. minutiflora, M. albicans e C. capitellata a epiderme permaneceu intacta formando uma proteção para o minador, enquanto que em M. prasina e M. ciliata a proteção é realizada pelas paredes periclinais externas e cutícula da folha. Tecido de cicatrização foi observado ao longo das minas em M. prasina.This study describes the morphology and anatomy of whole and mined leaves of five species of Melastomataceae native to an Atlantic Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mines can be found on one or both sides of the leaves, with a sinuous or rectilinear pattern, and distributed between the veins or throughout the entire leaf blade. These characteristics are distinct for each species. The leaves, in cross section, have a uniseriate epidermis, stomata on the abaxial surface, and unbranched hairs on both or at least one side. The mesophyll is bifacial and the vascular bundle is semi-circular. The leaf-miner larvae observed in

  19. Inertial modes and their transition to turbulence in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Andrés Triana, Santiago; Egbers, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    dominant mode (l,m,ˆω) = (3,2,˜ 0.71) is increasing with increasing |Ro| until a critical Rossby number Rocrit. Accompanying with this is an increase of the zonal mean flow outside the tangent cylinder, leading to enhanced angular momentum transport. At the particular Rocrit, the wave mode, and the entire flow, breaks up into smaller-scale turbulence [6], together with a strong increase of the zonal mean flow inside the tangent cylinder. We found that the critical Rossby number scales approximately with E1/5. References [1] Aldridge, K. D.; Lumb, L. I. (1987): Inertial waves identified in the Earth's fluid outer core. Nature 325 (6103), S. 421-423. DOI: 10.1038/325421a0. [2] Greenspan, H. P. (1968): The theory of rotating fluids. London: Cambridge U.P. (Cambridge monographs on mechanics and applied mathematics). [3] Kelley, D. H.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2010): Selection of inertial modes in spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 81 (2), 26311. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.026311. [4] Rieutord, M.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2012): Excitation of inertial modes in an experimental spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 86 (2), 026304. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.026304. [5] Hoff, M., Harlander, U., Egbers, C. (2016): Experimental survey of linear and nonlinear inertial waves and wave instabilities in a spherical shell. J. Fluid Mech., (in print) [6] Kerswell, R. R. (1999): Secondary instabilities in rapidly rotating fluids: inertial wave breakdown. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 382, S. 283-306. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112098003954.

  20. Ground Data System Risk Mitigation Techniques for Faster, Better, Cheaper Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, John J.; Saylor, Rick; Casasanta, Ralph; Weikel, Craig; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of faster, cheaper, and better missions, NASA Projects acknowledged that a higher level of risk was inherent and accepted with this approach. It was incumbent however upon each component of the Project whether spacecraft, payload, launch vehicle, or ground data system to ensure that the mission would nevertheless be an unqualified success. The Small Explorer (SMEX) program's ground data system (GDS) team developed risk mitigation techniques to achieve these goals starting in 1989. These techniques have evolved through the SMEX series of missions and are practiced today under the Triana program. These techniques are: (1) Mission Team Organization--empowerment of a closeknit ground data system team comprising system engineering, software engineering, testing, and flight operations personnel; (2) Common Spacecraft Test and Operational Control System--utilization of the pre-launch spacecraft integration system as the post-launch ground data system on-orbit command and control system; (3) Utilization of operations personnel in pre-launch testing--making the flight operations team an integrated member of the spacecraft testing activities at the beginning of the spacecraft fabrication phase; (4) Consolidated Test Team--combined system, mission readiness and operations testing to optimize test opportunities with the ground system and spacecraft; and (5). Reuse of Spacecraft, Systems and People--reuse of people, software and on-orbit spacecraft throughout the SMEX mission series. The SMEX ground system development approach for faster, cheaper, better missions has been very successful. This paper will discuss these risk management techniques in the areas of ground data system design, implementation, test, and operational readiness.

  1. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  2. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL ARBÓREA DE UMA FLORESTA DE VÁRZEA NA RESERVA EXTRATIVISTA CHOCOARÉ-MATO GROSSO, PARÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Jesus Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura da regeneração natural arbórea de uma floresta de várzea na Reserva Extrativista Chocoaré-Mato Grosso, Santarém Novo, Pará. O estudo foi realizado no período de janeiro a junho de 207 com a marcação de 10 parcelas temporárias de 10 x 100 m (1 ha e calculada a riqueza, a frequência relativa e a densidade relativa das espécies distribuídas em cinco classes de tamanho (CT baseada na altura e CAP. Foram registrados 33.738 indivíduos distribuídos em 20 famílias, 48 gêneros e 53 espécies. As famílias com as maiores densidades foram Clusiaceae, Fabaceae e Arecaceae. As espécies com maiores frequência e densidade relativas foram Symphonia globulifera L. f. (26,06%, Rheedia macrophylla (Mart. Planch. & Triana (11,83%, Inga alba (Sw. Willd. (6,34%, Inga edulis Mart. (6,11% e 91,6% indivíduos da regeneração ocorreram na classe de tamanho 1. A riqueza floristica foi inferior quando comparada com outras florestas de várzeas, contudo, os mecanismos de adaptação são estratégias para a dominância e representação quantitativa de algumas espécies na área como Symphonia globulifera. Palavras-chave: riqueza, classes de tamanho, unidade de conservação. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p139-145

  3. Efeito de diferentes temperaturas na germinação de sementes e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana é uma espécie nativa do Brasil utilizada na medicina tradicional em comunidades rurais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a temperatura mais adequada para a germinação de sementes e formação de plântulas de M. albicans. Para avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação da espécie foram utilizadas 1200 sementes postas a germinar sob temperaturas constantes de 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC e nas temperaturas alternadas de 20-30 e 25-35 ºC. Foram avaliados a percentagem de germinação (PG, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, o tempo médio de germinação (TMG, e o comprimento das raízes primárias e do caule das plântulas. Os resultados encontrados indicaram PG acima de 63% paras as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC. Para o IVG, foram observados valores entre 2,17 a 2,93 para as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC, indicando maior vigor; em relação ao TMG, a maioria dos tratamentos alcançou resultado acima de 15 dias, indicando que as sementes germinaram lentamente. Levando-se em consideração todos os parâmetros avaliados, a temperatura de 25 ºC propiciou o melhor desempenho para as sementes da espécie.

  4. Community ecology and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Feroz; Md Rabiul Alam; Prokash Das; Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition, woody species diversity and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracks, Bangladesh. We recorded 25 families, 37 genera, 40 species and 1771 woody individuals in a 0.09 ha plot. Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae were the most species-rich families, and Castanopsis, Ficus and Terminalia were the most species-rich genera. Bursera serrata Wall. ex Colebr. was the dominant species in terms of highest importance value (13%). Trema orientalis (L.) Bl was typically a light demanding species as it appeared in the top can-opy with only one individual having the seventh highest IV, but had no regeneration. The expected maximum number of species (Smax) was 140, indicating that many species may invade the forest as the Smax is greater than the recorded total number of species. The nature of the disappear-ance and appearance of species in the present forest reflects instability of floristic composition. The values of Shannon’s index H′ and Pielou’s index J′ (evenness) were 3.36 bit and 0.63, respectively. These values show moderately high species diversity as compared to other subtropical forests in the tropics. In addition, a sample area of 200 m2 in this forest would be sufficient for measuring the diversity indices H′ and J′ , whereas the trend of J′may indicate the rate of equality of individuals among the different species decreased with increasing area. The distribu-tion pattern for the total stand was completely random. However, the dominant species showed aggregate distribution for small areas, but random distribution for large areas. The spatial association between species showed that the strongest positive interspecific association oc-curred between Streblus asper Lour. and Castanea indica Roxb. (ω =0.51). As a whole, most species were weakly associated with each other, of which 58%species associations were completely negative. The result of

  5. Análisis de la relación vegetación-lluvia de polen actual de las comunidades vegetales en el noroeste de la península de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana del Socorro Escarraga Paredes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva de la Biosfera Los Petenes (RBLP conforma una unidad ecológica de gran valor, por ello la importancia de generar mayor conocimiento biogeográfico del sitio. El análisis palinológico es una herramienta útil para la interpretación de la dinámica vegetal y el análisis de patrones biológicos de distribución. Con el objetivo de analizar la relación lluvia de polen-vegetación en el gradiente de comunidades vegetales del Noroeste de la Península de Yucatán se establecieron 30 parcelas de vegetación y se examinó el espectro polínico en muestras superfi ciales de sedimento dentro de la RBLP. Para identificar el grado de relación entre la vegetación y la lluvia de polen, los datos fueron analizados con métodos de asociación, ordenación y modelación estadística. De los 50 taxones identificados en la lluvia polínica, 13 muestran algún grado de asociación, de las cuales, las especies con mayor grado de asociación para manglar fueron:Rhizophora mangle,Avicennia germinansyConocarpus erectus. La mayoría de las especies de selva muestran altos valores de sobrerepresentación y subrepresentación,Bursera simaruba, Euphorbiaceae y Fabaceae mostraron asociación. De los 20 taxones utilizados para la correlación,Avicennia germinansyConocarpus erectusmostraron correlación para las diferentes comunidades de manglar, la vegetación de peten de selva no mostró especies correlacionadas. La ordenación indica una agrupación definida por el gradiente hidrológico, factor importante que determinó la estructura de la vegetación y su capacidad de dispersión. El análisis de la relación de la lluvia de polen y la vegetación actual de RBLP, constituye una herramienta fundamental para obtener información sobre la dinámica ecológica actual e integra una fuente de información para los estudios paleoecológicos.

  6. 14种植物精油对茶尺蠖行为的影响%Effect of 14 Plant Essential Oils on the Behavior of Ectropis obliqua (Prout)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正群; 孙晓玲; 罗宗秀; 高宇; 边磊; 辛肇军; 蔡晓明; 陈宗懋

    2014-01-01

    To study the repellency, oviposition deterrence and antifeeding effect of 14 plant essential oils against Ectropis obliqua (Prout) and to explore essential oils as the behavior-modifying stimuli of E. obliqua “push-pull”strategy in tea plantations. Behavioral bioassays were conducted to test the repellent and oviposition deterrence activity of 14 different essential oils on adults of E. obliqua, and the antifeeding activities of plant essential oils against the 3rd-instar larvae were investigated by leaf disc choice bioassays. The results showed that Ocimum basilicum oil, Rosmarinus officinalis oil, Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil, Cuminum cyminum oil and Pelargonium graveolens oil displayed strongest repellency against the female and male adults of E. obliqua, and R. officinalis oil and P. graveolens oil also have deterred oviposition for female E. obliqua. Under three tested concentrations of essential oil, C. cyminum oil, O. basilicum oil and Agastache rugosa oil showed strong antifeeding activities to E. obliqua larvae. The antifeedant rates of essential oils increased differently, and the growth rates of E. obliqua larvae decreased with the increase of concentration of essential oils. The results demonstrated that among those 14 plant essential oils, R. officinalis oil, O. basilicum oil, C. cyminum oil and P. graveolens oil showed the remarkable behavior regulating functions on E. obliqua, with the potential to be developed as the components of the „push-pull‟strategy for control of this pest.%为获得能够应用于茶园茶尺蠖Ectropis obliqua“推-拉”策略的行为调节剂,在室内测定了茶尺蠖成虫对14种植物精油的趋性反应,及植物精油对茶尺蠖雌虫产卵行为的干扰作用,并采用叶碟法测定了植物精油对茶尺蠖幼虫的拒食作用。结果表明,罗勒、迷迭香、肉桂、茴香及天竺葵5种植物精油对茶尺蠖成虫表现出一定的驱避活性,并且迷迭香油和天竺葵油还

  7. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  8. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  9. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-12-02

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  10. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  11. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  12. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  13. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

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    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

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    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  15. PHENOLIC PROFILE, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES FROM THE Apiaceae FAMILY (DRY SEEDS

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    Valentina Lubomirova Christova-Bagdassarian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, a comparative evaluation of the phenolic compounds antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity to several kinds of seeds from the Apiacea family, to which belong: Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel, Anethum graveolens (Dill, Pimpinella anisum (Anise, Carum carvi (Caraway and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander were carried out. Methods: The total phenolic content of seeds was measured spectrophotometrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the total flavonoids was measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminum chloride colorimetric. Antioxidant capacity was analysed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of the seeds and was determined also spectrophotometrically. Antibacterial activity was analysed by ISO standards. Results: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel varied between 115.96 mg GAE/100g and 68.10 mg CE/100g .The Coriandrum sativum (Coriander content is lower (from 17.04 mg GAE/100g to 11.10 mg CE/100g, respecively. The highest radical scavanging effect was observed in the Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel with IC50 of 113.19 ml/L. In our study, the methanol extract of seeds didn’t have any antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: An original data for total phenolic and total flavonoid contents are present in this study. They are a basis for assessment of the role of Apiaceae family dry seeds against free radicals effect and antibacterial activity. The results show that methanolic extract has the highest of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, high potential of antioxidant activity of dry seeds from Apiaceae family, to which belong: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Dill (Anethum graveolens, Anise (Pimpinella anisum, Caraway (Carum carvi and Coriander (Coriandrum sativum. From all results, the solvent extracts of dry seeds are rich in phytochemical contents, which possessed high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore the data found in

  16. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

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    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  17. Efeito embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo de plantas medicinais Embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortive effects of medicinal plants

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    H.G. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso milenar de plantas medicinais mostrou ao longo dos anos, que determinadas plantas apresentam substâncias potencialmente perigosas. Do ponto de vista científico, algumas pesquisas mostraram que muitas dessas plantas possuem substâncias agressivas e por essa razão devem ser utilizadas com cuidado, respeitando seus riscos toxicológicos. Os efeitos mais preocupantes do uso indiscriminado de plantas medicinais são embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo, uma vez, que os constituintes da planta podem atravessar a placenta, chegar ao feto e gerar um desses efeitos. Este estudo objetiva fornecer uma listagem das principais plantas medicinais que tenham efeitos embriotóxicos, teratogênicos e abortivos comprovados, conhecendo as partes da planta utilizadas e seus respectivos nomes científicos, com a finalidade de alertar gestantes quanto aos riscos de seu uso. Realizou-se buscas nas bases eletrônicas de dados SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES e Google acadêmico. Nos resultados encontrados, plantas como Arnica (Arnica montana, Artemísia (Artemisia vulgaris, Arruda (Ruta chalepensis/ Ruta graveolens, Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron polyphyllum, Boldo (Vernonia condensata dentre outras, podem vir a gerar um desses efeitos. A partir deste estudo comprova-se que para a maioria das plantas medicinais não há dados a respeito da segurança de seu uso durante a gravidez.The ancient use of medicinal plants has shown over the years that certain plants have potentially dangerous substances. From a scientific point of view, some studies have shown that many of these plants contain aggressive substances and therefore should be used with caution, respecting their toxicological risks. The most important effects of the indiscriminate use of medicinal plants are embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortifacient since the plant constituents can cross the placenta, reaching the fetus and leading to one of these effects. This study aimed to provide a list of

  18. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

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    Thao Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The triacylglycerol (TAG structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens, caraway (Carum carvi, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, coriander (Coriandrum sativum, anise (Pimpinella anisum, carrot (Daucus carota, celery (Apium graveolens, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Khella (Ammi visnaga, all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3 in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1n-9, stearic (C18:0, petroselinic (C18:1n-12, linoleic (C18:2n-6, linolinic (18:3n-3, and arachidic (C20:0 acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some

  19. 3D characterization of crack propagation in building stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    Opening of fractures can strongly modify mechanical characteristics of natural stones and thus significantly decrease stability of historical and modern buildings. It is commonly thought that fractures origin from pre-existing structures of the rocks, such as pores, veins, stylolythes (Meng and Pan, 2007; Yang et al., 2008). The aim of this study is to define relationships between crack formation and textural characteristics in massive carbonate lithologies and to follow the evolution of fractures with loading. Four well known Spanish building limestones and dolostones have been analysed: Amarillo Triana (AT): a yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides or hydroxides; Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble with pore clusters orientated parallel to metamorphic foliation; Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone (mudstone), characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%); Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone (packstone) with white veins, made up exclusively by calcite in crystals up to 300 micron. All lithotypes are characterized by homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and low porosity (Actis 130/150 industrial micro CT was used for imaging the interior of the samples (100keV/80mA). The dimensions of the voxel, corresponding to the resolution of the images, are 0.024x0.024x0.027 mm. Core position has been accurately checked in order to maintain the same orientation and numbering of CT slices throughout the cores after different loading cycles. The main results of this study, clearly imaged by microCT scanning, can be summed up as follows: - in all the lithotypes (AT, BT, CV and RC) fracture patterns are unrelated to major textural characters of the rock (fig. 1). - In all the cases, first phases of fracture opening can be seen in CT images but there is not a corresponding load drop in the stress-strain curve. - For all the samples, fractures

  20. Comparison of the Antioxidant Capacity of an Important Hepatoprotective Plants

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    Vivek Kumar R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine and the food industry. As plants produce significant amount of antioxidants to prevent the oxidative stress caused by photons and oxygen, they represent a potential source of new compounds with antioxidant activity. Commonly used medicinal plant extracts with standardized content of polyphenols were investigated for their antioxidant activity (AA. In the present paper ten plants (Picrorrhiza kurroa, Tephrosia purpurea, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Azadirachta indica, Apium graveolens, Swertia chirata, Phyllanthus amarus, and Aloe vera and their possible constituents responsible for its antioxidant property were compared by reducing power, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity method. The plants described contain antioxidant principles that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine (Hepatoprotective in the past as well as the present. These results suggest that AA determination is of interest for a comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential, but it needs to be combined with in vivo data for adequate assessment of the antioxidant capacity of medicinal plant extracts.

  1. Methods for in vitro propagation of Pelargonium x Hortorum and others: from meristems to protoplasts.

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    Dorion, Noëlle; Ben Jouira, Hatem; Gallard, Anthony; Hassanein, Anber; Nassour, Mazen; Grapin, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are among the most popular bedding and pot plants (25% of the French domestic market). On one hand, as vegetatively propagated plants, Pelargonium are submitted to pathogen pressure. On the other hand, innovation via interspecific hybridisation faces some difficulties. In this chapter, the two first protocols (from seeds and meristems) explain how in vitro plants free of virus could be obtained. The development of this technique is the long-term preservation of genetic resources via meristem cryopreservation. The third protocol describes propagation of Pelargonium with limited risks of variation. This technique also allows the constitution and the maintenance of a plant-stock from which explants can be taken for other studies. The two last protocols describe plant regenerations from leaf discs and mesophyll protoplasts, used for gene transfer and somatic hybridisation. These protocols were established mainly with Pelargonium x hortorum cultivars, but we propose possible solutions for the other species: P. x peltatum, P. x domesticum, P. capitatum and P. graveolens.

  2. Pyrene biodegradation in an industrial soil exposed to simulated rhizodeposition: how does it affect functional microbial abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-02-15

    Rhizodeposition is an important biogeochemical process for the phytoremediation of contaminated substrates. This study investigated the effects of various rhizodeposition components from celery (Apium graveolens) on pyrene biodegradation and microbial abundance in a long-term contaminated soil. Batch microcosms simulating in situ contaminated soil were amended with lipophilic extract, water-soluble extract, or debris from celery root to mimic plant rhizodeposition within 70 days. Soil was intermittently analyzed for pyrene concentration and target gene abundance estimated by real-time PCR. Lipophilic extract was the major simulated rhizodeposit enhancing pyrene biodegradation, while water-soluble extract stimulated microbial growth most efficiently. The relative abundance of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders was enhanced by lipophilic extract but inhibited by the other two rhizodeposits, indicating that these components exerted different selective pressures on PAH degrader community. Moreover, PAH catabolic pathway may involve in the pollutant detoxification and fatty acid metabolism by microorganisms, which were also affected by rhizodeposition. These results provide insights into plant-microbe interactions responsible for PAH biodegradation and offer opportunities to facilitate PAH phytoremediation in industrial sites.

  3. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  4. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

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    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

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    Valéria Maria Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Origanum vulgaris (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Cymbopogon nardus (citronella, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass, and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus against Escherichia coli (n=22 strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1, thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1, and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1 showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Valéria Maria; Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1)), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2909 μg mL(-1)), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 4800 μg mL(-1)) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL(-1). Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  7. Natural plant products inhibits growth and alters the swarming motility, biofilm formation, and expression of virulence genes in enteroaggregative and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Heredia, Alam; García, Santos; Merino-Mascorro, José Ángel; Feng, Peter; Heredia, Norma

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plant products on the growth, swarming motility, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042 and a strain of O104:H4 serotype. Extracts of Lippia graveolens and Haematoxylon brassiletto, and carvacrol, brazilin were tested by an antimicrobial microdilution method using citral and rifaximin as controls. All products showed bactericidal activity with minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 8.1 mg/ml. Swarming motility was determined in soft LB agar. Most compounds reduced swarming motility by 7%-100%; except carvacrol which promoted motility in two strains. Biofilm formation studies were done in microtiter plates. Rifaximin inhibited growth and reduced biofilm formation, but various concentrations of other compounds actually induced biofilm formation. Real time PCR showed that most compounds decreased stx2 expression. The expression of pic and rpoS in E. coli 042 were suppressed but in E. coli O104:H4 they varied depending on compounds. In conclusion, these extracts affect E. coli growth, swarming motility and virulence gene expression. Although these compounds were bactericidal for pathogenic E. coli, sublethal concentrations had varied effects on phenotypic and genotypic traits, and some increased virulence gene expression.

  8. Petroleum contamination of soil and water, and their effects on vegetables by statistically analyzing entire data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-kai; Yang, Jun-cheng; Du, Xiao-ming; Li, Fa-sheng; Hou, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons have been used to assess total oil concentrations, petroleum sources, and petroleum degradation. In this study, surface soil, groundwater, surface water, and vegetables were collected from the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China, and the samples were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbon contents. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 1.06-4.01 μg/g in the soil. The concentrations and the geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes showed that the low carbon number hydrocarbons were mainly from petroleum sources, whereas the high carbon number hydrocarbons received more hydrocarbons from herbaceous plants. The concentrations of n-alkanes were 9.20-93.44 μg/L and 23.74-118.27 μg/L in the groundwater and the surface water, respectively. The water had characteristics of petroleum and submerged/floating macrophytes and was found in concentrations that would cause chronic disruption of sensitive organisms. The concentrations and geochemical characteristics of n-alkanes in Brassica chinensis L. and Apium graveolens were different, but both were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the sorption of n-alkanes to soil particles could not be described by linear models. The distributions of n-alkanes in vegetables were positively correlated with those in soil, and the correlation coefficient was up to 0.9310 using the constructed vectors. Therefore, the researchers should pay close attention to the effect of soil contamination on vegetables.

  9. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  10. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  11. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  12. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Phytotoxic Activities of Peganum harmala Seed Essential Oils from Five Different Localities in Northern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Ida; Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Khadhr, Maroua

    2016-09-15

    Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from five different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) was studied by GC and GC-MS analyses. A total of 105 compounds were identified, the main components being oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is the main component in all oils. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against some bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM4384), Escherichia coli (DMS 857) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071). All the oils showed different inhibitory activity. In the twentieth century this is an important result; we need possible new botanical drugs because the problem of resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become apparent. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their possible in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., and Ruta graveolens L. The results showed that both germination and radical elongation were sensitive to the oils.

  13. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

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    Anderson de Carvalho Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér, a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure; 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure + 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien were obtained with mineral fertilizer.

  14. Efecto embriotóxico y teratogénico de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda», en ratón (Mus musculus

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    José Gonzales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L. y R. chalepensis L. son plantas usadas en medicina folclórica como antiespasmódicos, antihelmínticos, antimicrobianos, emenagogos y abortivos. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto del extracto acuoso liofilizado (EAL de las hojas de R. chalepensis en embriones postimplantacionales de ratón. Ratonas albinas preñadas recibieron intraperitonalmente (ip 10 mg de ruda liofilizada/kg de peso corporal (grupo tratado, n=12 durante el periodo post-implantacional (día 9 – día 17 post-cópula, y un grupo control(C, n=18, que recibió sólo agua destilada durante el mismo período. El EAL de ruda no afectó negativamente el peso de la madre pero sí del útero durante el tratamiento (p<0,05. En el grupo tratado la frecuencia de reabsorciones fetales fue mayor (p<0,05 y el peso fetal fue significativamente menor en comparación con el control (p<0,01. Además en el grupo tratado se evidenció la presencia de malformaciones esqueléticas. En conclusión, encontramos que el EAL de R. chalepensis muestra efectos embriotóxicos en ratones expuestos durante el período postimplantacional.

  15. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  16. Inibição do crescimento micelial de Cercospora calendulae Sacc. por extratos de plantas medicinais

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    J.M. Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais tem sido amplamente estudado no controle de doenças de plantas. O objetivo da realização do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos de Ruta graveolens L., Mentha x villosa, Calendula officinalis L., Momordica charantia L., Symphytum officinale L., Ageratum conyzoides L. e Ricinus comunis L., nas concentrações de 0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 e 10000 mg L-1, sobre a inibição do crescimento micelial de Cercospora calendulae Sacc. in vitro. Os extratos foram obtidos por infusão. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia da FCA/UFGD, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, esquema fatorial 7 extratos x 7 concentrações, com seis repetições. Foi detectado efeito dos extratos e suas concentrações sobre o crescimento do fungo, sendo a interação significativa. Os extratos de calêndula, arruda, hortelã e melão de São Caetano, nas maiores concentrações resultaram em maiores porcentagens de inibição, próximas de 100%, 30%, 35% e 40%, respectivamente, a 10000 mg L-1.

  17. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sen; Multani, Asha S; Banerji, Pratip; Banerji, Prasanta

    2003-10-01

    Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. We investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. We treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Zaouali, Yosr; Ksouri, Riadh; Attou, Amina; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils have been investigated in order to suggest them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance and the increasing incidence of food borne diseases problems. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of four traditional plants essential oils, Ruta angustifolia, Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens and Ruta tuberculata, against standard bacterial and fungal strains. The chemical compounds of the oils were examined by GC/MS. Results revealed a powerful antifungal activity against filamentous fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum are the most sensitive strains to these oils with MIC values less than 3.5 μg ml(-1) for certain oils, reaching 7.8 μg ml(-1) for other. GC/MS essay exhibited ketones as the most abundant constituent of these oils except for R. tuberculata essential oil which has a completely different composition, monoterpenes alcohols being the most abundant. These compositions explain their potential antifungal activity.

  19. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhiza differentially affects synthesis of essential oils in coriander and dill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlová, Jana; Jelínková, Marcela; Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Elena; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David

    2016-02-01

    Research on the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the synthesis of essential oils (EOs) by aromatic plants has seldom been conducted in field-relevant conditions, and then, only limited spectra of EO constituents have been analyzed. The effect was investigated of inoculation with AMF on the synthesis of a wide range of EO in two aromatic species, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and dill (Anethum graveolens), in a garden experiment under outdoor conditions. Plants were grown in 4-l pots filled with soil, which was either γ-irradiated (eliminating native AMF) or left non-sterile (containing native AMF), and inoculated or not with an isolate of Rhizophagus irregularis. AMF inoculation significantly stimulated EO synthesis in both plant species. EO synthesis (total EO and several individual constituents) was increased in dill in all mycorrhizal treatments (containing native and/or inoculated AMF) compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In contrast, EO concentrations in coriander (total EO and most constituents) were increased only in the treatment combining both inoculated and native AMF. A clear positive effect of AMF on EO synthesis was found for both aromatic plants, which was, however, specific for each plant species and modified by the pool of AMF present in the soil.

  1. Case report: pulicosis por Ctenocephalides felis felis en ovinos y caprinos en la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

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    Efraín Benavides Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the rearing of hair sheep and goats are expanding in various regions for being an alternative for meat and milk production at competitive prices due to their adaptability and easiness to digest rough fodder. Among the ectoparasites that affect small ruminants traditionally are recognized the lice and the sheep keds Melophagus ovinus (Díptera: Hippoboscidae, however fleas are not included. Here the occurrence of the common cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Díptera: Siphonaptera affecting sheep and goats in a farm at the Sabana de Bogotá are described an so there was performed an epidemiological and parasitological evaluation. The barn maintained animals in rotational grazing at an approximated stocking rate of 25 head/ha, receiving additional supplements of hay and silage. The presence of the flea was confirmed in sheep and goats, young and adult, as well as in dogs. Diverse degrees of anemia were evidenced but the association between flea infestation and anemia, or the presence of other anemia producing agents could not be studied. In the farm synthetic parasiticides are not used, extracts of Ruda (Ruta graveolens are administered to mitigate parasitosis, without major efficacy. Sheep and goat breeders in the tropics should consider flea infestation as an agent causing adverse animal welfare situations in their farms. Control should start from the knowledge of the life cycle of the flea, trying to interrupt it.

  2. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens.

  3. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  4. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  5. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

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    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., dill (Anethum graveolens L., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.

  6. Anticancer Effects of HESA-A:An Herbal Marine Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrollah Ahmadi; Gholamreza Habibi; Mehdi Farrokhnia

    2010-01-01

    @@ HESA-A,a natural biological compound,is a mixture of herbal-marine substances that includes Penaeus latisculatus (king prawn),Carum carvi and Apium graveolens with anticancer properties(1,2).Although the exact mechanism of action of HESA-A on tumor cells is not fully understood,it appears to have multiple pharmacological effects(2). The lack of selectivity for tumor cells,which is associated with conventional cancer chemotherapy,is the main cause of chemotherapy complications and failure of anticancer agents.Many complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) studies are focused on products obtained from plants,animals or other natural sources to find compounds with high therapeutic indices.HESA-A inhibits the growth of cancer cells selectively and in a dose dependent manner.At the highest concentration (5.4 mg/mL),HESA-A completely inhibits the growth of cells and this effect gradually decreases as the dose is reduced.HESA-A is not cytotoxic towards normal cell lines unlike cancer cells.A major concern in this selectivity effect is the possible interaction with the cell DNA.The apoptotic effects of HESA-A may also have a major role in its anticancer properties(3,4).

  7. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  8. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

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    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  9. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant.

  10. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

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    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  11. Aplicación de un modelo experimental de valoración económica del uso y manejo de la flora colombiana. Estudio de caso: Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Héctor Aníbal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se proponen un modelo y un indicador de valoración económica como alternativas para valorar el uso y
    manejo de la flora colombiana y se aplican a nueve especies de Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae: Swietenia macrophylla
    King (caoba, Cedrela odorata L. (cedro, Carapa guianensis Aubl. (carapa, andiroba o tangare, Guarea guidonia
    (L. Sleumer (trompillo, Anacardium occidentale L. (marañón, Anacardium giganteum Hancock ex Engler (marañón gigante, Spondias mombin L. (hobo, Camnosperma panamense Standl. (sajo y Astronium graveolens Jacq. (diomate o quiebracha. El modelo y el indicador propuestos integran todos los tópicos que se consideraron partícipes del valor económico de las especies en dos grandes aspectos: el biológico y el biocultural y socioeconómico. El indicador produce un valor aproximado de la especie valorando los aspectos contemplados en el modelo a través de cinco componentes: valor actual de uso, valor actual de importancia cultural, valor actual de los productos y servicios, valor potencial de los productos y servicios y estatus de la información. Con su aplicación en el estudio de caso se determinó a Cedrela odorata como la especie más valiosa.

  12. Development of biosensor for phenolic compounds containing PPO in β-cyclodextrin modified support and iridium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristiano P; Franzoi, Ana C; Fernandes, Suellen C; Dupont, Jairton; Vieira, Iolanda C

    2013-04-10

    A biosensor based on the iridium nanoparticles dispersed in ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (Ir-BMI·PF6) and a celery (Apium graveolens) extract as a source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was constructed. A modified support based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CDEP) was used for enzyme immobilization. The behavior of phenolic compounds was investigated by square-wave voltammetry and rutin was selected by presenting the greatest signal. The best performance was obtained with a composition of 70:10:10:10% (w/w/w/w) of the graphite powder:β-CDEP:Nujol:Ir-BMI·PF6 composition, a PPO concentration of 500unitsmL(-1), in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) with frequency, pulse amplitude and scan increment at 100Hz, 60mV, and 3.0mV, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the cathodic currents increased linearly for the rutin concentration range of 1.3×10(-7)-2.0×10(-6)M with a detection limit of 7.9×10(-8)M. This sensor demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and the results for the rutin recovery ranged from 92.8 to 103.4%. A relative error of 0.7% was obtained in the rutin determination in simulated samples.

  13. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  14. Assessment of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.; Young, E.C.M

    1998-12-01

    A dynamic food chain model has been built for the modeling of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong, namely, white flowering cabbage (Brassica chinensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and celery (Apium graveolens). Some parameters have been estimated from the experimental data obtained in this work. The experimental data include the transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the different vegetable species which are determined through high resolution gamma spectrometry, maximum crop biomasses for the vegetable species, the dry-to-fresh ratios for the vegetable species, the bulk density of soil layers and the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in air. The derived parameters include the deposition rate and the root uptake rate, information for tillage, the logistic growth model and radionuclide concentrations in vegetables. The dynamic food chain model is solved by the Birchall-James algorithm to give the {sup 137}Cs concentration in subsurface soil, from the 0.1-25 cm soil layer, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in harvested and unwashed vegetables. As validation of the model and parameters, the concentrations obtained experimentally and from the model are compared and are found to be in good agreement.

  15. DESARROLLO DE APIO MINIMAMENTE PROCESADO FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E, UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERIA DE MATRICES

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    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio, en terminos de la cuantificacion de sus propiedades fisicoquimicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y caracteristicas sensoriales. Se formulo la emulsion con el objetivo de adicionar teoricamente un 73% del Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR vitamina E/100 g de apio fresco y su cuantificacion se realizo por HPLC. La respuesta a la impregnacion en la matriz fue de 12,10+-1,15%, lo cual permitio alcanzar un 112% VDR vitamina E/100g apio fresco, manteniendose este contenido durante el almacenamiento de 9 dias en ambos tipos de envasado. Los parametros fisicoquimicos del producto fueron afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, manteniendo su coloracion verdosa y presentando disminucion en la firmeza. La ingenieria de matrices constituye una metodologia efectiva para el desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado adicionado con vitamina E.

  16. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  17. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Saxena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  18. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Phytotoxic Activities of Peganum harmala Seed Essential Oils from Five Different Localities in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Apostolico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from five different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia was studied by GC and GC-MS analyses. A total of 105 compounds were identified, the main components being oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is the main component in all oils. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against some bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM4384, Escherichia coli (DMS 857 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071. All the oils showed different inhibitory activity. In the twentieth century this is an important result; we need possible new botanical drugs because the problem of resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become apparent. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their possible in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., and Ruta graveolens L. The results showed that both germination and radical elongation were sensitive to the oils.

  19. The Preliminary Study on Effect of Intercropping Tobacco with Aromatic Plants on Agronomic and Economic Characters%间作芳香植物对烤烟农艺和经济性状的影响初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晟; 陈兴; 杨莹; 李世彪; 陈微; 赵明富

    2014-01-01

    为探索植烟地的间作利用,试验开展了烤烟K326分别与4种芳香植物柠檬草(Cymbopogoncitratus)、甜罗勒(Ocimum basilicum、美国薄荷(Monarda didyma)和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)间作的研究.采用160 cm烤烟行距中间间作芳香植物的种植模式与传统的110 cm烤烟行距种植模式比较,间作处理的烤烟在农艺性状(打顶株高、叶长、叶宽、茎围、有效叶数)和经济性状(单株产量、中上等烟叶比例)指标都优于单作对照;间作烟地的经济收入也高于单作对照.试验表明,该间作模式虽稍微减少了烤烟产量,却提高了植烟地的经济总产值,为提高植烟地的综合利用、增加烟农收入提供了一种有效的模式.

  20. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  1. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  2. Effects of foliar surfactants on host plant selection behavior of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-10-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.

  3. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of CAM Therapies: An In Vitro Study in Normal Kidney Cell Lines

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    Shagun Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this current study was to justify the incorporation of complementary and alternate medicine (CAM in current cancer treatments. The major drawback of anticancer drugs is their nonselective killing, which ultimately leads to attrition of normal cells. Keeping this as the foundation of our study, we made an effort to compare the cytotoxicity associated with a known chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU, with certain CAM therapies previously reported to have anticancer activity. The parameters chosen for the study were based on antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on normal, kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E. The MTT assay, colony formation assay, DNA fragmentation, and differential staining using AO/EB, following treatment with either 5-FU or CAM therapies, were performed. The CAM therapies under study were various extracts of wheatgrass, roots of Achyranthes aspera (AA, mushroom extracts (Pleurotus ostreatus, Macrolepiota procera, and Auricularia polytricha, and a homeopathic drug, Ruta graveolens (Ruta. The results showed that treatment of normal cells with the CAM therapies led to minimum cell damage in comparison to 5-FU. This evidence-based study will lead to greater acceptance of alternative therapies against cancer.

  4. Direct observation of cell wall structure in living plant tissues by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M C; Apperley, D C

    1990-01-01

    Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the following intact plant tissues were recorded by the crosspolarization magic-angle spinning technique: celery (Apium graveolens L.) collenchyma; carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), and nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) endosperm; and lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) seed cotyledons. All these tissues had thickened cell walls which allowed them to withstand the centrifugal forces of magic angle spinning and which, except in the case of lupin seeds, dominated the NMR spectra. The celery collenchyma cell walls gave spectra typical of dicot primary cell walls. The carob bean and fenugreek seed spectra were dominated by resonances from galactomannans, which showed little sign of crystalline order. Resonances from beta(1,4')-d galactan were visible in the lupin seed spectrum, but there was much interference from protein. The nasturtium seed spectrum was largely derived from a xyloglucan, in which the conformation of the glucan core chain appeared to be intermediate between the solution form and solid forms of cellulose.

  5. Activity of essential oils from spices against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dal Pozzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OE de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lipia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, e de suas frações majoritárias, carvacrol e timol, frente a 32 isolados de Staphylococcus spp, oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros bovinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Orégano, tomilho e lípia (Orégano Mexicano apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana similar, médias geométrica de CIM de 1600µg mL-1; 1564µg mL-1; 1562µg mL-1, respectivamente, no entanto menos ativos que carvacrol, 584µg mL-1 e thymol, 427µg mL-1. Isolados com diferentes perfis de susceptibil idade aos antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina, quando subagrupados, foram inibidos por concentrações semelhantes de OE . Estes resultados confirmam a atividade antimicrobiana de OE e algumas frações majoritárias.

  6. Distinct Species Exist Within the Cercospora apii Morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2005-08-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Cercospora is one of the largest genera of hyphomycetes. Cercospora apii sensu lato is the oldest name for a large complex of morphologically indistinguishable Cercospora spp. occurring on a wide host range. There are currently 659 recognized Cercospora spp., and names of another 281 morphologically identical species are included in the synonymy of C. apii sensu lato. Two of the species that belong to the C. apii complex, C. apii and C. beticola, cause Cercospora leaf spot on Apium graveolens (celery) and Beta vulgaris (sugar beet), respectively. In the present study, multilocus sequence data, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, and cultural characteristics were used as additional features to characterize morphologically similar Cercospora strains occurring on celery and sugar beet. From the data obtained, it is shown that C. apii and C. beticola, although morphologically similar and able to cross-infect each others' hosts, are distinct functional species that should be retained as separate entities. Furthermore, a third, as yet undescribed species of Cercospora was detected in celery fields in Korea and Venezuela, suggesting that additional undescribed species also may be found to cause Cercospora leaf spot on celery. A polymerase chain reactionbased diagnostic protocol distinguishes all three Cercospora spp.

  7. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  8. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I H; Loreto, É S; Rossato, L; Mario, D N; Venturini, T P; Baldissera, F; Santurio, J M; Alves, S H

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates.

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  10. Effect of rhizodeposition on pyrene bioaccessibility and microbial structure in pyrene and pyrene-lead polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chuanhua; Chen, Xueping; Li, Hongbing

    2014-02-01

    Phytoremediation for PAH hydrocarbons has been widely studied, but few focus on the influence of rhizodeposition on their bioaccessibility during the process. This literature revealed the effect of celery (Apium graveolens) rhizodeposition on pyrene fractionation and bioaccessibility in simulated pyrene and pyrene-lead contaminated microcosms. A sequential extraction methodology was used to quantify different morphological fractions of pyrene in the soil, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) pattern to monitor shifts in microbial populations. Bioaccessible pyrene accounted for the largest proportion of the total removal. Biodegradation of both bioaccessible and associated pyrene fractions was enhanced by celery rhizodeposition in pyrene spiked soils. However, rhizodeposition promoted the removal of bioaccessible rather than associated fractions in pyrene-lead spiked soils. In contrast, the bound fraction increased over time in pyrene spiked soils without amendment, but kept relatively stable in amended microcosms. It was found that rhizodeposition facilitated the reproduction of all the subgroups of soil microorganisms through PLFA analysis. Although all the subgroups contributed to the removal of bioaccessible pyrene, only abundances of unsaturated and cyclic fatty acids were positively correlated with the removal of associated pyrene. These findings provide meaningful insights into the microecological mechanisms involved in the phytoremediation of PAH polluted sites.

  11. Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yi-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to select vegetables for iodine uptake. The residual effect of iodate fertilization on the growth of and iodine uptake by spinach plants were also investigated. Six vegetables, including leafy vegetables (pakchoi [Brassica chinensis L.], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L.]), tuber vegetables (onion [Allium cepa L.]), shoot vegetables (water spinach [Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.], celery [Apium graveolens L.]), and root vegetables (carrot [Daucus carota var. sativa DC.]) were examined. Results showed that the concentrations of iodate in soil had significant effect on the biomass of edible parts of pakchoi and spinach (pIodine concentrations in edible parts of vegetables and the transfer factors (TFedible parts) of soil-to-edible parts of vegetables significantly increased with increasing iodine concentrations in soil (piodine concentrations in edible parts and TFedible parts of spinach were much higher than those of other vegetables at any treatment. Both transfer coefficients for edible parts (TCedible parts) and for aerial parts (TCaerial parts) of vegetables changed differently with increasing iodine concentrations in the soil, and TCedible parts and TCaerial parts of spinach were higher than those of other vegetables. Therefore, spinach was considered as an efficient vegetable for iodine biofortification. Further experiment showed that there is considerable residual effect of soil fertilization with iodate.

  12. Effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of vegetal species on seed germination of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf/ Ação de extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies vegetais na germinação de sementes de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

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    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of medicinal species on seed germination of B. decumbens. The experimental design was completely randomized with 19 treatments (9 aquous extracts, 9 ethanolic extracts and a check was deionized water with 4 replicates. The species and organs used to obtain the extracts were Baccharis trimera (shoot, Baccharis articulata (shoot, Canna denudata (leaves, Cymbopogom citratus (leaves, Eucalyptus citriodora (leaves, Lippia alba (leaves and branches, Momordica charantia (leaves, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, branches and flowers e Ruta graveolens (leaves and branches. The extracts were obtained by aquous and ethanolic infusions in 10% and 1% concentration respectively. The seeds were treated with extracts for one hour and after this time sowed in plastic boxes. They were maintained in germination chamber (BOD with 16 hours of dark/20ºC and 8 hours of light/35ºC. The evaluation were made at 7Th and 21st days after seeding (DAS. The extraction methods affected seed germination. The use of aquous extract showed greater germination percentage than the ethanolic one at 7Th and 21st days. The evaluated extracts did not affect the seeds’ germination.O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies medicinais sobre germinação de sementes de B. decumbens. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 19 tratamentos (9 extratos aquosos, 9 extratos etanólicos e 1 testemunha com água deionizada com quatro repetições. As espécies e as partes das plantas utilizadas para a obtenção dos extratos foram Baccharis trimera (caule, Baccharis articulata (caule, Canna denudata (folhas, Cymbopogom citratus (folhas, Eucalyptus citriodora (folhas, Lippia alba (folhas e ramos, Momordica charantia (folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e sementes, Ocimum gratissimum (folhas, ramos e flores e

  13. 几种叶类蔬菜对砷吸收及累积特性的比较研究%A Screening Study of Five Leafy Vegetable Species for Tolerance and Accumulation of Toxic Inorganic Arsenic(Ⅴ) Under Hydroponic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.K.Mathieu; 曾希柏; 李莲芳; 苏世鸣; 王秀荣; 冯秋分; 白玲玉; 王亚男; 段然

    2013-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment under greenhouse condition with five leafy vegetable species including romaine (Lactuce saliva var. longifolia), lettuce(Lactuce saliva L.), Celery (Apium graveolens L.), amaranth(Amaranthus mangostanus L.) and water spinach(Ipomea aquatic a L.) was conducted to compare the properties of arsenic(As) uptake in As contaminated farmland. The results showed that the shoot biomass(FW) of celery, amaranth, and water spinach was significantly(P<0.05) lower, when the As concentration in the nutrient solution was with 2, 4, and 8 mg·L-1, while As addition did not have significant effects on the shoot biomass of romaine and lettuce under all the As treatments used compared to the control. It indicated that romaine and lettuce had higher As tolerance. When the arsenic in nutrient solution reached up to 10 mg·L-1, water spinach had the highest shoot As accumulation with 1623 μg·pof-1 and lettuce had the lowest shoot As accumulation with 45.58 μg·pot-1. As accumulation in shoot of five species was ranked from high to low in the order of spinach, celery, amaranth, lettuce and romaine. Under the different As concentrations in the nutrient solution, the translocation factor(TFs) for lettuce and romaine is with 0.02 and 0.03 respectively, while the BFs(ratio between As concentration in shoot and As in nutrient) for lettuce and romaine is with 2.75 and 2.66 respectively. Both of TFs and BFs in lettuce and romaine is lower than in other vegetables. The results could provide an effective basis for screening of low As uptake crops under hydroponic experiments.%运用水培试验方法,比较了5种叶类作物对砷的吸收特性.结果表明,当营养液中砷浓度为2、4、8 mg· L-1时,芹菜(Apium graveolens L.)、苋菜(Amaranthus mangostanusL.)和空心菜(Ipomea aquatica L)地上部分生物量均显著降低(P<0.05),而莴苣(Lactuce sativa var.longifolia)和生菜(Lactuce sativaL.)的地上部生物量与CK相比差异不显著,表现出相

  14. 7种非寄主植物挥发物对桃小食心虫繁殖与发育的影响%Inhibition of growth and fecundity by seven non-host plant volatiles against peach fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Matsumura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓颖; 王志刚; 毕拥国; 阎爱华

    2011-01-01

    以蔬菜、食品调料为试材,筛选对桃小食心虫具有较高抑制效果的植物,为生物防治桃小食心虫开辟一条新的途径.本试验运用生物测定的方法检测了7种非寄主植物挥发物(花椒、小茴香、香菜、芹菜、姜、八角、桂皮)对桃小食心虫繁殖、发育的影响,结果表明,5种非寄主植物挥发物对桃小食心虫产卵抑制率超过50%,其中桂皮为91.55%、八角达到100%;花椒、小茴香、桂皮和八角能显著降低桃小食心虫卵的受精率,八角、桂皮分别使受精率降低至0%和13%;八角、芹菜、香菜、桂皮、姜的挥发物可以延长桃小食心虫雌虫产卵前期;而八角、桂皮、花椒对桃小食心虫雌雄成虫寿命影响较大.综合各项指标,建议将八角可以作为今后开发桃小食心虫植物源农药的重点对象.%In order to filter the non-host plant of higher inhibitory effect and introduce a new way of biological control of the t peach fruit borer (PFB), Carposina sasakii Matsumura, the anti-ovipositors of seven non-host plant volatiles (Zingiber of ficinale Roscoe、Herba coriandri sativi、Cuminum cyminum 、Zanthoxylum burgeanum、Apium graveolens L. Celery、Cinnamo-mum cassia Presl、Illicium verum Hook. F. ) against PFB were tested. The results showed that there are five non-host plants whose inhibiting rates of volatiles to PFB fecundity were more than 50%, star anisel00% and cinnamon 91.55% respectively. Z. Burgeanum、Cuminumcymi-num ,C. Cassia Presl、Illicium verum Hook. F. Significantly reduce the fertilization rate, Illici-um verum Hook. F. And C. Cassia Presl have decreased the fertilization rate to 0% and 13%. Volatiles of Illicium verum Hook. F.、Apium graveolens L. Celery Cinnamomum cassia Presl, Zingiber of ficinale Roscoe could extend the pre-oviposition period of PFB female adults. The volatiles from Illicium verum Hook. F.、Cinnamomum cassia Presl and Z. Burgeanum have obvious effect on

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program

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    Flávia Liparini Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Plant samples were collected, herborised and then identified using traditional techniques and specialised literature. We sampled 107 medicinal plant species belonging to 86 genera and 39 families, predominantly Asteraceae with 16 species. Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw, M. pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Ruta graveolens L. were found to have Consensus of Main Use corrected (CMUc values above 50%, which were in agreement with the traditional uses described by the informants. However, species with CMUc values equal to or above 20%, combined with the scientific information survey, were also used to select medicinal plants for the phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. The selection of medicinal plants based on the CMUc index from this particular community, in combination with the scientific survey, appears to be an effective strategy for the implementation of phytotherapy programs.Estudos etnofarmacológicos são importantes no registro e na preservação de conhecimentos de uma cultura tradicional associada ao uso medicinal da biodiversidade. No presente trabalho, foi realizado o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas por conhecedores populares na comunidade de Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, como ferramenta para auxiliar na seleção de espécies vegetais visando à implantação de um programa de fitoterapia local na comunidade estudada. Participaram 11 conhecedores escolhidos por amostragem Bola de Neve e submetidos a

  16. Controle de mosca-branca com extratos vegetais, em tomateiro cultivado em casa-de-vegetação Use of plant extracts on whitefly control in tomato grown in greenhouse

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando buscar métodos alternativos no controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro, foram realizados testes de atratividade e preferência para oviposição em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se quatorze extratos aquosos a 3% (peso/volume. Os extratos foram preparados com partes de Azadirachta indica, Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora,Cymbopogon nardus e Coriandrum sativum. Numa segunda etapa, os extratos mais eficientes em casa-de-vegetação foram observados em laboratório, a fim de avaliar o possível efeito sistêmico dos mesmos sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. Constatou-se que as plantas de tomateiro pulverizadas com extratos à base de folhas de M. pulegium e folhas e sementes de A. indica foram menos atrativas aos adultos do inseto. Plantas pulverizadas com extratos de folhas de A. indica e folhas + ramos de R. communis mostraram efeitos deterrentes à oviposição do inseto, reduzindo o número de ovos; em contrapartida, o extrato à base de folhas de C. nardus estimulou a oviposição da mosca-branca sobre as plantas. O uso dos extratos por via sistêmica não afetou o período de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto da mosca-branca; entretanto, a presença de extratos de sementes e folhas de A. indica e de folhas de M. pulegium provocou aumento significativo na mortalidade de ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B.Looking for alternative methods of control to silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B in tomato, attractiveness and oviposition preference tests were accomplished in greenhouse using fourteen aqueous extracts at 3% (weight/volume. The extracts were prepared with parts from Azadirachta indica,Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon nardus and

  17. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

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    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  18. Espaçamento de plantio e intervalos de colheita na biomassa e no óleo essencial de gerânio Plant spacing and harvest intervals on biomass and essential oil of geranium

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    Arie F Blank

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens é uma erva aromática e seu óleo essencial é comumente utilizado na constituição de fármacos e cosméticos no mundo. A planta adapta-se bem às condições climáticas do nordeste brasileiro, mas são escassos os dados sobre seu rendimento quantitativo e qualitativo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de espaçamento de plantas e intervalos de colheita em gerânio na produção de biomassa e de óleo essencial. Foram testados três espaçamentos de plantio (50x50, 50x60 e 50x80 cm e três intervalos de colheita (8, 12 e 16 semanas. Os maiores valores totais de massa fresca e seca de folhas e caules (2679,04 g m-2; 424,62 g m-2; 1035,08 g m-2; 136,85 g m-2, respectivamente e rendimento de óleo essencial (7,56 mL m-2, que são características de interesse direto para o mercado, foram obtidos em intervalo de colheita de oito semanas e no espaçamento de 50x50 cm. Nas demais variáveis analisadas, houve pouca diferenciação entre os tratamentos, contudo, períodos longos de colheita são menos produtivos, pois houve queda nos valores de todas as variáveis nas ultimas colheitas de cada intervalo. Assim, melhores resultados de quantidade e qualidade para o gerânio foram obtidos com intervalo de 8 semanas e no espaçamento 50x50 cm.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens is an aromatic herb and its essential oil is commonly used in the creation of drugs and cosmetics worldwide. The plant is well adapted to the climatic conditions of the Brazilian northeast, but there are few data on its quantitative and qualitative yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of plant spacing and harvest intervals of geranium on the production of biomass and essential oil. Three different plant spacings (50x50, 50x60 and 50x80 cm and three harvest intervals (8, 12 and 16 weeks were tested. The highest values of total fresh and dry weight of leaves and stems (2679.04 g m-2; 424.62 g m-2; 1035.08 g m-2

  19. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

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    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  20. Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides = Antifungal activity of plant extracts to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    Mercia Ikarugi Bomfim Celoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito fungitóxico de extratos vegetais sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir de plantas secas e moídas, utilizando-se água e etanol como meio extrator. Foram utilizadas 22 espécies de plantas para a obtençãodos extratos. Os extratos foram avaliados por meio da incorporação de 20% do extrato em meio BDA, antes ou após a autoclavagem do mesmo. Determinou-se a percentagem de inibição do crescimento micelial (PIC. Utilizando-se extrato na proporção de 50% e suspensão de esporos, determinou-se a percentagem de inibição da germinação de esporos (PIG. Verificou-se que os extratos hidroetanólicos proporcionaram maior PIC de C. gloeosporioides, enquanto maior PIG foi obtido com os extratos aquosos. Extratos não autoclavados foram mais eficientes na redução do crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides que os extratos autoclavados. Os extratos aquoso e hidroetanólico de melão-de-são-caetano e extrato hidroetanólico de eucalipto proporcionaram maiores PIC. Os extratos aquosos deLuffa acutangula, Eucalyptus citriodora, Chenopodium ambrosioides e Bauhinia, e os extratos hidroetanólicos de Ruta graveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, Zingiber officinale e Chenopodiumambrosioides inibiram mais de 90% da germinação de esporos.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect fungitoxic of plant extracts on the mycelial growth and on the spores germination of C. gloeosporioides. The plant extracts were obtained starting from dried ground plants, using water and ethilic alcohol as extractor. Twenty-two plant species were used to obtain the extracts. The extracts were tested by means of the incorporation of 20% (v/v in PDA medium, before or after sterilization. The percentage ofinhibition of the mycelial growth (PIM was determined. Extract in the proportion of 50% was added to a spore suspension used to

  1. Spatial Distribution and Speciation of Selenium in Alkaline Soils and Agricultural Products of Lanzhou%兰州碱性土壤与农产品中硒分布及形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 李飞; 毕德; 王华魁; 李海勇; 周守标; 赵其国; 尹雪斌

    2012-01-01

    To know the spatial distribution of soil total Se and Se speciation in agricultural products, totally 473 Lanzhou soils and 122 agricultural products were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that the average total Se concentration of the topsoil in Lanzhou was (0.179± 0.066) mg/kg (n=473), which ranked in middle level of China. Soil pH value was 8.39+0.26. Soil Se varied significantly among sampling sites, and the highest averaged soil Se was found in Yuzhong Area. The bioavailable Se of soils ranged from 4.63% to15.8%, averagely 8.27% of the total Se. A significantly positive correlation between bioavilable Se and toal Se in soils was observed. For the agricultural products, the total Se in rose (Rosa rugosa), Chinese wolfberry (Lycium barbarum), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica) and celery (Apium graveolens) exceeded 0.01S mg/kg (a standard value for Se-enriched products in China). The organic Se covered averagely 73.4% of the total Se in these agricultural products. Generally, the areas with higher soil Se in Lanzhou could grow higher Se products. Because of alkaline properties of Lanzhou soil, it has a significant advantage in developing Se biofortiflcation agricultural products.%通过对兰州市主要农业区表层土壤总硒有效硒调查和部分农产品总硒有机硒测定,研究了兰州市碱性农田土壤与农产品中硒的积累特征和分布规律.结果表明,兰州市农田表层土壤pH 8.39±0.26,总硒含量为(0.179±0.066) mg/kg(n=473),处于全国中等水平.全市土壤总硒含量区域性差别较大,市辖区明显低于三县,榆中县居全市之首.土壤有效硒与总硒含量显著正相关,有效硒占比为4.63%~15.8%,平均8.27%.农产品中玫瑰(Rosa rugosa),部分西兰花(Brassicaoleracea var.italica)和芹菜(Apium graveolens)样品硒含量高于0.015 mg/kg,为该市天然富硒农产品.农产品中有机硒占总硒比例较高,均值为73.4%.从区域整体来看,土壤硒含量较高的

  2. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestal ripário no município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic and structure of the arboreal community of riparian forest remain at Guariba municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maria Marson DONADIO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a composição eestrutura de comunidades florestais é fundamentalpara embasar ações de conservação e restauração.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar olevantamento florístico e descrever a estrutura dacomunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestallocalizado no município de Guariba, Estado de SãoPaulo. Foram alocadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m,para amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivoscom diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP ³ 5 cm.Foram encontradas 54 espécies, pertencentes a 47gêneros, distribuídos em 32 famílias botânicas,com índice de diversidade (H’ de 2,67 eequabilidade (J de 0,20. As famílias Meliaceae eFabaceae apresentaram maior riqueza em espécies.Calophyllum brasiliensis, Astronium graveolens,Scheffera morototoni, Xylopia aromatica eProtium widgrenii destacaram-se como as espéciesde maior valor de importância. Foram amostrados420 indivíduos. A presença de espécies do cerradosugere condição de ecótono e a dominância de umaespécie higrófila indica saturação hídrica em parteda área. A distribuição dos indivíduos em classesde tamanho revelou uma comunidade emregeneração com a maioria dos indivíduos com até15,0 cm de DAP e distribuídos entre 7 e 14,9 m,e com estoques de jovens tanto das espéciespioneiras como secundárias podendo garantir ofuturo da comunidade. Em termos sucessionais aárea estudada encontra-se em estádio de médiopara avançado.Knowledge of the composition andstructure of arboreal communities is paramount forconservation and restoration efforts. The mainobjectives of this study were to characterize thearboreal species floristic composition and describethe structure of the arboreal community of aremaining forest located at the municipality ofGuariba, State of São Paulo. Thirty plots of 10 x 10 mwere allocated. In each plot, diameter and heightwere measured for each individual tree withdiameter at breast height (dbh ³ 5 cm. Fifty-fourspecies were

  3. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

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    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  4. Produtos naturais para o controle do ácaro Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas

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    Guido Laércio Bragança Castagnino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido oxálico e de óleos essenciais de plantas no controle da infestação pelo ácaro Varroa destructor em colônias de Apis mellifera africanizadas. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em 30 colônias, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As colmeias foram tratadas com óleos essenciais de arruda (Ruta graveolens, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. e hortelã (Mentha piperita, além de timol, ácido oxálico e do tratamento controle sem aplicação de produtos. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade de varroas e as taxas de mortalidade de crias e de infestação de varroas em crias e em abelhas adultas, antes e depois da aplicação de cada produto. O ácido oxálico e os óleos de arruda, timol, eucalipto e de hortelã reduziram a mortalidade de crias parasitadas pelo ácaro em 92,1, 83,3, 81,7, 86,4 e 81,3%, respectivamente. O tratamento com ácido oxálico reduziu em 87,4% a infestação de varroas em abelhas adultas. O uso desses produtos é eficiente na redução da mortalidade de crias de A. mellifera parasitadas por V. destructor.

  5. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-09-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial activity of garlic was found to be the most effective against all the tested pathogens. Inhibition zones of garlic extract against all pathogens was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining spice extracts. Inhibition zones (12.50 ± 1.00 to 15.50 ± 1.00 mm) of ginger and R. graveolens ethanol extracts against all tested pathogens were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining solvent extracts. Inhibition zone of O. basilicum ethanol extract against all pathogenic bacteria was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than hexane and acetone extracts. Lactobacillus isolates were shown the highest antimicrobial activity than the other LAB isolates against all pathogens. The synergistic effect of spices together with LAB might be contributed a lot to preserve and extend shelf life of metata ayib. Their antimicrobial activity can reduce the risk of spoilage and pathogenesis. The possible reason of LAB isolates was may be due to production of lactic acid, acetic acid and secondary metabolites like bacteriocins. Aseptic processing of traditional cottage cheese (ayib) is by far needed to minimize risks associated during consumption of metata ayib.

  6. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk.

  7. Furanocoumarin biosynthesis in Ammi majus L. Cloning of bergaptol O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehmann, Marc; Lukacin, Richard; Ekiert, Halina; Matern, Ulrich

    2004-03-01

    Plants belonging to the Apiaceae or Rutaceae accumulate methoxylated psoralens, such as bergapten or xanthotoxin, as the final products of their furanocoumarin biosynthesis, and the rate of accumulation depends on environmental and other cues. Distinct O-methyltransferase activities had been reported to methylate bergaptol to bergapten and xanthotoxol to xanthotoxin, from induced cell cultures of Ruta graveolens, Petroselinum crispum and Ammi majus. Bergaptol 5-O-methyltransferase (BMT) cDNA was cloned from dark-grown Ammi majus L. cells treated with a crude fungal elicitor. The translated polypeptide of 38.7 kDa, composed of 354 amino acids, revealed considerable sequence similarity to heterologous caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferases (COMTs). For homologous comparison, COMT was cloned from A. majus plants and shown to share 64% identity and about 79% similarity with the BMT sequence at the polypeptide level. Functional expression of both enzymes in Escherichia coli revealed that the BMT activity in the bacterial extracts was labile and rapidly lost on purification, whereas the COMT activity remained stable. Furthermore, the recombinant AmBMT, which was most active in potassium phosphate buffer of pH 8 at 42 degrees C, showed narrow substrate specificity for bergaptol (Km SAM 6.5 micro m; Km Bergaptol 2.8 micro m) when assayed with a variety of substrates, including xanthotoxol, while the AmCOMT accepted 5-hydroxyferulic acid, esculetin and other substrates. Dark-grown A. majus cells expressed significant BMT activity which nevertheless increased sevenfold within 8 h upon the addition of elicitor and reached a transient maximum at 8-11 h, whereas the COMT activity was rather low and did not respond to the elicitation. Complementary Northern blotting revealed that the BMT transcript abundance increased to a maximum at 7 h, while only a weak constitutive signal was observed for the COMT transcript. The AmBMT sequence thus represents a novel database accession

  8. Repelência e atividade inseticida de pós vegetais sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman em feijão-fava armazenado

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    J.E. Girão Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de Piper nigrum L. (pimenta do reino, Ruta graveolens L. (arruda, Laurus nobilis L. (louro, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry (cravo da índia, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, Piper tuberculatum Jaqc. (pimenta de macaco, Tagetes erecta L. (cravo de defunto, Cymbopogon nardus L. (citronela e Melissa officinalis L. (erva cidreira sobre Z. subfasciatus Boh. através dos testes de confinamento, onde os insetos foram confinados durante cinco dias em um recipiente contendo dez grãos de feijão-fava com 0,3 g do pó da planta a ser testada, e, com chance de escolha por meio de uma arena circular, os insetos tiveram a possibilidade de escolha entre grãos com os pós e a testemunha, grãos sem pó das plantas. Observou-se que houve plantas que atuaram como inseticida, outras que repeliram o inseto e não causaram a morte, e outras, que além de repelir também mataram os insetos quando em contato (cravo da índia e matruz. Concluímos que: P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, S. aromaticum e C. ambrosioides são tóxicas à Z. subfasciatus causando-lhes a morte, L. nobilis, T. erecta, e C. nardus não apresentaram efeito tóxico sobre Z. subfasciatus, C. ambrosioides, S. aromaticum, e C. nardus são repelentes à Z. subfasciatus; P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, e T. erecta são neutras, e que M. officinalis não apresentou nenhum efeito sobre Z. subfasciatus em relação aos parâmetros avaliados.

  9. [Effects of ruta SSP on the activity of the smooth gastrointestinal muscle isolated of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorjev, Carlota A; Brizuela, Nilda Y

    2010-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta chalepensis L. are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive and for intestinal gases. Animals used as experimental model were rats of the Wistar line, adult females, clinically healthy and with a weight average of 250 grams. We used strips of stomach and duodenum. Each one of the segments mounted on two stirrups in a bath of organ isolated with Ringer-lactate solution, at 37° C , pH: 7.3-7.4, and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2. One of the stirrups was connected vertically to the bottom of the bath and the other to a transducer of tension connected to a Beckman polygraph. We applied 500 mgs of basal tension. After the stabilization, the ethanolic extract of Ruta ssp was added in increasing doses. At 50μl/ml the tone lower 23% in small intestine and lower 27% in stomach. However at 100 μl/ml the tone lower 32% and 35% respectively. In the other parameters the amplitude decrease 50% in the stomach at dose of 5 μl/ml while in the small intestine the amplitude lower 60%. With 10 μl/ml the amplitude change in both organs ( 96% in small intestine, and 75% in stomach). The frequency changes in both organs ( 32% in small intestine, and 50% in stomach) at 10 μl/ml Rue showed decreased effects on isolated small intestine and stomach were is dose dependent, maybe we were demonstrated the effects digestive of Ruta.

  10. A coumarin-specific prenyltransferase catalyzes the crucial biosynthetic reaction for furanocoumarin formation in parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Fazeelat; Olry, Alexandre; Munakata, Ryosuke; Koeduka, Takao; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Paris, Cedric; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-02-01

    Furanocoumarins constitute a sub-family of coumarin compounds with important defense properties against pathogens and insects, as well as allelopathic functions in plants. Furanocoumarins are divided into two sub-groups according to the alignment of the furan ring with the lactone structure: linear psoralen and angular angelicin derivatives. Determination of furanocoumarin type is based on the prenylation position of the common precursor of all furanocoumarins, umbelliferone, at C6 or C8, which gives rise to the psoralen or angelicin derivatives, respectively. Here, we identified a membrane-bound prenyltransferase PcPT from parsley (Petroselinum crispum), and characterized the properties of the gene product. PcPT expression in various parsley tissues is increased by UV irradiation, with a concomitant increase in furanocoumarin production. This enzyme has strict substrate specificity towards umbelliferone and dimethylallyl diphosphate, and a strong preference for the C6 position of the prenylated product (demethylsuberosin), leading to linear furanocoumarins. The C8-prenylated derivative (osthenol) is also formed, but to a much lesser extent. The PcPT protein is targeted to the plastids in planta. Introduction of this PcPT into the coumarin-producing plant Ruta graveolens showed increased consumption of endogenous umbelliferone. Expression of PcPT and a 4-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana, which does not produce furanocoumarins, resulted in formation of demethylsuberosin, indicating that furanocoumarin production may be reconstructed by a metabolic engineering approach. The results demonstrate that a single prenyltransferase, such as PcPT, opens the pathway to linear furanocoumarins in parsley, but may also catalyze the synthesis of osthenol, the first intermediate committed to the angular furanocoumarin pathway, in other plants.

  11. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  12. Pharmacological evaluation of a polyherbal formulation for its antispasmodic activity

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    Navdeep Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: The present study was aimed to evaluate pharmacologically to a polyherbal formulation containing volatile extracts of various umbelliferae plants. Materials and Methods: The umbelliferae family was found most effective against spasm by extensive literature review and study of various rational formulations. Plants material was procured from the local market of Rajasthan. Volatile extracts were isolated from powdered plant materials through Clevenger′s method. The volatile extracts of following plants Trachyspermum ammi, Cuminum cyminum, Anethum graveolens and Foeniculum vulgare were used to make polyherbal formulation. Results: Antispasmodic effect of newly prepared polyherbal formulation demonstrated on guinea pig ileum in vitro; 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 was 172.5 ± 1.4 μl/ml. A very effective value identified, when compared to antispasmodic drugs, e.g. Atropine (IC 50 was 166.7 ± 1.2 μl/ml. Oral administration of polyherbal formulation dose-dependently reduced intestinal transit in mice when compared to atropine at 0.1 mg/kg i.p. and formulation at (300 mg/kg protected mice against diarrhea induced by castor oil significantly when compared to control and standard loperamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg orally. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation inhibits acetylcholine and calcium chloride induced contraction of guinea pig ileum dose-dependently. The current research validates antispasmodic effect of newly developed polyherbal formulation. It also concluded that polyherbal formulation inhibits the contraction produced by various spasmogens like acetylcholine and calcium chloride. This suggests that the activity of developed formulation is nonspecific to any spasmogen.

  13. 驱蚊草(Pelargonium×citrosum Van leenii)挥发物成分的采集与分析%The Analysis of the Volatile Compounds Which Collected from Pelargonium × citrosum Van leenii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路荣春; 陈佳佳; 林宇杰; 闻海峰; 施文健

    2015-01-01

    利用固相微萃取(SPME)和水蒸气蒸馏(SD)2种方法对驱蚊草的挥发物进行采集,并通过气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)进行分析.共分离、检测出化合物60余种,鉴定了其中的42种化合物.在这些化合物中,以萜烯和酯类为主,另有少量醇、醛、酮和醚类化合物.其中香茅醛、反式薄荷酮、香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、荜澄茄油烯、β-波旁烯、表双环倍半水芹烯、β-古云烯等化合物的含量较高.香茅醛和香茅醇是有效的驱蚊成分.驱蚊草的挥发物和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)的挥发物的组成成分和相对含量都比较相似.不同的是香叶天竺葵的挥发物中未检测到香茅醛.驱蚊草的挥发物与香茅草(Cymbopogon citratus)的挥发物的成分差别明显.

  14. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

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    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  15. Insecticidal toxicities of carvacrol and thymol derived from Thymus vulgaris Lin. against Pochazia shantungensis Chou & Lu., newly recorded pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hwan; Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2017-01-01

    The insecticidal toxicities of five essential oils against Pochazia shantungensis adults and nymphs, newly recorded pests, were evaluated. The LC50 values of Thymus vulgaris, Ruta graveolens, Citrus aurantium, Leptospermum petersonii and Achillea millefolium oils were recorded as 57.48, 84.44, 92.58, 113.26 and 125.78 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis nymphs using the leaf dipping bioassay, and 75.80, 109.86, 113.26, 145.06 and 153.74 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis adults using the spray bioassay method. Regarding volatile components identified in T. vulgaris oil, the LC50 values of carvacrol and thymol using the leaf dipping bioassay against P. shantungensis nymphs were 56.74 and 28.52 mg/L, respectively. The insecticidal action of T. vulgaris oil against P. shantungensis could be attributed to carvacrol and thymol. Based on the structure-toxicity relationship between thymol analogs and insecticidal toxicities against P. shantungensis nymphs similar to the LC50 values against P. shantungensis adults, the LC50 values of thymol, carvacrol, citral, 2-isopropylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and 4-isopropylphenol were 28.52, 56.74 and 89.12, 71.41, 82.49, and 111.28 mg/L, respectively. These results indicate that the insecticidal mode of action of thymol analogs may be largely attributed to the methyl functional group. Thymol analogues have promising potential as first-choice insecticides against P. shantungensis adults and nymphs.

  16. Insecticidal toxicities of carvacrol and thymol derived from Thymus vulgaris Lin. against Pochazia shantungensis Chou & Lu., newly recorded pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hwan; Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2017-01-01

    The insecticidal toxicities of five essential oils against Pochazia shantungensis adults and nymphs, newly recorded pests, were evaluated. The LC50 values of Thymus vulgaris, Ruta graveolens, Citrus aurantium, Leptospermum petersonii and Achillea millefolium oils were recorded as 57.48, 84.44, 92.58, 113.26 and 125.78 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis nymphs using the leaf dipping bioassay, and 75.80, 109.86, 113.26, 145.06 and 153.74 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis adults using the spray bioassay method. Regarding volatile components identified in T. vulgaris oil, the LC50 values of carvacrol and thymol using the leaf dipping bioassay against P. shantungensis nymphs were 56.74 and 28.52 mg/L, respectively. The insecticidal action of T. vulgaris oil against P. shantungensis could be attributed to carvacrol and thymol. Based on the structure-toxicity relationship between thymol analogs and insecticidal toxicities against P. shantungensis nymphs similar to the LC50 values against P. shantungensis adults, the LC50 values of thymol, carvacrol, citral, 2-isopropylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and 4-isopropylphenol were 28.52, 56.74 and 89.12, 71.41, 82.49, and 111.28 mg/L, respectively. These results indicate that the insecticidal mode of action of thymol analogs may be largely attributed to the methyl functional group. Thymol analogues have promising potential as first-choice insecticides against P. shantungensis adults and nymphs. PMID:28106093

  17. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mier Barona Carmen Elena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  18. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  19. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  20. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd.

  1. Bacteriostasis Activity of Flower Extracts Against Three Species of Bacteria%花卉提取物对3种细菌的抑菌性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕慧; 孟雪; 王志英

    2010-01-01

    利用丙酮超声波提取和减压浓缩技术,获得17种花卉茎、叶的提取物,分析各提取物对3种细菌的抑菌结果.天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)对腐生葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus saprophyticus)和藤黄葡萄球菌(Micrococcus luteus)具有抑制作用;杜鹃(Rhododendronsimsii & R. spp.)对腐生葡萄球菌和炭疽杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)具有抑制作用.天竺葵提取物4种供试质量浓度对腐生葡萄球菌的抑菌率均达96%以上,杜鹃提取物对炭疽杆菌的抑菌率在77%~84%之间.但天竺葵、杜鹃提取物分别对炭疽杆菌和藤黄葡萄球菌无抑制效果.2种花卉提取物抑菌率卡方检验结果表明,不同质量浓度的天竺葵提取物对藤黄葡萄球菌抑菌率差异显著;杜鹃提取物不同质量浓度间对腐生葡萄球菌的抑菌率差异显著.

  2. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  3. Analyses on cloning and expression characteristics of AgCCoAOMT gene from Apium graveolens‘Liuhe Huangxinqin ’%芹菜品种‘六合黄心芹’ AgCCoAOMT基因的克隆及表达特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑笑阳; 吴雪君; 聂力; 许珂; 熊爱生

    2016-01-01

    According to transcriptome database of Apium graveolens Linn. in Apiaceae, caffeoyl-CoA-O-methyltransferase gene was cloned from total RNA in leaf of A. graveolens ‘Liuhe Huangxinqin’ , which was named as AgCCoAOMT gene. Sequence analysis result shows that AgCCoAOMT gene contains an open reading frame ( ORF) with length of 726 bp, 241 amino acids are encoded. The protein encoded by this gene is AgCCoAOMT, its theoretical relative molecular mass is 27 010, and theoretical isoelectric point is pI 5. 35. In AgCCoAOMT protein, percentage of acidic amino acids is higher than that of basic amino acids, and percentage of aliphatic amino acids is about three times of that of aromatic amino acids. This protein belongs to hydrophobic protein and contains a conserved AdoMet MTases domain, meaning that AgCCoAOMT protein belongs to AdoMet MTases superfamily. Tertiary structure of AgCCoAOMT protein includes many a-helix and β-turn, its consistency with that of CCoAOMT protein from Medicago sativa Linn. is 84. 58%. Analysis results of multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree show that AgCCoAOMT protein has high conservation. And it has the nearest phylogeny with CCoAOMT protein from the same family species Ammi majus Linn. and Petroselinum crispum ( Mill.) Nyman ex A. W. Hill, also, has nearer phylogeny with CCoAOMT protein from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. in Nymphaeaceae. qRT-PCR determination result shows that AgCCoAOMT gene can express in root, stem, petiole and leaf blade of ‘Liuhe Huangxinqin’ , and its relative expression in leaf blade is extremely significantly higher than that of other tissues (P<0. 01), meaning that expression of this gene has obvious tissue specificity. There is obvious difference in relative expression of this gene in leaf blade at different growth and development stages, its relative expression at commodity stage ( the sixty-fifth day after sowing ) is extremely significantly higher than that at seedling stage ( the twenty-fifth day after sowing

  4. Produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com espécies aromáticas e medicinais Yield of tomato in monocrop and intercropping with aromatics plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro é cultivado, principalmente em monocultivos, com uso intensivo de defensivos químicos, atividade de risco econômico, social e ambiental. O consórcio vem sendo praticado como forma de reduzir os riscos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção do tomateiro solteiro e em consórcio com as espécies medicinais e aromáticas Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum e Ruta graveolens. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos. Avaliou-se altura, área do dossel, produção, produtividade e eficiência do uso da terra. Nos consórcios, verificou-se que, na densidade de plantio adotada, o funcho teve maior altura e área de dossel e causou redução significativa na produção total de tomates: de 12,23 kg, no cultivo solteiro, para 7,88 kg, no consórcio com funcho. No entanto, contribuiu com a menor porcentagem de perda de tomates por broqueamento (24%. As maiores perdas por broqueamento ocorreram no monocultivo e no consórcio com hortelã-pimenta. A arruda favoreceu aumento significativo na produção comercial de tomates, em média 26%. A produtividade relativa do tomateiro foi maior no consórcio com arruda (13,6 t ha-1, seguido pelo consórcio com hortelã-pimenta (9,8 t ha-1 e manjericão (9,1 t ha-1, e menor no consórcio com funcho (6,4 t ha-1, o que indicou que o consórcio com arruda foi mais vantajoso para a produção de tomates. Dentre as aromáticas estudadas, o manjericão teve maior produtividade (96,5 t ha-1. Concluindo, os consórcios permitiram maior aproveitamento no uso da terra, com aumento na produtividade dos tomateiros na presença da arruda e redução na presença do funcho. As demais plantas não reduziram significativamente a produção e portanto podem ser empregadas como fonte alternativa de renda.Tomato is mainly cultivated in monocrops, by intensive use of chemical products. It is an activity with economic, social and

  5. Universalidad de la Universidad, Globalización.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Borrero Cabal

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Mis palabras tienen por fin recordar nociones fundamentales sobre la naturaleza de la Universidad histórica. Haré énfasis en su carácter nativo de universalidad, modificada, como también los ejercicios de la autonomía institucional, por la paulatina constitución de los Estados modernos expuestos, también la Universidad y la cultura, al fenómeno globalizante del mundo, hoy fortalecido por los avances tecnológicos del Internet y los recursos virtuales.

    En esta forma respondo agradecido a la gentil invitación del doctor José Félix Patiño, Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina de Colombia, para trazar exposición paralela, más que comentario, a las palabras del Académico Jaime Escobar Triana, médico con corazón de educador y amigo. Felicito a la Academia, en sus 125 años de cimera existencia, por compensar, con la enseñanza de la Historia de la Universidad, el existencialismo peristáltico, patología de estos tiempos neomilenarios que al estrecharnos al instante que vivimos, nos impiden ver y sentir las trascendencias éticas del espíritu.I. Introducción Histórica: Universidad, Autonomía y Nacionalidades Universitarias

    1. Origen y naturaleza universal de la autonomía universitaria Connotados historiadores de la universidad, con lenguaje moderno, coinciden en precisarle a la condensación naciente en el Medioevo, las misiones, las funciones y las notas, que en variadas formas le han mantenido hasta nuestros días sus características institucionales. Misiones fueron la ciencia como entonces se la entendía a la luz de la Grecia clásica, esto es, los conceptos de episteme entre los antiguos; el medio social en cuyo seno la universidad nacía, y la persona, objeto del acto educador.

    En consecuencia, por funciones entendamos los correspondientes actos orientados a desentrañar y a difundir los tesoros del saber humano; también, los servicios que la sociedad de entonces demandaba en favor de la

  6. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    partially attributed to a huge difference in the rainfall amount during the two growing seasons, equal to 810 mm in the 2013-14 growing season and 441 mm in 2014-15. Emission factors for each N rate was calculated through the whole monitoring period and resulted to be in the range of 0.5-0.9% in 2013-14, while between 0.2-0.3% in 2014-15, considerably lower than the IPCC Tier 1 EF (1%). References: Bosco S., Volpi I., Nassi o Di Nasso N., Triana F., Roncucci N., Tozzini C., Villani R., Laville P., Mattei F., Virgili G., Nuvoli S., Fabbrini L., Bonari E., 2015. LIFE+IPNOA mobile prototype for the monitoring of soil N2O emissions from arable crops: first year results on durum wheat. Italian Journal of Agronomy Vol 10:669, pp 124-131. Laville P., Neri S., Continanza D., Ferrante Vero L., Bosco S., Virgili G., 2015. Cross-Validation of a mobile N2O flux prototype (IPNOA) using Micrometeorological and Chamber methods. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 9 (2015) 375-385. Syakila A, Kroeze C., 2011. The global nitrogen budget revisited. Greenhouse Gas Meas. Manage. 1, 17-26.

  7. Flexible workflow sharing and execution services for e-scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacsuk, Péter; Terstyanszky, Gábor; Kiss, Tamas; Sipos, Gergely

    2013-04-01

    The sequence of computational and data manipulation steps required to perform a specific scientific analysis is called a workflow. Workflows that orchestrate data and/or compute intensive applications on Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs) recently became standard tools in e-science. At the same time the broad and fragmented landscape of workflows and DCIs slows down the uptake of workflow-based work. The development, sharing, integration and execution of workflows is still a challenge for many scientists. The FP7 "Sharing Interoperable Workflow for Large-Scale Scientific Simulation on Available DCIs" (SHIWA) project significantly improved the situation, with a simulation platform that connects different workflow systems, different workflow languages, different DCIs and workflows into a single, interoperable unit. The SHIWA Simulation Platform is a service package, already used by various scientific communities, and used as a tool by the recently started ER-flow FP7 project to expand the use of workflows among European scientists. The presentation will introduce the SHIWA Simulation Platform and the services that ER-flow provides based on the platform to space and earth science researchers. The SHIWA Simulation Platform includes: 1. SHIWA Repository: A database where workflows and meta-data about workflows can be stored. The database is a central repository to discover and share workflows within and among communities . 2. SHIWA Portal: A web portal that is integrated with the SHIWA Repository and includes a workflow executor engine that can orchestrate various types of workflows on various grid and cloud platforms. 3. SHIWA Desktop: A desktop environment that provides similar access capabilities than the SHIWA Portal, however it runs on the users' desktops/laptops instead of a portal server. 4. Workflow engines: the ASKALON, Galaxy, GWES, Kepler, LONI Pipeline, MOTEUR, Pegasus, P-GRADE, ProActive, Triana, Taverna and WS-PGRADE workflow engines are already

  8. SHIWA Services for Workflow Creation and Sharing in Hydrometeorolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terstyanszky, Gabor; Kiss, Tamas; Kacsuk, Peter; Sipos, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    pre-deployed workflow engines or submits workflow engines with the workflow to local or remote resources to execute workflows. The SHIWA Proxy Server manages certificates needed to execute the workflows on different DCIs. Currently SSP supports sharing of ASKALON, Galaxy, GWES, Kepler, LONI Pipeline, MOTEUR, Pegasus, P-GRADE, ProActive, Triana, Taverna and WS-PGRADE workflows. Further workflow systems can be added to the simulation platform as required by research communities. The FP7 'Building a European Research Community through Interoperable Workflows and Data' (ER-flow) project disseminates the achievements of the SHIWA project to build workflow user communities across Europe. ER-flow provides application supports to research communities within (Astrophysics, Computational Chemistry, Heliophysics and Life Sciences) and beyond (Hydrometeorology and Seismology) to develop, share and run workflows through the simulation platform. The simulation platform supports four usage scenarios: creating and publishing workflows in the repository, searching and selecting workflows in the repository, executing non-native workflows and creating and running meta-workflows. The presentation will outline the CGI concept, the SHIWA Simulation Platform, the ER-flow usage scenarios and how the Hydrometeorology research community runs simulations on SSP.

  9. La Botánica Sistemática en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, salvo algunos ensayos que por lo escasos no son menos meritorios, el estudio profundizado de la Botánica sistemática ha tenido pocos adeptos verdaderamente especializados. Aquellas figuras proceras que iluminaron un siglo de nuestra historia y dieron renombre científico a nuestra patria, buscando en el corazón de nuestras selvas, en la cima de nuestras cordilleras o en los horizontes infinitos de nuestros llanos las rarísimas plantas que ellos mismos estudiaron con esmero y clasificaron para la posteridad: los Mutis, los Caldas, los Trianas, fueron lumbreras que se extinguieron ante la indiferencia de un pueblo necesariamente preocupado ya por las, conmociones desugesta libertadora o por las revueltas de sus luchas políticas internas. Vivieron en época precaria para el desenvolvimiento de sus geniales profesiones y la mayor parte de sus esfuerzos quedó inmaterializada y archivada bajo el polvo de la incomprensión mientras que por todos los ámbitos del territorio patrio cruzaban y se sucedían expediciones extranjeras ávidas de descubrir novedades botánicas, acumulando materiales que fueron a enriquecer los Museos de capitales europeas y a aumentar así, en paísesextraños, el acervo de conocimientos relativos a nuestras riquezas naturales. Todo estudio sistemático importante ha de estar necesariamente basado sobre ejemplares de herbario y, cuando se publican especio géneros nuevos, los ejemplares respectivos se consideran comocomprobantes físicos y se les denomina tipos. Ser aficionado a las plantas y ser botánico sistemático, esto es: genuino y original clasificador de plantas, son cualidades que no se excluyen, pues antes bien armonizan perfectamente, pero sólo pueden complementarse en orden ascendente, porque lo último requiere una idoneidad especial y elementos de trabajo muy completos, El aficionado a las plantas puede quizás ser algo clasificador en el sentido que puede ordenar por familias, g

  10. ИНТРОДУКЦИЯ НЕКОТОРЫХ ПЕРСПЕКТИВНЫХ ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫХ И ЭФИРОМАСЛИЧНЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ В МАРДАКЯНСКОМ ДЕНДРАРИИ

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Эфиромасличные растения используются в парфюмерии, мыловаренной, кондитерской, фармацевтической и пищевой промьшшенности. В последние годы стремительно развивается другая отрасль медицины ароматерапия. В этом исследовании приводим краткую характеристику интродукция, изучение биоэкологических особенностей и эфиромасличности некоторых лекарственных и эфиромасличных растений (Ruta graveolens L, Rosmarinus officinalis L HMyrtus communis L ), исследуемых в Мардакянском дендрарии. Изучены их ценные...

  11. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  12. Natural Plant Oils and Terpenes as Protector for the Potato Tubers against Phthorimaea operculella Infestation by Different Application Methods

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    Aziza Sharaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For protecting potato tubers from the potato tuber moth (PTM infestation during storage, different concentrations of ten natural plant oils and three commercial monoterpnes were tested, some as fumigants or dusts against adults or dusts against neonate larvae, while others as sprays on the gunny sacks in which potato tubers were stored. Tuber damage indices as well as persistence indices for tested materials were assessed. Vapors of Cymbopogon citratus, Myristica fragrans (nutmag, Mentha citrata and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused a highly significant reductions in the life span of exposed moths as well as in new adult offsprings. Other tested oils as Cinnamonium zeylanicum, Myristica. fragrans (Mace and Pelargonium graveolens caused a insignificant effect. There was no significant effect of the tested vapors on egg hatchability, except in case of oils of C. citratus, M. fragrans (nutmag and M. tragrans(Mace oil which caused high reduction in egg hatchability. According to the values of damage indices, the most effective oil vapors were arranged ascendingly as follows: Myristica (nutmag < Cymbopogon < Mentha < a - Ionone. Dusting potato tubers with 1% conc., (mixed with talcum powder of Myristica, Mentha, Cymbopogons oils and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused high reduction in egg deposition, adult emergence as well as percentage of penetrated larvae of PTM. According to their damage indices, Cymbopogon and ά-Ionone were the most protective oils, followed by Myristica and Mentha. Spraying gunnysacks with 1% conc., of the aforementioned natural oils separately elicited high reduction in PTM progeny; while their combinations did not elicit any significant synergistic effect. According to their tuber damage indices, it was found that Cymbopogon oil alone or mixed with Myristica oil showed the best protective effect, followed by Myristica oil alone and Mentha oil mixed with Cymbopogon oil. Assessment of the persistence index of various tested materials

  13. Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

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    Dürešová Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., celery (Apium graveolens L., maize (Zea mays L., giant reed (Arundo donax L., and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L. under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides 109Cd or 65Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR [Me]shoot / [Me]root calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA. According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation

  14. Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 of celery.

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    Gabriele Gadermaier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery (Apium graveolens represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. METHODOLOGY: 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP and nPru p 3 (peach LTP using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected patients with reactivity to LTP under investigation were evaluated. Specific IgE titers and cross-inhibitions were performed in ELISA and allergen microarray. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified LTPs; IgG titers were determined in ELISA and mediator release was examined using RBL-2H3 cells. Simulated endolysosomal digestion was performed using microsomes obtained from human DCs. RESULTS: IgE testing showed a sensitization prevalence of 25.6% to Api g 2, 18.6% to Art v 3, and 28.6% to Pru p 3 and frequent co-sensitization and correlating IgE-reactivity was observed. 10/32 patients suffering from LTP-related allergy reported symptoms upon consumption of celery stalks which mainly presented as OAS. Considerable IgE cross-reactivity was observed between Api g 2, Art v 3, and Pru p 3 with varying inhibition degrees of individual patients' sera. Simulating LTP mono-sensitization in a mouse model showed development of more congruent antibody specificities between Api g 2 and Art v 3. Notably, biologically relevant murine IgE cross-reactivity was restricted to the latter and diverse from Pru p 3 epitopes. Endolysosomal processing of LTP showed generation of similar clusters, which presumably represent T-cell peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Api g 2 represents a relevant celery stalk allergen in the LTP-sensitized population. The molecule displays common B cell epitopes and endolysosomal peptides that encompass T cell epitopes with pollen and plant-food derived LTP.

  15. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  16. 特定芳香植物组合对降压保健功能的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Combinations of Specific Aromatic Plants for Hypotensive Healthcare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 姚雷

    2011-01-01

    The paper is to evaluate the hypotensive effect of natural incense released from aromatic plants which mainly consist of Lavandula angustifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Origanum majorana, and Ocimum basilicum, and provide experimental data and theoretical evidence for the hypotensive effect of aromatic plants nature incense. Methods: After the project area for aromatic plants with benefits of lowering blood pressure and mental stress were completed during the vigorous plant growth period month of May, an experiment was made where 38 volunteers with mild hypertension participated in an aroma test. Result: Statistical significances (P<0.05) have been observed in comparison of systolic and diastolic pressures. Analysed with SCL90, the decrease of different degrees was confirmed in each index, and total symptom index and body symptoms decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aromatic plants nature incense has functioned actively for blood pressure reduction and subjects mental outlook.%探索以真薰衣草、香叶天竺葵、甜牛至、甜罗勒为主要构成的芳香植物闻乔区内自然香气是否对高血压症状闻香者有缓解作用,并对芳香物降压保健闻香区的构建提供理论参考依据.结果表明:闻香后,收缩压和舒张压的差值显著高于闻香前(P<0.05);SGL90自测量表分析表明,闻香后各项指标得分均有不同程度降低.总症状指数、躯体化在闻香后显著低于闻香前(P<0.05).结论:芳香植物闻香区自然香气对降血压有一定效果,并能改善受试行的精神面貌.

  17. Nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of Astronium sp.

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    Bonifácio BV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruna Vidal Bonifácio,1 Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos,1 Patrícia Bento da Silva,2 Kamila Maria Silveira Negri,1 Érica de Oliveira Lopes,1 Leonardo Perez de Souza,3 Wagner Vilegas,4 Fernando Rogério Pavan,1 Marlus Chorilli,2 Taís Maria Bauab11Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Organic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Coastal Campus of São Vicente, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, São Vicente, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The genus Astronium (Anacardiaceae includes species, such as Astronium fraxinifolium, Astronium graveolens, and Astronium urundeuva, which possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, healing, and antimicrobial properties. Nanostructured lipid systems are able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects and improving antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system that was developed as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of stems and leaves from Astronium sp. The antifungal activity against C. albicans (ATCC 18804 was evaluated in vitro by a microdilution technique. In addition to the in vitro assays, the Astronium sp. that showed the best antifungal activity and selectivity index was submitted to an in vivo assay using a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. In these assays, the extracts were either used alone or were incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (comprising 10% oil phase, 10% surfactant, and 80% aqueous phase. The results indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration of 125.00 µg/mL before incorporation into the nanostructured system; this activity was even more enhanced when this extract presented a minimal inhibitory concentration of 15.62 µg/mL after its incorporation. In vivo assay dates showed that the

  18. Avaliação fototóxica e screening mutagênico de extratos de propolis, Aloe spp. e Hamamelis virginiana

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    M. F.S. RAMOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A utilização de extratos vegetais em produtos farmacêuticos e cosméticos tem mostrado ser uma tendência mundial e cresceu substancialmente nas duas últimas décadas. No entanto, há ainda poucos relatos na literatura com relação à atividade mutagênica ou fototóxica de extratos vegetais. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a atividade fototóxica e o “screening” mutagênico de extratos fluidos e secos de própolis, Aloe spp. e Hamamelis virginiana. Na investigação de fototoxicidade foram realizados ensaios microbiológicos, utilizando cepas de Candida albicans e Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bem como ensaios biológicos com cobaias albinos. Extratos etanólicos de Ruta graveolens e Citrus spp., além de 8-metoxipsoraleno (fármaco sintético padrão, foram usados como controles positivos em ambos os testes. A atividade mutagênica foi avaliada qualitativamente segundo o “spot test” descrito por Maron & Ames, com cepas de Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 e TA102, empregando como controle positivo o óxido de 4-nitroquinolina. Não foi observada atividade fototóxica, em ambos os ensaios realizados, para qualquer dos extratos. O ensaio microbiológico demonstrou uma atividade fungistática ou fungicida nos extratos secos de hamamélis. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios microbiológicos com a levedura S. cerevisiae indicam que este microrganismo apresentou eficiência no procedimento de “screening” de atividade fototóxica comparável à obtida com C. albicans. Os extratos vegetais não apresentaram atividade mutagênica nos ensaios preliminares realizados. Palavras-chave: Aloe spp., Hamamelis virginiana, própolis, fototoxicidade, mutagenicidade.

  19. Alguns aspectos fisionômicos da vegetação do Brasil

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    Henrique Pimenta Veloso

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available A - NORTE - A floresta em tôrno de Belém parece já bastante alterada, sendo poucas as árvores de grande porte. O solo é sempre arenoso, com uma camada de húmus muito fina a qual, quando é removida, deixa ver uma areia branca. Em Utinga era de notar o grande número de árvores caídas, justamente as maiores, o que sugere um solo pobre e raso, originando um enraizamento superficial e conseqüente queda das mesmas pelos ventos. Na floresta de àgua Preta é muito maior o número de árvores finas, o que sugere um solo ainda mais pobre. Trata-se de floresta típica da planície (Quartenário antigo, onde o solo foi formado por deposição do arenitos pobres do Centro-oeste capturados pela bacia do Tocatins. B - Nordeste - 1. Caatinga: O tipo de vegetação que predomina no Nordeste é o da caatinga, vegetação de arbustiva a arbórea, espinhosa e decidual. A parte vista, de Terezina até Paulo Afonso, via Ubajara, Fortaleza, Crato e Floresta, apresenta várias nuances fisiográficas de densidade e porte. Essas são devidas, aparentemente ao menos, não só à intervenção humana, como também à grande variação na constituição física do solo. Assim é que observamos: a Caatinga arbórea - dominada pela carnaúba: Copernicia cerifera (A. Cam. Mart. nos lugares encharcados, pela oiticica: Licania rigida Benth. na linha demarcatória das maiores enchentes, e pelo juàzeiro: Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., fora da influência das àguas dos rios. b Caatinga aberta - nos solos pedregosos, com dominância da imburana-de-espinho: Bursera leptophloeos Engl. e do umbu: Spondias tuberosa A. Cam. Ocorre nas enconstas dessecadas dos serrotes de quartzito. c Caatinga arbustiva densa - existente nos largos vales dos maiores rios, provável fruto da intervenção...The authors had the opportunity of visiting all Brazilian national parks and some of the States reserves in order to suggest a revision of the country's policy on that field. During their trip

  20. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  1. Aplicación de Tecnología de Barreras para la Conservación de Mezclas de Vegetales Mínimamente Procesados / Application of Barrier Technology for the Conservation of Minimally Processed Vegetables Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los vegetales son componentes esenciales de la dietahumana y su procesamiento trae como consecuencia el rápido deterioro ocasionado por el aumento de las reacciones metabólicas, esto hace necesario que se utilicen tecnologías emergentes de conservación. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la tecnología de barreras (desinfección, tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible, atmósfera modificada y refrigeración sobre la vida útil de una mezcla de vegetales mínimamente procesados compuesta por brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., chayote (Sechium edule, apio (Apium graveolens y zanahoria (Daucus carota. Las barreras fueron aplicadas a las hortalizas para luego ser envasadas en dos tipos de bandejas (empaque en atmósfera modificada y empaque en bandeja sello plus. Los vegetales se almacenaron durante 12 días en refrigeración (4 °C y 95% HR, se llevaron a cabo análisis microbiológicos, físicoquímicos y sensoriales, y un estudio de vida útil. Los resultados mostraron que el proceso de desinfección con NaClO 100 ppm y el tratamiento térmico de 60 °C durante 2 min, tuvieron efecto en la reducción de la población microbiana para el día cero de evaluación. La calidad general se conservó para los 12 días dealmacenamiento, en la zanahoria, chayote, coliflor y apio. Laevaluación fisicoquímica presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas de los parámetros evaluados con respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento. El estudio de vida útil arrojó tiempos de 7 y 5 días para la mezcla de vegetales empacada en bandeja sello plus en atmósfera modificada, respectivamente. La combinación debarreras se muestra como alternativa viable en la conservación de mezclas de vegetales mínimamente procesados. /  Vegetables are essential components of the human diet. However, rapid deterioration of vegetables occurs after

  2. Chlorophyll fluorescence of tropical tree species in a semi-deciduous forest gap Fluorescência da clorofila de espécies arbóreas tropicais em uma clareira de floresta semidecídua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of different ecological groups in a forest formation/succession is unclear. To better define the different successional classes, we have to consider ecophysiological aspects, such as the capacity to use or dissipate the light energy available. The main objective of this work was to assess the chlorophyll fluorescence emission of tropical tree species growing in a gap of a semi-deciduous forest. Three species of different ecological groups were selected: Croton floribundus Spreng. (pioneer, P, Astronium graveolens Jacq. (early secondary, Si, and Esenbeckia febrifuga A. Juss. (late secondary, St. The potential (Fv/Fm and effective (deltaF/Fm' quantum efficiency of photosystem II, apparent electron transport rate (ETR, non-photochemical (qN and photochemical (qP quenching of fluorescence were evaluated, using a modulated fluorometer, between 7:30 and 11:00 h. Values of Fv/Fm remained constant in St, decreasing in P and Si after 9:30 h, indicating the occurrence of photoinhibition. Concerning the measurements taken under light conditions (deltaF/Fm', ETR, qP and qN, P and Si showed better photochemical performance, i.e., values of deltaF/Fm', ETR and qP were higher than St when light intensity was increased. Values of qN indicated that P and Si had an increasing tendency of dissipating the excess of energy absorbed by the leaf, whereas the opposite was found for St. The principal component analysis (PCA, considering all evaluated parameters, showed a clear distinction between St, P and Si, with P and Si being closer. The PCA results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence may be a potential tool to differentiate tree species from distinct successional groups.A caracterização dos diferentes grupos ecológicos envolvidos nos processos de formação/sucessão florestal é ainda pouco precisa. Para melhor distinção das classes sucessionais deve-se levar em consideração aspectos ecofisiológicos, como a capacidade de

  3. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and aqueous plant extracts aiming at the control of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: TephritidaeCompatibilidade de nematóides entomopatogênicos e extratos vegetais aquosos visando o controle da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Cristhiane Rohde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae has been controlled mainly by the chemical method, which is responsible for environmental and public health impacts. It has often been ineffective due to development of resistant insect populations. Thus, it has necessary to research new effective and less impacting control forms. In this sense, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes and plant extracts has been effective for controlling this pest. However, studies are needed to assess the compatibility between these methods, aiming at their use in integrated management programs for this pest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae ALL and Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 with aqueous extracts prepared from dried plant of cinnamon leaf, twig and fruit (Melia azedarach, rue leaf (Ruta graveolens, ginger (Zingiber officinale and garlic (Allium sativum for the control of C. capitata. The bioassay was carried out in completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. Each replication consisted of a glass tube containing 1 mL of plant extract 40% w/v and 1 mL suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes with 1800 JI/mL for S. carpocapsae ALL and 600 JI/mL for Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4. The viability and infectivity of this nematode were evaluated on C. capitata larvae after 48 and 120 hours. It was found that all extracts reduced the viability and infectivity of both nematodes and they were incompatible after 120 hours of exposure. The nematode Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 was more sensitive than the S. carpocapsae ALL as it showed, in the first 48 hours, a reduction in the viability and infectivity of more than 80 and 75%, respectively, when exposed to all the extracts except the ginger.A mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae tem sido controlada, principalmente, pelo método químico, que é o responsável por impactos ambientais e na saúde pública e, muitas

  4. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    , Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera. About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9% parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles.The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958 comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958 comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900 comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921 comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964 stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904 stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai

  5. El Libro Temas Médicos. Tomo XV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Para presentar a ustedes el Libro Temas Médicos volumen XV, órgano oficial de la Academia, deseo recordar que esta publicación cumple hoy 25 años de existencia ininterrumpida, ya que los tomos I y II fueron publicados en 1970. De esta manera estamos celebrando realmente las “Bodas de Plata” de esta publicación.

    Quiero agradecer en la forma más sincera las frases muy amables que me dedica nuestro diligente Presidente de la Academia, doctor Gilberto Rueda Pérez, en el Prólogo.

    Una breve historia de Temas Médicos es la siguiente: En 1968 fui elegido Tesorero de la Junta Directiva que presidía el doctor Guillermo Uribe Cuella; el doctor Augusto Gast Galvis era el Vicepresidente y el doctor Héctor Pedraza, Secretario; traía la experiencia de la Sociedad Colombiana de Gastroenterología, en donde fui Editor de los Libros 11/ al XIII de Temas Escogidos de Gastroenterología, que hoy día ya se han publicado hasta el Tomo XXV: hablé directamente con el profesor Uribe Cualla, informándole sobre el interés para que la Academia publicara un libro anual o cada dos años y yo me encargaría de todo: Buscar la financiación y editarlo; acogió muy bien mi idea y así publiqué los Tomos 1 (de 600 páginas y el Tomo 1/ (de 870 páginas; en el Prólogo del Tomo 1 dice el doctor Uribe: “… así que este Volumen que lleva el título de Temas Médicos debe considerarse como la continuación de la Revista Médica que por mucho tiempo editó la Academia y que por razones de diversa índole hace ya un tiempo prolongado no se publica …”. Estos libros fueron publicados en 1970.

    En forma progresiva fui el Editor de los Temas siguientes, siendo también Tesorero en la Presidencia de Juan Pablo Llinás; en 1973 se publicó el Tomo VJJ conmemorativo a los cien años de fundada la Academia; posteriorme.nte con la Presidencia de Santiago Triana Cortés, Guillermo Rueda Montaña, César Augusto Pantoja, Hernando Groot, Pablo G

  6. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm

  7. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  8. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  9. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo creciente ha estimulado el desarrollo de los vegetales cuarta gama o mínimamente procesados. Actualmente, se promueve el uso de tecnologías aplicadas a estos productos que les brinden mayor duración y garanticen la reducción de pérdidas poscosecha. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de tres de estas tecnologías poscosecha sobre la intensidad de la respiración y la calidad sensorial general de las hortalizas mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., apio (Apium graveolens, zanahoria (Daucus carota y chayote (Sechium edule. Para el recubrimiento comestible se utilizó pectina de bajo metoxilo (2%, cera carnauba (1%, glicerol (1.5% y ácido ascórbico (0.05%. El tratamiento térmico se hizo a 60 °C durante 2 min, con adición de ácido ascórbico (0.25%, ácido cítrico (0.5% y cloruro de calcio (0.025%. El baño químico se realizó con una solución de ácido cítrico (0.5%, ácido ascórbico (0.05% y cloruro de calcio (0.05%. La tasa de producción de CO2 se midió por el método estático, monitoreando la composición de los gases del espacio de cabeza durante 24 h a 8 °C y humedad relativa de 90%. La evaluación sensorial de color, aroma, crujencia y sabor objetable fueron las características organolépticas tomadas en cuenta para evaluar la calidad general de cada vegetal, la cual fue realizada con un panel de siete jueces previamente entrenados. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, siendo los bloques cada uno de los vegetales y las variables de respuesta la tasa de respiración y la calidad sensorial general. Se encontró que el tratamiento térmico y el recubrimiento comestible permitieron que los vegetales conservaran la calidad sensorial. El análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control (P > 0.05. La celeridad de la respiración disminuyó en el apio, el br

  10. Stamen movements in hermaphroditic flowers: diversity and adaptive significance%两性花的雄蕊运动:多样性和适应意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任明迅

    2010-01-01

    雄蕊运动指雄蕊在自身能量支持下发生的主动运动,不包括雄蕊在访花者触碰下造成的被动位移.该文总结了雄蕊的应激运动、快速猛烈弹射、缓慢运动以及级联运动等4种主要类型,分析了这些运动类型的系统分布及繁殖适应意义等方面的研究进展.雄蕊的应激运动由访花者或其他外力诱发,可能起到促进散粉和实现繁殖保障的作用;雄蕊快速猛烈的弹射运动可将花粉猛然撒向空中或访花者身上,促进了花粉的风媒或虫媒散布;缓慢运动的雄蕊可能通过在不同花期改变雄蕊的空间位置和雌雄异位程度来调节繁殖策略,或主动将雄蕊花药移至特定部位(如柱头表面)实现自交;雄蕊逐一、依次发生的级联运动较为复杂,主要分布在刺莲花科、梅花草科、旱金莲科和芸香科中,目前还缺乏实验研究;但根据"花粉呈现理论"以及其他类型的雄蕊运动研究结果,雄蕊的级联运动可以将花粉分批呈现给不同的传粉者,通过不同传粉者的分别传粉来提高花粉的输出;而且可避免已散粉雄蕊对即将散粉雄蕊的干扰,同时可能也降低了雌雄功能干扰和(或)花内自交.在芸香(Ruta graveolens)中,级联运动之后的雄蕊还会在花末期再同时向花中央运动;这种多向、多次运动方式是目前发现的最复杂的雄蕊运动类型.雄蕊运动领域值得今后开展进一步实验研究的方向主要有