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Sample records for bursera graveolens triana

  1. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent...

  2. Chemical composition and anti-proliferative properties of Bursera graveolens essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Hill, Gabrielle M; Cuellar, Armando; Scull, Ramón; Setzer, William N

    2012-11-01

    Bursera graveolens is a wild tree of commercial importance native to the Neotropics, which has been widely used in folk medicine. In the present study, the chemical composition and anti-proliferative properties of the essential oil from B. graveolens were assayed. The chemical composition of the essential oil, determined by GC-MS, was complex and dominated by limonene (26.5%). Bursera oil inhibited the growth of MCF-7 breast tumor cells as well as amastigotes of L. amazonensis, with IC50 values of 48.9 +/- 4.3 and 36.7 +/- 4.7 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the oil was 103.9 +/- 7.2 microg/mL against peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. These results demonstrate that the essential oil from B. graveolens is a promissory antiproliferative product.

  3. Triterpenos aislados de corteza de Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae y su actividad biologica

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    Jorge Robles

    Full Text Available Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae, known in Colombia as "sasafrás", is useful for its medicinal properties and is rich in secondary metabolites. In our research, we carried out antimicrobial tests of several fractions and ethanolic extracts from aerial parts against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, that showed growth inhibitory activity when applied at 250 mg/mL for extracts and 150 mg/mL for fractions. We carried out an antiinflamatory assay also, that showed 71% of inhibition by extracts (81% of Indomethacin and 70% of inhibition by fractions (78% of Indomethacin. Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae yielded three tetracyclic triterpene acids that have oxygenation in C-3, carboxylic acid in C-21 and unsaturation in C-24 and have been identified as 3-oxotirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (b-elemonic acid, 3a-hydroxytirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (a-elemolic acid and 3a-hydroxytirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid. The isolated compounds were identified using spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY experiments and comparison with published data. This is the first report of the isolated compounds in Bursera graveolens and they have a very important chemotaxonomic significance within the Burseraceae family and related families from the order Rutales.

  4. A new and known cytotoxic aryltetralin-type lignans from stems of Bursera graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Shigeta, Kaori; Iida, Naoki; Inada, Akira; Murata, Jin; Farrera, Miguel Angel Perez; Iinuma, Munekazu; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tajima, Shogo; Oku, Naoto

    2005-02-01

    A new 4alpha-aryltetralin-type lignan called burseranin (1) and a known analogous lignan picropolygamain (2) were isolated along with known triterpenes, lupeol and epi-lupeol from the methanol extract of stems of Bursera graveolens, which showed a remarkable inhibitory activity against human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. The whole structure of 1 was established based on combined spectral studies and the absolute structure for 2 was first confirmed by CD spectral evidence. In addition, cytotoxic activities of the stem (methanol) extract and its components are evaluated in this paper.

  5. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of seed dispersal by animals on the regeneration of Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae) on Santa Fe Island, Galápagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Deborah A; Clark, David B

    1981-05-01

    The importance of animals as seed dispersers for Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae) was assessed by analysis of juvenileadult interplant distances on Santa Fe Island, Galápagos. The Santa Fe Bursera population consists of two non-overlapping classes old, large adults, and juveniles recruited since the exermination of feral goats in 1971. Juveniles occurred on a variety of substrate types, as well as under and away from woody vegetation. Most juveniles arise from seeds dispersed by animals; 86% of the juveniles were ≧3 m away from the crown of the nearest adult, and half were ≧7 m away. Although all juveniles occurred within 35 m of an adult Bursera, seed dispersal by animals is an important factor in the regeneration of B. graveolens on Santa Fe.

  7. Efectos citotoxicos in vitro de extractos y fracciones de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a lineas celulares tumorales humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Robles Camargo

    Full Text Available A los extractos, fracciones y subfracciones obtenidos de hojas, flores y corteza de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, se les evalúo su actividad citotóxica preliminar frente a las líneas celulares CSC-1595 y Colo 205, siguiendo el método de fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayo de citotoxicidad MTT. Los resultados obtenidos de esta prueba muestran a la subfracción en diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5 obtenida de la fracción acetato de etilo del extracto en éter de petróleo de hojas, como la que presentó las sustancias bioactivas con una marcada actividad citotóxica, con porcentajes de viabilidad del 3% y 15.3% a la concentración 30 µg/mL en las líneas tumorales humanas Colo 205 y CSC-1595 respectivamente.

  8. Cytotoxic constituents of Bursera permollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, D B; Mar, W; Chai, H; Castillo, J J; Farnsworth, N R; Soejarto, D D; Cordell, G A; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1995-02-01

    Four cytotoxic lignans were isolated from the stem bark of Bursera permollis (Burseraceae), namely, deoxypodophyllotoxin (1), beta-peltatin methyl ether (2), picro-beta-peltatin methyl ether (3), and dehydro-beta-peltatin methyl ether (4). Also isolated was the inactive lignan, nemerosin (5). Compounds 1 and 2 were potently cytotoxic when evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines.

  9. Verticillane derivatives from Bursera suntui and Bursera kerberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2005-11-01

    The stems of Bursera suntui afforded two new verticillane derivatives, (1S,3Z,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12,20-diol (1) and (1S,3Z,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12,20-diol 20-acetate (2), together with (1S,3E,7E,11R)-(+)-verticilla-3,7,12(18)-triene (3), (1R,3E,7E,11R,12Z)-(+)-verticilla-3,7,12-triene (4), (1R,7E,11Z)-(-)-verticilla-4(20),7,11-triene (5), and (1S,3E,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (6). Compounds 3 and 4 are new enantiomerically pure natural products whose racemic mixtures, derived from synthetic approaches toward the taxane skeleton, were obtained previously. The stems of Bursera kerberi afforded the new (1S,3E,7E,11S,12R)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (7) together with 3-5. This is the first time that verticillane derivatives have been isolated from the genus Bursera. Their structures and stereochemistry were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR data, including COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, while the absolute configuration was determined by comparison of the optical rotatory dispersion data with that of recently revised (1S,3E,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (6), obtained from Sciadopitys verticillata, and those of (1R,3E,7E,11R,12R)-(-)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (8) and (1R,3E,7E,11R,12S)-(-)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (9), isolated from the liverwort Jackiella javanica. The conformational preferences of 1-7 were studied by molecular mechanics modeling employing the Monte Carlo protocol.

  10. Triana-The First Deep Space Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, F. P.

    2001-12-01

    From its location in deep space, Triana will view the Earth in a different way - as an entire planet rather than a patchwork of regions of interest. It will uniquely acquire synoptic (all regions in the sunlit side seen simultaneously) sunrise to sunset, high time resolution data for most points on Earth using state of the art, highly accurate, in flight calibrated instruments. Triana will collect information on the climate system combining atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics, aerosols, radiation and surface remote sensing. For example, the continuous measurement of the infrared radiation emitted by Earth in the direction of L-1, will provide a stable, highly accurate thermal emission reference parameter, that is thought to be correlated to the temperature at the surface. These measurements will be tested as a surrogate for surface temperature measurements in monitoring "global warming" and climate variability. Ozone measurements will be used to study upper atmosphere circulation using ozone as a tracer. This is uniquely possible for Triana because it has the necessary synoptic view and temporal and spatial resolutions to allow the description and study of dynamic processes in the upper atmosphere. Surface ultraviolet exposure estimates will be enhanced by the continuous daylight view, surface remote sensing (including the oceans and vegetation canopies) will be made possible by Triana's location at L-1. Measurements of solar wind magnetic field and plasma (density, velocity, temperature) will provide data to study turbulence and solar corona heating and the slow solar wind. Solar wind events will be "seen" by Triana approximately 50 minutes before reaching the Earth's magnetosphere- providing enough time to issue warnings to protect sensitive systems (satellites, etc). Another contribution of Triana will be as a synergistic link between Earth observing satellites by correlating simultaneous multi-satellite observations, by comparing calibrations, and by helping to

  11. El puente de Triana y su tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Jalvo, José Miguel

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Before the XIX century, nobody dare to construct a bridge on Guadalquivir river, from Córdoba to Sanlucar. It was, really, a great venture. In Sevilla, one of the most flourishing towns by the time in Spain, this problem was solved with a boat's bridge. That means that the technicians did not trust in the river bed. But, thanks to the fact of Sevilla’s prosperity and of the new technologies and new materials, they decided, finally, to undertake the work. The industrial use of the iron concerning communications and the success of the first suspension bridges -with span alike or higher to those herewith stated-, encouraged the technicians to jump over the one hundred and fifty meters between Sevilla and Triana . The choice of the suspension bridge was taken because it was useful to introduce other options, like this of the masonry, with Silvestre Pérez not used from the XV century, and this of iron (arcs or beams. But, no one of them solved the bed problems.La labor de construir un puente sobre el Guadalquivir no debía de ser empresa fácil si consideramos que desde Córdoba a Sanlúcar nadie se atreviera a emprenderla hasta mediado el siglo XIX. Que en la Sevilla de la Casa de Contratación, una de las ciudades más prósperas de la época moderna, este salto estuviera resuelto con un puente de barcas, explica, sin necesidad de otra justificación, lo insensato que le debía parecer a los expertos de la zona el fiarse del lecho del río. Esa misma prosperidad hizo que, gracias a nuevas técnicas y nuevos materiales, se retomara la intención de emprender la obra. El uso industrial del hierro, su aplicación a las comunicaciones y el éxito de los primeros puentes suspendidos -con luces iguales y superiores a la que aquí se plantea-, anima a resolver el salto de ciento cincuenta metros que, hablando en términos de distancia, separan a Sevilla de Triana. La opción de un puente colgante prospera porque salva limpiamente los problemas

  12. Column generation based planning in smart grids using TRIANA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    Column generation is applied to the TRIANA smart grid framework's planner and combined with distributed dynamic programming. Simulations show that this improves the resulting planning compared to methods described in previous work (extra peak reduction of 7.3%; large fluctuation reduction) at the

  13. Bioactive constituents from roots of Bursera tonkinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutiviboonsuk, Aranya; Zhang, Hongjie; Tan, Ghee Teng; Ma, Cuiying; Van Hung, Nguyen; Manh Cuong, Nguyen; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Soejarto, D Doel; Fong, Harry H S

    2005-12-01

    Bioassay directed-fractionation led to isolation of 12 compounds from the roots of Bursera tonkinensis Guillaum (Burseraceae), including burselignan, bursephenylpropane, and burseneolignan. Of the 12 compounds, only 4'-demethyldesoxypodophyllotoxin exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against KB, Col2 and LNCaP cell lines.

  14. Germacrene D, A Common Sesquiterpene in the Genus Bursera (Burseraceae

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    Koji Noge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the leaves of five Bursera species, B. copallifera, B. exselsa, B. mirandae, B. ruticola and B. fagaroides var. purpusii were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Germacrene D was one of the predominant components (15.1–56.2% of all of these species. Germacrene D has also been found in other Bursera species and some species of Commiphora, the sister group of Bursera, suggesting that the production of germacrene D might be an ancient trait in the genus Bursera.

  15. Germacrene D, a common sesquiterpene in the genus Bursera (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noge, Koji; Becerra, Judith X

    2009-12-15

    The volatile components of the leaves of five Bursera species, B. copallifera, B. exselsa, B. mirandae, B. ruticola and B. fagaroides var. purpusii were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Germacrene D was one of the predominant components (15.1-56.2%) of all of these species. Germacrene D has also been found in other Bursera species and some species of Commiphora, the sister group of Bursera, suggesting that the production of germacrene D might be an ancient trait in the genus Bursera.

  16. Ariensin, a new lignan from Bursera ariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J D; Román, L U; Espiñeira, J; Joseph-Nathan, P

    1983-04-01

    From acetone extracts of the exudate of the tree Bursera ariensis, a new bilignan, named ariensin, has been isolated and characterized as (2R,3R)-bis-2.3-(3.4-methylenedioxybenzyl-)-1.4-butanediol diacetate. The structure has been determined from UV, IR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR data of the natural product, the dibromo derivative and the hydrolysis product. The optical rotation of the latter allowed the determination of the absolute configuration.

  17. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  18. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    College of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, ... anti-stress and cognition-improving effects of A. graveolens extract in a rat model. ..... was determined using Student's t-test, p < 0.05.

  19. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  20. The fruit of Bursera: structure, maturation and parthenocarpy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ordoñez, María F; Arizmendi, M Del Coro; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The deterioration of seasonally tropical dry forests will stop with the implementation of management plans for this ecosystem. To develop these plans, we require information regarding aspects such as germination and the presence of 'empty seeds' of representative species-like, for example, Bursera, a genus with a high number of endemic species of the Mesoamerican Hotspot-that would enable us to propagate its species. The main purpose of this study is to describe the phenological and structural characteristics of fruits of 12 Bursera species and provide useful data for future studies on germination and seed dispersal, and to acquire new and useful information to understand the phylogenetic relationships of the Burseraceae family. We described the phenology of fruit ripening in 12 species of Bursera. Fruits were collected from the study sites in three different stages of development. The histochemical and anatomical characteristics of fruits of all species were described with the use of inclusion techniques and scanning microscopy. There is a time gap between the development of the ovary and the development of the ovule in the 12 studied species. The exposed pseudoaril during the dispersion stage is an indicator of the seed's maturity and the fruit's viability. The Bursera fruit shows the same structural pattern as that of Commiphora, as well as many similarities with species of the Anacardiaceae family. All species develop parthenocarpic fruits that retain the structural characteristics of the immature fruits: soft tissues rich in nitrogen compounds and few chemical and physical defences. Insects were found mainly inside the parthenocarpic fruits in eight species of Bursera. The dispersion unit in Bursera consists of a seed, a lignified endocarp that protects the seed, and a pseudoaril that helps attract seed dispersers. The production of parthenocarpic fruits is energy saving; however, it is necessary to evaluate the potential benefits of this phenomenon.

  1. Oxygenated verticillene derivatives from Bursera suntui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, Hugo A; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    Medium polarity fractions of the hexane extracts of the stems of Bursera suntui afforded six previously known (1-6) and four hitherto unknown verticillane derivatives: (1S,3Z,7S,8S,11S,12S)-(+)-7,8-epoxyverticill-3-en-12,20-diol (7), (1S,3Z,7S,8S,11S,12S)-(+)-7,8-epoxyverticill-3-en-12,20-diol 20-acetate (8), (1S,3Z,7S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,8(19)-dien-7,12,20-triol (9), and (1S,3Z,7S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,8(19)-dien-7,12,20-triol 20-acetate (10). Acetylation of 9 and 10 yielded (1S,3Z,7S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,8(19)-dien-7,12,20-triol 7,20-diacetate (11), while hydrolysis of 8 gave 7. The structures and stereochemistry of 7-11 were established by spectroscopic analyses, particularly by 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS. The conformational preferences of 7-11 were studied by molecular mechanics modelling employing the Monte Carlo protocol followed by B3LYP/DGDZVP DFT calculation, thus supporting the observed (1)H NMR NOESY cross peaks.

  2. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  3. Absolute configuration of cembrane diterpenoids from Bursera multijuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; García-Gutiérrez, Hugo A; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Torres-Blanco, Yunuen I; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    The stems of Bursera multijuga afforded (-)-(1S,3E,7R,8R,11E)-7,8-epoxycembra-3,11-dien-1-ol (1) and its acetate 2, together with cembrene A (3), nephthenol (4), and cembrenol (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and X-ray diffraction. The conformational preference of flexible 1 was studied by molecular modeling at the DFT B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory. Good agreement between calculated and experimental vibrational circular dichroism curves established the absolute configuration of 1. This is the first time that cembrane derivatives have been isolated from the genus Bursera.

  4. Sperm aggregation by water extracts from two Bursera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, H; Garcia-Suarez, M D

    2001-01-01

    Some plants have more than the common utility value, as is the case of some members of the Bursera species such as the Mexican copal, a plant used for worship. Water extracts of several plants have vaginal contraceptive properties. The authors evaluated the sperm agglutinating activity of two Bursera species on human and boar sperm. Extracts from stems and leaves were obtained. Capacitated sperm samples were used in all cases. There were different agglutinating capacities, which were not observed in the vehicle-only samples. The most frequent sperm agglutination response was that involving the heads. Agglutinating activity was higher from stem- than leaf-derived extracts. The results indicate that proteins present in the extracts are responsible for the aggregation of sperm heads.

  5. Three new diarylbutane lignans from the resin of Bursera fagaroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Cruz-Galicia, Elizabeth; García-Ríos, Eréndira; Madrigal, Domingo; Gaviño, Rubén; Cárdenas, Jorge; Salmón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Three new diarylbutane lignans, named 9-acetyl-9'-pentadecanoil-dihydroclusin (1), 2,3-demethoxy-secoisolintetralin monoacetate (4) and dihydroclusin monoacetate (5), have been isolated from the resin of Bursera fagaroides, together with two known ones, 2,3-demethoxy-secoisolintetralin diacetate (2) and dihydroclusin diacetate (3). The complete structure assignments were obtained by means of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra.

  6. Nuclear ribosomal DNA phylogeny and its implications for evolutionary trends in Mexican Bursera (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, J X; Venable, D L

    1999-07-01

    The genus Bursera (Burseraceae) is one of the most diversified and abundant groups of plants of the tropical dry forests of Mexico. In order to provide a basis for better understanding of its evolutionary biology, we reconstructed a phylogeny of 57 species and varieties using the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of 18S-26S and the 5.8S coding region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. We used four species of the allied genera Commiphora and Boswellia and one species of Spondias (Anacardiaceae) as outgroups. Our results support the views that Bursera is monophyletic and more closely related to Commiphora than to Boswellia. The division of Bursera into sections Bullockia and Bursera is also strongly supported by our phylogeny. Several other subclades also had high bootstrap values, especially within section Bursera. We use the phylogeny as a basis for discussing evolutionary tendencies in bark, leaves, breeding systems, and fruits.

  7. The antimycobacterial constituents of dill (Anethum graveolens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Michael; Gibbons, Simon

    2005-11-01

    As part of a project to characterize selected members of the Kuwaiti flora for their phytochemistry and antimycobacterial activity, a new furanocoumarin, 5-[4''-hydroxy-3''-methyl-2''-butenyloxy]-6,7-furocoumarin (3), was isolated from the whole herb of Anethum graveolens. The known compounds oxypeucedanin (1), oxypeucedanin hydrate (2) and falcarindiol (4) were also isolated from this plant. The structure of each compound was determined by interpretation of NMR and mass spectrometric data. The three known compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against a panel of rapidly growing mycobacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range 2-128 microg/mL.

  8. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  9. Evolution of Mexican Bursera (Burseraceae) inferred from ITS, ETS, and 5S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X

    2003-02-01

    I reconstructed a phylogeny of 66 species and varieties of Bursera and 9 outgroup species using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), the 5S non-transcribed region (5S-NTS), and the external transcribed region (ETS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. This study extends a previously proposed parsimony-based phylogenetic study that used the ITS sequences of 57 Bursera species and five outgroups. Parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were used to infer the phylogeny in this new study. Analyses of the combined data sets largely confirmed the phylogenetic relationships proposed by the previous molecular study but generated a considerably more robust topology. The new phylogenies corroborate the monophyly of the genus, and its division into the two monophyletic subgenera or sections, Bursera and Bullockia. The current analyses also identify four main groups of species in section Bursera, and two in section Bullockia, confirming some of the previously proposed groups based on fruit, flower, and leaf morphology. One previously problematic species B. sarcopoda, which has sometimes been placed in Commiphora, is shown to belong in Bursera. Another controversial species, Commiphora leptophloeos, which was thought to belong to Bursera, falls within Commiphora.

  10. Apium graveolens extract influences mood and cognition in healthy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruamkaew, Phetcharat; Sukketsiri, Wanida; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Kaewnam, Wijittra; Tanasawet, Supita; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Hutamekalin, Pilaiwanwadee; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2017-07-01

    Apium graveolens is a food flavoring which possesses various health promoting effects. This study investigates the effect of a sub-acute administration of A. graveolens on cognition and anti-depression behaviors via antioxidant and related neurotransmitter systems in mice brains. Cognition and depression was assessed by various models of behavior. The antioxidant system of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), % inhibition of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), and lipid peroxidation were studied. In addition, neurochemical parameters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase-type A (MAO-A) were also evaluated. Nine groups of male mice were fed for 30 days with different substances-a control, vehicle, A. graveolens extract (65-500 mg/kg), and reference drugs (donepezil and fluoxetine). The results indicated that the effect of the intake of A. graveolens extract (125-500 mg/kg) was similar to the reference drugs, as it improved both spatial and non-spatial memories. Moreover, there was a decrease in immobility time in both the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In addition, the A. graveolens extract reduced lipid peroxidation of the brain and increased GPx activity and the % inhibition of O 2 - , whereas the activities of AChE and MAO-A were decreased. Thus, our data have shown that the consumption of A. graveolens extract improved cognitive function and anti-depression activities as well as modulating the endogenous antioxidant and neurotransmitter systems in the brain, resulting in increased neuronal density. This result indicated an important role for A. graveolens extract in preventing age-associated decline in cognitive function associated with depression.

  11. Investigation of essential oil extracts from four native Jamaican species of Bursera for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junor, G O; Porter, R B R; Facey, P C; Yee, T H

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial infection with organisms resistant to antibiotics have increased during the last few decades worldwide. Because of this increase, the authors decided to subject the essential oils from the stem, leaves and fruits of the four native Jamaica species of Bursera to microbial studies. Steam distillate extracts from different parts of four native Jamaican spp of Bursera simaruba (Red Birch), Bursera lunanii (Black Birch), Bursera hollickii and Bursera aromatica (Siboney) were tested for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogens: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylocococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A (BHSA) using a disk diffusion assay. The investigation revealed that extracts from two of the four plants tested were active against all the pathogens. These were extracts from the fruits and stems of B. simaruba and those from the fruit of B. lunanii. This study gives credence to the ongoing search for locally available plants whose extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity. This may be useful in the development of naturally derived pharmaceuticals.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection.

  13. Molecular genetic evidence for interspecific hybridization among endemic Hispaniolan Bursera (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Andrea; Simpson, Beryl B

    2004-06-01

    Historically, genetic introgression among species as well as hybrid origins for species of the diploid tree genus Bursera (Burseraceae) have been proposed based on the supposition that individuals morphologically intermediate between sympatric "parent" species must be derived from hybridization. This study reports the first molecular genetic evidence for both unidirectional and reciprocal interspecific hybridization within Bursera. Phylogenies of hybrids and other species in B. subgenus Bursera are reconstructed based on nuclear and chloroplast sequence data. Compelling evidence supports the hybrid origin of three endemic Hispaniolan species: B. brunea (B. nashii × B. simaruba), B. gracilipes (B. spinescens × B. simaruba), and B. ovata (B. simaruba × B. spinescens). Cloning studies of nuclear markers from B. ovata suggests that this species is an introgressed or later backcross generation hybrid and thus reproduces sexually.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BURSERA MORELENSIS RAMÍREZ ESSENTIAL OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    M., Canales-Martinez; C.R., Rivera-Yañez; J., Salas-Oropeza; H.R., Lopez; M., Jimenez-Estrada; R., Rosas-Lopez; D.A., Duran; C., Flores; L.B., Hernandez; M.A., Rodriguez-Monroy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bursera morelensis, known as “Aceitillo”, is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. Results: GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae, V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. Conclusions: This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species. PMID:28480418

  15. Cytotoxic agents from Bursera klugii (Burseraceae) I: isolation of sapelins A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, S D; Wiedhopf, R M; Cole, J R

    1977-06-01

    A crude chloroform-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Bursera klugii showed activity against two test systems, the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia (3PS) and the human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx (9KB). The PS activity was due to two constituents, sapelins A and B.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Bursera morelensis ramírez essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bursera morelensis, known as “Aceitillo”, is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil ...

  17. Linalool production from the leaves of Bursera aloexylon and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Carmen Lucia; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ribeiro, Bruna Baesa; de Magalhães, Pedro Melillo

    2007-06-01

    The oil of the leaves of Bursera aloexylon was found to contain a high linalool level (96.7 %). The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the oil was effective against Rhodococcus equi (0.60 mg/ml) and Staphylococcus epidermides (0.15 mg/ml).

  18. Acremonium camptosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper draws on morphological and molecular analyses to determinate the systematic position of an interesting endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba, a tree of semideciduous dry tropical forest at El Eden Ecological Reserve. The cultured strain develops the characteristic...

  19. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  20. Muscodor yucatanensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the secondary forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or hukúp (Bursera simaruba) by indigen...

  1. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds from Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for the allelochemical effects against phytopathogenic fungi and fungo...

  2. Parthenocarpy and seed predation by insects in Bursera morelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ordoñez, María F; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Del Coro Arizmendi, Ma

    2008-11-01

    While parthenocarpy (meaning the production of fruits without seeds) may limit fecundity in many plants, its function is not clear; it has been proposed, however, that it might be associated with a strategy to avoid seed predation. Bursera morelensis is a dioecious endemic plant that produces fruits with and without seeds, and its fruits are parasitized by insects. Its reproductive system is not well described and no published evidence of parthenocarpy exists for the species. The purpose of this work was to describe the breeding system of B. morelensis and its relationship to seed predation by insects. The breeding system was described using pollination experiments, verifying the presence of parthenocarpic fruits and apomictic seeds. Reproductive structures from flower buds to mature fruits were quantified. For fruits, an anatomical and histological characterization was made. The number of fruits in which seeds had been predated by insects was correlated with parthenocarpic fruit production. The major abortion of reproductive structures occurred during fruit set. The results discard the formation of apomictic seeds. Flowers that were not pollinated formed parthenocarpic fruits and these could be distinguished during early developmental stages. In parthenocarpic fruits in the first stages of development, an unusual spread of internal walls of the ovary occurred invading the locule and preventing ovule development. Unlike fruits with seeds, parthenocarpic fruits do not have calcium oxalate crystals in the ovary wall. Both fruit types can be separated in the field at fruit maturity by the presence of dehiscence, complete in seeded and partial in parthenocarpic fruits. Trees with more parthenocarpic fruits had more parasitized fruits. This is the first time the anatomy of parthenocarpic fruits in Burseraceae has been described. Parthenocarpic fruits in B. morelensis might function as a deceit strategy for insect seed predators as they are unprotected both chemically

  3. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba-Palomares, M F María C; Villareal, Dra María L; Acevedo Quiroz, M C Macdiel E; Marquina Bahena, M C Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra Laura P; Rodríguez-López, Dra Verónica

    2015-10-01

    The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera.

  4. Estudios morfoanatómicos en Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae. I. Etapas tempranas del desarrollo del fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gamboa-Gaitán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La flor nacional de Colombia, Cattleya trianae, es un emblemático ejemplo de las orquídeas ornamentales de importancia económica. Si bien algunos estudios se han realizado en aspectos como reproducción y ecología, no hay estudios morfoanatómicos registrados para esta especie, por lo que con el presente manuscrito se pretende iniciar una serie de publicaciones que aporten información en este campo acerca de una especie particularmente atractiva por ser un símbolo nacional. Este estudio se centra en la anatomía del ovario y en los cambios que experimenta en los siguientes días a la polinización. El ovario muestra dos cavidades longitudinales, una para atraer al polinizador y otra para contener los óvulos que serán semillas tras la fertilización. Varios cambios anatómicos como la acumulación de un material de depósito que tapona el acceso a los óvulos y la formación de haces vasculares, son notables en los primeros días luego de la polinización en esta especie. La importancia de dichos cambios así como el uso de la anatomía para el estudio de la historia natural de las especies se discute aquí, ya que hay posiciones contradictorias al respecto.

  5. Antigiardial Activity of Podophyllotoxin-Type Lignans from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Filiberto; Puebla-Pérez, Ana María; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Hernández-Hernández, José Manuel; Pérez-Rangel, Armando; Alvarez, Laura Patricia; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Castillo-Romero, Araceli

    2017-05-13

    Giardiasis, a diarrheal disease, is highly prevalent in developing countries. Several drugs are available for the treatment of this parasitosis; unfortunately, all of them have variable efficacies and adverse effects. Bursera fagaroides has been known for its anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal properties in Mexican traditional medicine. We investigated the in vitro anti-giardial activities of four podophyllotoxin-type lignans from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides , namely, 5'-desmethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (5-DES), acetylpodophyllotoxin (APOD), burseranin (BUR), and podophyllotoxin (POD). All lignans affected the Giardia adhesion and electron microscopy images revealed morphological alterations in the caudal region, ventral disk, membrane, and flagella, to different extents. Only 5-DES, APOD, and POD caused growth inhibition. Using the Caco-2 human cell line as a model of the intestinal epithelium, we demonstrated that APOD displayed direct antigiardial killing activity and low toxicity on Caco-2 cells. This finding makes it an attractive potential starting point for new antigiardial drugs.

  6. Cytotoxic agents from Bursera morelensis (Burseraceae): deoxypodophyllotoxin and a new lignan, 5'-desmethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, S D; Wiedhopf, R M; Cole, J R

    1977-06-01

    The isolation and identification of deoxypodophyllotoxin and a new lignan, 5'-desmethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin, from the dried exudate of Bursera morelensis (Burseraceae) are reported. Deoxypodophyllotoxin showed high activity in the KB and PS test systems; the new lignan, although highly active against the KB test system, demonstrated only marginal activity against the PS test system. A structure is suggested for the new lignan, which was named morelensin.

  7. Phenacetin isolated from Bursera grandifolia, a herbal remedy with antipyretic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Francisco; Manríquez, Ricardo; Maya, Leticia; Barrientos, Lucia; López-Dellamary, Fernando

    2009-11-01

    Bursera grandifolia and other related species have been used in traditional herbal medicine in Mexico and other Latin American countries for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. From the chloroform extract of leaves of B. grandifolia, a substance was isolated and identified as phenacetin, a well known compound with widely tested analgesic and antipyretic properties. The structural identity of the compound was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence and by comparison with an authentic sample.

  8. Some Properties of Astronium graveolens Wood Along the Stem

    OpenAIRE

    Longui, Eduardo Luiz; Gondo, Cássia Christine Schmidt; Luiz de Lima, Israel; Freitas, Miguel Luiz Menezes; Florsheim, Sandra Monteiro Borges; Zanatto, Antonio Carlos Scatena; Garcia, José Nivaldo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the axial variation of specific gravity, shear parallel to the grain and anatomical features of Astronium graveolens wood and related these properties to the anatomy along the stem. We felled five 20-year-old trees and cut discs from four different stem heights, including stem base, 1 meter, 2 meters and 3 meters, for a total of 20 discs, and studied wood samples near the bark and at the base of trunk. Axial variations found appear to provide a balance between mechani...

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and fractions of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, B; Díaz, E; García, M V; Feliciano, A San; López-Perez, J L; Israel, A

    2004-05-01

    Seeking for new medicinal compounds in plants used in traditional medicine, which grow in Venezuela, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf hexane extract (HE) and several fractions obtained from sp. Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Indio desnudo) using carrageenan-induced paw edema inflammation. Oral administration of leaf HE as well I (91-100) fraction, and compounds VIII 25-26 and VIII 29, inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema with different capacity and time course, over a period of 7h. The anti-inflammatory effect was comparable to that of the reference drug phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg, p.o.). Included in fraction I (91-100), Vitamin E was identified as one of its components and compound VIII 29 was identified as a methyl-beta-peltatin A. The comparison of the anti-inflammatory activity of VIII 29 fraction with the corresponding standard of methyl-beta-peltatin A, suggest that this compound could be one of the active principles involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. leave. Our results contribute to the pharmacological support of the use of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. as anti-inflammatory in the ethnomedicinal practice. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests: the diversification of Bursera (Burseraceae, Sapindales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Nova, J Arturo; Medina, Rosalinda; Montero, Juan Carlos; Weeks, Andrea; Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2012-01-01

    • Mesoamerican arid biomes epitomize neotropical rich and complex biodiversity. To document some of the macroevolutionary processes underlying the vast species richness of Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), and to evaluate specific predictions about the age, geographical structure and niche conservatism of SDTF-centered woody plant lineages, the diversification of Bursera is reconstructed. • Using a nearly complete Bursera species-level phylogeny from nuclear and plastid genomic markers, we estimate divergence times, test for phylogenetic and temporal diversification heterogeneity, test for geographical structure, and reconstruct habitat shifts. • Bursera became differentiated in the earliest Eocene, but diversified during independent early Miocene consecutive radiations that took place in SDTFs. The late Miocene average age of Bursera species, the presence of phylogenetic geographical structure, and its strong conservatism to SDTFs conform to expectations derived from South American SDTF-centered lineages. • The diversification of Bursera suggests that Mesoamerican SDTF richness derives from high speciation from the Miocene onwards uncoupled from habitat shifts, during a period of enhanced aridity resulting mainly from global cooling and regional rain shadows. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Orbit Determination (OD) Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission and for the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    The Triana spacecraft was designed to be launched by the Space Shuttle. The nominal Triana mission orbit will be a Sun-Earth L1 libration point orbit. Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination (OD) error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana mission from the first correction maneuver through approximately launch plus 6 months. Results are also presented for the science data collection phase of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission concept with momentum unloading thrust perturbations during the tracking arc. The Triana analysis includes extensive analysis of an initial short arc orbit determination solution and results using both Deep Space Network (DSN) and commercial Universal Space Network (USN) statistics. These results could be utilized in support of future Sun-Earth libration point missions.

  12. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the volatile fractions from the bark of eight Mexican Bursera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Beatriz; Guevara-Fefer, Patricia; Herrera, Josefina; Contreras, José Luis; Velasco, Luis; Pérez, Francisco Javier; Esquivel, Baldomero

    2005-09-01

    The volatile fractions from the bark of eight species of Mexican Bursera were obtained using steam distillation and were subjected to tandem GC-MS analysis for identification of the main constituents. The most abundant components of steam volatiles were monoterpenoids from which alpha-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-thujene, linalool and limonene were most frequently isolated. A series of sesquiterpenes and long-chain hydrocarbons were isolated and identified from the barks of some of the studied species . Some volatiles were assayed for anti-inflammatory activity using the TPA-induced ear edema bioassay in mice. The volatile fraction from Bursera lancifolia was about half as active as indomethacin.

  13. Some Properties of Astronium graveolens Wood Along the Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated the axial variation of specific gravity, shear parallel to the grain and anatomical features of Astronium graveolens wood and related these properties to the anatomy along the stem. We felled five 20-year-old trees and cut discs from four different stem heights, including stem base, 1 meter, 2 meters and 3 meters, for a total of 20 discs, and studied wood samples near the bark and at the base of trunk. Axial variations found appear to provide a balance between mechanical strength of the wood at stem base by the higher density and higher shear by the increase in ray frequency that contributes to locking the vertical cells and growth rings, thus preventing the stem from easily breaking when bent. For hydraulic conductivity, vessels with smaller diameter and frequency at the stem base help prevent the occurrence of embolisms that would reduce water flow along the main stem.

  14. Fototoxicidad tras exposición a ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zayas-Pinedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La fototoxicidad es un tipo de reacción cutánea inflamatoria que se produce como consecuencia de la exposición a una sustancia química en combinación con la exposición a radiaciones lumínicas. Ruta graveolens, comúnmente llamada ruda, ha sido descrita en numerosas publicaciones como sustancia causante de reacciones de fototoxicidad. Presentamos el caso de una pareja que sufrió una reacción de fototoxicidad que requirió ingreso en la Unidad de Quemados como consecuencia del contacto con una infusión de ruda y posterior exposición solar. Consideramos que todo profesional que se ocupa del tratamiento de quemaduras debe incluir las fitofotodermatitis dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de las pérdidas cutáneas de espesor parcial.

  15. Two new lignans from the resin of Bursera microphylla A. gray and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Zadra, Claudia; Cossignani, Lina; Robles Zepeda, Ramon Enrique; Rascón-Valenzuela, Luisa Alondra; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos Arturo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2017-09-18

    Two new lignans, namely 7-O-podophyllotoxinyl butyrate (1) and dihydroclusin 9-acetate (2), were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction of a methanol extract of Bursera microphylla (Burseraceae), along with eight known lignans (3-10). Their structures were determined by means of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Lignans 2-6 were tested for their anti-proliferative activity on the cancer cell lines LS180, A549 and HeLa, and on a non-cancer cell line, ARPE-19. Only compounds 4 and 5 showed an interesting activity on HeLa cells.

  16. (R)-(-)-linalyl acetate and (S)-(-)-germacrene D from the leaves of Mexican Bursera linanoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noge, Koji; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Becerra, Judith X

    2010-03-01

    The leaf volatile components of Mexican Bursera linanoe were identified as (R)-(-)-linalyl acetate (57.6%; 95.5% ee) and (S)-(-)-germacrene D (39.3%; 100% ee) by solvent extraction and GC-MS and chiral GC analyses. Linalool was previously reported as the major component from the leaves of B. linanoe. However, we believe that this is a decomposition product of linalyl acetate during steam distillation, a common method for extraction of essential oils. The chemically unique blend in the leaves of B. linanoe may act as a chemical barrier against its potential herbivores, Blepharida beetles that have a tendency for attacking chemically similar plants as hosts.

  17. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from fruits of Bursera tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, José; Aparicio, Rosa; Velasco, Judith; Rojas, Luis B; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Lue-Merú, Marcó

    2010-02-01

    The hydrodistilled oil from the fruits of Bursera tomentosa, obtained in 0.2% yield, was analyzed by GC-MS. Nine components were identified, which made up 99.3% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were cis-ocimene (47.6%), n-nonane (28.2%) and germacrene-D (11.1%). The oil showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Salmonella typhi (CDC 57), with MIC values of 80 microg/mL, 120 microg/mL and 100 microg/mL, respectively.

  18. Hardening of the national flower of Colombia, the threatened Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae, from in vitro culture with previous invigoration phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Franco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cattleya trianae is an endemic species from the tropical rainforest in the Colombian Andes. Its survival is currently threatened due to habitat loss and commercial overexploitation. This study evaluates ten substrates, some organic (pine bark, coconut fiber and wood shavings, some inert icopor (polystyrene foam, vegetable coal and their combinations, and the effects these have on morphometric and phenotypic traits in the hardening phase of 250 plants of C. trianae cultivated in vitro. Recorded data include percent survival, length of longest leaf, biomass (wet weight and number of roots and leaves at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After the hardening phase, the plants were taken to a greenhouse and later to the natural environment. Coconut fiber alone or mixed in equal parts with pine bark and coal was the most efficient substrate when percent survival (80±SE=0.3742, biomass, and leaf length were evaluated. Hardened plants displayed qualitative characteristics such as vigor, hardness and waxy texture, strength of green coloration in the leaves, and velamen formation. Under greenhouse conditions, plants grew better with filtered light, relative humidity bordering on 80 %, permanent aeration, misting with water, and an average temperature of 25±2 °C. Invigorated plants were firmly anchored on their host trees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 681-691. Epub 2007 June, 29.Cattleya trianae es una especie endémica de los bosques tropicales de los Andes colombianos. Actualmente se encuentra amenazada por la disminución de su hábitat natural y la sobreexplotación con fines comerciales. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de diez tratamientos con sustratos biológicos (corteza de pino, fibra de coco y viruta e inertes (esferitas de "icopor" y carbón vegetal en diferentes combinaciones, sobre aspectos morfométricos y fenotípicos en la etapa de endurecimiento de 250 vitroplantas de C. trianae. Se registró porcentaje de supervivencia

  19. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) growing in the dry, semideciduous tropical forest of the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile org...

  20. Infraspecific morphological variations in Acinos graveolens (M.B. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Talebi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of ecological factors on phenotype plasticity in the natural populations of Acinos graveolens in Iran. In total, twenty six quantitative and qualitative morphological traits were examined in the sixteen populations at two sections: inter- and intrapopulation. In the interpopulation section, averages amounts of morphological characteristics of populations were examined, while in the intrapopulation, morphological features of the seventy six plant samples of the populations were investigated. The obtained data showed that these characteristics differed between and within the populations and the analysis of variance test and one-sample test have shown significant differences of all quantitative characteristics. The biplot Principal Correspondence Analysis (PCA-biplot of traits showed some populations had indicator morphological characteristic(s which were useful in detecting of these populations. Significant correlations were found between some quantitative characteristics with ecological factors. The studied populations were separated from each other in the PCA and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO plots and the Unweighted Paired Group using Average method (UPGMA tree. The PCA plot of morphological features showed that some characteristics separated from others and the rest ones were together and had overlapping. The individuals of the studied populations were separated from others in the PCA and PCO plots and the UPGMA tree of the morphological characteristics. Individuals of some populations arranged separately and placed far from others, but this condition was reverse in the rest populations and most of individuals placed near each other. The obtained data confirmed high variations within some populations.

  1. Efecto de lignificación de estacas sobre enraizamiento de Bursera morelensis Ram. y Bursera galeottiana Engl. en la Universidad de la Cañada en Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Loeza-Corte; Ernesto Díaz-López; Jesús Manuel Campos-Pastelín; Jesús Israel Orlando-Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    Las Burseras son características de la selva baja caducifolia, se distribuyen desde el sur de Estados Unidos hasta Perú y son utilizadas para la extracción de resinas como el copal y talla de madera como los alebrijes. Por ello, se estableció un experimento de bloques completos al azar con arreglo factorial; los elementos de estudio fueron Bursera morelensis Ram. y Bursera galeottiana Engl. El grado alto y bajo de lignificación de estacas fue utilizado para evaluar el porcentaje de enraizami...

  2. Diterpenoids and Triterpenoids from the Resin of Bursera microphylla and Their Cytotoxic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Federica; Curini, Massimo; Di Sano, Chiara; Zadra, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Giulia; Rascón-Valenzuela, Luisa Alondra; Robles Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-05-22

    A chemical study of the nonpolar fraction of a methanol-soluble extract of Bursera microphylla resin yielded a variety of di- and triterpenoids. In total, 15 compounds were isolated, of which three are new, namely, malabaricatrienone (1), malabaricatrienol (2), and microphyllanin (3). The antiproliferative activity of the major compounds was evaluated in different murine cancer cell lines (M12.C3.F6 and RAW264.7) and human cancer cells (A549, HeLa, and PC-3). The new compounds (1-3) did not show significant antiproliferative activity. The known compounds ariensin (4), burseran (5), and dihydroclusin diacetate (6) were effective against the RAW264.7 cell line, with IC50 values in the micromolar range.

  3. Absolute configuration of podophyllotoxin related lignans from Bursera fagaroides using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Jiménez, René; Torres-Valencia, J Martín; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Manríquez-Torres, J Jesús; Gómez-Hurtado, Mario A; Valdez-Calderón, Alejandro; Motilva, Virginia; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Talero, Elena; Avila, Javier; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The ethanol extract from the dried exudate of Bursera fagaroides (Burseraceae) showed significant cytotoxic activity in the HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) test system. The extract provided four podophyllotoxin related lignans, identified as (7'R,8R,8'R)-(-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (3), (7'R,8R,8'R)-(-)-morelensin (4), (8R,8'R)-(-)-yatein (5), and (8R,8'R)-(-)-5'-desmethoxyyatein (6), whose spectroscopic and chiroptical properties were compared with those of (7R,7'R,8R,8'R)-(-)-podophyllotoxin (1) and its acetyl derivative (2). Their absolute configurations were assigned by comparison of the vibrational circular dichroism spectra of 1 and 3 with those obtained by density functional theory calculations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Characteristics and mortality following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in Spain. Results from the TRIANA 1 (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cequier, Angel; Bueno, Héctor; Augé, Josep M; Bardají, Alfredo; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Heras, Magda

    2005-04-01

    Although more elderly patients will experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in coming years, the best reperfusion strategy in these patients remains unknown. The Spanish TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) registry was set up to determine the feasibility of performing a randomized study of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus thrombolysis in AMI patients aged > or =75 years. The TRIANA 1 subregistry included consecutive patients of all ages with ST-segment-elevation AMI ( or =75 years (mortality, 24%), 58 (55.7%) fulfilled criteria for inclusion in a randomized study. 1) The TRIANA 1 subregistry probably reflects the reality of PCI for AMI in Spain. 2) Mortality at 1 month was associated with classic predictive factors. 3) Some 50% of patients > or =75 years old who underwent PCI could be included in a randomized study. These findings indicate that randomized study to determine the best reperfusion strategy in elderly AMI patients is feasible.

  5. [Agglutinating and immobilizing activity of an ethanol extract of Bursera fagaroides on human and other mammalian spermatozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huacuja, R L; Delgado, N M; Carranco, L A; Reyes, L R; Rosado, G A

    1990-01-01

    Human spermatozoa and those obtained from mouse epididymis incubated in ethanolic from mouse epididymis incubated in ethanolic extracts of the cortex of Bursera fagaroides became agglutinated and immobilized in 100% with 30% of viability decrease. This double effect occurred in 50% of pig'ssperm and 50% of rabbit sperm when the concentration was increased tenfold. The pattern of progressive motility was affected 80% of rat's spermatocytes without agglutination. The values remained the same when the extracts were partially purified with salts of Zn++ and Ba++ or by filtration in a sephadex g-10 column. Analysis with thin layer chromatography of both purified extracts produced 3 compounds in comparison with the ethanolic unpurified extract. The extract of the plant Bursera fagaroides contains 3 compounds, which apparently are glycosides with a potent activity upon agglutination -immobilization and a low effect upon spermatocytes viability, which might be used as contraceptives .

  6. Anti-fertility effects of different fractions of Anethum graveolens l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous studies showed the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on female infertility. In the present study we investigated whether different fractions of this herb extract can cause infertility in rats. Female rats were divided into the control groups, the groups receiving either a low (0.5 ...

  7. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts from Ruta graveolens and Annona muricata

    OpenAIRE

    Portilla, Y.; Carro Travieso, Mª Dolores; Milian, G.; Camacho, C.; Valdivia, A.; Díaz, A.; Saro, C.; Mateos, I.; Ranilla, María José

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of microorganisms to commercial drugs is increasing worldwide, and therefore the search for new antimicrobial agents is a key issue. The aim of this study was to identify the potential of plant extracts from Ruta graveolens and Annona muricata as candidates for the development of new antimicrobials.

  8. Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide

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    Justyna Kozlowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production.

  9. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  10. Cytotoxic podophyllotoxin type-lignans from the steam bark of Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sepúlveda, Andrés M; Mendieta-Serrano, Mario; Mojica, Mayra Y Antúnez; Salas-Vidal, Enrique; Marquina, Silvia; Villarreal, María Luisa; Puebla, Ana María; Delgado, Jorge I; Alvarez, Laura

    2012-08-09

    The hydroalcoholic extract of the steam bark of B. fagaroides var. fagaroides displayed potent cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines, namely KB (ED50 = 9.6 × 10(-2) μg/mL), PC-3 (ED50 = 2.5 × 10(-1) μg/mL), MCF-7 (ED50 = 6.6 μg/mL), and HF-6 (ED50 = 7.1 × 10(-3) μg/mL). This extract also showed anti-tumour activity when assayed on mice inoculated with L5178Y lymphoma cells. Bioactivity-directed isolation of this extract, afforded seven podophyllotoxin-type lignans identified as podophyllotoxin (1), β-peltatin-A-methylether (2), 5'-desmethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (3), desmethoxy-yatein (4), desoxypodophyllotoxin (5), burseranin (6), and acetyl podophyllotoxin (7) by 1D and 2DNMR and FAB-MS analyses, and comparison with reported values. All the isolated compounds showed potent cytotoxic activity in the cell lines tested, especially compound 3, which exhibited greater activity than camptothecin and podophyllotoxin against PC-3 (ED50= 1.0 × 10(-5) μg/mL), and KB (ED50 = 1.0 × 10(-5) μg/mL). This is the first report of the isolation of podophyllotoxin and its acetate in a Bursera species.

  11. Phenolic compounds from Bursera simaruba Sarg. bark: phytochemical investigation and quantitative analysis by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Bursera simaruba bark led to the isolation of 11 compounds, including lignans yatein, beta-peltatin-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, hinokinin and bursehernin, and three natural compounds namely 3,4-dimetoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-(6-sulpho)-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimetoxyphenyl 1-O-beta-D-(6-sulpho)-glucopyranoside and 3,4-diidroxyphenylethanol-1-O-beta-D-(6-sulpho)-glucopyranoside. Their structures were established by NMR and ESI/MS experiments. Additionally, an LC-ESI/MS qualitative study on the phenolic compounds and an LC-ESI/MS/MS quantitative study on the lignans found in the methanolic extract of B. simaruba bark were performed to give value to the plant as source of these biological active compounds. Quantitative analyses results confirmed that compounds yatein, beta-peltatin-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, hinokinin and bursehernin are major compounds in the bark and, in particular, beta-peltatin-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside appears to be the most abundant.

  12. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  13. Interannual variability of growth and reproduction in Bursera simaruba: the role of allometry and resource variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Stegen, James C; Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Carolyn A F; Enquist, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Plants are expected to differentially allocate resources to reproduction, growth, and survival in order to maximize overall fitness. Life history theory predicts that the allocation of resources to reproduction should occur at the expense of vegetative growth. Although it is known that both organism size and resource availability can influence life history traits, few studies have addressed how size dependencies of growth and reproduction and variation in resource supply jointly affect the coupling between growth and reproduction. In order to understand the relationship between growth and reproduction in the context of resource variability, we utilize a long-term observational data set consisting of 670 individual trees over a 10-year period within a local population of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. We (1) quantify the functional form and variability in the growth-reproduction relationship at the population and individual-tree level and (2) develop a theoretical framework to understand the allometric dependence of growth and reproduction. Our findings suggest that the differential responses of allometric growth and reproduction to resource availability, both between years and between microsites, underlie the apparent relationship between growth and reproduction. Finally, we offer an alternative approach for quantifying the relationship between growth and reproduction that accounts for variation in allometries.

  14. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha, serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  15. Spread of Eragrostis albensis (Poaceae and Dittrichia graveolens (Asteraceae in the southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel Anna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Eragrostis albensis H. Scholz and Dittrichia graveolens (L. Greuter have been found in the southern Poland. The former taxon is currently considered a kenophyte (epecophyte and holoagriophyte in the country. It occurs on sandy alluvia along Vistula, Oder and San River Valleys as well as on anthropogenic sites mainly in the eastern and south-eastern Poland. The latter species is a recent newcomer regarded as an ephemerophyte, which so far has been reported from only one locality in Śląskie Province. In 2017 we discovered 16 new localities of E. albensis and five of D. graveolens on the territory of the southern Poland. Populations of both species consisted of few to several dozen individuals which grew within anthropogenic habitats, mainly roadsides. Distribution maps of both species in the southern Poland were presented.

  16. Antifungal activity of essential oil from Asteriscus graveolens against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znini, Mohamed; Cristofari, Gregory; Majidi, Lhou; Mazouz, Hamid; Tomi, Pierre; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2011-11-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Asteriscus graveolens have been studied using GC and GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oil amounting to 94.9% of the total oil. The aerial part oils showed similar chromatographic profiles and were characterized by having a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with 6-oxocyclonerolidol (66.7% +/- 5.5) and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol (8.8% +/-1.2) as the major components. The antifungal effect of the essential oil from A. graveolens leaves was evaluated in vitro against three phytopathogenic fungi of apples (Alternaria sp., Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer). The results suggest that this essential oil has fungicidal properties towards Alternaria sp. from direct contact assay at 0.2% (v/v) and to P. expansum from vapor assay tests at 80 microL.

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagella, Praveen; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Chung, Ill-Min

    2012-04-01

    The leaves of Apium graveolens were extracted and the essential oil composition, immunotoxicity effects, and antioxidant activity were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of A. graveolens leaves. Twenty-eight components, representing 73.72% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are 4-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1-imidazolyl)-valerophenone (19.90%), 1-dodecanol (16.55%), 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester (4.93%), ethyl 4,4-D2-N-hexyl ether (4.11%), 3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-phenyl-1-heptadecyn-3-ol (3.28%), 1,4-methano-1H-indene, octahydro-4-methyl-8-methylene-7-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1α,3αα,4α,7α,7αα)]- (2.99%), 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-(3″-t-butyl)benzodioxepine (2.56%), Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (2.53%), 9H-pyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrrolo[2,1-α]phthalazine-9, 11(10H)-dione, 10-ethyl-8-phenyl (2.07%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC(50) value of 59.32 ppm and an LC(90) value of 127.69 ppm. The essential oil from the A. graveolens leaves was investigated for scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity and the results demonstrate that the essential oil from the A. graveolens has potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation process. The above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils and also as natural antioxidant.

  18. Antiadhesive hydroalcoholic extract from Apium graveolens fruits prevents bladder and kidney infection against uropathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarshar, S; Sendker, J; Qin, X; Goycoolea, F M; Asadi Karam, M R; Habibi, M; Bouzari, S; Dobrindt, U; Hensel, A

    2018-02-26

    Fruits from Apium graveolens (Celery) are used traditionally in Persian and European medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. No data are available on A. graveolens extract on the interplay between uropathogenic E. coli and the eukaryotic host cells and on quorum sensing of the bacteria. The present study aimed to characterize an antiadhesive and anti quorum sensing effect of a characterized A. graveolens extract by specific in vitro assays and to correlate these effects with in vivo data obtained by an animal infection model. Hydroalcoholic extract CSE (EtOH-water, 1:1) from A. graveolens fruits was characterized by UHPLC/+ESI-QTOF-MS and investigated on antiproliferative activity against UPEC (strain NU14) and human T24 bladder cells. Antiadhesive properties of CSE were investigated within two different in vitro adhesion assays. For in vivo studies BALB/c mice were used in an UPEC infection model. The effect of CSE on bacterial load in bladder tissue was monitored within a 4- and 7 days pretreatment (200, 500 mg/kg) of the animals. CSE was dominated by the presence of luteolin-glycosides and related flavons besides furocoumarins. CSE had no cytotoxic effects against UPEC and bladder cells. CSE exerts a dose dependent antiadhesive activity against UPEC strains NU14 and UTI89. CSE inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner bacterial quorum sensing. 4- and 7-day pretreatment of animals with CSE transurethrally infected with UPEC NU14, significantly reduced the bacterial load in bladder tissue. CSE is assessed as an antiadhesive extract for which the traditional use in phytotherapy for UTI is justified. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  20. Ontogenetic modulation of branch size, shape, and biomechanics produces diversity across habitats in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Aguirre-Hernández, Rebeca; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Organismal size and shape inseparably interact with tissue biomechanical properties. It is therefore essential to understand how size, shape, and biomechanics interact in ontogeny to produce morphological diversity. We estimated within species branch length-diameter allometries and reconstructed the rates of ontogenetic change along the stem in mechanical properties across the simaruba clade in the tropical tree genus Bursera, measuring 376 segments from 97 branches in nine species in neotropical dry to rain forest. In general, species with stiffer materials had longer, thinner branches, which became stiffer more quickly in ontogeny than their counterparts with more flexible materials. We found a trend from short stature and flexible tissues to tall statures and stiff tissues across an environmental gradient of increasing water availability, likely reflecting a water storage-mechanical support tradeoff. Ontogenetic variation in size, shape, and mechanics results in diversity of habits, for example, rapid length extension, sluggish diameter expansion, and flexible tissues results in a liana, as in Bursera instabilis. Even species of similar habit exhibited notable changes in tissue mechanical properties with increasing size, illustrating the inseparable relationship between organismal proportions and their tissue mechanics in the ontogeny and evolution of morphological diversity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  2. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae Baker, en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Bonilla Gómez María Argenis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se trataron algunos aspectos sobre la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae, una bromelia terrestre de los páramos colombianos. Se observó una separación espacio-temporal de los órganos
    reproductivos que determina la condición de protoginia en las flores a partir del inicio de la antesis, fase de la
    flor cuyo estigma se torna receptivo y la producción de néctar es significativa. Se encontró en P. trianae un sistema reproductivo auto compatible, lo que permitió a las inflorescencias auto polinizarse y ser fecundadas con polen foráneo; la fructificación de la población bajo condiciones naturales (éxito reproductivo estuvo limitada por la predación y los polinizadores. Las rosetas solo asignaron el 13% de su biomasa en su esfuerzo reproductivo, el porcentaje restante fue invertido en su crecimiento vegetativo. Se registró la floración de la población hacia la época húmeda (junio-agosto de 2003, el clima fue poco favorable para los polinizadores, pero adecuado para evitar la deshidratación de las flores y la evaporación del néctar. La fructificación ocurrió en la época seca (diciembre-febrero de 2004, tiempo propicio para la dehiscencia de los frutos y la dispersión eólica de las semillas. Se observaron y determinaron los colibríes Aglaeactis cupripennis y Pterophanes cyanopterus como polinizadores eficientes, además de los insectos residentes de las familias Nitidulidae (Coleoptera y Phoridae (Diptera, cuyas larvas fueron predadores importantes de la inflorescencia.

  3. Antifungal mechanism of the combination of Cinnamomum verum and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils with fluconazole against pathogenic Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Rym; Hammami, Majdi; Gharbi, Dorra; Karkouch, Ines; Hamouda, Thouraya Ben; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Tabbene, Olfa

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-Candida activity of ten essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate their potential synergism with conventional drugs. The effect on secreted aspartic protease (SAP) activity and the mechanism of action were also explored. The antifungal properties of essential oils were investigated using standard micro-broth dilution assay. Only Cinnamomum verum, Thymus capitatus, Syzygium aromaticum, and Pelargonium graveolens exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic Candida strains. Chemical composition of active essential oils was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synergistic effect was observed with the combinations C. verum/fluconazole and P. graveolens/fluconazole, with FIC value 0.37. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that C. verum EO reduced the quantity of ergosterol to 83%. A total inhibition was observed for the combination C. verum/fluconazole. However, P. graveolens EO may disturb the permeability barrier of the fungal cell wall. An increase of MIC values of P. graveolens EO and the combination with fluconazole was observed with osmoprotectants (sorbitol and PEG6000). Furthermore, the combination with fluconazole may affect ergosterol biosynthesis and disturb fatty acid homeostasis in C. albicans cells as the quantity of ergosterol and oleic acid was reduced to 52.33 and 72%, respectively. The combination of P. graveolens and C. verum EOs with fluconazole inhibited 78.31 and 64.72% SAP activity, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report underlying the mechanism of action and the inhibitory effect of SAP activity of essential oils in synergy with fluconazole. Naturally occurring phytochemicals C. verum and P. graveolens could be effective candidate to enhance the efficacy of fluconazole-based therapy of C. albicans infections.

  4. The Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Anethum graveolens Seed on the Changes of Testis Tissue, Sperm Parameters in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

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    Farah Farokhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: For treating hypercholesterolemic in traditional medicine, Anethum graveolens seeds are used that reduce blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on the changes of testis tissue, sperm parameters in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6: control, hypercholesterolemic, hypercholesterolemic +alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 500 mg/kg/day, hypercholesterolemic +alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 300 mg/kg/day, healthy+alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed 500 mg/kg/day. After treatment for 45 days, rats were weighed and after the dissection, sperm samples were collected from the tail epididymal and sperm parameters were studied. The testicular specimens were transferred to formalin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey's post- hoc tests and significant level (p<0.05 was considered. Results: In this research, in the hypercholesterolemic rats, the testicular weight was increased, but the diameter of the semnifer tubes, tubal differentiation and spermiogenese, and sperm viability were decreased compared to control (p<0.05, but in hypercholesterolemic treatment with Anethum graveolens seed these parameters were improved. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Anethum graveolens seed has positive effects on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  5. Inhibitory effects of lupene-derived pentacyclic triterpenoids from Bursera simaruba on HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ángel L; Habtemariam, Solomon; Parra, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxicity and antiviral properties of Bursera simaruba against herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) were investigated through a bioactivity-guided isolation protocol. The plant material was fractionated using solvent-solvent partitioning, size-exclusion and thin-layer chromatography. The antiviral compounds present in the most active fractions were identified by means of LC-MS and NMR. Three different methods were compared during the evaluation of antiviral activity of samples. Four lupene-related pentacyclic triterpenes were found to be responsible for the anti-herpesvirus effects of B. simaruba and were isolated from this species for the first time. The selective indexes (SI) of B. simaruba-derived samples ranged from 7.7 to 201.9.

  6. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

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    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  7. Microbe-based technology ameliorates glandular trichomes, secondary metabolites and antioxidants in Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Despite the vast exploration of microbes for plant health, there is a lack of knowledge about the synergistic effects of specific microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, especially in medicinal plants such as Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. The aim of this study was to evaluate how synergistic microbes Trichoderma harzianum ThU, Glomus intraradices and Bacillus subtilis CIM affected crop productivity, secondary metabolites and glandular trichome number in P. graveolens. The results demonstrated a significant (P secondary metabolites, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, free radical-scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity of P. graveolens treated with synergistic bioinoculants as compared with the control. Most interestingly, an increase in essential oil by 32% in the treatment with all three microbes was observed. Furthermore, the principal aroma compounds citronellol and geraniol also increased in the same treatment. A positive and direct correlation was observed between essential oil content and number of glandular trichomes in all treatments. The present study highlights an explicit amalgamation of prospective microbes showing potential for synergism that act as biostimulants in enhancing plant production and improving the antioxidant and aroma profile of P. graveolens. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailani, M R; Moeini, H

    2007-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  9. Phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of Anethum graveolens L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, M

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Anethum graveolens essential oil and its main compounds. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by using GC/MS. α-Phellandrene (19.12%), limonene (26.34%), dill ether (15.23%), sabinene (11.34%), α-pinene (2%), n-tetracosane (1.54%), neophytadiene (1.43%), n-docosane (1.04), n-tricosane (1%), n-nonadecane (1%), n-eicosane (0.78%), n-heneicosane (0.67%), β-myrcene (0.23%) and α-tujene (0.21%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. A. graveolens oil exhibit a higher activity in each antioxidant system with a special attention for β-carotene bleaching test (IC50: 15.3 μg/mL) and reducing power (EC50: 11.24 μg/mL). The TLC-bioautography screening and fractionation resulted in the separation of the main antioxidant compounds, which were identified as limonene (45%) and sabinene (32%). The essential oil and its main compounds exhibited a potent NO-scavenging effect and inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase.

  10. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

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    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  11. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  12. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  13. Lippia graveolens photochemopreventive effect against UVB radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bores, A M; Espinosa-González, A M; Reyna-Campos, A; Cruz-Toscano, S; Benítez-Flores, J C; Hernández-Delgado, C T; Flores-Maya, S; Urzúa-Meza, M; Peñalosa-Castro, I; Céspedes-Acuña, C L; Avila-Acevedo, J G

    2017-02-01

    Lippia graveolens HBK (Mexican oregano) is a species that is regularly used as a condiment in Mexican cuisine. In traditional medicine, it is used for the treatment of respiratory and digestive illnesses, headaches, rheumatism and inflammation-related disorders. The main chemical components reported in this species include the following: terpenoids, iridoids and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to determine the potential photochemopreventive effect of the methanolic extract of Lippia graveolens (MELG) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin cancer in SKH-1 mice. The phenolic content, radical scavenger activity, penetration and genotoxicity of the MELG were also evaluated. The MELG exhibited scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and it did not exhibit genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. In addition, the MELG absorbed UVB (280nm) electromagnetic radiation. The main components detected in the plant extract were naringenin and galangin, and pinocembrin was also isolated and identified through spectroscopic analysis. The MELG demonstrated a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced cell death in Escherichia coli. In chronic challenge experiments, the MELG protected against UVB-induced skin cancer in SKH-1 mice. The MELG penetrated the skin of mice. Topical administration of the MELG protected against chronic UVB-induced damage in mouse SKH-1 skin. Our results suggest that the MELG has photochemopreventive activity and may potentially prevent photo-tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efecto de la predación por larvas de mosca sobre la fructificación de Puya trianae (Bromeliaceae en el Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia

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    Bonilla María Argenis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los páramos se caracterizan por su importancia biológica y por presentar una gran importancia paisajística, así mismo, son significativos productores de agua lo cual los hace objetivo para planes de conservación. Por lo tanto es necesario el conocimiento de la historia natural de las especies más frecuentes del páramo. Un elemento importante dentro de esta historia son los factores que pueden afectar la distribución y demografía de las especies. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó el efecto de la predación por larvas de moscas sobre la fructificación en una población de rosetas de Puya trianae (Baker presentes en el Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia. Para esta caracterización se cuantificó la presencia de predación por larvas de moscas en las inflorescencias, se describió y cuantificó el efecto de la predación sobre la reproducción de las rosetas individuales de P. trianae, y se evalúó la relación entre el tamaño corporal de las rosetas individuales y la presencia de predación en la población de éstas. Se encontraron un total de 1.021 plantas, de éstas el 78,52% en estado vegetativo, el 15,9% en estado reproductivo y el 5,58% presentaron predación. Se presentaron menores tamaños (longitud de la hoja más larga, de eje y de escapo y menor número de frutos y semillas en las plantas predadas. La variable que se afectó más fue el número frutos y por consiguiente el número de semillas que pudieran llegar a los bancos afectando posiblemente la dinámica poblacional.

  15. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    ...) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME...

  16. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

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    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  17. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog. H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, in restinga, Bahia, Brazil

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    P. Oliveira-Rebouças

    Full Text Available Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog. H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems. They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%. The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species.

  18. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L. on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Kooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, volume (5, issue (2, year 2015, an article entitled “Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats” was published and the papers like this should be appreciated. However, the paper has some drawbacks which if not resolve, could be misleading for researchers who tend to use it or do research in its direction. So, with all due respect to the research team, we decided to evaluate the paper ambiguities in order to improve the quality of future articles.

  19. Salt-induced changes in germination and vegetative stages of Anethum graveolens L.

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    Mehr, Zahra Setayesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the response of dill (Anethum graveolens L. to salt stress during germination and vegetative stages. In the first stage, response of dill seeds germination to levels of salinity (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM was investigated. In the second stage, influence of salt stress on physiological and biochemical parameters in dill seedlings were investigated. Results showed germination rate and percentage, radical, plumule length and dry weight decreased significantly with the increase of salinity levels. Effect of salt stress on amount of chlorophyll a, b and total was significant. Results indicated that, amount of proline, total soluble carbohydrates and proteins and catalase (CAT activity in shoots and roots significantly increased with the increase of salinity. These results showed that dill maintained higher carbohydrates, proteins, proline and activity of CAT under salt stress and these traits could have partially to its salt tolerance.

  20. In silico Target Fishing for Rationalized Ligand Discovery Exemplified on Constituents of Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Danzl, Birgit; Schwaiger, Stefan; Markt, Patrick; Schmidtke, Michaela; Gertsch, Jürg; Raduner, Stefan; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The identification of targets whose interaction is likely to result in the successful treatment of a disease is of growing interest for natural product scientists. In the current study we performed an exemplary application of a virtual parallel screening approach to identify potential targets for 16 secondary metabolites isolated and identified from the aerial parts of the medicinal plant Ruta graveolens L. Low energy conformers of the isolated constituents were simultaneously screened against a set of 2208 pharmacophore models generated in-house for the in silico prediction of putative biological targets, i. e., target fishing. Based on the predicted ligand-target interactions, we focused on three biological targets, namely acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the human rhinovirus (HRV) coat protein and the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2). For a critical evaluation of the applied parallel screening approach, virtual hits and non-hits were assayed on the respective targets. For AChE the highest scoring virtual hit, arborinine, showed the best inhibitory in vitro activity on AChE (IC50 34.7 μM). Determination of the anti-HRV-2 effect revealed 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and arborinine to be the most active antiviral constituents with IC50 values of 11.98 μM and 3.19 μM, respectively. Of these, arborinine was predicted virtually. Of all the molecules subjected to parallel screening, one virtual CB2 ligand was obtained, i.e., rutamarin. Interestingly, in experimental studies only this compound showed a selective activity to the CB2 receptor (Ki of 7.4 μM) by using a radioligand displacement assay. The applied parallel screening paradigm with constituents of R. graveolens on three different proteins has shown promise as an in silico tool for rational target fishing and pharmacological profiling of extracts and single chemical entities in natural product research. PMID:19096995

  1. Effect of light on contents of coumarin compounds in shoots of Ruta graveolens L. cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoots of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae were cultivated in stationary liquid culture under different light conditions: constant artificial light (900 lx, darkness, constant artificial light (900 ix following irradiation with UV-C light. The contents of five furanocoumarins: psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, as well as biogenetic precursor of these metabolites, umbelliferone, were determined by HPLC method in shoots cultivated in vitro and in overground parts of plants growing in open air. It was shown that light conditions, tested in these experiments, significantly influenced contents of the metabolites in shoots cultivated in in vitro culture. Total content of the coumarin compounds in shoots cultivated under constant artificial light (900 lx was equal or higher than in plants growing under natural conditions. Therefore, it is suggested that stationary liquid shoot culture of R. graveolens. can be an alternative source for obtaining biologically active furanocoumarins.

  2. Ferrous Ion Chelating, Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Pure and Commercial Essential Oils of Anetrhum Graveolens

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    Sh Darvish Alipour Astaneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite slight toxicities of essential oils, they are not under strict control in many countries. Anethum graveolens is widely consumed and its essential oils are at public reach. This study was designed to study essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Methods: The biological properties of pure and commercial essential oils of Anethum graveolens were investigated. In fact, Ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging property, tyrosinase inhibition and total flavonoids of the oils were determined. Results: Chelating activity of 7.8 µg of EDTA was equivalent to 2 µg of the pure oil. The oils had superoxide anion radical scavenging activities which may be related to their total phenol and flavonoid contents. IC50 of ferrous ion chelating, antityrosiase and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of pure and commercial oils were 1.3, 1.4, 1 and (171.6, 589, 132 µg respectively. Antityrosiase activity of 6.4 µg pure oil was equal to 1000 µg of the commercial oil. Conclusion: Anethum possesses antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties. This oil chelates ferrous ions and superoxide radicals. It is effective in formation of reactive toxic products. Anethum has good potentials regarding its applications in food and drug industries.

  3. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

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    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  4. Testing the hypothesis that biological modularity is shaped by adaptation: Xylem in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees.

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    Gabriela Montes-Cartas, Claudia; Padilla, Pablo; Rosell, Julieta A; Domínguez, César A; Fornoni, Juan; Olson, Mark E

    2017-05-01

    The study of modularity allows recognition of suites of character covariation that potentially diagnose units of evolutionary change. One prominent perspective predicts that natural selection should forge developmental units that maximize mutual functional independence. We examined the module-function relation using secondary xylem (wood) in a clade of tropical trees as a study system. Traditionally, the three main cell types in wood (vessels, fibers, and parenchyma) have respectively been associated with three functions (conduction, mechanical support, and storage). We collected samples from nine species of the simaruba clade of Bursera at fifteen sites and measured thirteen anatomical variables that have traditionally been regarded as reflecting the distinct functions of these cell types. If there are indeed (semi) independently evolving modules associated with functions, and cell types really are associated with these functions, then we should observe greater association between traits within cell types than between traits from different cell types. To map these associations, we calculated correlation coefficients among anatomical variables and identified modules using cluster and factor analysis. Our results were only partially congruent with expectations, with associations between characters of different cell types common. These results suggest causes of covariation, some involving selected function as predicted, but also highlighting the tradeoffs and shared developmental pathways limiting the evolutionary independence of some cell types in the secondary xylem. The evolution of diversity across the simaruba clade appears to have required only limited independence between parts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preliminary study of the anti-inflammatory activity of hexane extract and fractions from Bursera simaruba (Linneo) Sarg. (Burseraceae) leaves.

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    Carretero, M E; López-Pérez, J L; Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Tillet, S; Israel, A; Noguera-P, B

    2008-02-28

    Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. leaves hexane extracts display anti-inflammatory activity on the adjuvant-carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. In order to isolate and identify the active compounds of the hexane extract, we performed a preliminary phytochemical study and a bioassay-directed fractionation using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in mice. From the nine fractions (A-I) obtained, of an initial chromatographic separation, fractions A and E (doses equivalents to 1.50 g dry plant/kg body weight) showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity comparable to that of the reference drug phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg). The isolation and characterization of 3-methylene-7,11,15-trimethylhexadec-1-ene (neophytadiene) (1), ergost-5-en-3beta-ol (2), 24S-stigmast-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol (3), 24S-stigmast-5-en-3beta-ol (4) and alpha-amyrin (5), from these fractions is reported.

  6. Diversification in species complexes: tests of species origin and delimitation in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees (Burseraceae).

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    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Weeks, Andrea; De-Nova, J Arturo; Lemos, Rosalinda Medina; Camacho, Jacqueline Pérez; Feria, Teresa P; Gómez-Bermejo, Roberto; Montero, Juan C; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-11-01

    Molecular phylogenies are invaluable for testing morphology-based species delimitation in species complexes, as well as for examining hypotheses regarding the origination of species in these groups. Using five nucleotide markers, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Bursera simaruba species complex of neotropical trees to test the notion that four "satellite" species originated from populations of the most widely distributed member of the genus, B. simaruba, which the satellites strongly resemble. In addition to molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, we tested species delimitation of B. simaruba and the satellites using multivariate analyses of morphological and ecological characters. The analyses evaluated the taxonomic value of these traditional characters and pinpointed those in need of further study, such as the expression of pubescence. Phylogenetic data rejected the origin of three satellite species from their purported ancestor, B. simaruba, and we ascribe their morphological similarity to convergence or parallelism. The fourth satellite species likely represents one end of a spectrum of inflorescence length variation within B. simaruba and is conspecific. Despite its marked morphological variability, we recovered B. simaruba as a single valid species, which implies that it maintains genetic cohesion among distant populations throughout its vast range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba.

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    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Oropeza, Fabiola; Duarte, Georgina; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Anaya, Ana Luisa

    2010-10-01

    Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms.

  8. Efecto de lignificación de estacas sobre enraizamiento de Bursera morelensis Ram. y Bursera galeottiana Engl. en la Universidad de la Cañada en Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, México

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    Juan Manuel Loeza-Corte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Burseras son características de la selva baja caducifolia, se distribuyen desde el sur de Estados Unidos hasta Perú y son utilizadas para la extracción de resinas como el copal y talla de madera como los alebrijes. Por ello, se estableció un experimento de bloques completos al azar con arreglo factorial; los elementos de estudio fueron Bursera morelensis Ram. y Bursera galeottiana Engl. El grado alto y bajo de lignificación de estacas fue utilizado para evaluar el porcentaje de enraizamiento, volumen de raíz y número de brotes aéreos. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje mayor de enraizamiento en B. morelensis se logra con poco grado de lignificación, mientras que en B. galeottiana es mayor. Esto muestra que la reproducción asexual puede ser una alternativa para la propagación de este género en el estado de Oaxaca.

  9. Maturação e morfometria dos frutos de miconia Albicans (Swartz triana (melastomataceae em um remanescente de floresta estacional semidecídua montana em Lavras, MG Maturation and morphometrics of the fruits of Miconia albicans (Swartz triana (melastomataceae in a remnant of montane seasonal semideciduous forest in Lavras, MG

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    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a dinâmica da maturação dos frutos e avaliar quantitativamente algumas características físicas dos frutos de Miconia albicans (Swartz Triana em um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Semidecídua Montana. A atividade, intensidade e sincronia de 20 indivíduos foram analisadas em relação aos eventos de frutificação, correlacionando-os com as variáveis climáticas. Analisou-se a morfometria (comprimento, largura e massa de 130 frutos de 10 indivíduos. A intensidade da fenofase de frutos maduros nas plantas correlacionou-se significativamente com a precipitação média do período (rS = 0,611; P The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of fruit maturation and quantitatively assess some physical characteristics of the fruits of Miconia albicans (Swartz Triana in a remnant of Montane Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. The activity and synchrony of 20 individuals were analyzed in regard to the proportion of fruiting events, and to help to determine their correlation to abiotic factors. Morphometric traits (fruit length, diameter and mass of 130 fruits from ten individuals were analyzed. The number of fruits maturing showed a significant correlation with the mean precipitation (rS = 0.611; P < 0.05. M. albicans presented a high number of small seeds per fruit ( = 28.05 ± 1.45 s.d.. The fresh mass of the fruit was approximately equal to the pulp mass (rS = 0.988; P < 0.05. Thepulp contributed with 94% of the total mass, demonstrating the potential importance of this species for frugivores. The results indicate the period of high intrapopulation synchrony of the studied phenophases, which can be a useful guide in the collection of seeds for germoplasm banks and recovery of degraded areas.

  10. Improved protocol for somatic embryogenesis and calcium alginate encapsulation in Anethum graveolens L.: a medicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Richa; Shekhawat, G S; Alam, Afroz

    2014-08-01

    An improved procedure has been developed for efficient somatic embryogenesis in Anethum graveolens. Green friable embryogenic callus was obtained from hypocotyl segments on medium augmented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The highest embryogenic callus induction frequency of 87 % was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.13 μM 2,4-D. At lower concentration of 2,4-D (0.34 μM) callus turned dark in color and slow growing. Embryogenic cultures (76 %) responded with a mean number of 43 globular and 18 heart stage embryos. Somatic embryo maturation and subsequent conversion into plantlets took place on MS lacking growth regulators. Maximum number of somatic embryos developed on MS medium was 128.3 (per flask) and a plantlet conversion of 82 % was observed. Calcium alginate beads were produced by encapsulating somatic embryos. Highest percent germination (83 %) was observed on 0.8 % agar solidified MS medium with the plantlets acquiring an average length of 2.1 cm. Encapsulated somatic embryos could be stored at 4 °C up to 60 days with a conversion frequency of 49.3 %. Highest protein and proline content has been observed in embryogenic callus with small globular embryos. During morphological differentiation of the somatic embryos, changes in the antioxidant enzymatic system were observed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased during initial stages and decreased catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were detected.

  11. Effect of Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom on clinical symptoms of patients with functional dyspepsia

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    Maryam Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study aimed at investigating the effect of Iranian traditional remedy prepared from Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom (AT on the severity and frequency of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. Material and Methods:In total, 150 FD patients were included in this randomized double-blind trial, based on the ROME III diagnostic criteria, and they were divided into three intervention groups namely, AT, Placebo and omeprazole. Then, severity and frequency of symptoms during this eight-week trial were measured. Obtained information was analyzed using Chi-square test and repeated measures test. Result:In general, the severity and frequency of symptoms after the 4th week significantly decreased in the AT group as compared to the omeprazole and placebo groups, and continued to reduce by the end of the eighth week. General reduction of symptom severity and frequency in the omeprazole group was significantly different from the placebo group by the end of the 4th and 8th weeks. With respect to each individual symptom, AT markedly improved symptoms, such as burning, pain, early satiation, fullness, bloating, belching and nausea, as compared to placebo-treated group. Moreover, AT significantly improved symptoms, like vomiting, and nausea, except for pain, as compared to omeprazole-treated subjects. Conclusion:According to the results, AT, as Iranian traditional remedy, was more effective than omeprazole and placebo in reducing the symptoms in FD patients.

  12. The Electrical Properties of Plasma-Deposited Thin Films Derived from Pelargonium graveolens

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    Ahmed Al-Jumaili

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inherently volatile at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, plant-derived precursors present an interesting human-health-friendly precursor for the chemical vapour deposition of thin films. The electrical properties of films derived from Pelargonium graveolens (geranium were investigated in metal–insulator–metal (MIM structures. Thin polymer-like films were deposited using plasma-enhanced synthesis under various plasma input power. The J–V characteristics of thus-fabricated MIM were then studied in order to determine the direct current (DC conduction mechanism of the plasma polymer layers. It was found that the capacitance of the plasma-deposited films decreases at low frequencies (C ≈ 10−11 and remains at a relatively constant value (C ≈ 10−10 at high frequencies. These films also have a low dielectric constant across a wide range of frequencies that decreases as the input RF power increases. The conductivity was determined to be around 10−16–10−17 Ω−1 m−1, which is typical for insulating materials. The Richardson–Schottky mechanism might dominate charge transport in the higher field region for geranium thin films.

  13. The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus

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    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus. PMID:22272289

  14. The effect of radiation of LED modules on the growth of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

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    Frąszczak Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light quality is thought to affect the growth and development of plants. We examined how light influences the growth and content of some chemical compounds in dill (Anethum graveolens L.. The plants were grown under different light quality. The share of orange and green light in the spectrum was constant and amounted to 10% for either colour. In the first combination (A, 70/10, there was 70% of red light and 10% of blue light. Other combinations had the following proportions: B 60/20, C 50/30, D 40/40 and E 30/50 of red and blue light. The PPFD was about 155 μmol m-2 s-1. Blue light inhibited the elongation growth as well as leaf area. It had positive influence on the accumulation of dry mass, glucose and fructose in the herb. In the combinations with higher percentage of red light the plants were characterised by higher content of essential oils, macronutrients and zinc. To sum up, we can say that the proportion of red and blue light has significant influence on the morphological qualities, chemical composition and dynamics of photosynthesis in these plants. On the other hand, the selection of spectral composition of LEDs will depend on the result we want to achieve.

  15. Dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds essential oil as a potential natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent

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    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can induce many undesired side effects, which attracts interest of food producers and consumers in finding ingredients of natural origin. The antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds was investigated in terms of its possible application as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. DPPH test and FRAP method have been used for the investigation of antioxidative activity of essential oil. Disc-diffusion method has been used for investigation of oil antimicrobial activity on following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Candida albicans. Essential oil, in concentration of 29 mg/mL, incubated for 60 minutes has shown the highest degree of DPPH radicals’ neutralization (79.62%. FRAP activity of oil was 40.63 μmol Fe2+/g of essential oil. Essential oil showed the best antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, there was a significant antimicrobial activity on all investigated microorganisms.

  16. Biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ruta graveolens (L.) and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities

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    Lingaraju, K.; Raja Naika, H.; Manjunath, K.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.; Suresh, D.

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by biological method using aqueous stem extract of Ruta graveolens act as reducing agent. Formation of ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were subjected to biological properties such as antibacterial and antioxidant studies. The PXRD pattern reveals that ZnO sample belongs to hexagonal phase with Wurtzite structure. The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows an absorption band at 355 nm due to ZnO nanoparticles. SEM images show that the particles have spherical like structure with large surface area and the average crystallite sizes were found to be in the range ~28 nm. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis. The ZnO nanoparticles are found to inhibit the antioxidant activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals effectively. ZnO Nps exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Gram -ve bacterial strains such as Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Gram +ve Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion method.

  17. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

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    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  18. The biology of flowering and pollination in umbellate vegetables. Part III. (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.

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    Zofia Warakomska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried-out on turnip root celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.. Aim of the study was to examine the biology of flowering and the degree of flower atractiveness, as well as the insect influence on their pollination. The research was conducted during 1979 and 1981 vegetation seasons. Observations were made near Lublin on the loessy brown soil. Seeds were the most abundant in IV and V umbel rows. The isolated flowers did not produce less fertile seeds than the non-isolated ones. Recorded pollen production ranged to 100 kg per ha. The Syrphidae which pollinated celery, fed on their pollen.

  19. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

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    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  20. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

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    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. HYPOTENSIVE AND CARDIOINHIBOTORY EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CELERY (APIUM GRAVEOLENS, APIACEAE

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    Dragana Pavlović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae investigated on the mean blood pressure of anaesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated atria of the rats. In our experiments were used rabbits and Wistar albino rats. The effects of extracts (0.5-15 mg/kg on blood pressure were recorded directly from the carotid artery. Rat isolated atria was mounted in 10 ml tissue bath. An equilibrium period of 30 min was given before the application of the extracts (0.02-0.75 mg/ml. In anesthetized rabbit, intravenous administration of aqueous extracts induced least hypotensive effects (14.35±2.94%, while the ethanol extract caused the greatest fall in the blood pressure (45.79±10.86%. Hypotensive effects of the extracts were partially blocked by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, an unselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat atria both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of celery, exhibit a negative chronotropic and an inotropic action. Aqueous extract decreased rate of contractions for 12.88±2.74% and amplitude for 8.73±0.89%. Ethanol extract inhibited rate of the atria contractions for 34.26±5.69%, and amplitude for 25.40±3.61%. Pretreatment of the atria with atropine (1μM partially blocked inhibitory response of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract of celery exhibited significantly greater hypotensive and cardio-depressant activities then aqueous extract (p<0.05. These data suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery caused the hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could partially be mediated possibly via stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was significant comparing to aqueous extract of celery.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of six pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from the Mexican copal resin of Bursera copallifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Estrada, Antonio; Maldonado-Magaña, Amalia; González-Christen, Judith; Bahena, Silvia Marquina; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Rodríguez-López, Verónica; Alvarez, Laura

    2016-10-26

    Bursera copallifera (Burseraceae) releases a resin known as "copal ancho" which has been used, since pre-Colombian times, as ceremonially burned incense and to treat tooth ache, tumors, arthritis, cold, cough, and various inflammatory conditions; however, its anti-inflammatory potential is poorly studied. The aim of the present study was to isolate, quantify, and to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene compounds isolated from the copal resin of B. copallifera. The constituents present in the total resin of B. copallifera were obtained by successive chromatographic procedures, and quantitative analysis was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated triterpenes were investigated to determine their inhibitory effects on phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced edema in mice, viability and nitric oxide (NO) production inhibition on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and secretory Phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) activities in vitro. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the copal resin showed the presence of six pentacyclic triterpenes of which, 3-epilupeol (59.75 % yield) and α-amyrin (21.1 % yield) are the most abundant. Among the isolated triterpenes, 3-epilupeol formiate (Inhibitory Concentration 50 % (IC 50 ) = 0.96 μmol), α.amyrin acetate (IC 50  = 1.17 μmol), lupenone (IC 50  = 1.05 μmol), and 3-epilupeol (IC 50  = 0.83 μmol) showed marked inhibition of the edema induced by TPA in mice. α-amyrin acetate and 3-epilupeol acetate, at 70 μM, also inhibited the activity of COX-2 by 62.85 and 73.28 % respectively, while α-amyrin and 3-epilupeol were the best inhibitors of the production of NO in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells with IC 50 values of 15.5 and 8.98 μM respectively, and did not affected its viability. All compounds moderately inhibited the activity of PLA 2 . This

  3. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Malva sylvestris, Sida cordifolia, and Pelargonium graveolens Is Related to Inhibition of Prostanoid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Michel Leandro; Irioda, Ana Carolina; Stremel, Dile Pontarolo; Trindade, Angela Cristina Leal Badaró; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-11-03

    The ability of plant extracts and preparations to reduce inflammation has been proven by different means in experimental models. Since inflammation enhances the release of specific mediators, inhibition of their production can be used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of plants widely used in folk medicine for this purpose. The study was performed for leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris, and leaves of Sida cordifolia and Pelargonium graveolens. These are three plant species known in Brazil as Malva. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and residual) was evaluated by quantitation of prostaglandins (PG) PGE₂, PGD₂, PGF2α, and thromboxane B₂ (the stable nonenzymatic product of TXA₂) concentration in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition of anti-inflammatory mediator release was observed for plants mainly in the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and residual fraction. The results suggest superior activity of S. cordifolia, leading to significantly lower values of all mediators after treatment with its residual fraction, even at the lower concentration tested (10 μg/mL). M. sylvestris and P. graveolens showed similar results, such as the reduction of all mediators after treatment, with leaf crude extracts (50 μg/mL). These results suggest that the three species known as Malva have anti-inflammatory properties, S. cordifolia being the most potent.

  5. Distribución del género Bursera en el estado de Morelos, México y su relación con el clima Distribution of the genus Bursera in Morelos state (Mexico) and its relation to climate

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Hernández-Pérez; Mario González-Espinosa; Irma Trejo; Consuelo Bonfil

    2011-01-01

    Se analizó la influencia de las variables climáticas en la distribución de 15 especies del género Bursera en Morelos, México. Se obtuvieron datos de presencia de especies y de variables climáticas de 47 estaciones meteorológicas, y se elaboraron mapas de distribución real y potencial de cada especie, por medio de un SIG; la influencia de las variables climáticas en la distribución se evaluó mediante análisis de componentes principales y de conglomerados. Las especies se distribuyen en un inte...

  6. Bursera fagaroides, effect of an ethanolic extract on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in vitro and on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Arreguín, Paulina; Arteaga-Nieto, Pablo; Reynoso-Orozco, Ramón; Villagómez-Castro, Julio C; Sabanero-López, Myrna; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Calvo-Méndez, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    The effect of an ethanolic extract from the stem bark of Bursera fagaroides on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in vitro and on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica was evaluated. For this purpose, increasing concentrations of the extract, up to 8.0mg/mL, were added to amoeba cultures or ODC reaction mixtures, which were incubated at 37 degrees C. Metronidazole and G418 were added as controls. After 1.5 and 72 h, the ODC activity in vitro and growth, respectively, were determined. Results revealed a strong inhibition of growth with IC(50) values on the order of 0.05 mg/mL. ODC activity, on the other hand, was inhibited by 12% and 50% at concentrations of 4.0 and 8.0mg/mL, respectively.

  7. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  8. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Seledri ( Apium graveolens L. terhadap Kumbang Kacang Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae

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    NI NENGAH DARMIATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Activity Test of Celery Leaf Extract (Apium graveolens L. Against Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus cinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease Management,Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the activity of celery leaf extract against bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L. The experiment was Randomized Complete Design, with five treatments of formulation concentration. The activities of celery leaf extract was indicated through i.e. contact poison test, repellent test, and the placement of eggs (oviposition test. The results showed that the celery leaf extract has activity as a contact poison with concentration 75% formulations caused over 50% death of the total insect. The extract with 100% concentration acted as a repellent and anti oviposition as well.

  9. Protective antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Buddleja perfoliata and Pelargonium graveolens against fungi isolated from stored grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Z N; Bach, H; Sánchez-Arreola, E; Bach, H; Hernández, L R

    2016-05-01

    The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Buddleja perfoliata and Pelargonium graveolens were analysed to assess their efficacy as a potential alternative to synthetic chemical fungicides to protect stored grain. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, while GC-MS were used to characterize the components of theses oils. The main components identified from the essential oil of B. perfoliata were cubenol, eudesmol, germacrene D-4-ol and cis-verbenol; whereas (-)-aristolene, β-citronellol and geraniol, were identified in P. graveolens. These essential oils were tested against a panel of fungal strains isolated from stored grains. Toxicity of the essential oils was assessed using two models represented by human-derived macrophages and the brine shrimp assay. Moreover, inflammatory response of the oils was assessed by measuring secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α using a human-derived macrophage cell line. Results show potent antifungal activity against a collection of fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0·3 to 50 μg ml(-1) for both plants. A moderated cytotoxicity was observed, but no inflammatory responses. These oils can be used as an alternative for synthetic chemical fungicides used to protect stored grains. Synthetic chemical fungicides are used to protect stored grains, but their broad use raises concerns about effects on the environment and human health. The impact of the present report is that the use of essential oils is an eco-friendly alternative for fungal control in postharvest grains with a low impact to the environment. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Isolation of the major chiral compounds from Bubonium graveolens essential oil by HPLC and absolute configuration determination by VCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Vanloot, Pierre; Jean, Marion; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2017-02-01

    The chirality issues in the essential oils (EOs) of leaves and flowers from Bubonium graveolens were addressed by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with polarimetric detection and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The chemical compositions of the crude oils of three samples were established by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The well-known cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (1), oxocyclonerolidol (2), and the recently disclosed cis-acetyloxychrysanthenyl acetate (3), the three major chiral compounds, were isolated by preparative HPLC. The naturally occurring oxocycloneroledol (2), mostly found in the leaf oil (49.4-55.6%), presents a (+) sign in the mobile phase during HPLC on a chiral stationary phase (CSP) with a Jasco polarimetric detection. The naturally occurring cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (1) and cis-acetyloxychrysanthenyl acetate (3), mostly found in the flower EO (35.9-74.9% and 10.0-34.3%, respectively), both present a (-) sign. HPLC on a CSP with polarimetric detection is an unprecedented approach to readily differentiate the flower and leaf EOs according to their chiral signature. The comparison of the experimental and calculated VCD spectra of pure isolated 1, 2, and 3 provided their absolute configuration as being (1S,5R,6S)-(-)-2,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-6-yl acetate 1, (2R,6R)-(+)-6-ethenyl-2,6-dimethyl-2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)dihydro-2H-pyran-3(4H)-one) 2 and (1S,5R,6R,7S)-(-)-7-(acetyloxy)-2,6-dimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-6-yl]methyl acetate 3. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 were already known in B. graveolens but this is the first report of the absolute configuration of (+)-2 and (-)-3. The VCD chiral signatures of the crude oils were also recorded. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Extracción, caracterización y evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

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    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue extraer, caracterizar y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya frente a Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. Las hojas y tallos se recolectaron a una altitud de 3800 m.s.n.m. en el distrito de Puquio, provincia de Lucanas, departamento de Ayacucho. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por destilación por arrastre con vapor de agua, a partir de las hojas y tallos desecados de S. graveolens, con rendimiento de 1,26 % (p/p. La muestra extraída fue caracterizada a través de ensayos físicos. La composición química del aceite se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gas con detector de masa (CG-SM. La actividad antibacteriana del aceite de S. graveolens se realizó por el método de difusión en agar en pocillos, utilizando cepas de microorganismos gram positivo como S. aureus y gram negativo como E. coli. La densidad del producto resultó 0,8755 g/ml a 20 ºC; índice de refracción 1,4726; índice de rotación 102°85’ y soluble en etanol; el cromatograma mostró componentes mayoritarios con un contenido de 52,39 % Sabineno, 8,20 % (+-4-careno, 7,11 % τ-terpineno, 6,74 % β-myrceno, 3,78 % 4-terpinenol, 3,67 % Pulegona. Los resultados mostraron actividad antibacteriana marcada y moderada, para S. aureus y E. coli, respectivamente, observándose formación de halos de inhibición para concentraciones del aceite esencial a 80, 90 y 100 %. El aceite esencial de S. graveolens se presenta con actividad antibacteriana promisoria.

  12. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz; Rómulo Bañuelos Valenzuela; Olivia Delgadillo Ruíz; Mónica Silva Vega; Perla Gallegos Flores

    2017-01-01

    Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli ,...

  13. UJI IRITASI DAN AKTIVITAS PERTUMBUHAN RAMBUT TIKUS PUTIH: EFEK SEDIAAN GEL APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerasan seledri (Apium graveolens L. biasa dipergunakan untuk memacu pertumbuhan rambut. Salah satu senyawa utama yang terkandung di dalam seledri adalah apigenin. Penelitian ini membahas tentang pengaruh pemakaian gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri sebagai penumbuh rambut, meliputi uji iritasi dan aktivitas pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih jantan galur Spraque-Dawley. Uji iritasi menggunakan metode Kamkaen dan Rao, sedangkan uji aktivitas penumbuh rambut menggunakan metode Hattori-Ogawa dan Suzuki-Hamada. Berdasarkan indeks iritasi primer, semua formulasi gel tidak potensial menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit tikus putih (p>0,05. Gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik dalam memacu pertumbuhan rambut (p<0,05 dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan. Apigenin menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik (p<0,05 dalam meningkatkan ketebalan rambut dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Namun perlakuan perasan herba seledri tidak nyata (p>0,05 meningkatkan ketebalan rambut. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Kata kunci : seledri, apigenin, gel, iritasi kulit, penumbuh rambutAbstractCelery (Apium graveolens L. juice is widely used for promoting hair growth. One of the main compounds in celery is apigenin. This research discusses about the effect of gel containing apigenin and celery juice application as hair growth in term of skin irritation and its hair growth activity on Spraque-Dawley male mice. The irritation test was Kamkaen and Rao methods, while hair growth activity was HattoriOgawa and Suzuki-Hamada methods. Based on primary index irritation, all of the gel formulations did not signifiantly potential in resulting skin irritation on the mice (p>0,05. Gel containing apigenin andcelery juice showed better activity in promoting hair growth (p<0,05 than

  14. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

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    F.S. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo, nas três plantas estudadas, em relação às suas concentrações. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens, a 5% de concentração, apresentou maior mortalidade corrigida de D. speciosa (32,5% que os extratos de A. verlotorum em água (10% de concentração (20,3% e P. alliacea em álcool etílico (2% de concentração (12,5%. O método de extração com água é simples, sendo passível de utilização por pequenos agricultores. A R. graveolens é planta facilmente cultivada, sendo, portanto, boa alternativa de controle dessa praga.The aim of this work was to determine the best extraction method and concentration for Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae and Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae concerning their insecticidal effect against Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Extracts using commercial soybean oil as at least one of the solvents resulted in higher D. speciosa mortality in controls (solvent = oil of the three studied plants, relative to their treatment concentrations. R. graveolens extract in water, at 5% concentration, showed higher D. speciosa corrected mortality (32.5% than A. verlotiorum extracts in water (10% concentration (20.3% and P. alliacea in ethanol (2% concentration (12.5%. The extraction method with water is simple and can be used by small farmers. R. graveolens is an easily cultivated plant and constitutes, therefore, a good alternative to control this plague.

  15. Estimation of gene flow into fragmented populations of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in the dry-forest life zone of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Brian K; Hamrick, James L

    2007-11-01

    We examined the impact of habitat fragmentation on gene flow in populations of the neotropical tree Bursera simaruba. In particular, we compared the effectiveness of three common techniques to estimate gene flow in the context of a highly disturbed system. Paternity analysis on emerging seedlings from eight small (N = 3 to 9) stands of trees showed that between 45% and 100% of seedlings were sired from outside their stand, indicating pollen moved readily over the isolation distances examined. Based on six populations of 21-24 trees each, estimates of allozyme genetic diversity (P(s) = 73.3%; H(e) = 0.244) were higher than those reported for species with similar life history traits. Indirect, F(ST)-based gene flow estimates for these six populations yielded an estimate of 3.57 migrants per generation, although possible violations of model assumptions limit the reliability of the estimate. A twogener analysis showed pollen moved either 320 m or 361 m and that there were only 2.46 effective pollen donors per maternal tree. Despite the potential for long-distance pollen movement, seed abortion was high, especially in stands with fewer than four trees. Population size, rather than isolation distance, appears to limit reproduction in the populations examined.

  16. Mannitol-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytosis in storage parenchyma cells of celery (Apium graveolens; Apiaceae) petioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2007-06-01

    We recently demonstrated the occurrence of a sucrose-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytic (FPE) mechanism of nutrient uptake in heterotrophic cells. In the present work, the possible enhancement/induction of FPE by photoassimilates other than sucrose was investigated by measuring the incorporation of the fluorescent endocytosis marker d-TR (dextran-Texas red, 3000 mw) into celery (Apium graveolens) petiole storage parenchyma (CSP), a tissue that transports and accumulates mannitol. Mannitol uptake in these cells is biphasic, with a hyperbolic phase at concentrations below 20 mM and a linear phase above 20 mM external solute concentration. In the absence of mannitol, or in its presence at concentrations within the hyperbolic phase, CSP cells accumulated low levels of d-TR. Conversely, d-TR accumulation by CSP cells was greatly enhanced in the presence of mannitol at concentrations within the linear phase. At high external mannitol concentration, d-TR accumulation was prevented by the endocytic inhibitors LY294002 and latrunculin B. In addition, d-TR uptake was temperature dependent under high mannitol concentration. Microscopic observations revealed that d-TR accumulated in the vacuole. These data support the occurrence of an FPE mechanism in CSP cells that participates in trapping and transport of photoassimilates to the vacuole. The FPE mechanism is enhanced by high mannitol concentrations.

  17. ECOLOGÍA, APROVECHAMIENTO Y COMERCIALIZACIÓN DEL ORÉGANO (Lippia graveolens H. B. K. EN MAPIMÍ, DURANGO

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    Diódoro Granados-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El orégano, Lippia graveolens H. B. K., es una planta adaptada a las condiciones de aridez con capacidad para prosperar bajo diversos grados de presión por la recolección. En Mapimí, Durango, la planta ha sido colectada y comercializada durante años y significa una fuente de ingresos para las familias que dependen de su recolección, aunque los comerciantes obtienen la mayor parte de los beneficios. En la región de Mapimí se evaluaron las diversas áreas productoras con el fin de establecer la dinámica e impacto del proceso de recolección y sus efectos sobre la planta. Para esto, se hicieron recorridos de campo, toma de muestras y delimitación de las áreas de distribución del orégano. También se analizó el proceso de producción y los canales de comercialización, a fin de diseñar una alternativa de manejo que garantice la sustentabilidad de la actividad. El proceso de producción y comercialización se estudió mediante la aplicación de entrevistas abiertas a productores, visitas de campo y visitas a las empresas beneficiadoras y comercializadoras, así como a los intermediarios que intervienen en diferentes etapas del proceso.

  18. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

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    S. Madadi Bonab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of (Anethum graveolens L., a field experiment was performed in Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Tabriz, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. The experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70, 100, 130 mm evaporation from class A pan and nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80, 120 kg.ha-1 were allocated to main and sub-plots, respectively. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant (p≤0.05 effect on minor diameter umbrella, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and harvest index. However, irrigation and effect between irrigation and nitrogen were not affected any of the traits. The greatest minor diameter umbrella was obtained with control nitrogen treatment and maximum 1000-seed weight, harvest index and seed yield were obtained from 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. There was no any significant difference between 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 nitrogen levels. Therefore, it seems that for producing the highest yield application of 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen is suitable. As water deficit no significant effects on this traits, of dill, it can be concluded that dill is a tolerant plant to drought stress.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

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    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  20. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

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    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  2. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

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    Maria Teresa Gentile

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138 widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1 obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. The Hexane Fraction of Bursera microphylla A Gray Induces p21-Mediated Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects in Human Cancer–Derived Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, Sabrina; Fierabracci, Alessandra; Gigliarelli, Giulia; Muscari, Isabella; Cannarile, Lorenza; Liberati, Anna Marina; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Riccardi, Carlo; Curini, Massimo; Robles Zepeda, Ramon Enrique; Delfino, Domenico V.

    2017-01-01

    Bursera microphylla (BM), one of the common elephant trees, is widely distributed in the Sonoran desert in Mexico. The Seri ethnic group in the Sonoran desert uses BM as an anti-inflammatory and painkiller drug for the treatment of sore throat, herpes labialis, abscessed tooth, and wound healing. Dried stems and leaves of BM are used in a tea to relieve painful urination and to stimulate bronchial secretion. Furthermore, BM is used for fighting venereal diseases. To investigate the effects of the hexane fraction of resin methanol extract (BM-H) on cell growth, the acute myeloid cell line (OCI-AML3) was treated with 250, 25, or 2.5 µg/mL of BM-H. The first 2 concentrations were able to significantly decrease OCI-AML3 cell number. This reduced cell number was associated with decreased S-phase, blockade of G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and increased cell death. Similar results were obtained on all tested tumor cell lines of different origins. We found that blockade of the cell cycle was a result of upregulation of p21 protein in a p53-independent way. Increase of p21 was possibly a result of upstream upregulation of p-ERK (which stabilizes p21 protein) and downregulation of p-38 (which promotes its degradation). Regarding cell death, activation of caspase-3, but not of caspase-8 or -9, was detectable after BM-H treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that BM-H inhibited proliferation of cell lines mainly by a p21-dependent, p53-independent mechanism and promoted apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 but not caspase-8 or -9. PMID:28110563

  4. The Hexane Fraction of Bursera microphylla A Gray Induces p21-Mediated Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects in Human Cancer-Derived Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, Sabrina; Fierabracci, Alessandra; Gigliarelli, Giulia; Muscari, Isabella; Cannarile, Lorenza; Liberati, Anna Marina; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Riccardi, Carlo; Curini, Massimo; Robles Zepeda, Ramon Enrique; Delfino, Domenico V

    2017-09-01

    Bursera microphylla (BM), one of the common elephant trees, is widely distributed in the Sonoran desert in Mexico. The Seri ethnic group in the Sonoran desert uses BM as an anti-inflammatory and painkiller drug for the treatment of sore throat, herpes labialis, abscessed tooth, and wound healing. Dried stems and leaves of BM are used in a tea to relieve painful urination and to stimulate bronchial secretion. Furthermore, BM is used for fighting venereal diseases. To investigate the effects of the hexane fraction of resin methanol extract (BM-H) on cell growth, the acute myeloid cell line (OCI-AML3) was treated with 250, 25, or 2.5 µg/mL of BM-H. The first 2 concentrations were able to significantly decrease OCI-AML3 cell number. This reduced cell number was associated with decreased S-phase, blockade of G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle, and increased cell death. Similar results were obtained on all tested tumor cell lines of different origins. We found that blockade of the cell cycle was a result of upregulation of p21 protein in a p53-independent way. Increase of p21 was possibly a result of upstream upregulation of p-ERK (which stabilizes p21 protein) and downregulation of p-38 (which promotes its degradation). Regarding cell death, activation of caspase-3, but not of caspase-8 or -9, was detectable after BM-H treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that BM-H inhibited proliferation of cell lines mainly by a p21-dependent, p53-independent mechanism and promoted apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 but not caspase-8 or -9.

  5. The Hexane Fraction of Bursera microphylla A. Gray Induces p21-Mediated Anti-Proliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects in Human Cancer-Derived Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, Sabrina; Fierabracci, Alessandra; Gigliarelli, Giulia; Muscari, Isabella; Cannarile, Lorenza; Liberati, Anna Marina; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Riccardi, Carlo; Curini, Massimo; Robles Zepeda, Ramon Enrique; Delfino, Domenico V

    2018-03-01

    Bursera microphylla (BM), one of the common elephant trees, is widely distributed in the Sonoran Desert in Mexico. The Seri ethnic group in the Sonoran Desert uses BM as an anti-inflammatory and painkiller drug for the treatment of sore throat, herpes labialis, abscessed tooth, and wound healing. Dried stems and leaves of BM are used in a tea to relieve painful urination and to stimulate bronchial secretion. Furthermore, BM is used for fighting venereal diseases. To investigate the effects of the hexane fraction of resin methanol extract (BM-H) on cell growth, the acute myeloid cell line (OCI-AML3) was treated with 250, 25, or 2.5 µg/mL of BM-H. The first 2 concentrations were able to significantly decrease OCI-AML3 cell number. This reduced cell number was associated with decreased S-phase, blockade of the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle, and increased cell death. Similar results were obtained on all tested tumor cell lines of different origins. We found that blockade of the cell cycle was due to upregulation of p21 protein in a p53-independent way. Increase of p21 was possibly due to upstream upregulation of p-ERK (which stabilizes p21 protein) and downregulation of p-38 (which promotes its degradation). Regarding cell death, activation of caspase-3, but not of caspase-8 or -9, was detectable after BM-H treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that the BM's hexane fraction inhibited proliferation of cell lines mainly by a p21-dependent, p53-independent mechanism and promoted apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, but not caspase-8 or -9.

  6. Cytotoxic Podophyllotoxin Type-Lignans from the Steam Bark of Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides

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    Laura Alvarez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of the steam bark of B. fagaroides var. fagaroides displayed potent cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines, namely KB (ED50 = 9.6 × 10−2 μg/mL, PC-3 (ED50 = 2.5 × 10−1 μg/mL, MCF-7 (ED50 = 6.6 μg/mL, and HF-6 (ED50 = 7.1 × 10−3 μg/mL. This extract also showed anti-tumour activity when assayed on mice inoculated with L5178Y lymphoma cells. Bioactivity-directed isolation of this extract, afforded seven podophyllotoxin-type lignans identified as podophyllotoxin (1, β-peltatin-A-methylether (2, 5′-desmethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (3, desmethoxy-yatein (4, desoxypodophyllotoxin (5, burseranin (6, and acetyl podophyllotoxin (7 by 1D and 2DNMR and FAB-MS analyses, and comparison with reported values. All the isolated compounds showed potent cytotoxic activity in the cell lines tested, especially compound 3, which exhibited greater activity than camptothecin and podophyllotoxin against PC-3 (ED50 = 1.0 × 10−5 μg/mL, and KB (ED50 = 1.0 × 10−5 μg/mL. This is the first report of the isolation of podophyllotoxin and its acetate in a Bursera species.

  7. Phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from the endophyte Hypoxylon anthochroum strain Blaci isolated from Bursera lancifolia (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Benítez, Á; Medina-Romero, Y M; Sánchez-Fernández, R E; Lappe-Oliveras, P; Roque-Flores, G; Duarte Lisci, G; Herrera Suárez, T; Macías-Rubalcava, M L

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the phytotoxic, antifungal and antioomycete activity; and, determine the chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile metabolites produced by the endophyte Hypoxylon anthochroum strain Blaci isolated from Bursera lancifolia. Based on its macro- and micro-morphological features, the strain Blaci was identified as Nodulisporium sp.; partial analysis of its ITS1-5.8-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence revealed the identity of the teleomorphic stage of the fungus as H. anthochroum. Phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of VOCs, and culture medium and mycelium organic extracts from H. anthochroum Blaci were determined by simple and multiple antagonism bioassays, and gas phase and agar dilution bioassays respectively. The volatile and semi-volatile metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. VOCs from a 5-day H. anthochroum strain Blaci culture caused the inhibition of seed germination, root elongation and seedling respiration on Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Panicum miliaceum, Trifolium pratense and Medicago sativa. In addition, extracts, phenylethyl alcohol and eucalyptol main compounds present in the VOCs and extract displayed a high phytotoxic activity, inhibiting the three physiological processes on the four test plants in a concentration-dependent manner. The results revealed that H. anthochroum strain Blaci produces a mixture of VOCs. These VOCs showed a strong phytotoxic activity on seed germination, root elongation, and seedling respiration of four plants and slightly affected the growth of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Also, the culture medium and mycelium extracts of H. anthochroum showed a high phytotoxic activity on the four test plants and, generally, the culture medium extract was more phytotoxic than the mycelium extracts. This work firstly reports the phytotoxic activity of volatile and semi-volatile compounds produced by the endophyte H. anthochroum strain Blaci on seed

  8. The Effect of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Dill ( Anethum graveolens( Seed on Lipid Profile in Diabetic Male Rats

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    M Askari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, Diabetes is prevalent in different societies, and hyperlipidemia is one of the important outcomes and effective in the development of complications from this disease. Therefore, finding a medication to reduce hyperlipidemia without an adverse effects on blood sugar levels has always been investigated. Some studies have been reported the beneficial effects of the aerial parts of Anethum graveolens on lipid levels in the clinical and animal models. As there is no study on the effect of dill seed extract on blood lipid levels in diabetic rats; the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dill seed extract on lipid profile in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 rats with a weight range of 200 to 250 g were randomly divided into three groups of eight, including normal group, diabetic group (received normal saline and diabetic group (received seed extract to 100 mg /kg. To induce diabetes, the rats were received streptozocin (50 mg /kg, intraperitoneally. The dill seed extract was given for four weeks and then the blood samples were collected to measure LDL, HDL and triglyceride. The differences between the control and treatment groups were tested by one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test. Results: Induction of diabetes significantly increased the serum concentration of LDL and triglycerides compared with the control group (p=0.001, but no effect was seen on HDL levels. Dill Oral administration of seed extract-dose (100 mg/kg animal serum concentration of LDL significantly reduced in comparison with diabetic group (p=0.001. The triglyceride serum levels was significantly reduced compared to diabetic group after 4 weeks administration of dill seed extract (p<0.001, but no effect was observed on HDL in comparison to diabetic group (p=0.54. Conclusion: The results showed that the dill seed extract was able to reduce the serum levels of LDL and triglyceride in the

  9. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

    OpenAIRE

    F.S. Barbosa; G.L.D. Leite; E.R. Martins; R.E.M. Guanabens; F.W.S. Silva

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae), Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae) e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo), nas três plantas estudadas, em relação...

  10. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

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    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli , Acinetoba c ter baumanii , Pseudomona sp y Staphyloc o ccus aureus . Método . Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación simple empleando alcohol etílico como solvente, la composición química se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gases. La actividad antimicrobia na de cada uno de los extractos de plantas se realizó por los métodos difusión en pozo y difusión en disco. Resultados . Las bacterias mostraron diferentes grados de sensibilidad a los extractos, prese n tando inhibición de crecimiento S. aureus con el extra cto de O. vulgare y R. graveolens , mientras que la bacteria Pseudomona sp. , con los extracto s de A. ludoviciana, L. tridentata y O. vulgare . Discusión . La mayor concentración de timol y carvacrol se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y L. tridentata . El compuesto linalol se encontró en una proporción mayor en O. vulgare y en menor proporción en A. ludoviciana . Limoneno se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y R. graveolens . De las cuatro plantas evaluadas, el extracto de L. tridentata fue mejor , de bido a que presenta la mayor inhibición en comparación con los otros extractos; y con un efecto similar a los aceites empleados como control. La técnica de dif u sión en disco, permitió observar mejor los efectos inhibitorios de los extra c tos y los aceites s obre cada una de las bacterias empleadas en comparación con el método de difusión en pozo.

  11. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

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    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  12. Bioactivity of Ruta graveolens and Satureja montana Essential Oils on Solanum tuberosum Hairy Roots and Solanum tuberosum Hairy Roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi Co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Rodrigues, Ana M; Sena, Inês; Moiteiro, Cristina; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2016-10-12

    As a nematotoxics screening biotechnological system, Solanum tuberosum hairy roots (StHR) and S. tuberosum hairy roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi co-cultures (StHR/CRKN) were evaluated, with and without the addition of the essential oils (EOs) of Satureja montana and Ruta graveolens. EOs nematotoxic and phytotoxic effects were followed weekly by evaluating nematode population density in the co-cultures as well as growth and volatile profiles of both in vitro cultures types. Growth, measured by the dissimilation method and by fresh and dry weight determination, was inhibited after EO addition. Nematode population increased in control cultures, while in EO-added cultures numbers were kept stable. In addition to each of the EOs main components, and in vitro cultures constitutive volatiles, new volatiles were detected by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in both culture types. StHR with CRKN co-cultures showed to be suitable for preliminary assessment of nematotoxic EOs.

  13. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  14. Determinacion del efecto antiinflamatorio de los extractos hexánicos, etanólicos y clorofórmicos de las plantas medicinales: Bursera aloexylon, Amphypteryngium adstringens, Tilia mexicana, Verbascum thapsus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia hispanica, Aloe vera, Opuntia ficus-indica en un modelo animal

    OpenAIRE

    Baez Castillo, Glenda

    2007-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de los extractos hexánico, de etanólico y de clorofórmico de las siguientes plantas medicinales del estado de Puebla: Bursera aloexylon (linaloe), Amphypterygium adstringens (cuachalalate), Tilia mexicana (tila), Verbascum thapsus (gordolobo), Rosmarinus officinalis (romero), Salvia hispanica (chía), Aloe vera (sábila), Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal). La planta seca y molida (100g) se dejó macer...

  15. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (< 200 mg/dL. Además, Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce variaciones en los niveles de triacilglicéridos (110-120 mg/dL y colesterol (116-124 mg/dL. En conclusión la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa ejerce efectos hipoglucemicos en una manera dosis dependiente en comparación con Ruta graveolens y Citrus aurantium. Además, las plantas evaluadas inducen cambios en los niveles de lípidos dependiente de la dosis.

  16. Aislamiento e identificación de alcaloides mutagénicos de las hojas de Ruta Graveolens L. por métodos espectroscópicos UV-IR

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel Pérez, José; Fuertes Ruitón, César; Instituto de Química Orgánica Aplicada a la Farmacia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Amiel Peña, David Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research has been to iso late and identify the alkaloids from the leaves of Ruta graveolens L., and to relate their chemical structure with the mutagenic activity of the leaves, which was demonstrated in a previous report. It were isolated four alkaloids named "A", "1 ", "2" and "3" which were structurally elucidated by their melting point, chemical reactions and by UV and IR spectroscopy. The alkaloid "A" was identified as acridone alkaloid, and the alkaloid "1" and "2" w...

  17. Energy management with TRIANA on FPAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Hurink, Johann L.; Konsman, Mente J.

    2015-01-01

    The current growth of smart grid capable appliances motivates the development of general and flexible software systems to support these devices. The FlexiblePower Application Infrastructure (FPAI) is such a system, which classifies devices by their type of flexibility. Subsequently, energy

  18. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

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    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  19. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano.

  20. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K. and European (Origanum vulgare L. Oregano Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Hernández-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO’s of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO’s was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME. The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO’s was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO’s and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO’s varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol and γ-terpinene (pentane as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO’s showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO’s remained the same, while free EO’s decreased 41% (MXO and 67% (EUO from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO’s from oregano.

  1. High-resolution gas-chromatographic analysis of the secondary metabolites obtained by subcritical-fluid extraction from Colombian rue (Ruta graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, E E; Acosta, R; Martínez, J R

    2000-07-05

    Subcritical (CO(2)) extraction, carried out in a J&W Scientific High Pressure Soxhlet Extractor, was used to isolate secondary metabolites from leaves, flowers, stems and roots of Colombian rue (Ruta graveolens L.). The various extracts were analyzed by capillary chromatography, on an HP-5 (30 m) column, using nitrogen-phosphorus, flame ionization, and mass selective detection systems. Kováts indexes and mass spectra (electron impact, 70 eV) were employed for compound identification. The extracts from the various parts of rue studied had different compositions. The number of compounds detected at concentrations above 0.01% (w/w) in the extracts from leaves, flowers, stems and roots, was 78, 45, 25 and 24, respectively. 2-Nonanone (8.9%), 2-undecanone (13.4%), chalepensin (13.0%), and geijerene (19.3%) were the main constituents found in the extracts from rue leaves, flowers, stems and roots, respectively. Furanocoumarins, furoquinolines, hydrocarbons and benzodioxol derivatives were the main compound families found in all extracts, at total concentrations between 3.7 and 33.9%, depending on the part of the plant. The extraction method used has low environmental impact and produced solvent-free extracts in good yield with no pigments, waxes, resins, or high-molecular weight compounds which may interfere with the isolation and analysis of the alkaloids responsible for rue's biological activity, which were extracted in relatively high yield.

  2. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) Oregano Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  3. Control in vitro de Botrytis (Botrytis cinerea), Mildiu (Bremia lactucae) Y Esclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) en lechuga (Lactuca sativa), usando extractos de Cola de Caballo (Equisetum arvense), Ortiga (Urtica dioica L.), Ruda (Ruta graveolens) y Tomillo (Thymus vulgaris).

    OpenAIRE

    Tayupanta Rodríguez, Verónica Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó el control biológico de Botrytis cinerea, Bremia lactucae y Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, con 4 extractos de plantas: Ruta graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, Equisetum arvense y Trichoderma harzianum como tratamiento adicional. Se realizaron ensayos en laboratorio dentro de cajas Petri, donde se inoculó el hongo obtenido previamente en cultivo puro, junto con los extractos de cada planta para evaluar el halo de inhibición y se realizó el conteo del número de UFC (Unidades f...

  4. Estudio comparativo de la composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ruta graveolens L. recolectada en los estados Mérida y Miranda, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from two R. graveolens samples collected from Mérida and Miranda states, Venezuela, were analyzed by GC/MS identifying as major components: 2-undecanone, 2-nonanonae and pregeijerene. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity assays showed the wide range of activity of the oils that inhibited the bacterial strains grow not only for the Gram positive (S. aureus and E. faecalis but the Gram negative (E. coli and K. pneumonie as well, displaying MIC values between 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL.

  5. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control.

  6. Isolation, purification, and identification of the main phenolic compounds from leaves of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill./Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoyan; Zhuang, Linwu; Song, Dandan; Lu, Chunliang; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    We developed a simple and meaningful preparative method for the separation and purification of the main phenolic compounds from the leaves of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill./Pers.) and we established an accurate and specific analytical method for the identification of the main phenolic compounds from celery leaves. The crude extract from celery leaves was prefractioned by polyamide resin to enrich the phenolic compounds. They were then purified further by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and seven main phenolic compounds were obtained: including chlorogenic acid, luteolin 7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, apiin, chrysoeriol 7-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-(6''-O-malonyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside, and apigenin 7-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl(1→2)-(6''-O-malonyl)]-β-d-glucopyranoside. Their purities were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were confirmed using UV spectrophotometry, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. Our studies indicate that preparative high-performance liquid chromatography combined with polyamide resin is a simple and meaningful preparative method for the separation and purification of phenolic compounds from the leaves of celery or other plants, and the use of UV spectrophotometry, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy is an accurate and specific analytical method for the identification of phenolic compounds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Effects of Drought Stress on Morphological Traits and Yield of Three Medicinal Plants ( Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens in Greenhouse Conditions.

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    S. R Amiri Deh Ahmadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the important problems in arid and semi_arid regions. drought stress take place in plants when available water is lesser than evapotranspiration. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on morphological traits and yield of three medicinal plants an experiment was carried out during the 2010 year in research greenhouse of faculity of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in a factoriel arrengement based on a Completely Randomized Block Design with four replications. factors include 4 drought stress levels: Field capacity (100%, 75%, 50% and FC25% and 3 medicinal plants include: Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare and Aniethum graveolens. The traits such as plant height, leaf number per plant, number of lateral branches per plant, umbrellas per plant, umbels per umbrellas, seed number per plant, seed weight per plant, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were measured. Results showed that decreasing content of water in soil lesser than field capacity had significant effects on all of these traits. Coriandrum sativum in FC25% had maximum seed number in umbrellas(14 number, seed number per plant(27 number, Umbrellas per plant(4 number, umbels per umbrellas(10 number and 1000 seeds weight (6.5 gr. also Foeniculum vulgare in FC25% had minimum seed number in umbrellas(2 number, seed number per plant(2 number. Umbrellas per plant(0.25number, umbels per umbrellas(0.5 number and 1000 seeds weight (0.15 gr. Harvest index positive correlation with seed weight per plant and 1000 seeds weight.

  8. Atividade in vitro de plantas condimentares (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. contra o calicivírus felino

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    Thaís Felli Kubiça

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O calicivírus felino (FCV é um importante patógeno de gatos que causa lesões ulcerativas orais e infecções respiratórias. O vírus tem sido utilizado como modelo experimental para avaliação de agente antivirais contra norovírus (NoVs. Nesse estudo, investigou-se a ação dos óleos essenciais de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L., orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens HBK. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. frente ao FCV, in vitro. A toxicidade celular foi testada pelo método de MTT e os ensaios antivirais pelo teste de redução de placas. Três protocolos foram aplicados: a diferentes concentrações não tóxicas dos óleos essenciais (CNTOE foram incubadas com o vírus por 1 hora antes da inoculação (ensaio virucida; b CNTOE foram adicionadas às células CRFK e incubadas por 1 hora antes da adsorção viral (ensaio de pré-tratamento; c CNTOE foram adicionadas às células após a inoculação do FCV e mantidas por 18 horas (ensaio de pós-tratamento. A CC50 para os óleos de alecrim, orégano mexicano e tomilho foram: 1300,21 μg mL-1; 435,92 μg mL-1 e 675,34 μg mL-1; respectivamente. O óleo essencial de tomilho apresentou índice de seletividade [IS=CC50/CI50] de 8,57 para o ensaio de pré-tratamento e 6,2 no ensaio virucida. O óleo de alecrim mostrou atividade antiviral no ensaio virucida (IS=6,54 e de pós-tratamento (IS=6,86. O orégano mexicano apresentou IS de 5,75 no ensaio virucida e 5,59 no de pós-tratamento. Conclui-se que os óleos essenciais de tomilho e alecrim apresentaram atividade frente ao FCV em diferentes momentos da infecção viral.Palavras-chave: Norovírus. FCV. óleos essenciais. Citotoxicidade. MTT. ensaio de placa. ABSTRACTIn vitro activity of plants used as condiments (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. against the feline calicivirusThe feline calicivirus (FCV is an important pathogen of feline causing oral ulcerative lesions and respiratory disease. This virus

  9. Trade in Andean Condor Vulture gryphus feathers and body parts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    made from Palo Santo Bursera graveolens wood with one or several Andean Condor feathers, a clear crystal inserted in the base of the handle and leather strapping. They are purported to help clean bad energies and are sold in stores that focus on quasi- shamanic healing therapies and products. Prices ranged from 120 ...

  10. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germinativa, los menores tiempos de germinación y el vigor más alto. La pérdida total de vigor en las semillas varió según el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento así: al cabo de un mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 7 y 10ºC, al sexto mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 20 y 33ºC y al undécimo mes cuando fueron almacenadas a temperatura ambiente entre 12 y 18ºC. El tipo de empaque no influyó significativamente en los resultados finales.Two studies of diomate seeds (Astronium graveolens Jacq were conducted. The first was conducted to determine the effect that substrate and light condition has on germination. The second was to evaluate the germinative response of seeds stored over differing time periods and under temperature and packaging conditions. The diomate seeds sowed in full exposure in soil substrate had the greatest germinative potential, the fastest germination times and the highest vigor. The total loss of vigor in the seeds varied according to time and temperature of storage, as follows: after a month of storage at temperatures between 7 and 10ºC, after six months of storage at temperatures between 20 and 33ºC and after eleven months of storage at ambient temperatures between 12 and 18ºC. The type of packing did not significantly influence the final results.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Faiza; Allali, Hocine; Bennaceur, Malika; Flamini, Guido

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%), and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%). The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19 - 1250 μg/ml. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/ml. These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC 50 =25.6μL·L -1 ), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC 50 =49.8μL·L -1 ) and A. citriodora (LC 50 =65.6μL·L -1 ), while the other essential oils showed LC 50 values higher than 90μL·L -1 . The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC 50 =18.3μL·L -1 ). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC 50 (72.5μL·L -1 ) higher than the LC 50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito

  13. Treatment with Ruta graveolens 5CH and Rhus toxicodendron 9CH may reduce joint pain and stiffness linked to aromatase inhibitors in women with early breast cancer: results of a pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jean-Claude; Sanchez, Carole; Guilbert, Philippe; Mina, William; Demonceaux, Antoine; Curé, Hervé

    2016-11-01

    To determine the possible effect of two homeopathic medicines, Ruta graveolens 5CH and Rhus toxicodendron 9CH, in the prevention of aromatase inhibitor (AI) associated joint pain and/or stiffness in women with early, hormone-receptor positive, breast cancer. This prospective, unrandomized observational study was carried out between April and October 2014. Women were recruited in two groups, according to which of the two study centres they attended: one receiving homeopathy in addition to standard treatment (group H) and a control group, receiving standard treatment (group C). All women were treated with an AI. In addition, women in group H also took Ruta graveolens 5CH and Rhus toxicodendron 9CH (5 granules, twice a day) up to 7 days before starting AI treatment. The homeopathic medicines were continued for 3 months. Demographic and clinical data were recorded using a self-assessment questionnaire at inclusion (T0) and 3 months (T3). Primary evaluation criteria were the evolution of scores for joint pain and stiffness, the impact of pain on sleep and analgesic consumption in the two groups after 3 months of treatment. Forty patients (mean age 64.9±8.1 years) were recruited, 20 in each group. Two-thirds of the patients had joint pain before starting AI treatment. There was a significant difference in the evolution of mean composite pain score between T0 and T3 in the two groups (-1.3 in group H vs. +3.4 in group C; p=0.0001). The individual components of the pain score (frequency, intensity and number of sites of pain) also decreased significantly in group H. Nine patients in group C (45%) vs. 1 (5%) in group H increased their analgesic consumption between T0 and T3 (p=0.0076). After 3 months of treatment, joint pain had a worse impact on sleep in patients in group C (35% vs. 0% of patients; p=0.0083). The differences observed in the evolution of morning and daytime stiffness between the two groups were smaller (p=0.053 and p=0.33, respectively), with the exception

  14. Protective role of terpenes and polyphenols from three species of Oregano (Lippia graveolens, Lippia palmeri and Hedeoma patens) on the suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-López, Nayely; Nair, Vimal; Bang, Woo Young; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Heredia, J Basilio

    2016-07-01

    Mexican oregano infusions have been traditionally used in México for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases, such as respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches and rheumatism, among others. Nevertheless, there is limited information regarding the phenolic compounds, terpenes and composition as well as biological activity of Mexican oregano. To determine the phenolic and terpene composition and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of three species of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens (LG), Lippia palmeri (LP) and Hedeoma patens (HP)) in order to provide a scientific basis for their use. We obtained methanol and chloroform extracts from dried oregano leaves of each species. We used LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS to determine the phenolic and terpene profiles of the leaves, respectively. We evaluated anti-inflammatory potential by measuring the effect of Mexican oregano extracts on some pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) using lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and evaluating cyclooxygenase activity (COX-1, COX-2). Nine phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and 22 terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) were detected in LG, LP and HP. We studied extracts from LG, LP and HP, and fractions from LG and LP in order to know their effect on some pro-inflammatory mediators. The phenolic and terpene extracts from LG, LP and HP exhibited significant inhibitory effect on ROS and NO production and mitochondrial activity in LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Nitric oxide production was also diminished by the terpene LG fraction LGF2 and the LP fractions LPF1, LPF2 and LPF3, confirming that both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are active compounds of oregano. Furthermore, the total extracts of LG, LP and HP exhibited non-selective inhibitions against the activity of the cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2. Our results suggest that Lippia graveolens

  15. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Ruta graveolens L. sob influência de fenantreno e benzo[a]pireno

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    Siomara Dias da Costa Lemos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A exposição a contaminantes orgânicos como os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos tem atraído considerável atenção devido aos efeitos dessas substâncias sobre a saúde humana, o ambiente e o desenvolvimento vegetal. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do fenantreno e do benzo[a]pireno sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal in vitro de R. graveolens. Sementes comerciais descontaminadas foram inoculadas em tubos de ensaio com meio MS suplementado com 0 (controle; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e 0 (controle; 0,001; 0,01 e 0,1 mg L-1 de benzo[a]pireno. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sementes germinadas, o índice de velocidade de germinação e a entropia. Após dois meses, avaliou-se o comprimento da parte aérea e radicular e contabilizou-se o número de folhas desenvolvidas. Durante o primeiro mês, a presença do fenantreno não alterou o processo germinativo, enquanto que o benzo[a]pireno na concentração de 0,01 mg L-1 proporcionou aumento significativo da germinação (p≤0,05. Durante o segundo mês, as concentrações de 5,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e de 0,001 mg L-1 benzo[a]pireno resultaram em desenvolvimento radicular significativamente superior. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas quanto à fitomassa, ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e número de folhas por plântulas. Tais resultados sugerem potencial para o cultivo de R. graveolens em áreas contaminadas, nos níveis investigados.

  16. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  17. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Evaluation of antistress activity. Rats of both sexes weighing between 150 and 200 g were weight-matched and divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV), each containing five animals in metabolic cages that were designed to facilitate the collection of urine. Twenty four hour urine samples from each group were collected into ...

  18. Comparison of Current Chemical and Stereochemical Tests for the Identification and Differentiation of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. (Geraniaceae Essential Oils: Analytical Data for (--(1S, 4R, 5S-Guaia-6,9-diene and (--(7R,10S-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain sesquiterpenes, viz., (-- guaia-6,9-diene and (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol. The stereochemical tests include the stereochemical distribution of i citronellol, ii menthone and isomenthone, and iii rose oxides. The most reliable chemical test was the presence or absence of the sesquiterpene probes. The stereochemical tests proved to be less reliable. Most of the tests could be used to classify geranium oils into general types; however, none of the tests provided a foolproof method to distinguish cultivars or country of origin. During this study, the ambiguity in the absolute stereochemistry of (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol and (--guaia-6,9-diene was addressed, and these two sesquiterpenes could serve as effective markers for the authentication of P. graveolens essential oils.

  19. Fruit ontogeny of Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae Ontogênese do fruto de Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eglaé Camargo Asinelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae is a small to medium-sized tree that usually occurs on the floodplains of the Paraná River and it is an important food source for the local inhabitants. The fruit itself is consumed in natura, and juices and sweets are made from it. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological and structural aspects of fruits and seeds of this species in order to classify the fruit type and the pulpy layer which involves the seeds. The material analyzed consisted of ovary and fruits in different stages of development, collected from five plants from Aurélio Island, Baía River (MS, BR and the description was done according to standard procedures in anatomy. The fruit is a yellowish-orange spherical berry ("bacóide" type. The smooth, coriaceous skin consists of the lignified exocarp. The endocarp cell layers are derived from the activity of an adaxial meristem that undergoes radial elongation. The edible sweet white pulp is formed by the endocarp, as well as the spongy mesocarp, in which the secretory ducts lose their function. The unitegmic anatropous ovules develop into anatropous exalbuminous seeds with a collapsed and undifferentiated testa. The embryo is hypocotylar. The features here described generally occur in Clusioideae-Garcinieae and Symphonieae.Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae é árvore de pequeno a médio porte frequente na Planície de Inundação do Alto Rio Paraná e de importância na alimentação das populações ribeirinhas, sendo consumida in natura e na forma de sucos e doces. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie como contribuição à classificação do tipo de fruto e da porção carnosa e comestível que envolve as sementes. Ovários e frutos, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento foram coletados de cinco espécimes de uma população localizada na ilha do Aurélio, rio Baía (MS, BR e processados segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal. O fruto é bacóide, esférico, de coloração amarelo-alaranjado. A casca é lisa e coriácea, constituída pelo exocarpo lignificado. O endocarpo é derivado da atividade de um meristema adaxial, cujas células alongam-se radialmente. A polpa tem coloração branca, comestível, de sabor doce, de origem principalmente endocárpica, mas é constituída também por parte do mesocarpo esponjoso, cujos ductos perdem a funcionalidade. Os óvulos anátropos e unitegumentados originam sementes também anátropas, exalbuminosas, com testa colapsada. O embrião é hipocotilar. Os caracteres aqui descritos de maneira geral são comuns a Clusioideae-Garcinieae e Symphonieae.

  20. Antioxidant activity and total phenols from the methanolic extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Laís Goyos; de Rezende, Fernanda Mendes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia

    2011-11-10

    Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC). The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E)-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  1. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Pieroni, Lais Goyos [UNESP; de Rezende, Fernanda Mendes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias [UNESP; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxida...

  2. Antidiarrhoea and toxicological evaluation of the leaf extract of Dissotis rotundifolia triana (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoto Pius E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves of Dissotis rotundifolia are used ethnomedically across Africa without scientific basis or safety concerns. Determination of its phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity, effects on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT as well as toxicological profile will provide supportive scientific evidence in favour of its continous usage. Method Chemical and chromatographic tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Inhibitory activity against clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were compared with Gentamycin. Our report includes minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the tested organisms. The effect of the ethanol extract on the motility of the GIT in mice using the charcoal plug method and castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats was evaluated. Toxicological evaluation was determined by administering 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of extracts on male Wistar rats for 14 days with normal saline as control. The tissues of the kidneys, liver, heart and testes were examined. Results Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin and cardiac glycosides. The crude ethanol extract and fractions inhibited the growth of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhi to varying extents. The degree of transition exhibited by the charcoal meal was dose-dependent. In the castor oil induced diarrhoea test, all the doses showed anti-spasmodic effects. The LD50 in mice was above 500 mg/kg body weight. Toxicological evaluation at 500 mg/kg showed increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia and densely stained nuclei of the liver, tubular necrosis of the kidney, presence of ill-defined testes with indistinct cell outlines and no remarkable changes in the heart. Conclusion Ethanol extracts of Dissotis rotundifolia have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of selected microorganisms. The plant showed potential for application in the treatment of diarrhoea, thereby justifying its usage across Africa. It also demonstrated toxicity in certain organs at the dose of 500 mg/kg, and it will be necessary to fully establish its safety profile.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenols from the Methanolic Extract of Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lígia Dokkedal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Miconia is one of the largest genus of the Melastomataceae, with approximately 1,000 species. Studies aiming to describe the diverse biological activities of the Miconia species have shown promising results, such as analgesic, antimicrobial and trypanocidal properties. M. albicans leaves were dried, powdered and extracted to afford chloroformic and methanolic extracts. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic extract were determined according to modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured using AAPH and DPPH radical assays. Chemical analysis was performed with the n-butanol fraction of the methanolic extract and the chloroformic extract, using different chromatographic techniques (CC, HPLC. The structural elucidation of compounds was performed using 500 MHz NMR and HPLC methods. The methanolic extract showed a high level of total phenolic contents; the results with antioxidant assays showed that the methanolic extract, the n-butanolic fraction and the isolated flavonoids from M. albicans had a significant scavenging capacity against AAPH and DPPH. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, 3-(E-p-coumaroyl-α-amyrin was isolated from the n-butanolic fraction and α-amyrin, epi-betulinic acid, ursolic acid, epi-ursolic acid from the chloroformic extract. The results presented in this study demonstrate that M. albicans is a promising species in the search for biologically active compounds.

  4. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  5. Triana: a control strategy for Smart Grids: Forecasting, planning & real-time control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand, extra fluctuation and a large share of distributed electricity generation will put more stress on the electricity supply chain. Therefore, changes are required in the supply chain to maintain a properly functioning, stable and affordable grid. Currently the supply chain is

  6. Managing energy in time and space in smart grids using TRIANA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    Increasing electrification will push low-voltage networks to the limits of their capacity and imposes serious threats to the supplied power quality (PQ). Demand side management (DSM) is often seen as a promising solution. In this paper we exploit network models to improve the performance of DSM on a

  7. Controlling the heating mode of heat pumps with the TRIANA three step methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Nykamp, Stefan; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Heat pump based heating systems are increasingly becoming an economic and efficient alternative for domestic gas heating systems. Concentrations of heat pump installations do consume large amounts of electricity, causing significant grid distribution and stability issues when the diversity factor is

  8. DNA fingerprinting for the authentication of Ruta graveolens | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The random decamer oligonucleotide primers (42) were screened for identification of genuine and adulterant samples using the DNA isolated from the dried leaf, seed and stem of both samples. Out of 42 primers, 10 gave faint band, 12 gave species-specific reproducible unique band and the remaining did not amplify the ...

  9. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholeti, Maria C; Duprat, Rodrigo C; Figueiredo, Maria R; Kaplan, Maria AC; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Ratcliffe, Norman A; Feder, Denise; Paiva, Selma R; Mello, Cicero B

    2015-01-01

    Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L), however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L) isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis. PMID:26200711

  10. Planificación estratégica aplicada a las PYMES, caso Importaciones Triana y Asociados Importriana Cia. Ltda.

    OpenAIRE

    Asimbaya Buenaño, Juan Francisco

    2007-01-01

    141 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 0939 En el primer capítulo se hace una introducción del comercio internacional, sus antecedentes, su importancia y sus formas de integración, seguido de los aspectos generales de la empresa Importriana Cia. Ltda., objeto de esta investigación. 2. Análisis Situacional. El segundo capítulo engloba los diferentes parámetros externos e internos de la empresa. Dentro del análisis externo, encontramos al macroambiente (análisis económico, político...

  11. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensisPlanch. & Triana againstAedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Anholeti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone, against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L, however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis.

  12. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM BARK OF BURSERA APTERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Yañez, O. J.; Resendiz-Albor, A. A.; Ruiz-Hurtado, P. A.; Rivera-Yañez, N.; Rodriguez-Canales, M.; Rodriguez-Sosa, M.; Juarez-Avelar, I.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M. G.; Canales-Martinez, M. M.; Rodriguez-Monroy, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis lacks effective and well-tolerated treatments. The current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy. Traditional medicine offers a complementary alternative for the treatment of various diseases. Additionally, several plants have shown success as anti-leishmanial agents. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of MEBA against Leishmania mexicana. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of B. aptera was obtained by macetration, after we determined in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of MEBA by MTT assay and the induced apoptosis in promastigotes by flow cytometry. To analyze the in vivo anti-leishmanial activity, we used infected mice that were treated and not treated with MEBA and we determined the levels of cytokines using ELISA. The phytochemical properties were determined by CG-MS and DPPH assay. Results: We determined of LC50 of 0.408 mg/mL of MEBA for in vitro anti-leishmanial activity. MEBA induced apoptosis in promastigotes (15.3% ± 0.86). Treated mice exhibited smaller lesions and contained significantly fewer parasites than did untreated mice; in addition, we found that IFN-γ and TNF-α increased in the sera of MEBA-treated mice. GC-MS analysis showed that podophyllotoxin was the most abundant compound. Evaluation of the activity by DPPH assay demonstrated an SC50 of 11.72 μg/mL. Conclusion: Based on the above data, it was concluded that MEBA is a good candidate in the search for new anti-leishmanial agents. PMID:28573235

  13. Muscodor yucatenensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the dry tropical forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or huk´up by indigenous mayas. ...

  14. 77 FR 61835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... herbs. Tree species may include Bursera simaruba (gumbo limbo), Coccoloba uvifera (seagrape... Bursera simaruba, Conocarpus erectus, Eugenia foetida, and Pithecellobium unguis-cati (catclaw blackbead... species include Bursera simaruba, Lysiloma latisiliquum (false tamarind), Coccoloba diversifolia (pigeon...

  15. 78 FR 62560 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Agave eggersiana and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... pear, Pilosocereus royenii (Royen's tree, Suriana maritima (bay cedar), Bursera simaruba (gumbo limbo... (whitewood), Pilosocereus royenii (Royen's tree cactus, or sebuc n), Bursera simaruba (gumbo limbo, or...

  16. 77 FR 40171 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Two Foreign Macaw Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... include: Brosimum alicastrum (Maya nut, ram n), Bunchosia montana (no common name (ncn)), Bursera aptera (ncn), Bursera schlechtendalii (ncn), Celtis caudate (ncn), Cedrela species (cedar fruits), Cyrtocarpa...

  17. Production of oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth seedling from seeds in nursery for transplanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de orégano en vivero es una opción para la obtención de plantas de buena calidad para trasplante. El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de cinco sustratos y cinco contenedores en el crecimiento y calidad de la planta de orégano. Los sustratos fueron: mezcla comercial BM2 (turba, perlita y vermiculita, 80:10:10, BM2 + arena de río (1:1, BM2 + arena de río (1.5:1, BM2 + perlita + vermiculita (1:1:1 y mezcla de composta + arena de río (1.5:1. Los contenedores incluyeron charolas de poliestireno expandido (PE de 200, 128 y 76 cavidades, vaso de PE de 250 cm 3 y bolsa de plástico negro de 712 cm 3 (calibre 150 μm . Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial, con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento. Los sustratos y el tipo de contenedor afectaron el crecimiento y calidad de la planta. Se observó mayor crecimiento de la planta y mayor área foliar en la combinación bolsa y sustrato BM2. Este mismo sustrato y el contenedor bolsa promovieron el índice de calidad de Dickson más alto. La relación peso seco del vástago y peso seco de la raíz fue mayor en los contenedores de mayor volumen.

  18. Application of different fertilizers on morphological traits of dill (Anethum graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fatemeh; Gholami-Borujeni, Fathollah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitroxin biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer on the growth, yield, and essential oil composition of dill. The experiment was conducted under field condition in randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors. The first factor was the concentrations of nitroxin biofertilizer (0%, 50%, and 100%) of the recommended amount (1 l of biological fertilizer for 30 kg of seed). The second factor was the following chemical fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (control) and 50 and 100 kg ha(-1) urea along with 300 kg ha(-1) ammonium phosphate. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of umbel per plant, number of umbellet per umbel, number of grain per umbellet, 1,000 seed weight, grain yield, biological yield, and oil percentage were recorded. According to the results, the highest height, biological yield, and grain yield components (except harvest index) were obtained on biological fertilizer. The results showed the highest essential oil content detected in biological fertilizer and chemical fertilizer. Identification of essential oil composition showed that the content of carvone increased with the application of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers. The results indicated that the application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and other plant criteria in this plant. Generally, it seems that the use of biofertilizers or combinations of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer could improve dill performance in addition to reduction of environmental pollution.

  19. Polysaccharide compositions of collenchyma cell walls from celery (Apium graveolens L.) petioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Harris, Philip J; Sims, Ian M; Zujovic, Zoran; Melton, Laurence D

    2017-06-15

    Collenchyma serves as a mechanical support tissue for many herbaceous plants. Previous work based on solid-state NMR and immunomicroscopy suggested collenchyma cell walls (CWs) may have similar polysaccharide compositions to those commonly found in eudicotyledon parenchyma walls, but no detailed chemical analysis was available. In this study, compositions and structures of cell wall polysaccharides of peripheral collenchyma from celery petioles were investigated. This is the first detailed investigation of the cell wall composition of collenchyma from any plant. Celery petioles were found to elongate throughout their length during early growth, but as they matured elongation was increasingly confined to the upper region, until elongation ceased. Mature, fully elongated, petioles were divided into three equal segments, upper, middle and lower, and peripheral collenchyma strands isolated from each. Cell walls (CWs) were prepared from the strands, which also yielded a HEPES buffer soluble fraction. The CWs were sequentially extracted with CDTA, Na 2 CO 3 , 1 M KOH and 4 M KOH. Monosaccharide compositions of the CWs showed that pectin was the most abundant polysaccharide [with homogalacturonan (HG) more abundant than rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II)], followed by cellulose, and other polysaccharides, mainly xyloglucans, with smaller amounts of heteroxylans and heteromannans. CWs from different segments had similar compositions, but those from the upper segments had slightly more pectin than those from the lower two segments. Further, the pectin in the CWs of the upper segment had a higher degree of methyl esterification than the other segments. In addition to the anticipated water-soluble pectins, the HEPES-soluble fractions surprisingly contained large amounts of heteroxylans. The CDTA and Na 2 CO 3 fractions were rich in HG and RG-I, the 1 M KOH fraction had abundant heteroxylans, the 4 M KOH fraction was rich in xyloglucan and heteromannans, and cellulose was predominant in the final residue. The structures of the xyloglucans, heteroxylans and heteromannans were deduced from the linkage analysis and were similar to those present in most eudicotyledon parenchyma CWs. Cross polarization with magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy showed no apparent difference in the rigid and semi-rigid polysaccharides in the CWs of the three segments. Single-pulse excitation with magic-angle spinning (SPE/MAS) NMR spectroscopy, which detects highly mobile polysaccharides, showed the presence of arabinan, the detailed structure of which varied among the cell walls from the three segments. Celery collenchyma CWs have similar polysaccharide compositions to most eudicotyledon parenchyma CWs. However, celery collenchyma CWs have much higher XG content than celery parenchyma CWs. The degree of methyl esterification of pectin and the structures of the arabinan side chains of RG-I show some variation in the collenchyma CWs from the different segments. Unexpectedly, the HEPES-soluble fraction contained a large amount of heteroxylans.

  20. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vosoughi Amir R

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background hyperlipidemia as a major risk factor of atherosclerosis is treated with different drugs. Concerning length of therapy and vast majority of side effects, herbal medication may be suitable substitute for these drugs. Methods In this single-blind, placebo controlled study, lipid profiles of 150 hyperlipidemic patients in cardiology outpatient department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were checked at same conditions. They were divided into three equal groups randomly (each composing of 50 patients. They were given enteric-coated garlic powder tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic, 1 mg allicin twice daily, anethum tablet (650 mg twice daily, and placebo tablet. All patients were put on NCEP type Π diet and Six weeks later, lipid profiles were checked. Results In garlic group: total cholesterol (decreased by 26.82 mg/dl, 12.1% reduction, and P-value: .000, and LDL-cholesterol (decreased by 22.18 mg/dl, 17.3% reduction, and P-value: .000 dropped. HDL-cholesterol (increased by 10.02 mg/dl, 15.7% increase, and P-value: .000 increased. Although triglyceride dropped by 13.72 mg/dl (6.3% but this was not significant statistically (P-value: .222. In anethum group: surprisingly, triglyceride increased by 14.74 mg/dl (6.0%. Anethum could reduce total cholesterol by 0.4 % and LDL-cholesterol by 6.3% but these were not significant statistically (P-value: .828, and .210, respectively. Conclusion Anethum has no significant effect on lipid profile, but garlic tablet has significant favorable effect on cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Garlic may play an important role in therapy of hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Weed flora in dill (Anethum graveolens L., Apiaceae, Apiales grown in conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljevnaić-Mašić Branka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to compare the weed flora in dill crops maintained conventionally and according to the principles of organic production. Out of 17 weed species noted for the two growing systems, even four (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Datura stramonium L., Sorghum halepense (L. Pers., and Veronica persica Poir. are invasive in Vojvodina region (Serbia. Weed infestation (number of individuals per m2 was significantly higher on the conventional plots (p = 0.0000**. The dominating species in conventional growing system were Convolvulus arvensis, Veronica persica and Chenopodium album (8.00, 6.67 and 5.33 individuals per m2, respectively, while Amaranthus retroflexus dominated on organic plots (8.00 individuals per m2. Regarding life forms of the recorded weed flora, therophytes dominate both in conventional (92.31% and organic (66.67% systems. The observed differences in weed flora are due to the specificities of dill conventional and organic production.

  2. Remoção dos frutos de Miconia albicans (sw. Triana (Melastomataceae por formigas na borda e no interior de um fragmento de Cerrado, Curvelo, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Resende Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a biota do Cerrado e sobre os fatores que influenciam a distribuição das espécies é de suma importância num cenário em que as atividades antrópicas têm levado à destruição e fragmentação deste bioma. Esta pesquisa foi realizada num fragmento de cerrado em Curvelo, Minas Gerais, e teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos de borda sobre fatores relacionados à biologia reprodutiva de Miconia albicans, com atenção particular à dispersão secundária de sementes por formigas. Foram estas variáveis estudadas: (i composição de espécies de formigas interagindo com frutos de M. albicans; (ii taxa de remoção de frutos; (iii tipos de interação entre formigas e frutos; (iv distância de dispersão; (v produção de frutos; (vi abundância e porte de M. albicans. Nove espécies de formigas foram observadas interagindo com frutos de M. albicans. A taxa de remoção de frutos foi de 86% no interior e de 58% na borda do fragmento. A distância de dispersão variou entre 0,10-12 m, e não houve diferença significativa entre os dois ambientes (p = 0,24. Não houve diferença significativa na produção de frutos entre borda e interior (p = 0,15. A abundância de M. albicans foi significativamente maior na borda do que no interior (p = 5,088 x 10^-10, contudo os indivíduos do interior apresentaram maior porte. Estes resultados sugerem que o efeito de borda não causa alterações significativas na remoção de frutos de M. albicans por formigas. Contudo, a aparente maior abundância de formigas na borda parece impedir que estas plantas alcancem grande porte.

  3. In vitro nematicidal effects of medicinal plants from the Sierra de Huautla, Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aroche, U; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; Mendoza de Gives, P; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Valladares-Cisneros, G; Arias-Ataide, D M; Hernández-Velázquez, V

    2008-03-01

    Twenty extracts from plants from Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico were evaluated against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in an in vitro assay. The plant species evaluated were Bursera copallifera, B. grandifolia, Lippia graveolens, Passiflora mexicana, Prosopis laevigata, Randia echinocarpa and Urtica dioica. The plants were separated into their parts and macerated with different solvents (n-hexane, acetone, ethanol and methanol). An in vitro assay was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity against unsheathed third stage H. contortus infective larvae. The experiment was carried out in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with three replicates per treatment and using a concentration of 20 mg ml- 1. Ten 5 microl aliquots were taken from the corresponding wells and deposited on a slide for microscopical observation at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exposure. The evaluation criteria were based on the average numbers of live and/or dead larvae in the different treatments. Alive and dead larval numbers were statistically analysed through the ANOVA test (P>0.01). The Tukey test was used as a complementary tool to determine which treatment was different from the other treatments (P>0.05). The highest mortality was observed with P. laevigata hexanic extract from stem and leaves combined, which produced 51%, 81% and 86% larval mortality at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exposure, respectively. On the other hand, B. copallifera stem acetonic extract exhibited 18%, 59% and 66% nematicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure, respectively.

  4. Yo quiero ser Marifé de Triana. Experiencia para el desarrollo de la Inteligencia Emocional a través de la Musicoterapia / I want to be Marifé de Triana. An experience for the development of Emotional Intelligence through Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Prieto Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Presentamos el desarrollo de un programa denominado “¡Escúchame!” basado en la experiencia “Mami Sounds” llevada a cabo en Argentina por Federico (2007, teniendo como hilo conductor la Musicoterapia. Nuestro propósito es desarrollar la inteligencia emocional de personas con Síndrome de Down, mediante la estimulación sensorial a través de la música, que genera y despierta toda clase de sentimientos y emociones. Para la evaluación del programa, se han elaborado instrumentos de carácter cualitativo y cuantitativo que nos indican una mejora en las conductas sociales y afectivas de la muestra participante tras la implementación del programa.Abstract: We show the results of a study called “Listen to me”, based on the experience developed in Argentina by Federico (2007, where the leitmotiv is the Music therapy in a sample of people with disabilities, specifically Down syndrome. We implement a programme which mainly works emotional intelligence by using music of different styles. Our aim is to develop the emotional intelligence of people with Down syndrome, by the sensory stimulation through music, which generates and raises all types of feelings and emotions. Results show there is an improvement in social and affective attitudes and behaviors of the people participating in this experience after the implementation of the programme.

  5. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Achillea moschata Jacq Do. Labdanum Cistus spp Lemon-verbena Lippia citriodora HBK Do. Linaloe wood Bursera delpechiana Poiss. and other Bursera spp Linden leaves Tillia spp Do. Lovage Levisticum officinale Koch...

  6. 78 FR 62529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Agave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (gumbo limbo), Amyris elemifera L. (torch wood), Capparis cynophallophora L...), Pilosocereus royenii (Royen's tree cactus, or sebuc n), Bursera simaruba (gumbo limbo, or almacigo), Erithalis... within the V. rupicola habitat include Bursera simaruba, Erithalis fruticosa, Guettarda krugii, Tabebuia...

  7. Colombian and Peruvian Primate Censusing Studies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    quebradas was well developed: some tre(ls were 35 m tall. Large trees include Sterculia. Hura. Cedrela, Bursera . Spondias, Anacardium and Ficus. Some...mostly Bursera spp. with Pseudobombax, Pereskia Stenocereus, Sub- pilocereus and Cochospermum. Vegetation in the river valleys where we surveyed was...forest patch included some mangroves, Ceiba, Spondia Sterculia, Bursera and Scheelea. Interview results Source: finca administrator. Cebus: present

  8. A Picture Guide to Trees of the Gamboa Area, Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Apeiba tibourbou (Monkey comb) Tabebuia rosea (Roble blanco) Bursera simarouba (Gumbo limbo) Tachigalia versicolor (Tachi) Byrsonima crassifolia...flowers (5mm) lk ri 6m Figure 41. Cordia aliodora. 79 Bursera simarouba Gumbo Limbo Burseraceae I Leaves The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound...copper, peeling bark of Bursera . 80 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *S % leaves spiraled around branch tips *strong turpen

  9. Comparative structure of the osmophores in the flowers of Stanhopea graveolens Lindley and Cycnoches chlorochilon Klotzsch (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tradescantia comprises about 70 species. In Poland Tradescantia x andersoniana is basically grown as an ornamental plant that is recommended for borders and to be planted around garden ponds. The present study investigated flowering as well as the micromorphological and anatomical features of some floral elements of Tradescantia x andersoniana W. Ludw. Rohweder 'Karin'. The macro- and micromorphology of the flowers was examined using stereoscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Spiderwort produces flowers with a diameter of 4.6-5 cm, which open early in the morning and close at noon. Non-glandular and glandular hairs grow on the abaxial surface of the calyx and on the apical part of the ovary. The glandular hairs develop a several-celled stalk and a unicellular spherical or elongated head. The staminal filaments produce chain-shaped trichomes. Striate cuticular ornamentation is found on their surface and on the epidermis covering the perianth. The striae on the cells of the stamen hairs run to the two poles of the cell. The pistil develops a wet stigma with unfused unicellular papillae. The cuticle on their surface is smooth, whereas on the style near the stigma it forms dense folds.

  10. De novo assembly, gene annotation and marker development using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences in celery (Apium graveolens L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery is an increasing popular vegetable species, but limited transcriptome and genomic data hinder the research to it. In addition, a lack of celery molecular markers limits the process of molecular genetic breeding. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is an efficient method to generate a large transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery, molecular marker development and marker-assisted selection breeding. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Celery transcriptomes from four tissues were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 42,280 unigenes (average length of 502.6 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. 78.43% and 48.93% of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant protein database (Nr and Swiss-Prot database respectively, and 10,473 (24.77% unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. 21,126 (49.97% unigenes harboring Interpro domains were annotated, in which 15,409 (36.45% were assigned to Gene Ontology(GO categories. Additionally, 7,478 unigenes were mapped onto 228 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG. Large numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs were indentified, and then the rate of successful amplication and polymorphism were investigated among 31 celery accessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information by Illumina paired-end sequencing and efficient assembling. Our results provide a valuable resource for celery research. The developed molecular markers are the foundation of further genetic linkage analysis and gene localization, and they will be essential to accelerate the process of breeding.

  11. Anti-Candida activity assessment of Pelargonium graveolens oil free and nanoemulsion in biofilm formation in hospital medical supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Janice Luehring; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Gündel, André; Gomes, Patrícia; Steppe, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms. Geranium oil (GO) has proven antimicrobial activity. Because of this, the aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions containing this oil (NEG) and evaluate its activity after the biofilm formation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei in hospital medical supplies. For quantification of the biofilm, crystal violet, total protein, and ATP-bioluminescence assays were used. The results revealed that GO and NEG showed lower MIC for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The biofilms formed by different species of Candida on the surfaces of polyethylene and polyurethane were quantified. GO and NEG significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms in all species tested on the surfaces of polyethylene. However, NEG antibiofilm has had better activity than GO for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, according to the surface potential analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analysis of the biofilm formation on the polyethylene surface by ATP-bioluminescence and CFU showed similar results. In both methods the formation of biofilm in the catheter occurred in greater quantity for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. GO did not significantly inhibit the formation of biofilms only in C. krusei, although NEG significantly increased this activity GO in all species tested when compared to the control training biofilm. The following study shows that the development of NEG may become an effective alternative to reduce the adhesion of microorganisms and prevent infections resulting from the use of some hospital medical materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Irrigation dose and plant density affect the volatile composition and sensory quality of dill (Anethum graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Burló, Francisco; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    Two independent field experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of (i) three irrigation treatments (ID0 = 1585 m(3) ha(-1) , considered as a control; ID1 = 1015 m(3) ha(-1) ; and ID2 = 2180 m(3) ha(-1) ) and (ii) three plant density treatments (PD0 = 5.56 plants m(-2) , considered as a control; PD1 = 4.44 plants m(-2) ; and PD2 = 7.41 plants m(-2) ) on the production, volatile composition of essential oil, and sensory quality of dill. The highest plant yield was obtained with intermediate conditions of both irrigation dose (ID0) and plant density (PD0). The main compounds of the essential oil were α-phellandrene, dill ether and β-phellandrene. The highest irrigation dose (ID2) produced the highest concentrations of most of the main compounds: α-phellandrene (49.5 mg per 100 g), β-phellandrene (6.89 mg per 100 g) and limonene (2.49 mg per 100 g). A similar pattern was found for the highest plant density (PD2): α-phellandrene (71.0 mg per 100 g), dill ether (16.7 mg per 100 g) and β-phellandrene (9.70 mg per 100 g). The use of descriptive sensory analysis helped in reaching a final decision, and the dill plants with the highest sensory quality were those of the ID2 and PD0 treatments. The final recommendation is to use the irrigation dose ID2 and the plant density PD2 if the objective is to produce dill samples with the highest aromatic and sensory quality; however, if the only objective is to produce high amounts of dill, the best options are ID0 and PD0. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evaluation of radiation interception and use by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and dill (Anethum graveolens L. intercropping canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi myousefnia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that legumes give benefits to the soil such as improved nutrient availability, improved structure, reduced pest and disease incidence, and hormonal effects (Wani et al., 1995. The major benefit of legume crops comes from biologically nitrogen fixation, deriving from the symbiosis involving leguminous plants and rhizobium bacteria (Vance, 1998. Based on this purpose, a field study was conducted to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency in fenugreek and dill in row intercropping as replacement series at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2013-2014. Treatments included 20% fenugreek+ 80% dill, 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill, 60% fenugreek+ 40% dill, 80% fenugreek+ 20% dill and their monoculture. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT were performed using SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Results indicated that leaf area index, light absorption, total dry matter accumulation and radiation use efficiency (RUE of fenugreek and dill increased in all intercropping ratios compared to monoculture. RUE range for fenugreek was from 0.95 g.MJ-1 in monoculture to 1.24 g.MJ-1 in 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill. RUE range for dill was from 0.64 g.MJ-1 in monoculture to 1.02 g.MJ-1 in 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill.

  14. Validation and Comparison of Reference Genes for qPCR Normalization of Celery (Apium graveolens) at Different Development Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Guan-Long; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes in leaf blade and petiole at different development stages were evaluated using three statistics algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper...

  15. Anti-Candida Activity of Bursera morelensis Ramirez Essential Oil and Two Compounds, α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene—An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rebeca Rivera-Yañez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The candidiasis caused by C. albicans is a public health problem. The abuse of antifungals has contributed to the development of resistance. B. morelensis has demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities. In this work the activity of the essential oil of B. morelensis was evaluated and for its two pure compounds with analysis of the different mechanisms of pathogenesis important for C. albicans. The essential oil was obtained by the hydro-distillation method and analyzed using GC–MS. The anti-Candida activity was compared between to essential oil, α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene. GC–MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 13 compounds. The essential oil showed antifungal activity against four C. albicans strains. The most sensitive strain was C. albicans 14065 (MFC 2.0 mg/mL and MIC50 0.125 mg/mL with α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene having MFCs of 4.0 and 16.0 mg/mL respectively. The essential oil inhibited the growth of the germ tube in 87.94% (8.0 mg/mL. Furthermore, it was observed that the essential oil diminishes the transcription of the gene INT1. This work provides evidence that confirms the anti-Candida activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and its effect on the growth of the germ tube and transcription of the gene INT1.

  16. Cytotoxicity, Post-Treatment Recovery, and Selectivity Analysis of Naturally Occurring Podophyllotoxins from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides on Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Morán, Omar Aristeo; Villarreal, María Luisa; Álvarez-Berber, Laura; Meneses-Acosta, Angélica; Rodríguez-López, Verónica

    2016-08-04

    Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC) has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5'-demethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (1), acetylpodophyllotoxin (2), 5'-demethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin (3), and 7',8'-dehydroacetylpodophyllotoxin (4) for cytotoxicity, clonogenicity, and selectivity against three BC cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, as well as the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 72 h of treatment, and clonogenicity was determined at 72 h post-treatment; experiments were performed using the sulforhodamine B staining assay. Selective-index (SI) was calculated by comparing pure compound IC50 values in MCF-10A cell line against the IC50 of the same compound in cancer cell lines. Structural similarities among lignans and controls (podophyllotoxin and etoposide) were analyzed using the Tanimoto coefficient (Tc). Lignans were cytotoxic against all tested cell lines (0.011-7.22 µM) and clonogenicity testing showed a dose-dependent cytocidality for all lignans (≥0.08 µg/mL); compounds 2 and 3 were more potent (14.1 and 7.6 respectively) than etoposide in BT-549 cell line, while compound 2 displayed selectivity (SI = 28.17) in BT-549 cell line. Tc values of lignans suggested a greater similarity with podophyllotoxin structure.

  17. Anti-Candida Activity of Bursera morelensis Ramirez Essential Oil and Two Compounds, α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene-An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Yañez, C Rebeca; Terrazas, L Ignacio; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Campos, Jorge E; Flores-Ortiz, Cesar M; Hernandez, Luis B; Cruz-Sanchez, Tonatiuh; Garrido-Fariña, German I; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco A; Canales-Martinez, M Margarita

    2017-12-05

    The candidiasis caused by C. albicans is a public health problem. The abuse of antifungals has contributed to the development of resistance. B. morelensis has demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities. In this work the activity of the essential oil of B. morelensis was evaluated and for its two pure compounds with analysis of the different mechanisms of pathogenesis important for C. albicans . The essential oil was obtained by the hydro-distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The anti- Candida activity was compared between to essential oil, α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene. GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 13 compounds. The essential oil showed antifungal activity against four C. albicans strains. The most sensitive strain was C. albicans 14065 (MFC 2.0 mg/mL and MIC 50 0.125 mg/mL) with α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene having MFCs of 4.0 and 16.0 mg/mL respectively. The essential oil inhibited the growth of the germ tube in 87.94% (8.0 mg/mL). Furthermore, it was observed that the essential oil diminishes the transcription of the gene INT1. This work provides evidence that confirms the anti- Candida activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and its effect on the growth of the germ tube and transcription of the gene INT1.

  18. ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS fingerprint and LC-ESI-MS analysis of proathocyanidins from Bursera simaruba Sarg bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2009-12-01

    Direct flow injection/electrospray ionization/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the methanolic extract of B. simaruba bark. Additionally, an LC-ESI-MS qualitative study was performed by using a monolithic stationary phase. The fragmentation pattern obtained evidenced the presence in B. simaruba bark of PAs belonging to the series of polymers of epicatechin, along with their glycosilated derivatives.

  19. Cytotoxicity, Post-Treatment Recovery, and Selectivity Analysis of Naturally Occurring Podophyllotoxins from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides on Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Aristeo Peña-Morán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite prevention and treatment options, breast cancer (BC has become one of the most important issues in the present day. Therefore, the need for more specific and efficient compounds remains paramount. We evaluated four previously isolated aryltetralin lignans: 5′-demethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (1, acetylpodophyllotoxin (2, 5′-demethoxydeoxypodophyllotoxin (3, and 7′,8′-dehydroacetylpodophyllotoxin (4 for cytotoxicity, clonogenicity, and selectivity against three BC cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549, as well as the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 72 h of treatment, and clonogenicity was determined at 72 h post-treatment; experiments were performed using the sulforhodamine B staining assay. Selective-index (SI was calculated by comparing pure compound IC50 values in MCF-10A cell line against the IC50 of the same compound in cancer cell lines. Structural similarities among lignans and controls (podophyllotoxin and etoposide were analyzed using the Tanimoto coefficient (Tc. Lignans were cytotoxic against all tested cell lines (0.011–7.22 µM and clonogenicity testing showed a dose-dependent cytocidality for all lignans (≥0.08 µg/mL; compounds 2 and 3 were more potent (14.1 and 7.6 respectively than etoposide in BT-549 cell line, while compound 2 displayed selectivity (SI = 28.17 in BT-549 cell line. Tc values of lignans suggested a greater similarity with podophyllotoxin structure.

  20. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  1. Tratamiento quirúrgico, por inclusión de un cuerpo extraño, de las varices del miembro inferior, según la técnica del profesor santiago triana cortés

    OpenAIRE

    Triana Cortés, Santiago; Peñaloza Rosas, Arecio

    2011-01-01

    Con el propósito de comprobar la descripción que los autores hacen del sistema venoso superficial y profundo del miembro inferior realizamos una serie de preparaciones anatómicas en el Anfiteatro de Técnica Quirúrgica pudiendo por ella hacer algunos hallazgos que dan la explicación de algunos de los fracasos de otros métodos de tratamiento quirúrgico de las varices del miembro inferior.

  2. Tratamiento quirúrgico, por inclusión de un cuerpo extraño, de las varices del miembro inferior, según la técnica del profesor Santiago Triana Cortés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Triana Cortés

    1947-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de comprobar la descripción que los autores hacen del sistema venoso superficial y profundo del miembro inferior realizamos una serie de preparaciones anatómicas en el Anfiteatro de Técnica Quirúrgica pudiendo por ella hacer algunos hallazgos que dan la explicación de algunos de los fracasos de otros métodos de tratamiento quirúrgico de las varices del miembro inferior.

  3. The Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-diabetic Effect of Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch Aqueous Extract in Fertile Female Diabetic Rats and the Possible Effects on Reproduction and Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Namjoyan, Foroogh; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Ahmadpour, Forouzan; Darvish Padok, Azam; Panahi, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Boswellia serrata has been used in a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes mellitus and inflammatory diseases. This study focused on the effects of Boswellia serrata aqueous extract on blood glucose and the complications of diabetes in the liver and kidneys and examined the impact of plant on reproduction in diabetic rats. The antioxidant capacity of plant extract was performed using FRAP assay. Diabetic and control rats were administered 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg Boswellia serrata extract. Vaginal plaque was mentioned as a positive sign of pregnancy ;and treatment started with extract or vehicle from 1th to 17th day of gestation by gastric gavage. Blood glucose was measured during 17 days. The Administration of Boswellia serrata in diabetic rats significantly decreased the level of blood glucose and HbA1c after 17th days (P ≤ 0.01). In diabetic group that received no treatment, the abortion of fetus spontaneous was 19.14%. The percentage of absorptions significantly was elevated in vehicle-treated diabetic rats, in comparison with vehicle- treated healthy rats. In the diabetic group, separated necrosis of hepatocytes, anarchism of liver plates, and lymphocytic inflammation were improved. Diabetic complications were not seen and the severity of damage was reduced. These damages include: lymphocytic inflammation in the port areas, irregularities, apoptosis of liver cells, and dilatation of the sinusoids. The results suggest that Boswellia serrata extract has the antidiabetic effects and can prevent the complications of diabetes in the kidneys and liver.

  4. [Type of treatment and short-term outcome in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to hospitals with a primary coronary angioplasty facility. The TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Alfredo; Bueno, Héctor; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Cequier, Angel; Augé, Josep M; Heras, Magda

    2005-04-01

    The nature and outcome of treatment for acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients admitted to Spanish hospitals with primary angioplasty facilities are not well documented. Prospective analysis of registry data on patients > or =75 years old with ST-segment-elevation acute myocardial infarction admitted between April and July 2002 to Spanish hospitals with an active primary angioplasty program. We followed up 410 consecutive patients for 1 month. Their mean age was 80 (4.3) years and 46% were female. The median delay between symptom onset and arrival at hospital was 190 minutes. Around 42% of patients received no reperfusion therapy, 35% were treated by thrombolysis, and 22% by primary angioplasty. Patients who underwent reperfusion therapy were younger, were more frequently male, had a shorter delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival, and had a better initial hemodynamic status (Killip Class). However, they were more likely to have extensive anterior infarctions. Overall, 30-day mortality was 24.9%. Independent predictors of death were age, systolic blood pressure, and Killip class >1, but not use of thrombolysis or primary angioplasty. Over 42% of elderly patients with myocardial infarction admitted to Spanish hospitals with angioplasty facilities did not receive reperfusion therapy. Thrombolysis was the most frequently used reperfusion therapy. However, neither thrombolysis nor primary angioplasty improved 30-day mortality.

  5. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J; López-Sendón, José L; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enrolling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45-0.91). Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available.

  6. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  7. Tropical Timbers of the World,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Bulnesia arborea). Suppl. to Wood 22(4). 56 BURSERA SIMAKUBA GUMBO-LIMBO ALMACIGO Family: Burseraceae Other Common Names: Turpentine tree (Jamaica...Gonzales. 1971. Maderas latioamericanas. VI. Bursera slmaruba, Poulsenia armata, Pterocarpus officinalis, y Ficus werckleana. Turrialba 21(1):69-76...1971. Maderas latinoamericanas VI. Bursera simaruba, Poulsenia armata, Pterocarpus officinalis, y Ficus werckleana. Turrialba 21(l):69-76. 250 PRADOSIA

  8. AcEST: BP920177 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 155_RUTGR Anthranilate synthase alpha subunit OS=Ruta graveolens PE=2 SV=1 Length = 608 Score = 231 bits (58...Q41156|Q41156_RUTGR Anthranilate synthase alpha subunit OS=Ruta graveolens PE=2 S

  9. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L.) y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yisell Martelo C.; Misael Cortés R.; Diego Restrepo M.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV) en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura), considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1) y atmosférica (X y g), y la porosidad disponible (Ee) al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por e...

  10. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L. y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisell Martelo C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura, considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1 y atmosférica (X y g, y la porosidad disponible (Ee al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por efecto de la posición. En las etapas de proceso se obtuvieron para el apio y el pepino valores de X1 (-14.32 ± 2.75 y -5.51±1.76%, g1 (-0.587±0.69 y -0.079±0.99%, X(13.49±2.32 y 6.72±2.72%, g (-1.40±1.042% y -2.33±1.26% y Ee (15.73±2.31 y 9.35±2.57%, respectivamente. Estos resultados indicaron una salida de líquido nativo (X1<0 y una ligera contracción volumétrica de las estructuras (g y g1<0, lo cual se evidenció microestructuralmente. Conclusiones. La respuesta a la IV en apio y pepino, permite identificar estas matrices alimentarias, como aptas para la incorporación de componentes que le proporcionen un valor agregado a estos productos.

  11. Aceite de orégano (Lippia graveolens) como antioxidante en la peroxidación lipídica de la carne de pollos de engorda

    OpenAIRE

    Zacatula Mier, Heriberto

    2012-01-01

    En la alimentación humana, la carne es una parte importante de la dieta, representa aproximadamente 11% del total del consumo de alimentos. La carne de pollo, por su alto valor nutrimental, bajo costo y alta disponibilidad, es uno de los productos de origen animal de mayor consumo y aceptación. Lo que ha resultado que a nivel mundial, en los últimos 30 años su producción se haya cuadruplicado, mientras que la de otras especies, como la de cerdo, sólo ha duplicado su volume...

  12. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC50, FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Respuesta del apio ( Apium Graveolens l) y perejil (Petroselinum Crispum, mill), a diferentes coeficientes de cultivo en condiciones de organopónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Reinaldo Cun G.; María León F.; Segress García H.

    2007-01-01

    El trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar, de forma práctica, los coeficientes de cultivo (Kc) más apropiados según el efecto en el rendimiento y sus componentes, para realizar la programación de riego del apio y el perejil en condiciones de organopónicos. El sustrato consistió en una mezcla de suelo con 30 % de cachaza, regado con microaspersores de 41 L/h y separados a 1m. Según los resultados obtenidos en el cultivo del perejil, se recomienda el uso de un Kc=1, debido...

  14. Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid: A randomized, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has negative effects on women′s life. Due to side-effects of chemical drugs, there is growing trend toward herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Dill compared to mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial study was conducted on 75 single female students between 18 and 28 years old educating in Nursing and Midwifery School and Paramedical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences of Iran in 2011. They were allocated randomly into one of the three groups: In Dill group, they took 1000 mg of Dill powder q12h for 5 days from 2 days before the beginning of menstruation for two cycles. Other groups received 250 mg mefenamic acid or 500 mg starch capsule as placebo, respectively. Dysmenorrhea severity was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analog scale (VAS. Students with mild dysmenorrhea were excluded. Data were analyzed by SPSS using the descriptive statistic, paired-samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There were no significant differences between three groups for demographic or descriptive variables. Comprising the VAS showed that the participants of Dill and mefenamic acid groups had lower significant pain in the 1 st and the 2 nd months after treatment, whereas in the placebo group this was only significant in the 2 nd month (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dill was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding side-effects of Dill and its interactivity are recommended.

  15. Onderzoek over de door Phoma apiicola Klebahn veroorzaakte schurftziekte van de knolselderijplant, Apium graveolens L. en over synergetische vormen en locale rassen van deze zwam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, J.A.A.M.H.

    1928-01-01

    Symptoms of Phoma apiicola on celeriac were described. Severe ones were like the Phoma rot described by Bennet (Mich. Agric. Exp. Stat. Tech. Bull. 53 (1921). Seed did not transmit P. apiicola but contained a second unidentified Phoma sp. with larger

  16. Caracterizacion nutricional y de la cinetica de degradacion ruminal de algunos de los recursos forrajeros con potencial para la suplementacion de rumiantes en el tropico alto de Colombia.(Articulos orginales de investigacion)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naranjo, Juan F; Cuartas, Cesar A

    2011-01-01

    ...), Chachafruto (Erythrina edulis Triana ex Michelle) y Aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth), con potencial para su inclusion en los programas de suplementacion estrategica en el tropico de altura en Colombia...

  17. The role of the white-eyed vireo in the dispersal of bersera fruit on the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; Foster, M.S.; Marquez-Valdelamar, L.

    1995-01-01

    White-eyed vireos (Vireo griseus) winter in the forests and secondary growth of the Yucatan Peninsula where Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is an abundant tree Twenty-five per cent of all white-eyed vireos observed foraging visited Bursera trees In addition, presence and abundance of territorial white-eyed vireos in small forest patches were correlated with the size of the Bursera crop Vireos were the most reliable dispersers of Bursera seeds These birds visited 32 of 35 trees observed for at least three hours. They accounted for approximately half of all bird visits, and two-thirds of the seeds dispersed. Most of the other species rarely visited (Bursera to be dispersed by relatively few species The capsules of Bursera fruits do not open when the fruit ripens; birds apparently locate ripe fruit using visual cues, although these are few In addition, only a small portion of the crop ripens daily over a 7- or 8-month period. The vireo-Bursera simaruba relationship, found regionally on the Yucatan Peninsula, may result from the prolonged fruit ripening period (October-March), the relatively depauperate frugivore community and the relatively high density of small Bursera trees in the hurricane-disturbed dry forests. Small trees at all times, and all trees from October to February, depend upon territorial vireos for continuous, highly efficient local dispersal of a small number of fruits In March and April residual fruits ripen rapidly and synchronously, attracting a greater variety of visitors for broad spectrum dispersal during a period of food scarcity. Thus, Bursera has an unusual two-phase phenological pattern, perhaps alternately to take advantage of both specialized and opportunistic dispersers.

  18. H2 Reconstitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    AFRL-DE-TR-2002-1033 AFRL-DE-TR- 2002-1033 H2 RECONSTITUTION Mike Skipper et al. ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 February 2002...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 DC-TR-0328.008-1 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME...Albuquerque, NM 87110 1 cy ASR Corporation 7817 Bursera NW Albuquerque, NM 87120 1 cy Jeff Berger AFRL/DEHP Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 1 cy Tyrone Tran AFRL/DEHP Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 1 cy 40

  19. Environ: E00585 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00585 Bissabol myrrh Crude drug Commiphora erythraea, Commiphora serrulata, Commiphora [TAX:43868] Bursera...rugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Burseraceae (frankincense family) E00585 Bissabol myrrh ...

  20. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  1. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  2. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens) y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris) en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco; Juan José Luna Guevara; Francisco Javier Pérez Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE) de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1), 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2), 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3), 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4), 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5); 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6) y agua destilada estéril (T7) que se utilizó como...

  3. Biological Peculiarities and Mechanized Agriculture of Species of Plants Anise [finisum vulgare Gaern., Caraway (Carum carvi L, Cicely (Coriandrum sativum L, Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Dill (Anethum graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. П. Костенко

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article represents results of studies mechanized agriculture spicy aromatic species of plants to ecological and agricultural climatic conditions different areas of Steppe and Le-sosteppe of Ukraine. Basic breaking grounds, sowing area under crops, nurture spicy aromatic species of plants taking into account with their biological peculiarities.

  4. In Vitro angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic seed extract of Apium graveolens Linn. belonging to the family Apiaceae. Traditionally, the seeds of A. graveolens L. were used as diuretic, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of flowering and non-flowering ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained from the flowering O. graveolens plant can justify its traditional use for treatment of common disease conditions. However, further studies should be conducted to buttress these findings and isolation of active antimicrobial components. Key words: Flowering and non-flowering parts of Ocimum graveolen, ...

  6. AcEST: DK962938 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 249 1e-65 sp|Q9ZRR8|CHS1_CASGL Chalcone synthase OS=Ca...mine amara GN=CHS... 244 2e-64 sp|Q9FSB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 244 3e-64

  7. AcEST: DK961880 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nthase 2 OS=Camellia sinensis GN... 240 5e-63 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta graveolens GN...TGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 235 2e-61 sp|O22652|CHSY_RAPSA Chalcone synthase OS=Rapha

  8. Raadiosse jõudsid eesti laulud Lätist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Raadiosse jõudsid Eurovisiooni eelvõistlusel Lätis teise koha võitnud Läti ansambli Triana Park eestikeelsed laulud "Kesköine tramm" (muusika Aivars Rakovskis) ja "Reeda mind" (muusika Agnese Rakovska), mille tekstid on kirjutanud Lääne-Virumal Lehtses suvitav raadioajakirjanik Ivan Makarov

  9. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  10. Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Boon, Jo; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Retalis, Simeos

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Boon, J., Martínez-Monés, A., Rodríguez-Triana, M. J., & Retalis, S. (2013). Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools. In Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) workshop

  11. Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Boon, Jo; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Triana, María-Jesús; Retalis, Simeos

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Boon, J., Martínez-Monés, A., Rodríguez-Triana, M. J., & Retalis, S. (2013, 17-21 September). Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools. Presentation at the Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) workshop

  12. Llenando un vacío en la historia cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Silva

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Las lenguas indígenas en la historia social del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Humberto Triana y Antorveza. Instituto Caro y Cuervo (Biblioteca Ezequiel Uricoechea, Bogotá, 1987, 608 págs., más ilustraciones.

  13. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    formalized relationships with principles in the 1st Responder community, forensic sciences community, political and with lobbying firms as well as...communis L. Ruta graveolens L. Scilla maritima L. Baker Senecio Vulgaris L. Solanum nigrum L. Spartium junceum L

  14. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Escobar Hernández, Alejandro; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio; Restrepo Flores, Claudia Estela; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés; Patiño Gómez, Jairo Humberto

    2014-01-01

    ... mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), apio (Apium graveolens), zanahoria (Daucus carota) y chayote (Sechium edule...

  15. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cat's Claw Apium Graveolens Creatine Goldenrod Horsetail Huperzinea Java Tea Leaf Licorice Root Nettle, Stinging Nettle Oregon ... other health related issues. If you have a history of a bleeding disorder you are at high ...

  16. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  17. 2312-IJBCS-Article-Athanase Badolo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    802, April 2015. ISSN 1997-342X (Online), ISSN 1991-8631 (Print) .... and Cyperus rotundus, Mentha piperita,. Ocimum basilicum, Rosemarinus officinalis,. Cymbopogon nardus, and Apium graveolens,. Ocimum canum, Lippia multiflora have.

  18. Trees of the Central Valley of Costa Rica: reproduction. Indio desnudo.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Rodríguez, Freddy; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica; Torres-Córdoba, Gustavo; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    The following issue presents a brief description about the “indio desnudo” tree (Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg) including information about its phenology which directly relates to fruit recollection, seed treatment, nursery, and germination processes. Se presenta una breve descripción del árbol indio desnudo Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg, información sobre fenología como base para la recolección de frutos, el manejo de las semillas, la viverización y el proceso de germinación.

  19. A revised circumscription for the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae with associated nomenclatural adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Penneys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigations and phylogenetic analyses of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae have indicated that Topobea should be synonymized under Blakea, and Huilaea under Chalybea. Presented here is a detailed description of the Blakeeae, a key to its two accepted genera, and a listing of 62 new combinations, including 3 new names, necessitated by the transfer of Topobea as follows: B. acuminata (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. adscendens (E.Cotton & Matezki Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. albertiae (Wurdack Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. amplifolia (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. arboricola (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. asplundii (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. barbata (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. brenesii (Standl. Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. brevibractea (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. bullata (E.Cotton & Matezki Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. calcarata (L.Uribe Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. calophylla (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. calycularis (Naudin Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. castanedae (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. clavata (Triana Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. cordata (Gleason Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. cuprina Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. cutucuensis (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. dimorphophylla (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. discolor (Hochr. Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. dodsonorum (Wurdack Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. eplingii (Wurdack Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. ferruginea (Gleason Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. fragrantissima (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. gerardoana (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. glaberrima (Triana Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. henripittieri (Cogn. Penneys & Almeda, comb. et nom. nov., B. hexandra (Almeda Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., B. horologica Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., B. induta (Markgr. Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. inflata (Triana Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., B. insignis

  20. A revised circumscription for the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae) with associated nomenclatural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penneys, Darin S; Judd, Walter S

    2013-01-01

    Systematic investigations and phylogenetic analyses of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae) have indicated that Topobea should be synonymized under Blakea, and Huilaea under Chalybea. Presented here is a detailed description of the Blakeeae, a key to its two accepted genera, and a listing of 62 new combinations, including 3 new names, necessitated by the transfer of Topobea as follows: Blakea acuminata (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea adscendens (E.Cotton & Matezki) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea albertiae (Wurdack) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea amplifolia (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea arboricola (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea asplundii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea barbata (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea brenesii (Standl.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea brevibractea (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea bullata (E.Cotton & Matezki) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea calcarata (L.Uribe) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea calophylla (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea calycularis (Naudin) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea castanedae (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea clavata (Triana) Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea cordata (Gleason) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea cuprina Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea cutucuensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea dimorphophylla (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea discolor (Hochr.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea dodsonorum (Wurdack) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea eplingii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea ferruginea (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea fragrantissima (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea gerardoana (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea glaberrima (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea henripittieri (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. et nom. nov., Blakea hexandra (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea horologica Penneys

  1. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Romero, Elizabeth; Valencia-Díaz, Susana; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    Germacrene D, a common sesquiterpene in the genus Bursera (Burseraceae). Molecules 14: 5289–5297. 18. Rekha, V.P.B., Kollipara, M., Gupta. B.R.S.S.S., Bharath, Y. and Pulicherla, K.K. (2014). A review on Piper betle. L.: nature's promising medicinal reservoir. Am. J. Ethnomed. 1(5): 276–289. 19. Rintu, D., Shinjini, M., ...

  3. Assessing tree species assemblages in highly disturbed Puerto Rican karst landscapes using forest inventory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas James Brandeis

    2006-01-01

    Tree species assemblages described by landscape-scale forest inventory data both agreed and differed from those described by intensive, site specific studies in Puerto Rico’s highly disturbed northern karst belt. Species assemblages found on hill tops (typified by Tabebuia heterophylla or Bursera simaruba with Coccoloba diversifolia, Licaria parvifolia, and Drypetes...

  4. Timing the origin and expansion of the Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X

    2005-08-02

    Macroevolution examines the temporal patterns of biological diversity in deep time. When combined with biogeography, it can provide unique information about the historical changes in the distribution of communities and biomes. Here I document temporal and spatial changes of diversity in the genus Bursera and relate them to the origin and expansion of the tropical dry forests of Mexico. Bursera is very old, highly adapted to warm dry conditions, and a dominant member of the Mexican tropical dry forest. These characteristics make it a useful indicator of the history of this vegetation. I used a time-calibrated phylogeny to estimate Bursera's diversification rate at different times over the last 60 million years. I also reconstructed the geographic center and time of origin of all species and nodes from information on current distributions. Results show that between 30 and 20 million years ago, Bursera began a relatively rapid diversification. This suggests that conditions were favorable for its radiation and thus, very probably for the establishment of the dry forest as well. The oldest lineages diverged mostly in Western Mexico, whereas the more recent lineages diverged in the south-central part of the country. This suggests that the tropical dry forest probably first established in the west and then expanded south and east. The timing of the radiations in these areas corresponds to that suggested for formations of the mountainous systems in Western and Central Mexico, which have been previously recognized as critical for the persistence of the Mexican dry forest.

  5. MICGLOGM APLICADA INTERNATIONAL, 15(2), 2003, pp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bj

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... At present, most research work has been focused on mycelial growth of strains in Petri dish and mushroom yields. Supplemented formulations have been studied containing abundant regional organic materials such as sawdust from Quercus, Carpinus, Bursera,. Alnus, Heliocarpus, Nothofagus, Eucalyptus, ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosas-Lopez, R. Vol 14, No 3 (2017) - Articles Antimicrobial activity of Bursera morelensis ramírez essential oil. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  7. Vegetation diversity, composition and structure in a cattle agro-landscape of Matiguás, Nicaragua

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merlos, Dalia Sánchez; Harvey, Celia A; Grijalva, Alfredo; Medina, Arnulfo; Vílchez, Sergio; Hernández, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... A total of 3 949 trees of 180 species and 52 families were recorded. Forty six percent of the total trees reported for the landscape were represented by Guazuma ulmifolia (18.5%), Bursera simaruha (13.2%), Tabebuia rosea (6.3...

  8. Árboles que curan: indio desnudo

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Rodríguez, Freddy; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta información general sobre “indio desnudo” (Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.), con énfasis en sus usos terapéuticos y medicinales para seres humanos; la cultura popular le atribuye al menos 47 usos posibles en estos campos.

  9. Acremoxanthone E, a Novel Member of Heterodimeric Polyketides with a Bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene Ring, Produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae) Endophytic Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Acremonium camptosporum was isolated as an endophyte from the leaves of the plant Bursera simaruba. Extracts from cultures of the fungus were shown to have inhibitory effects on the growth of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The chemical compounds in the extracts were identified, and a group...

  10. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4–5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds. PMID:28158320

  11. Revisión de la producción, composición fitoquímica y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano mexicano Revision of the production, phytochemical composition, and nutraceutical properties of Mexican oregano

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique García-Pérez; Castro-Álvarez Fernando Francisco; Janet Alejandra Gutiérrez-Uribe; Silverio García-Lara

    2012-01-01

    El orégano es una planta de distribución mundial, el cual está representado principalmente por dos especies: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace) nativo de Europa, y Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae), originaria de América. México ocupa el segundo lugar como productor mundial de orégano con la especie L. graveolens H. B. K. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies explotadas son silvestres y su cultivo es aún tradicional y limitado. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las estrategias de propagac...

  12. AcEST: DK954416 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OPKI Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Populus ... 263 5e-70 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta...sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 506 Sc..._RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta graveolen... 261 3e-68 tr|Q06Z32|Q06Z32_9ROSI Cinnamate-4-hydroxylate

  13. AcEST: DK955574 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available INST Chalcone synthase OS=Pinus strobus GN=CHS P... 166 1e-40 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta...p|Q9FSB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 161 2e-39 sp|O22652|CHSY_RAPSA Chalcone s...EWG-QPKSK 128 >sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CHS3 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 393 Sc

  14. An expanded nuclear phylogenomic PCR toolkit for Sapindales1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth S.; Gostel, Morgan R.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We tested PCR amplification of 91 low-copy nuclear gene loci in taxa from Sapindales using primers developed for Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae). Methods and Results: Cross-amplification of these markers among 10 taxa tested was related to their phylogenetic distance from B. simaruba. On average, each Sapindalean taxon yielded product for 53 gene regions (range: 16–90). Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicales), by contrast, yielded product for two. Single representatives of Anacardiaceae and Rutacaeae yielded 34 and 26 products, respectively. Twenty-six primer pairs worked for all Burseraceae species tested if highly divergent Aucoumea klaineana is excluded, and eight of these amplified product in every Sapindalean taxon. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that customized primers for Bursera can amplify product in a range of Sapindalean taxa. This collection of primer pairs, therefore, is a valuable addition to the toolkit for nuclear phylogenomic analyses of Sapindales and warrants further investigation. PMID:28101434

  15. An expanded nuclear phylogenomic PCR toolkit for Sapindales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Elizabeth S; Gostel, Morgan R; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    We tested PCR amplification of 91 low-copy nuclear gene loci in taxa from Sapindales using primers developed for Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae). Cross-amplification of these markers among 10 taxa tested was related to their phylogenetic distance from B. simaruba . On average, each Sapindalean taxon yielded product for 53 gene regions (range: 16-90). Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicales), by contrast, yielded product for two. Single representatives of Anacardiaceae and Rutacaeae yielded 34 and 26 products, respectively. Twenty-six primer pairs worked for all Burseraceae species tested if highly divergent Aucoumea klaineana is excluded, and eight of these amplified product in every Sapindalean taxon. Our study demonstrates that customized primers for Bursera can amplify product in a range of Sapindalean taxa. This collection of primer pairs, therefore, is a valuable addition to the toolkit for nuclear phylogenomic analyses of Sapindales and warrants further investigation.

  16. Sources and sinks of diversification and conservation priorities for the Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X; Venable, D Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Elucidating the geographical history of diversification is critical for inferring where future diversification may occur and thus could be a valuable aid in determining conservation priorities. However, it has been difficult to recognize areas with a higher likelihood of promoting diversification. We reconstructed centres of origin of lineages and identified areas in the Mexican tropical dry forest that have been important centres of diversification (sources) and areas where species are maintained but where diversification is less likely to occur (diversity sinks). We used a molecular phylogeny of the genus Bursera, a dominant member of the forest, along with information on current species distributions. Results indicate that vast areas of the forest have historically functioned as diversity sinks, generating few or no extant Bursera lineages. Only a few areas have functioned as major engines of diversification. Long-term preservation of biodiversity may be promoted by incorporation of such knowledge in decision-making.

  17. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from bark of Bursera aptera · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O.J. Nieto-Yañez, A.A. Resendiz-Albor, P.A. Ruiz-Hurtado, N Rivera-Yañez, M Rodriguez-Canales, M Rodriguez-Sosa, ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 1309 ... ... vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from bark of Bursera aptera, Abstract PDF. O.J. Nieto-Yañez, A.A. Resendiz-Albor, P.A. Ruiz-Hurtado, N Rivera-Yañez, M Rodriguez-Canales, M Rodriguez-Sosa, I Juarez-Avelar, M.G. Rodriguez-Lopez, M.M. Canales-Martinez, M.A. Rodriguez-Monroy.

  19. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of Bursera morelensis ramírez essential oil · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Canales-Martinez, C.R. Rivera-Yañez, J Salas-Oropeza, H.R. Lopez, M Jimenez-Estrada, R Rosas-Lopez, D.A. Duran, C Flores, L.B. Hernandez, M.A. ...

  20. A second species of Etiennea (Coccidae: Coccoidea: Sternorrhyncha) from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris; Kondo, Takumasa

    2007-01-01

    The genus Etiennea Matile-Ferrero (Coccidae: Coccoidea) currently contains 19 species, all but one of them restricted to Africa, the exception being from Guyana. The present paper describes the adult female of a further species, Etiennea bursera sp. nov., from the New World (Mexico). The key in Hodgson (1991) is augmented to separate the new species from the others in the genus. The relationships of Etiennea to other coccid genera are briefly discussed.

  1. In vivo and in vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro antileishmanial effects of methanolic extract from bark of Bursera aptera. O.J. Nieto-Yañez, A.A. Resendiz-Albor, P.A. Ruiz-Hurtado, N Rivera-Yañez, M Rodriguez-Canales, M Rodriguez-Sosa, I Juarez-Avelar, M.G. Rodriguez-Lopez, M.M. Canales-Martinez, M.A. Rodriguez-Monroy ...

  2. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Zeeyauddin; Mohammed Ibrahim; Muna Abid; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narsu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae) was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg) in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg) of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark ext...

  3. An expanded nuclear phylogenomic PCR toolkit for Sapindales 1

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Elizabeth S.; Gostel, Morgan R.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We tested PCR amplification of 91 low-copy nuclear gene loci in taxa from Sapindales using primers developed for Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae). Methods and Results: Cross-amplification of these markers among 10 taxa tested was related to their phylogenetic distance from B. simaruba. On average, each Sapindalean taxon yielded product for 53 gene regions (range: 16?90). Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicales), by contrast, yielded product for two. Single representatives of Ana...

  4. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Magos-Guerrero, Gil Alfonso; Santiago-Mej?a, Jacinto; Carrasco, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each e...

  5. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  6. Acerca de la tipificación de Burmeistera (Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae y de la identidad de B. ceratocarpa var. dentata, B. ibaguensis y B. rivina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAVIO GONZÁLEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Burmeistera, descrito por J. J. Triana en 1854, fue tipificado con base en B. ibaguensis. El ejemplar tipo de esta especie consta de tres fragmentos, dos de los cuales corresponden a esta especie y un tercero a B. rivina. En el presente trabajo se aclara en detalle la tipificación del género y de las especies en mención, así como su redescripción. Adicionalmente, se lectotipifica la especie B. rivina, y se subordina el nombre B. ceratocarpa var. dentata a la sinonimia de esta especie.

  7. Estudios sobre Plantas Andinas, VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuatrecasas José

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available Diplostephium subincisum Cuatr., sp. nov. / Diplostephium cinerascens Cuatr., sp, nov. / Diplostephium floribundum subsp. farallonense Cuatr. nova. / Diplostephium violaceum Cuatr., var. puracense Cuatr. nova. / Aphanactis cocuyensis Cuatr., sp. nov. / Liabum tabanense Cuatr., sp. nov. / Steiractinia aspera Cuatr., sp. nov. / Brunellia latifolia Cuatr . sp. nov. / Brunellia occidentalis Cuatr., sp.. nov. / Brunellia Trianae Cuatr., sp. nov. / Pinguicula diversifolia Cuatr., sp, nov. / Pinguicula huilensis Cuatr., sp. nov. / Hedyosmum toxicum Cuatr., sp. nov. / Hedyosmum Granizo Cuatr., sp. nov. / Hedyosmum crassifolium Cuatr. sp. nov. / Hedyosmum llanorum Cuatr., sp. nov. / Hedyosmum colombianum Cuatr., sp. nov. / Hedyosmum huilense Cuatr., sp. nov. / Hedyosmum translucidum Cuatr., sp. nov. / Gentiana cocuyana Cuatr., sp. nov.

  8. Un sabio, un crítico y una catedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcias Martán Góngora

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available En la constelación de humanistas, formada por Caro y Cuervo, Vergara y Pérez Triana, la luminaria quizás menos conocida, en Colombia, se apellida Uricoechea. Su nombre no cede en méritos ante los integrantes de la brigada científica, que ilustraron la Expedición Botánica, bajo el comando del gaditano Mutis. Más polifacético que Rufino J . Cuervo Y de mayor versatilidad que el sabio Caldas, ciertamente, don Ezequiel no fue un profeta en su tierra.

  9. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae. I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species significant range extension is documented, including new records for France, Canada, United States, and Sweden. New host data are also provided for several species. The species name Apanteles masmithi Fernández-Triana is considered a syn. n. of Dolichogenidea britannica (Wilkinson.

  10. AcEST: BP913154 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anthranilate synthase alpha subunit OS=Ruta graveolens Align length 93 Score (bi...thase alpha-1 chain-like ... 134 2e-30 >tr|Q41155|Q41155_RUTGR Anthranilate synthase alpha subunit OS=Ruta

  11. AcEST: DK957747 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase 2 OS=Camellia sinensis GN... 246 7e-65 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta gr...SB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 241 2e-63 sp|O22652|CHSY_RAPSA Chalcone syntha

  12. Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The leaf methanol extract of Ruta graveolens was evaluated for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing and hot-plate tests in mice, also anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities using the carrageenan-induced oedema and E. coli-induced pyrexia tests in rats, respectively. Results: R.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Southern Africa against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined by the microdilution technique. The killing kinetics of the oils was further evaluated against specific bacterial and fungal organisms. Both antifungal and antibacterial activities were observed from the essential oil of P. graveolens and M. peripeta ...

  14. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... and Pelargonium graveolens) against Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic strains. These plants are used more ... sed on pathogens, such as Listeria which is recognized as one of the leading causes of ... spices were extracted by ethanolic extraction by soaking 20 g of plant part in 100 mL of 90% ...

  15. Comparative study of in vitro regeneration efficiency of shoot-tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the in vitro proliferation efficiency of shoot-tip explants from four cultivars of banana (Musa spp) and one species of Pelargonium graveolens. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with growth regulators. The comparative in vitro proliferation efficiency of ...

  16. First Report of Apium Virus Y on Cilantro, Celery, and Parsley in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently Apium virus Y (ApVY) was detected in field grown cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in California. Previously, in 2003, cilantro plants from 3 different fields in California showed symptoms of mosaic, vein clearing and stunting. Whe...

  17. Contribution of microwaves or ultrasonics on carvone and limonene recovery from dill fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld, D.C.; Chemat, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate alternative preparation techniques such as microwave and ultrasound
    for the recovery and evaluation of carvone and limonene from flaked dill fruits (Anethum graveolens L.).
    The study indicates that microwave-assisted extraction using hexane is

  18. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 1993, 1994 en (ten dele) 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Meijden, van der, Ruud; Holverda, Wout J.; Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1996-01-01

    New indigenous species are Conopodium majus and Vulpia membranacea, and the recently recorded hybrid Scutellaria galericulata x minor (S. x hybrida). New and fully naturalized neophytes are the invasive species Hydrocotyle ranunculoides and Impatiens capensis. Other new neophytes are Anisanthamadritensis, Centaurea stoebe subsp. rhenana, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Crambe abyssinica, Dittrichia graveolens, Erigeron karvinskyanus, Koelreuteria paniculata, Malus baccata, Ornithopus compressus and...

  19. Biological and Host Range Studies with Bagous affinis, An Indian Weevil that Destroys Hydrilla Tubers. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    measurements of laboratory-reared and field-collected adults were made to determine if colo- nized individuals were smaller and thus perhaps less vigorous ...L. (Griseb.) (Alismataceae); cel- ery, Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.) Pers. (Apiaceae); cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group

  20. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype analysis in Carrot and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome localization of the rDNA gene clusters was determined for the first time in several Apiaceae using double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twenty-one Apioideae species including taxa of economic importance (e.g. Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Cumin cyminum, Daucus c...

  1. Comparative study of in vitro regeneration efficiency of shoot-tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRST Musanze

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... This study examined the in vitro proliferation efficiency of shoot-tip explants from four cultivars of banana (Musa spp) and one species of Pelargonium graveolens. The explants were cultured on. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with growth regulators. The comparative in vitro proliferation ...

  2. Distributing Workflows over a Ubiquitous P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Al-Shakarchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses issues in the distribution of bundled workflows across ubiquitous peer-to-peer networks for the application of music information retrieval. The underlying motivation for this work is provided by the DART project, which aims to develop a novel music recommendation system by gathering statistical data using collaborative filtering techniques and the analysis of the audio itsel, in order to create a reliable and comprehensive database of the music that people own and which they listen to. To achieve this, the DART scientists creating the algorithms need the ability to distribute the Triana workflows they create, representing the analysis to be performed, across the network on a regular basis (perhaps even daily in order to update the network as a whole with new workflows to be executed for the analysis. DART uses a similar approach to BOINC but differs in that the workers receive input data in the form of a bundled Triana workflow, which is executed in order to process any MP3 files that they own on their machine. Once analysed, the results are returned to DART's distributed database that collects and aggregates the resulting information. DART employs the use of package repositories to decentralise the distribution of such workflow bundles and this approach is validated in this paper through simulations that show that suitable scalability is maintained through the system as the number of participants increases. The results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Inicios, evolución y decadencia del espacio arquitectónico en la Escuela Primaria Pública española: Una visión desde Sevilla. Beginnings, evolution and decay of architectural space in the Spanish Public Primary School: A view from Sevilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Añón Abajas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES Se defiende la importancia del espacio arquitectónico en la educación infantil y primaria, comparando ejemplos de ámbito nacional o internacional con casos de Sevilla estudiados con detalle. En España se revelan cruciales los años finales del siglo XIX y primeras décadas del XX, alcanzando un punto álgido en la Segunda República. Se concluye reflexionando sobre la vigencia de esta importante cuestión mediante un ensayo crítico sobre la situación actual de edificios modelo como "los Altos Colegios" del barrio de la Macarena y "el grupo escolar Reina Victoria" en el barrio de Triana. Ambos celebraron ya su centenario pero mantienen gran vitalidad. (EN The importance of architectonic space is defended in the nursery and primary education, comparing national and international examples to Seville cases, reviewed in detail. In Spain are crucial the latest years of XIX century and first decades of XX, reaching a high point in the Second Republic. The article is completed reflecting about the validity of this important question trough a critical essay about the actual situation of model buildings as "los Altos Colegios" from the neighbourhood of La Macarena and "el grupo escolar Reina Victoria" in Triana district. Both celebrated their centenary, but they keep a great vitality.

  4. Uma nova espécie de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae para o Brasil A new species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonildes Sacramento Nunes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Passifloraceae é descrita e ilustrada, Passiflora mucugeana T.S. Nunes & L.P. Queiroz. Esta espécie é conhecida até o momento, na região da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, em áreas próximas aos municípios de Mucugê, Ibicoara e Barra da Estiva, em áreas de florestas estacionais e campo rupestre (Complexo Espinhaço, chegando a uma altitude de 1.200 metros. Passiflora mucugeana é inserida no subg. Passiflora supersect. Stipulata Feuillet & MacDougal sect. Granadillastrum Triana & Planch., por apresentar caracteres morfológicos que a assemelham a P. imbeana Sacco.A new Brazilian species of Passifloraceae is described and illustrated: P. mucugeana T.S. Nunes & L.P. Queiroz. This species is from the Chapada Diamantina region, state of Bahia, near the towns of Mucugê, Ibicoara and Barra da Estiva, growing in semideciduous forests and "campo rupestre", at 1200 m altitude. The new species is classified in subg. Passiflora supersect. Stipulata Feuillet & MacDougal sect. Granadillastrum Triana & Planch., because it appears to be a close relative of P. imbeana Sacco.

  5. Actividad antibacteriana de terpenoides y alcaloides aislados de tres plantas colombianas Antibacterial activity of terpenes and alkaloids isolated from three Colombian plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca Suárez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El potencial antibacteriano de 14 compuestos obtenidos de 3 especies nativas colombianas (Pleurothyrium cinereum [van der Werff], Esenbeckia alata [Karst & Triana], y Raputia heptaphylla [Pittier] fue evaluado mediante la inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano por el método de difusión en agar contra 4 cepas bacterianas: Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Staphylococcus aureus 6539, Escherichia coli 25922 y Salmonella tiphymurium 14028s. Los compuestos evaluados mostraron actividad frente a las cepas a diferentes niveles, observando una tendencia y selectividad según el núcleo base. El alcaloide 4-metoxi-1-metil-quinolin-2-(1H-ona (8 fue el compuesto que presentó la mayor actividad.The antibacterial potential of 14 compounds obtained from three native Colombian species( [Pleurothyrium cinereum [van der Werff], Esenbeckia alata [Karst & Triana], Reputia heptaphylla [Pittier] was assessed by agar diffusion method versus four bacterial species: Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Staphylococcus aureus 6539, Escherichia coli 25922 and Salmonella tiphymurium 14028s. The assessed compounds showed activity versus strains at different levels, maintaining a trend and selectivity according the base nucleus. The 4-methoxi-1-methyl-quinolin-2-(1H alkaloid, other (8 was the compound with the highest activity.

  6. Levantamento de Leandra Raddi no Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo. Survey of Leandra Raddi in Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilsa Aparecida RODRIGUES LIMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento de Leandra Raddi (Melastomataceae no Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo. Foram registradas quatorze espécies de :Leandra L. acutiflora (Naudin Cogn., L.aurea (Cham. Cogn.,L.australis(Cham. Cogn., L. cardiophylla Cogn., L. collina Wurdack, L. cordigera (Triana Cogn., L. fallax (Cham. Cogn., L. hirtella Cogn., L. humilis (Cogn. Wurdack, L. laxa Cogn, L. melastomoides Raddi, L. miangaeformis Cogn., L. quinquedentata (DC. Cogn., L. ribesiaeflora (Cham. Cogn. Para o reconhecimento das espécies, são apresentadas chave analítica, descrições, ilustrações, fenologia e distribuição geográfica.This paper consist in a survey of the Leandra Raddi (Melastomataceae at Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo. Fourteen species were recorded for :Leandra L. acutiflora (Naudin Cogn., L.aurea (Cham. Cogn.,L.australis (Cham. Cogn., L. cardiophylla Cogn., L. collina Wurdack, L. cordigera(Triana Cogn., L. fallax (Cham. Cogn., L. hirtella Cogn., L. humilis(Cogn. Wurdack, L. laxa Cogn, L. melastomoides Raddi, miangaeformis Cogn., L. quinquedentata (DC. Cogn., L. ribesiaeflora (Cham. Cogn. Analytical key, descriptions, illustrations, phenology and geographic distribution on the species are presented.

  7. Fast Identification of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine Using Direct Analysis in Real Time-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been found in preworkout products and dietary supplements. A fast direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time of flight-MS method was used for identification of DMAA in dietary supplements and to determine if this compound is present in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plants or oil. This method involved the use of [M+H]+ ions in the positive mode based on the exact mass of DMAA. The results of this investigation showed that DMAA was not detected from authentic samples of P. graveolens plant material or pelargonium oil or in multiple samples of commercially available pelargonium oil. DMAA was detected in three samples of dietary supplements. The LOD of DMAA was found to be 10 ng/mL.

  8. Antifertility screening of plants. VI. Effect of five indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S K; Saksena, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1970-09-01

    The petroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Apium graveolens Linn., Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntz., and Gossypium herbaceum Linn., the aqueous extract of Aloe Barbadensis Mill.Syn., and the juice of unripe fruits of Ananas comosus were tested on albino rats by a method which detects any antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The extracts were administered for 1-7 days. The dosages for A. graveolens, B. monosperma, and G. herbaceum were 100 mg/kg. 50 ml of A. comosus juice was administered daily. Dosages of 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg of A. barbadensis were given. With the exception of A. comosus, none of the plants showed any antiimplantation activity. The juice of the unripe fruits of A. comosus demonstrated encouraging antiimplantation activity showing 40% of implants only.

  9. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  10. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Zeeyauddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

  11. Riqueza y biogeografía de la flora arbórea del estado de Colima, México Tree flora richness and biogeography of the State of Colima, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy Padilla-Velarde; Ramón Cuevas-Guzmán; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez; Saúl Moreno-Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Con base en la revisión de obras taxonómico-florísticas, ejemplares de los herbarios IBUG, IEB, MEXU y ZEA y la colecta de 800 ejemplares botánicos, se registran 92 familias, 285 géneros y 550 especies de plantas arbóreas para el estado de Colima. Las familias mejor representadas a nivel de género y especie son Fabaceae (42 y 115, respectivamente), Euphorbiaceae (19 y 36) y Rubiaceae (13 y 23). Los géneros con mayor número de especies son Quercus (22), Bursera (19), Ficus (12), Lonchocarpus (...

  12. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

    OpenAIRE

    Aćimović Milica G.; Kostadinović Ljiljana M.; Popović Sanja J.; Dojčinović Nevena S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplem...

  13. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Origin

    secondaires dans les extraits d'Asteriscus graveolens subsp. odorus, nous avons effectué un screening phytochimique par la mise en place d'un ensemble de réactions de caractérisation de différents composés chimiques à savoir : les flavonoïdes, les saponines, les tanins, les alcaloïdes, les anthocyanes, les terpènes et.

  14. Plantas medicinais: efeito sobre insetos-praga e seus inimigos naturais

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Silva Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, entre as plantas medicinais Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae), Artemisia abisinthium L. e A. verlotorum L. (Asteraceae), Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart. (Leguminosae), Baccharis trimera Less. (Asteraceae), Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Caesalpinaceae), Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), qual (ais) possui (em) potencial inseticida para uso agrícola condizente com os princípios da Agroecologia. Diferent...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, N E; Tereschuk, M L; Abdala, L R

    2000-11-01

    Preliminary studies of flavonoids have been realised in five native species from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) used in popular medicine. Most of compounds detected were flavonoids mono and dihydroxylated in B ring. Screening for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms has been realised with Lippia turbinata, Satureja parvifolia, Sambucus peruviana, Verbena officinalis and Chenopodium graveolens. The total extracts of flavonoids of each plant were tested and four species studied showed antimicrobial activity.

  16. AcEST: DK961931 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 266 6e-71 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 265 1e-70 sp|Q43033|TCMO_PE...412 KPEEFRPERFLEEESKVEANGNDFRYLPFGVGRRSCPGIILALPILGITIGRLVQNFE 469 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta...R Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta graveolen... 265 2e-69 >tr|Q3L2Q3|Q3L2Q3_GINBI

  17. AcEST: DK962141 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|P48406|CHS5_SOYBN Chalcone synthase 5 OS=Glycine max GN=CHS5 ... 259 9e-69 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta...s alpina GN=CHS P... 255 2e-67 sp|Q9FSB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 254 2e-67

  18. Changes in essential oil content of different organs of dill genotypes in response to water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani; Mehrdad Moradi; Saeid Zehtab-Salmasi; Saeideh Alizadeh-Salteh; Saeid Ghassemi

    2015-01-01

    A split plot experiment (based on RCB design) with four replications was conducted in 2014, to evaluate the effects of different irrigation treatments (I1, I2, I3 and I4: irrigation after 70, 100, 130 and 160 mm evaporation, respectively) on essential oil content of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) organs in two genotypes (Local and Mammoth). Irrigation treatments and genotypes were allocated to the main and sub-plots, respectively. Essential oil percentage of dill organs increased, but their ess...

  19. Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Heather L. Fleming; Ranaivo, Patricia L.; Simone, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An ...

  20. Sviluppo di fertilizzanti azotati con inibitore della nitrificazione di origine vegetale

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cillo, Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Le proprietà di inibizione della nitrificazione di sostanze naturali offrono potenziali benefici per l’agricoltura e l’ambiente. Al fine di valutare le performance di oli estratti da Mentha spicata e Artemisia annua e di Acque di Vegetazione delle Olive come inibitori della nitrificazione per regolare la trasformazione dell’azoto dal Solfato Ammonico. Questi effetti sull’efficienza dell’uso dell’azoto sono stati testati su sedano (Apium graveolens). I risultati di questa ricerca suggeriscono ...

  1. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  2. Plant-Derived Chemicals as Tick Repellents

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek Garboui, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis and Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore reduce transmission of tick-borne diseases. In laboratory tests, pieces of cloth treated with MyggA Natural® (a commercial insect repellent) or with the essential oils of Corymbia citriodora (30%), Lavandula angustifolia (1 and 30%), Pelargonium graveolens (1 and 30%), Hyptis suaveolens (10%), Salvadora persica, Pi...

  3. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Janaina Cândida Rodrigues; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Melo; Lima, Edeltrudes O

    2008-01-01

    Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was obtained from otitis externa samples. Staphylococcus aureus in 10 cultures, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus together in 5 cultures and Candida albicans and Candida krusei in 4 cultures. P. aeruginosa was resistant to all oils and extracts tested; extracts from A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo and R. graveolens were inactive; the essential oil from C. aromaticus and M. chamomila were active against 3 strains of S. aureus and the Candida strains; seven of the S. aureus strains were sensitive to the P. amboinicus extract; however, the oil was inactive against 4 S. aureus strains and the Candida strains were sensitive to the R. graveolens essential oil. depending on the etiological agent, some plants presented satisfactory results, however we still need more detailed studies in order to better use these plants.

  5. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L; Whitfield, James B; Smith, M Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V.johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and V.randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011) is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400-1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  6. First record of the genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae in Mesoamerica, with the description of two new species from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The New World genus Venanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae is a small group of parasitoid wasps that includes two Nearctic and seven Neotropical species. Here two additional species, authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described from Costa Rica: V. johnnyrosalesi sp. n. from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG and V. randallgarciai sp. n. from Area de Conservación Cordillera Volcanica Central. They represent the first record of the genus for Mesoamerica. A previous key to all known Venanus (Whitfield et al. 2011 is modified to include the new species. The Costa Rican species were collected at altitudes of 1,400–1,460 m, but nothing is known of their biology. DNA barcodes were obtained for both species and are included as part of the description along with extensive photos. This paper is part of a series inventorying the diversity of Microgastrinae in ACG.

  7. Notas de la Dirección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Caldasia

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Homenaje a antiguos profesores del ICN-MHN / José Celestino Mutis 1732-1982 / Cambio de directivas / 200 años de La Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reyno de Granada 1782 – 1982 (Acuerdo numero 144 de 1982 del Consejo Superior Universitario: por el cual se celebra el segundo centenario de la creación de La Real Expedición Botánica de! Nuevo Reyno de Granada / Programa Flora de Colombia / Biblioteca José Jerónimo Triana / Título de Profesor Honorario / Acuerdo número 20, con fecha 16 de marzo de 1983, en Acta No.9.

  8. Live Outdoor Webcams and the Construction of Virtual Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2008-01-01

    characteristics of the outdoor webcam and, in the second, to analyse and discuss two papers written by leading scholars in the field; papers which have been important in the assessment of the impact of the Internet and geographical information systems (GIS) before the scientific community as well as policy makers...... perception of the Internet as a globally distended and thus "geographical" medium. Moreover, due to its role in the NASA Triana mission, the never-realised flagship of the Clinton-Gore administration's Digital Earth project, the live webcam seemed to play an important part in the construction of what leading...... geographers coined a "virtual geography"-the geography of the Internet, and the networked geography-that sought to establish itself as a new field of study during the late 1990s. In order to substantiate for this interpretation, I would like in the first part of this article to identify a number of basic...

  9. Actividad antibacteriana de terpenoides y alcaloides aislados de tres plantas colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca Suárez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El potencial antibacteriano de 14 compuestos obtenidos de 3 especies nativas colombianas (Pleurothyrium cinereum [van der Werff], Esenbeckia alata [Karst & Triana], y Raputia heptaphylla [Pittier] fue evaluado mediante la inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano por el método de difusión en agar contra 4 cepas bacterianas: Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Staphylococcus aureus 6539, Escherichia coli 25922 y Salmonella tiphymurium 14028s. Los compuestos evaluados mostraron actividad frente a las cepas a diferentes niveles, observando una tendencia y selectividad según el núcleo base. El alcaloide 4-metoxi-1-metil-quinolin-2-(1H-ona (8 fue el compuesto que presentó la mayor actividad.

  10. Conversación con Javier Terrados

    OpenAIRE

    Tejido, Javier

    2011-01-01

    El estudio de Javier Terrados ocupa la esquina de planta baja de un edificio de viviendas de los años sesenta, situado en el límite entre el barrio de Los Remedios y el viejo arrabal de Triana. Se trata de un espacio diáfano que transmite orden, limpieza, serena laboriosidad, luz y transparencia; se diría que da gusto trabajar allí. Recibe al visitante un pequeño ámbito previo, en el que además de ofrecerse la visión de toda la profundidad del local, se muestran maquetas a través de un vidrio...

  11. Absolute configuration of verticillane diterpenoids by vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; García-Gutiérrez, Hugo A; Hernandez-Hernandez, Juan D; Roman-Marín, Luisa U; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Good agreement between theoretical and experimental vibrational circular dichroism curves of (1S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3E,7E-dien-12-ol (1) established the absolute configuration of this natural diterpene isolated from Bursera suntui. Molecular modeling of 1 was carried out using the Monte Carlo protocol followed by geometry optimization at the B3LYP 6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The 12-membered ring of 1 was found in a single preferred chair-chair-chair-chair conformation. In the six-membered ring a chair prevails over a distorted boat, and the C-OH bond rotation generates three predominant rotamers. Validation of the minimum energy conformation for 1 was achieved by comparison of theoretical and experimental infrared frequencies, vicinal 1H NMR coupling constants, and X-ray diffraction data. This study confirms that (+)-verticillol 1 isolated from Bursera species has the 1S,11S,12S absolute configuration that corresponds to the same enantiomeric series as verticillanes from Sciadopitys and Taxus, while verticillanes from Jackiella and Jungermannia have antipodal structures.

  12. Infidelity of leafcutting ants to host plants: resource heterogeneity or defense induction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jerome J

    1990-03-01

    Leafcutting ants have strong among- and within-plant preferences, and generally abandon plants long before they are completely defoliated. Two tropical deciduous forest tree species preferred by the leafcutting ant Atta colombica were studied to determine how variation in resource quality affects ant selectivity and partial defoliation of plants. Significant differences in palatability and leaf characteristics of Spondias mombin and Bursera simaruba were found among trees and among leaf types within trees, but not among branches within trees. No short-term responses to experimental defoliation of up to 50% of total canopy were found in either species. Leaf nutrient and poisture content were positively correlated, and phenolic content negatively correlated, with the palatability of Spondias mombin, a species containing hydrolyzable tannins. Leaf moisture and phenolic content were both positively correlated with the palatability of Bursera simaruba, which contains predominantly condensed tannins. The results suggest that variation in leaf quality among and within plants is at least a partial explanation for ant selectivity and partial defoliation of preferred species. There is no evidence that rapidly induced changes in plant chemistry affect ant decisions to abandon these plants. Instead, it appears likely that ants abandon plants once high-quality leaf patches are exhausted. Quantitative variation in leaf nutrients, moisture, and secondary chemicals all appear to contribute to ant preferences for individuals and tissues of highly palatable plants.

  13. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F.; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots. PMID:28144250

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  15. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya K.; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Leyssen, Pieter; Liu, Maoxuan; Neyts, Johan; Luyten, Walter

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial (E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans); anthelmintic (C. elegans); and antiviral (enterovirus 71) bioactivity. In total, 35 plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded from tribes of the SBR and periphery. Of the 35 plants, eight plants (23%) showed broad-spectrum in vitro antimicrobial activity (inhibiting all three test strains), while 12 (34%) exhibited narrow spectrum activity against individual pathogens (seven as anti-staphylococcal and five as anti-candidal). Plants such as Alangium salviifolium, Antidesma bunius, Bauhinia racemosa, Careya arborea, Caseria graveolens, Cleistanthus patulus, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Crotalaria pallida, Croton roxburghii, Holarrhena pubescens, Hypericum gaitii, Macaranga peltata, Protium serratum, Rubus ellipticus, and Suregada multiflora showed strong antibacterial effects, whilst Alstonia scholaris, Butea monosperma, C. arborea, C. pallida, Diospyros malbarica, Gmelina arborea, H. pubescens, M. peltata, P. serratum, Pterospermum acerifolium, R. ellipticus, and S. multiflora demonstrated strong antifungal activity. Plants such as A. salviifolium, A. bunius, Aporosa octandra, Barringtonia acutangula, C. graveolens, C. pallida, C. patulus, G. arborea, H. pubescens, H. gaitii, Lannea coromandelica, M. peltata, Melastoma malabathricum, Millettia extensa, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, P. serratum, P. acerifolium, R. ellipticus, S. multiflora, Symplocos cochinchinensis, Ventilago maderaspatana, and Wrightia arborea inhibit survival of C. elegans and could be a potential source for anthelmintic activity. Additionally, plants such as A. bunius, C. graveolens, C. patulus, C. oppositifolia, H. gaitii, M. extensa, P

  16. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ávila, V A; Aguiar-Menezes, E L; Gonçalves-Esteves, V; Mendonça, C B F; Pereira, R N; Santos, T M

    2016-04-19

    Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.

  17. Allergenic relevance of nonspecific lipid transfer proteins 2: Identification and characterization of Api g 6 from celery tuber as representative of a novel IgE-binding protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejvar, Eva; Himly, Martin; Briza, Peter; Eichhorn, Stephanie; Ebner, Christof; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ferreira, Fatima; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2013-11-01

    Apium graveolens represents a relevant food allergen source linked with severe systemic reactions. We sought to identify an IgE-binding nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) in celery tuber. A low molecular weight protein exclusively present in celery tuber was purified and designated Api g 6. The entire protein sequence was obtained by MS and classified as member of the nsLTP2 family. Api g 6 is monomeric in solution with a molecular mass of 6936 Da. The alpha-helical disulfide bond-stabilized structure confers tremendous thermal stability (Tm > 90°C) and high resistance to gastrointestinal digestion. Endolysosomal degradation demonstrated low susceptibility and the presence of a dominant peptide cluster at the C-terminus. Thirty-eight percent of A. graveolens allergic patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to purified natural Api g 6 in ELISA and heat treatment did only partially reduce its allergenic activity. No correlation in IgE binding and limited cross-reactivity was observed with Api g 2 and Art v 3, nsLTP1 from celery stalks and mugwort pollen. Api g 6, a novel nsLTP2 from celery tuber represents the first well-characterized allergen in this protein family. Despite similar structural and physicochemical features as nsLTP1, immunological properties of Api g 6 are distinct which warrants its inclusion in molecule-based diagnosis of A. graveolens allergy. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. D’Ávila

    Full Text Available Abstract Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.

  19. Desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices

    OpenAIRE

    MARTELO CASTAÑO, YISELL JOHAN; CORTES RODRIGUEZ, MISAEL; SUAREZ MAHECHA, HÉCTOR

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio), en terminos de la cuantificacio...

  20. Avaliação de furanocumarinas como inibidores da fotossíntese através de ensaios de fluorescência da clorofila a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Moreira Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluations of Chorophyll a fluorescence emitted by superior plants carry structural information and photosynthetic apparatus function. Quantitative analysis apparatus of fluorescence kinetic were measured by energy flows (ABS, (TR, (ET and (DI, known as phenomenological phenomena of OJIP test. Four furocoumarins were isolated from Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, and chorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence assays were performed with these compounds to evaluate the photosynthesis inhibition potential. This test was realized in spinach`s leaf discs and in Lolium perenne leaves. The results indicated the herbicide potential mainly for bergapten and chalepin.

  1. Produtos naturais no controle do ácaro Varroa destructor em abelhas Apis mellifera L. (africanizadas)

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnino, Guido Laércio Bragança [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do ácido oxálico e de óleos essenciais de plantas como arruda (Ruta graveolens), timol (Thymus vulgaris) eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp) e hortelã (Mentha piperita) na infestação do Varroa destructor em colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas. Testes in vitro foram realizados para verificar o efeito desses produtos sobre as abelhas e os ácaros Varroa destructor. Vinte abelhas foram colocadas em gaiola de observação e, no seu interi...

  2. AcEST: DK953186 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available halcone synthase 2 OS=Glycine max GN=CHS2 ... 210 6e-54 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta gra...44|CHSY_HYDMC Chalcone synthase OS=Hydrangea macrophylla ... 205 2e-52 sp|Q9FSB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta...Query: 651 IFCT 662 IFCT Sbjct: 128 IFCT 131 >sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta graveolens GN

  3. AcEST: DK953251 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TVYGEHWRKMRRIMTVPF 137 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 P...O24312|TCMO_POPTM Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Populus ... 154 4e-37 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnam...ate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 153 5e-37 sp|P37115|TCMO_PHAAU Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Phaseol

  4. AcEST: BP916223 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 506 Scor...Q94FM5_TOBAC Elicitor-inducible cytochrome P450 OS=Nic... 81 2e-20 tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta...nnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Glycyrrh... 79 2e-21 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnam...ate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 81 2e-21 sp|Q43033|TCMO_PETCR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Petrosel

  5. Antimicrobial activity of some coumarin containing herbal plants growing in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, T; Remes, S; Haansuu, P; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R; Haahtela, K; Vuorela, P

    2000-11-01

    Antimicrobial screening against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, mold, as well as plant pathogenic fungi, with emphasis on method optimization was carried out on methanol extracts prepared from seven plants grown in Finland. Sensitivity to the extracts was found to vary considerably among the micro-organisms, the extract from Petroselinum crispum and Ruta graveolens showing the highest toxicity against Rhizoctonia solani. The growth of Heterobasidium annosum was inhibited, whereas that of Phytophtora (cactorum) was promoted by all the extracts. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of six natural coumarin compounds were weak, except for the inhibitory effect against Fusarium culmorum.

  6. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Liang, Willmann; Yew, D T

    2014-01-01

    Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  7. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  8. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  11. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  12. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in...

  13. Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J. S.; Chen, M.; Z.C. Li

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity,...

  14. Óleos essenciais para aromaterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Meirilane Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biotecnologia e Bio-empreendedorismo em Plantas Aromáticas e Medicinais O potencial terapêutico de óleos essenciais de Salvia sclarea, Salvia officinalis cv. ‘purpurascens’, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) em doenças neurodegenerativas e de óleos essenciais de Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) como ansiolítico, muitas vezes utilizados em Aromaterapia sugerem o papel relevante da regulamentação deste sector, designadamente quanto a critérios d...

  15. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  16. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites.

  17. ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS DE CONDIMENTOS SOBRE Escherichia coli ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS, AVES E BOVINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-01-01

    Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais (OES) de Origanum vulgare (orégano), Thymus vulgaris (tomilho), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela), Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano), Zingiber officinale (gengibre), Salvia officinalis (sálvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim) e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão) frente a Escherichia coli sendo 31 isolados de suínos, 43 isolados de aves e 36 isolados de bovinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bactericida mínima (C...

  18. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Pozzo, Marcelo; Viégas, Julio; Santurio, Deise Flores; Rossatto, Luana; Soares, Isaura Helena; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi da

    2011-01-01

    Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs) de Origanum vulgare (orégano), Thymus vulgaris (tomilho), Lippia graveolens (lípia), Zingiber officinale (gengibre), Salvia officinalis (sálvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim) e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão), bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bacteri...

  19. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  20. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Macroevolutionary chemical escalation in an ancient plant–herbivore arms race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X.; Noge, Koji; Venable, D. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A central paradigm in the field of plant–herbivore interactions is that the diversity and complexity of secondary compounds in plants have intensified over evolutionary time, resulting in the great variety of secondary products that currently exists. Unfortunately, testing of this proposal has been very limited. We analyzed the volatile chemistry of 70 species of the tropical plant genus Bursera and used a molecular phylogeny to test whether the species' chemical diversity or complexity have escalated. The results confirm that as new species diverged over time they tended to be armed not only with more compounds/species, but also with compounds that could potentially be more difficult for herbivores to adapt to because they belong to an increasing variety of chemical pathways. Overall chemical diversity in the genus also increased, but not as fast as species diversity, possibly because of allopatric species gaining improved defense with compounds that are new locally, but already in existence elsewhere. PMID:19706441

  3. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  4. Macroevolution of insect–plant associations: The relevance of host biogeography to host affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X.; Venable, D. Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Identifying the factors that have promoted host shifts by phytophagous insects at a macroevolutionary scale is critical to understanding the associations between plants and insects. We used molecular phylogenies of the beetle genus Blepharida and its host genus Bursera to test whether these insects have been using hosts with widely overlapping ranges over evolutionary time. We also quantified the importance of host range coincidence relative to host chemistry and host phylogenetic relatedness. Overall, the evolution of host use of these insects has not been among hosts that are geographically similar. Host chemistry is the factor that best explains their macroevolutionary patterns of host use. Interestingly, one exceptional polyphagous species has shifted among geographically close chemically dissimilar plants. PMID:10535973

  5. Macroevolutionary chemical escalation in an ancient plant-herbivore arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X; Noge, Koji; Venable, D Lawrence

    2009-10-27

    A central paradigm in the field of plant-herbivore interactions is that the diversity and complexity of secondary compounds in plants have intensified over evolutionary time, resulting in the great variety of secondary products that currently exists. Unfortunately, testing of this proposal has been very limited. We analyzed the volatile chemistry of 70 species of the tropical plant genus Bursera and used a molecular phylogeny to test whether the species' chemical diversity or complexity have escalated. The results confirm that as new species diverged over time they tended to be armed not only with more compounds/species, but also with compounds that could potentially be more difficult for herbivores to adapt to because they belong to an increasing variety of chemical pathways. Overall chemical diversity in the genus also increased, but not as fast as species diversity, possibly because of allopatric species gaining improved defense with compounds that are new locally, but already in existence elsewhere.

  6. Molecular systematics of Blepharida beetles (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X

    2004-01-01

    I investigated the phylogenetic relationships within the New World Blepharida and among related genera, using sequences of the Internal Transcriber Spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and sequences of the COI and COII genes of the mitochondrial genome. Cladistic analyses were performed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. These methods generated almost identical topologies using the combined data sets. The analyses suggest that Blepharida rhois, the type species, should be separated from the New World Blepharida and that the New World Blepharida might be congeneric with closely related Notozona. Also, according to this phylogeny, all of the New World Blepharida species that feed on Bursera (Burseraceae) form a single monophyletic clade, with the Afrotropical species forming its sister clade. The analyses also identified four main groups of species within the New World Blepharida.

  7. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Commiphora (Burseraceae) yields insight on the evolution and historical biogeography of an "impossible" genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Andrea; Simpson, Beryl B

    2007-01-01

    Expansion of the arid zone of sub-Saharan tropical Africa during the Miocene is posited as a significant contributing factor in the evolution of contemporary African flora. Nevertheless, few molecular phylogenetic studies have tested this hypothesis using reconstructed historical biogeographies of plants within this zone. Here, we present a molecular phylogeny of Commiphora, a predominantly tropical African, arid-adapted tree genus, in order to test the monophyly of its taxonomic sections and identify clades that will help direct future study of this species-rich and geographically widespread taxon. We then use multiple fossil calibrations of Commiphora phylogeny to determine the timing of well-supported diversification events within the genus and interpret these age estimates to determine the relative contribution of vicariance and dispersal in the expansion of Commiphora's geographic range. We find that Commiphora is sister to Vietnamese Bursera tonkinensis and that its crown group radiation corresponds with the onset of the Miocene.

  9. Riqueza y diversidad de especies leñosas del bosque tropical caducifolio en San Luis Potosí, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alanís Rodríguez, Eduardo; Aranda Ramos, Rafael; Mata Balderas, José M.; Canizales Velázquez, Pamela A.; JIMÉNEZ PÉREZ, JAVIER; Uvalle Sauceda, José I.; Valdecantos Dema, Alejandro; Ruiz Bautista, Milton G.

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación caracteriza las especies leñosas de un bosque tropical caducifolio en la región de Tamuín, S.L.P., México. Se seleccionaron dos áreas con historial de uso antrópico: una de lomerío y otra de valle. Se registraron catorce órdenes, 18 familias, 27 géneros y 29 especies en total. Las familias más abundantes fueron Fabaceae y Euphorbiaceae. Las especies con mayor peso ecológico son generalistas de áreas abiertas como Bursera simaruba y Tabebuia rosea. Las áreas evalua...

  10. Antiinflammatory activity of some medicinal plant extracts form Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Carretero, E; Martínez-Acitores, C; Noguera, B; Villar, A

    1996-12-01

    Six medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela, used in traditional medicine, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory potential against adjuvant-carrageenan-induced inflammation (ACII). All doses expressed here are equivalents of dried starting plant materials (1.50 g dry plant/kg body wt.). The most interesting plant extracts were Synedrella nodiflora, and the hexane leaf extract of Bursera simaruba. In ACII, orally administered extracts (at doses 40 and 80 mg/kg, respectively), inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of this experimental model of inflammation, mainly the chronic phase. These extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity daily throughout the experiment, and were as effective as reference drugs, phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg).

  11. [Neutralization of the hemorrhagic effect induced by Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom with tropical plant extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Gutiérrez, J M; Barrios, M; Castro, I; Romero, M; Umaña, E

    1999-09-01

    Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom's hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  12. Suitability of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2008-10-01

    In the last few years "D. I. A. F." (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University), has been testing the effectiveness of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bioengineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank protection in Nicaragua. Furthermore, we have also been aiming at economic efficiency. These techniques are appropriate for sustainable watershed management especially in underdeveloped countries. Concerning the plants to be used we experimented four native species. Gliricidia Sepium, Cordia dentata and Jatropha curcas are suitable for soil bioengineering more than Bursera Simaruba. Economically speaking, the sustainability of such interventions in underdeveloped countries, has been shown by the evaluation of the cost of riverbank protection using vegetated crib-walls in Nicaragua compared to the cost in different contexts.

  13. Estructura y composición de la vegetación leñosa de selvas en diferentes estadios sucesionales en el Ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B García-Licona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la diversidad florística de la selva mediana subperennifolia del ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, Campeche, en diferentes estadios sucesionales en un área de 2700 m2. En nueve parcelas de 300 m2 se representó vegetación secundaria (acahual con siete años de abandono, 15 años de abandono y selvas maduras, en las cuales se identifi caron y midieron todos los individuos leñosos con un DAP = 1 cm. Se encontraron 996 individuos de 78 especies distribuidas en 29 familias, las familias con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Fabaceae, Rubiaceae y Sapindaceae. Las especies con mayor abundancia en el área de estudio fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Pouteria reticulata, Croton icche y Bursera simaruba, esta última especie fue la única que se presentó en todas las parcelas de estudio. Las especies con mayor valor de importancia relativo (VIR en los acahuales con siete años de abandono fueron Lysiloma latisiliquum, Bursera simaruba y Guettarda combsii; en los acahuales con 15 años de abandono las especies con mayor VIR fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Piscidia piscipula y Dendropanax arboreus; mientras en las parcelas de selva madura fueron Brosimum alicastrum, Manilkara zapota y Pouteria reticulata. Además se presentaron 15 especies sólo en parcelas de acahuales con siete años de abandono, cinco especies únicas en las parcelas de acahuales de 15 años y 18 especies únicas en las parcelas de selvas maduras. Concluimos que analizar la estructura y composición florística en vegetación en distintas fases sucesionales permite documentar mejor la diversidad florística de áreas que han sido altamente impactadas por distintos disturbios

  14. Neutralización del efecto hemorrágico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae por extractos de plantas tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de extractos orgánicos de 48 especies de plantas costarricenses para neutralizar la actividad hemorrágica del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper (terciopelo. Los extractos se evaluaron mediante un bioensayo basado en inyecciones intradérmicas de veneno en ratones, o de mezclas veneno-extracto, seguidas de la cuantificación macroscópica de la hemorragia. Se observó una inhibición total de la hemorragia con los extractos etanólico, de acetato de etilo y acuoso de Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El análisis químico de estos extractos permitió identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrían jugar un papel en la inhibición del efecto hemorrágico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorrágicas para su acción.Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aquous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom’s hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  15. Validity of content and face validity of the instrument "Perception of behaviors of harmonized care" Validez de contenido y validez facial del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado" Validade de conteúdo e validade facial do instrumento "Percepção de comportamentos de cuidado humanizado"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGAS ROSERO ELIZABETH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodological research was carried out whose objective was to determine the face validity and content validity of the instrument "Perception of behaviors of humanized nursing care" of Rivera and Triana, with twelve patients and/or their permanent care taker, who were hospitalized in the Clínica Country, and with eleven experts in the area of nursing research. The results of the validity process through psychometric tests show that said instrument has a high face validity with patients, with an agreement index of 0,94, a face validity with experts in the nursing area, with an average index, by an agreement index of 0,78 and a high content validity, with a content validity index of 0,83. However, in the qualitative analysis of face and content validity performed by the experts, several observations were found about the operationalization of the perception concept of nursing humanized care behaviors, that lead to suggest theoretical support of the instrument has to be revised again.Se presenta la realización de una investigación metodológica que tuvo como objetivo determinar la validez facial y la validez de contenido del instrumento "Percepción de comportamientos de cuidado humanizado de enfermería" de Rivera y Triana, con doce pacientes y/o su cuidador permanente, que estuvieron hospitalizados en la Clínica Country, y con once expertos en el área de investigación en enfermería. Los resultados del proceso de validez a través de las pruebas psicométricas señalan que el instrumento mencionado tiene una validez facial con pacientes alta, con un índice de acuerdo de 0,94, una validez facial con expertos en el área de enfermería, con un índice medio, por un índice de acuerdo de 0,78 y una validez de contenido alta, con un índice de validez de contenido de 0,83. Sin embargo, en el análisis cualitativo de la validez facial y de contenido realizado por los expertos se encontraron diversas observaciones acerca de la

  16. Associações espaciais entre indivíduos de diferentes espécies de Miconia spp. Ruiz & Pav. (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as associações espaciais de indivíduos pertencentes a todas as espécies arbóreas do gênero Miconia presentes no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental de espécies dos gêneros Eucalyptus e Corymbia. Como o gênero Miconia possui a maioria das espécies pioneiras, a hipótese testada foi de que os pares de espécies analisadas apresentam indivíduos com sobreposição total ou parcial de habitat. Considerando o histórico da área, é possível supor que todos os indivíduos se regeneraram a partir da chuva e do banco de sementes. Foi estabelecido um transecto cruzando a área de estudo no sentido de seu maior comprimento, a partir do qual foram determinadas as coordenadas dos indivíduos do gênero Miconia com DAS (diâmetro medido na altura do solo maior ou igual a 1 cm. As associações espaciais entre os indivíduos das diferentes espécies foram analisadas por meio da função K de Ripley bivariada. Foram amostrados indivíduos de Miconia pepericarpa DC., Miconia sellowiana Naudin, Miconia albicans Triana, Miconia argyrophylla DC., Miconia chartacea Triana e Miconia cinnamomifolia (DC. Naudin. De forma geral, os resultados demonstraram ausência de associação espacial negativa entre os pares das espécies, indicando que os indivíduos de Miconia spp. compartilham parcial ou totalmente o mesmo espaço no sub-bosque de um plantio de eucalipto. Os resultados obtidos, apesar de não poderem ser extrapolados para outras espécies, corroboram a ideia de que algumas espécies pioneiras tendem a coexistir, em florestas tropicais, em áreas onde há maior disponibilidade de luz.

  17. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  18. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  19. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil.

  20. Report - Screening of the Anti-hyperglycemic activity of some medicinal plants of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Abdul-Razzak, Khalid K; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes represents a group of common diseases that are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels. Plants are traditionally used for management of diseases including diabetes. In this study, we screened the anti-diabetic effect of extracts of 21 plants grown in Jordan. Extracts of plants were screened for their antihyperglycemic activity. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using Alloxan. Plant extracts were dosed at 1gm/kg. Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at every hour for 3 hours. Results showed that five plants out of the 21 screened showed antihyperglycemic activity. These plants are Phoenix dactylifera L., Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth, Cichorium pumilum Jacq., Phaseolus vulgaris L., and Teucrium polium L. On the other hand, Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach. and Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata significantly increased blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. The following plant extracts showed neutral effect on blood glucose levels: Plantago major L., Taraxacum cyprium H. Lindb, Artemisia inculta Delile, Marrubium vulgare L., Inula viscosa (L.) Ai, Rubus sanguineus Friv, Coriandrum sativum L., Cucurbita pepo var ovefera, Cucumis sativus L., Hordeum vulgare L., Apium graveolens L., Avena sativa L., Helianthus annus L., and Anethum graveolens L. In conclusion, Jordanian medicinal plants might be useful for managements of blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes.

  1. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  2. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  4. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

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    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  5. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Kang, Jae Soon; Kim, Gil-Hah; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-07-25

    We evaluated the insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activity of 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents in adult male and female Blattella germanica. Of the 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils tested, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), and cumin (Cuminum cyminum) demonstrated >90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 mg/filter paper. In a contact toxicity test, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) produced strong insecticidal activity against adult male and female German cockroaches. Among the test compounds, (S)-(+)-carvone, 1,8-cineole, trans-dihydrocarvone, cuminaldehyde, trans-anethole, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene demonstrated strong fumigant toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. In a contact toxicity test, carveol, cuminaldehyde, (S)-(+)-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, and p-cymene showed strong contact toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. IC(50) values of α-pinene, carvacrol, and dihydrocarvone against female AChE were 0.28, 0.17, and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The toxicity of the blends of constituents identified in 4 active oils indicated that carvone, cuminaldehyde, and thymol were major contributors to the fumigant activity or contact toxicity of the artificial blend.

  6. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  7. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  8. Leaf and whole-tree water use relations of Australian rainforest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoko; Laurance, Susan; Liddell, Michael; Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change induces drought events and may therefore cause significant impact on tropical rainforests, where most plants are reliant on high water availability - potentially affecting the distribution, composition and abundance of plant species. Using an experimental approach, we are studying the effects of a simulated drought on lowland rainforest plants at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO), in tropical northern Australia. Before to build up the rainout infrastructure, we installed sap flow meters (HRM) on 62 rainforest trees. Eight tree species were selected with diverse ecological strategies including wood density values ranging from 0.34 to 0.88 g/cm3 and could be replicated within a 1ha plot: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Argyrondendron peralatum (Malvaceae), Elaeocarpus angustifolius (Elaeocarpaceae), Endiandra microneura (Lauraceae), Myristica globosa (Myristicaceae), Syzygium graveolens (Myrtaceae), Normanbya normanbyi (Arecaceae), and Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae). Our preliminary results from sap flow data obtained from October 2013 to December of 2014 showed differences in the amount of water used by our trees varied in response to species, size and climate. For example Syzygium graveolens has used a maximum of 60 litres/day while Argyrondendrum peralatum used 13 litres/day. Other potential causes for differential water-use between species and the implications of our research will be discussed. We will continue to monitor sap flow during the rainfall exclusion (2014 to 2016) to determine the effects of plant physiological traits on water use strategies.

  9. Effects of host plants on digestive enzymatic activities and some components involved in intermediary metabolism of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardani-Talaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper is a serious pest that causes devastating damages in infested areas to many fruits, vegetables, ornamental crops and weeds. In the current study, effects of three host plants including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; corn (Zea mays L. and dill (Anethum graveolens L. were determined on digestive enzyme activities and intermediary metabolism of C. chalcites larvae. The highest activities of α-amylase, glucosidases and specific proteases were observed in the larvae fed on dill. Our results showed that C. chalcites larvae had the highest TAG-lipase activity on corn in comparison with other host plants. Significant differences were found among enzymatic activities of acid (ACP and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the haemolymph of C. chalcites larvae reared on lemon balm, corn and dill, respectively, although activity of alanine aminotransferase showed no statistically significant differences among different host plants. The enzymatic activity of ACP significantly decreased on dill in comparison with lemon balm and corn. The activity of LDH significantly increased on dill compared with other host plants. These results revealed that dill (A. graveolens is the most appropriate host plant for larvae of C. chalcites as evidenced by the highest digestive enzyme activities and intermediary metabolism.

  10. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  11. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract and two biflavonoids from Garcinia gardneriana leaves in mouse paw oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castardo, Jaqueline C; Prudente, Arthur S; Ferreira, Juliano; Guimarães, Cláudio L; Monache, Franco Delle; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Otuki, Michel F; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2008-08-13

    Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi (Clusiaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil and used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, pain, and urinary tract and other infections. However, very few studies have analyzed these therapeutic effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Garcinia gardneriana (HEGG) and some of its isolated biflavonoids were evaluated. The results showed that HEGG from the leaves, bark and seeds reduced carrageenan-induced mouse paw inflammation, in addition to diminishing the myeloperoxidase activity in the stimulated tissues. The reduction of neutrophil infiltration by treatment with the HEGG from leaves was confirmed by histology. The leaf extract also reduced the paw oedema evoked by bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandin E2 and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate. However, it partially decreased substance P and compound 48/80-caused paw oedema, without any influence on the arachidonic acid-induced oedema. Both of the isolated compounds, fukugetin and GB-2a, prevented the carrageenan-induced paw oedema. In conclusion, this study showed important anti-inflammatory effects of HEGG through its interaction with different intracellular signaling pathways, without interfering with the formation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. These characteristics, in addition to the wide distribution and culturing ease of the plant, confirm its popular use and highlight its promise in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

  13. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae, with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

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    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for P. brunneus, only known from a single male, and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae. DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene were obtained for 30 species (83%, and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965, comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911, and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield: alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei.

  14. Revision of the genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Triana, Jose L.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Whitfield, James B.; Smith, M. Alex; Kula, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica, based on 400 studied specimens. A key to all 36 known species of Pseudapanteles is provided (except for Pseudapanteles brunneus, only known from a single male), and species are placed in three newly created species-groups. Host records are known for only 25% of the species; most are solitary parasitoids of the caterpillars of several families of small Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Incurvariidae, Sesiidae, Tineidae). DNA barcodes (part of the CO1 gene) were obtained for 30 species (83%), and provide a start for future study of the genus beyond ACG. Brief descriptions (generated by Lucid 3.5 software) and extensive illustrations are provided for all species. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed: Pseudapanteles moerens (Nixon, 1965), comb. n., Pseudapanteles brunneus Ashmead, 1900, comb. rev., a lectotype is designated for Pseudapanteles ruficollis (Cameron, 1911), and the following 25 species nova of Pseudapanteles (all authored by Fernández-Triana and Whitfield): alfiopivai, alvaroumanai, analorenaguevarae, carlosespinachi, carlosrodriguezi, christianafigueresae, hernanbravoi, jorgerodriguezi, josefigueresi, laurachinchillae, luisguillermosolisi, margaritapenonae, mariobozai, mariocarvajali, maureenballesteroae, munifigueresae, oscarariasi, ottonsolisi, pedroleoni, raulsolorzanoi, renecastroi, rodrigogamezi, rosemarykarpinskiae, soniapicadoae, teofilodelatorrei. PMID:25349512

  15. Sevilla, una encrucijada de caminos

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    Manuel Martín Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El mundo del flamenco, tan acostumbrado a contemplar la historia del género como una sucesión de nombres distinguidos que, por su significación expresiva o por su carácter de maestría incontestable, simbolizan una época, olvida con frecuencia el universo en que esa constelación de estrellas irradia su luminosidad más intensa, esto es, relega a un rol de menor importancia el ámbito en que se desarrollaron unos talentos especiales que, a lapostre, describirían situaciones y formas que el tiempo estimaría de verdadera trascendencia. Sin ánimo de caer en un determinismo localista demasiado forzoso, justo es decir que uno de los más grandes milagros de la música flamenca, se llama Sevilla, su barrio de Triana y muchos pueblos de la provincia. Una unidad demográfica que ofrece en grado sumo el origen de la complacencia en los goces de los sentidos.

  16. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

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    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new species and five species of Microplitis previously described from Mesoamerica. In ACG, all Microplitis were reared exclusively from Sphingidae, while all Snellenius were reared from Noctuoidea (Noctuidae and Erebidae. All of the wasp species with known host records are unambiguously specialists, parasitizing one or a few related hosts. Biological information (wasp cocoon and caterpillar hosts in the Neotropical region seems to differ from similar data reported in previous works for the Oriental region -but more studies on the world fauna are needed. Although the distinction between these two genera has been controversial, we consider that the available evidence, although not conclusive, suggests that these two genera are best kept as separate (based on the presence of at least a partial epicnemial carina in Snellenius, which is absent in Microplitis. The following 28 species, all authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described as species nova: Microplitis adrianguadamuzi, M. alexanderrojasi, M. francopupulini, M. hebertbakeri, M. jorgehernandezi, Snellenius billburgeri, S. bobdressleri, S. donstonei, S. felipechavarriai, S. gerardoherrerai, S. irenebakerae, S. isidrochaconi, S. johnkressi, S. jorgecampabadali, S. jorgegomezlauritoi, S. josesarukhani, S. kerrydresslerae, S. lucindamcdadeae, S. luisdiegogomezi, S. mariakuzminae, S. mariamartachavarriae, S. phildevriesi, S. quiricojimenezi, S. robertoespinozai, S. sandyknappae, S. velvaruddae, S. vickifunkae, S. warrenwagneri.

  17. Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of extracts from Clusia latipes leaves

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    Natalia Bailón-Moscoso

    Full Text Available Abstract Some species of the Clusia genus have been shown to have important biomedical properties, including the ability to inhibit tumor growth in vitro and the usefulness for skin care. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Clusia latipes Planch. & Triana, Clusiaceae, leaves on survival of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, colon cancer cells (RKO, astrocytoma cells (D-384, and breast cancer cells (MCF-7. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the most substantial cytotoxic effect. However, using a Comet assay, we observed that the hexane extract induced a genotoxic effect (DNA damage on human lymphocytes in an in vitro model. Chromatographic purification of the C. latipes hexane extract led to the isolation and identification of friedelin, friedolan-3-ol, and hesperidin as active cytotoxic compounds in hexane extract, while β-amyrine was identified as an active cytotoxic compound in the ethyl acetate extract of C. latipes, thereby supporting further studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of these secondary metabolites on cancer cell survival.

  18. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  19. Regional scale representation based on a detailed floristic inventory in a one hectare plot in the tropical Andes

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    esteban alvarez davila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Floristic composition of vascular plants and their distribution is reported for growth habits in a low montane rain forest (2600 m and 2500 mm/yr mean annual precipitation in the northern Andes, based on a plot of 1 ha. The samples collected represented 318 species/morphospecies, 82 families (nine of which were pteridophytes and 173 genera. 78% of the samples were identified to species. Groups with most species are pteridophytes (sensu lato, Orchidaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae and Piperaceae, that represented 44% of all species recorded. The most diverse genera arePeperomia, Elaphoglossum, Mikania, Anthurium, and Miconia. Three species endemic to Antioquia (Brunellia trianae, Meriania antioquiensis and Mikania fragrans were found. The individuals found in the plot represent 47% of the species, 48% of the genera and 60% of the families found in Arví Park, a reserve of 11400 hectares in which the plot was located. The plot had 108 species, 30 genera and one family not previously reported for Arvi Park. The number of common taxa between the plot and the Arví Park was 144 species, 142 genera and 69 families. Species richness/family in the plot accounts for 89% of the variation of species richness/family in the Arví Park, and 75% of the generic richness. We conclude that detailed floristic inventory of known area plots provide information representative of the regional flora and permit a rapid approximation of its biodiversity.

  20. Systematics and biology of Cotesia typhae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae, a potential biological control agent against the noctuid Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides

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    Laure Kaiser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitoid species are subjected to strong selective pressures from their host, and their adaptive response may result in the formation of genetically differentiated populations, called host races. When environmental factors and reproduction traits prevent gene flow, host races become distinct species. Such a process has recently been documented within the Cotesia flavipes species complex, all of which are larval parasitoids of moth species whose larvae are stem borers of Poales. A previous study on the African species C. sesamiae, incorporating molecular, ecological and biological data on various samples, showed that a particular population could be considered as a distinct species, because it was specialized at both host (Sesamia nonagrioides and plant (Typha domingensis levels, and reproductively isolated from other C. sesamiae. Due to its potential for the biological control of S. nonagrioides, a serious corn pest in Mediterranean countries and even in Iran, we describe here Cotesia typhae Fernandez-Triana sp. n. The new species is characterized on the basis of morphological, molecular, ecological and geographical data, which proved to be useful for future collection and rapid identification of the species within the species complex. Fecundity traits and parasitism success on African and European S. nonagrioides populations, estimated by laboratory studies, are also included.

  1. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  2. Compendium of dietary sources of vitamin A in the Thar desert

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    Desai Sanjiv

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The undisputed long term solution to prevent nutritional blindness lies in changing the dietary habits of a given population through nutritional education, nutritional supplementation, and nutritional rehabilitation. Before such strategies can be successfully implemented, it becomes necessary to study the existing dietary pattern of the population and to identify locally grown foods rich in vitamin A. Seventy eight rural women were interviewed to determine the common dietary items in western Rajasthan. These items were then matched with their B-carotene contents, only to discover that, 100 grams of any of them would not provide the RDA for a 1-3 year old child, with the exception of Suva (Peucedanum graveolens and Bathua (Chenopodium album leaves. The B-Carotene contents of several food items is unknown at present and there is an urgent need to evaluate them.

  3. Methanolic Extract of Dill Leaves Inhibits AGEs Formation and Shows Potential Hepatoprotective Effects in CCl4 Induced Liver Toxicity in Rat

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    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at evaluating the antiglycation, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. The antioxidant properties, photochemical characteristics, and antiglycation effects of dill extract were measured. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic rats were used to show the hepatoprotective activity of dill leaves. Different concentration of dill extract (0.032, 0.065, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL showed potential antioxidant ability. The extract of dill leaves significantly reduced AGEs formation and also fructosamine and protein carbonyl levels in rats’ liver. Thiol groups’ oxidation, amyloid cross-β, and protein fragmentation (P<0.001 significantly reduced in treated rats. Liver damage markers significantly reduced in dill-treated animals (P<0.05. Dill with potential antioxidant, antiglycation, and hepatoprotective effects can be suggested for treatment of diabetes complications.

  4. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

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    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  5. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of celery and white mustard in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Magdalena; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-11-01

    The developed duplex real-time PCR method allows the simultaneous detection of traces of potentially allergenic white mustard (Sinapis alba) and celery roots (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), celery stalks (A. g. var. dulce) and leaf celery (A. g. var. secalinum). The duplex assay does not show any cross-reactivity with 64 different biological species, including various members of the Brassicaceae and Apiaceae family. In raw model sausages spiked with white mustard and celery roots, the LOD was found to be 0.001% white mustard and 0.005% celery. In model sausages brewed at 75-78°C for 15 min the LOD was found to be 0.005% white mustard and 0.005% celery. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to check if commercial food products are labelled in compliance with the legal regulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero Effect of the incorporation of antagonistic plants on the parasitic activity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in a greenhouse carrot crop

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    Alvarez César G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca, se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de zanahoria (Daucus carota varo Mokum y sobre la densidad poblacional del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla y la intensidad de la nodulación asociada con su establecimiento sobre plantas de zanahoria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al rendimiento biológico de la zanahoria, pero los tratamientos con R. graveolens y T. officinale mostraron la mayor producción de zanahoria comercial (3070 g.m·2 y 2270 g.m·2 con diferencias significativas respecto al testigo (1090 g.m-2. Las densidades poblacionales finales de juveniles infectivos [J2] de M. hapla fueron significativamente más bajas en los tratamientos con R. communis, T. officinale, B. campestris y T. erecta (65-130 J2/100 g de suelo que en el testigo (435 J2/100g de suelo. En la nodulación se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el testigo (5.0 nudos/ápice de zanahoria y los demás tratamientos (1,9-2,6 nudos/ápice de zanahoria.A trial was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca under greenhouse conditions to assess the effect of incorporating fresh above-ground material of seven plant species (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris. Bidens pilosa, Rufa graveolens, Taraxacum officinale and Ricínus communis on the yield and commercial quality of a carrot (Daucus carota crop var. Mokum, on the population density of Meloidogyne hapla and on the

  7. [Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. There was a statistically significant decrease (p Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  8. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

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    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  9. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

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    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  10. Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species

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    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  11. Efek Antiinflamasi Beberapa Tumbuhan Umbelliferae

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    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  12. AcEST: DK953240 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q9AR74 Definition sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta...ns-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 124 4e-28 sp|Q43054|TCMO_POPKI Trans-...e-12 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = ...tr|Q5IDB4|Q5IDB4_PINTA Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (Fragment) OS=Pin... 130 6e-29 tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta...RTRNVVFDIFTGKGQDMVFTVY 129 >tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta

  13. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EVA GREEN REAL-TIME PCR USED TO DETECT CELERY AS AN ALLERGEN IN FOOD

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    Ondrej Škultéty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available EvaGreen®  Real-Time PCR method has been used for celery(Apium graveolens allergen detection. A primer designed in mannitol dehydrogenase gene region has been used for specific celery identification in sample. The results show possibility to create calibration curve using artificially adulterated samples. The increasing variability between parallel calibration of celery samples has been observed from 0.1 % to 100%. Detection limit has been set to value 0.1% in celery representing 1000 ppm. Fluorescent signal has been presented even in samples with lower percentage addition of celery but these samples have been excluded according to unspecific melting curve.doi:10.5219/138

  15. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

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    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  16. Emisión de metano en ovinos alimentados con Pennisetum purpureum y árboles que contienen taninos condensados

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    Angel Piñeiro-Vázquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de los taninos condensados (TC contenidos en el follaje de arbóreas tropicales, sobre el consumo de materia seca y orgánica (CMS, CMO, la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y emisiones de metano (CH4 en ovinos alimentados con una ración basal de pasto Pennisetum purpureum. Cuatro ovinos de pelo con un peso vivo promedio de 21.6±2.0 kg se sometieron a cuatro tratamientos en un diseño cuadro latino 4 x 4. Los tratamientos fueron P. purpureum (PP, P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA, P. purpureum + Bursera simaruba (PPBS, y P. purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP; el follaje de las arbóreas se incluyó en 300 g/kg de MS de la ración. El consumo, la digestibilidad y la producción total de metano entérico se midieron por periodos de 23 h. La producción de metano se midió en cajas de respiración de circuito abierto. El consumo y digestibilidad de la MS y materia orgánica (MO entre los tratamientos PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP no se afectaron por la inclusión de los follajes de arbóreas en la ración (P>0.05. Cuando la producción de CH4 se expresó en L/kg del CMS, CMO o consumo de fibra detergente neutro los resultados fueron similares entre tratamientos (PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP (P>0.05. Se concluye que los TC contenidos en el follaje de Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba no afectaron las emisiones de CH4 al nivel de incorporación de 30 % de la MS; tampoco se observaron efectos en el CMS, CMO, DMS y concentración molar de ácidos grasos volátiles.

  17. Selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón Melipona beecheii Bennett en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas Foraging selectivity of the stingless bee Melipona beecheii Bennett at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas

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    Leydi Fonte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar la selectividad de pecoreo de la abeja sin aguijón (Melipona beecheii Bennett, mediante el análisis palinológico de muestras de miel y polen. Previamente se realizó un inventario florístico del área, alrededor del emplazamiento del meliponario, basado en el radio de vuelo de las abejas. En las silvopasturas se utilizó el método de la escalera, y en el caso de los cercados vivos se contaron los árboles cada 10 m y se reflejaron en el croquis del área muestreada. En las arboledas y los traspatios de las viviendas se contaron y clasificaron todos los árboles existentes, y en el estrato herbáceo se aplicó el método de los pasos. En ambos tipos de muestra predominaron los granos de polen de guayaba (Psidium guajava y almácigo (Bursera simaruba, seguidos por los de dormidera (Mimosa pudica, sensitiva (Mimosa pigra, y naranjo y limonero (Citrus spp.. Se concluye que las abejas meliponas presentaron una marcada selectividad de pecoreo por las floraciones del almácigo y la guayaba, y que la Estación cuenta con el potencial melífero suficiente para que puedan desarrollarse favorablemente, sobre una base alimentaria sustentable.The work was conducted at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" to determine the foraging selectivity of stingless bees (Melipona beecheii Bennett through the analysis of honey and pollen samples. A floristic inventory of the area had been previously made around the apiary location, taking into consideration the bees' flight radius. The stair method was used in the silvopastures, and in the case of the living fences the trees were counted every 10 meters and this was shown in the sketch of the sampled area. In the groves and yards all trees where counted and classified, and in the herbaceous stratum the step method was applied. The pollen grains of guava (Psidium guajava and mastic tree (Bursera simaruba predominated in both kinds of samples

  18. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

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    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  19. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

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    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  20. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  1. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da flor preta do morangueiro Effect of plant extract on control of Colletotrichum acutatum the causal agent of the black spot of strawberry

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    Taís Ferreira Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A flor preta do morangueiro, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, acarreta sérios problemas à cultura. Com o objetivo de verificar a utilização de extratos vegetais no controle da doença, testes "in vitro" foram realizados com 11 extratos vegetais hidroalcoólicos produzidos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular. Os extratos foram preparados a partir de diferentes partes da planta, de acordo com a espécie, utilizando água e álcool no processo de extração por maceração. Foi verificada a influência dos extratos no crescimento micelial, esporulação e germinaç��o de esporos de C. acutatum, e também no controle do patógeno em folhas e frutos destacados. De acordo com a metodologia utilizada, os extratos vegetais que apresentaram maior eficiência foram os de folha e ramos de Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium e bulbos de Allium sativum, indicando ter essas plantas potencial fungitóxico para o controle de C. acutatum.The black spot of strawberry plants caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, causes serious problems to the culture. To control the disease and minimize the use of fungicides, in vitro assays were accomplished with 11 different plant hydroalcoholic extract from plants species used in the popular medicine. The extracts were produced from plant parts (according to the species using water and alcohol in the extraction process for infusion. The influence of the extracts was verified in the micelial growth, esporulation and germination of the pathogen, besides a test with leaves and outstanding fruits. In agreement with the methodology used in this study, the extracts that showed the highest efficiency were the ones from Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium and Allium sativum, which indicate such plants as potential fungitoxics for the control of C. acutatum.

  3. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  4. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  5. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

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    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  6. Regeneração de espécies nativas lenhosas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil Regeneration of wood natives species under Eucalyptus stand of Cerrado area in the Floresta Nacional of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Andreza Viana Neri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração de sub-bosques em plantios homogêneos tem estreita dependência de florestas vizinhas. Outros fatores exercem influência, como a ecologia da dispersão da espécie, os efeitos de borda e clareiras. Diante disto, procurou-se conhecer a florística e a estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de espécies nativas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, e verificar a variação da riqueza, da densidade e de indivíduos zoocóricos e anemocóricos da borda para o interior do talhão. Para tal, foram alocadas cinco parcelas de 5×40 m, subdivididas em parcelas 5×10 m. Foram encontradas 47 espécies e destas as que se destacaram foram Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil.e Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana, principalmente quanto à alta densidade. Das espécies amostradas 53% possuem dispersão zoocórica e 43% anemocórica. Verificou-se também a diminuição da riqueza, da densidade e da percentagem de indivíduos anemocóricos da borda para interior. Porém a percentagem de indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou no interior do talhão. A maior riqueza e densidade na borda dá-se pela dificuldade da dispersão de diásporos no interior do fragmento. O índice de diversidade (H'= 2,49 encontrado para este estudo foi próximo aos valores observados em estudos em regeneração sob Eucalyptus em áreas de Cerrado.The regeneration of understory in homogeneous stands is closely dependent of neighbour forests. Others factures also have influency such as the species dispersion ecology, the border effects and clearings. Therefore, the objective of this work were to study the floristic and structure of native woody plant species growing under stands of Eucalyptus in the Cerrado area in the Flona (Floresta Nacional - National Forest of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to determine the variations in richness, density and the zoochorous and anemochorous individual dispersions from the borders into the stand. To carry out

  7. Caracterização morfológica de minas foliares em espécies de Melastomataceae de Mata Atlântica, PE Morphological characterization of leaf mines in species of Melastomataceae in Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Aretuza B Brito-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a morfologia e a anatomia de folhas íntegras e minadas de cinco espécies de Melastomataceae, ocorrentes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, PE. As minas foram visualizadas em uma ou ambas as faces das folhas, possuindo padrão sinuoso ou retilíneo, distribuídas entre as nervuras ou por toda a lâmina, sendo estas características distintas para cada espécie. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada com estômatos presentes na face abaxial e tricomas dendríticos, multicelulares, estrelados e com mais de cinco ramos, em ambas ou apenas uma das faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e o sistema vascular em forma de arco. As larvas minadoras observadas em Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl. DC., M. albicans (Sw. Triana e Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don consomem o parênquima paliçádico e esponjoso, enquanto as de M. prasina (Sw. DC. e M. ciliata (Rich. DC. se alimentam do conteúdo e das paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas, caracterizando-as como do tipo epidérmica. Entretanto, em M. minutiflora, M. albicans e C. capitellata a epiderme permaneceu intacta formando uma proteção para o minador, enquanto que em M. prasina e M. ciliata a proteção é realizada pelas paredes periclinais externas e cutícula da folha. Tecido de cicatrização foi observado ao longo das minas em M. prasina.This study describes the morphology and anatomy of whole and mined leaves of five species of Melastomataceae native to an Atlantic Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mines can be found on one or both sides of the leaves, with a sinuous or rectilinear pattern, and distributed between the veins or throughout the entire leaf blade. These characteristics are distinct for each species. The leaves, in cross section, have a uniseriate epidermis, stomata on the abaxial surface, and unbranched hairs on both or at least one side. The mesophyll is bifacial and the vascular bundle is semi-circular. The leaf-miner larvae observed in

  8. Frugivoria e potencial dispersão de sementes pelo marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphidae: Didelphimorphia em áreas de Cerrado no Brasil central Frugivory and potential seed dispersal by the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphidae: Didelphimorphia in areas of Cerrado in central Brazil

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    Nícholas Ferreira de Camargo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, investigamos o consumo de frutos e viabilidade de sementes consumidas pelo marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854 em quatro áreas de cerradão do Brasil central. Análises fecais indicaram que este mamífero se alimenta de plantas pioneiras da família Melastomataceae (Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana, M. cuspidata Naudin, M. ferruginata DC., M. pepericarpa DC., M. pohliana Cogn. e Ossaea congestiflora (Naudin Cogn., Solanaceae (uma espécie não identificada e Viscaceae (Phoradendron perrottetii (DC. Eichler, erva-de-passarinho. Detectamos o maior índice de consumo de frutos já registrado para o gênero Gracilinanus, com cerca de 45% das fezes contendo sementes e 86% contendo itens derivados de frutos (N=422. Com exceção de O. congestiflora, o restante das sementes das espécies testadas não sofreram efeitos negativos na germinabilidade ao passarem pelo trato digestório deste marsupial. A avaliação da variação intraspecífica no número de sementes encontradas nas fezes indicou que fêmeas de G. agilis defecam maior quantidade de sementes de Miconia (média±EP = 21,7±3,8 em comparação com os machos (14,4±3,0 (F=26,32; PIn the present study, we investigated patterns of fruit consumption and viability of seeds consumed by the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854 in four cerrado sites in central Brazil. Faecal analysis indicated that this mammal feeds on seeds of pioneer plant species of Melastomataceae (Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana, M. cuspidata Naudin, M. ferruginata DC., M. pepericarpa DC., M. pohliana Cogn. and Ossaea congestiflora (Naudin Cogn., Solanaceae (one unidentified species, and Viscaceae (Phoradendron perrottetii (DC. Eichler, mistletoe. We recorded the highest reported rate of fruit consumption for Gracilinanus, with about 45% of the scats containing seeds and 86% containing items derived from fruits (N = 422. With the exception of O. congestiflora, the remaining seed species

  9. Desderivación Urinaria

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    Carlos de Vivero Amador

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Preocupación de los urólogos de todos los tiempos ha sido el desarrollo de un procedimiento operatorio que permita sustituir total o parcialmente la vejiga urinaria cuando ésta, por lesiones congénitas o adquiridas, haya cesado sus funciones o no pueda ser utilizada como órgano colector y excretor de la orina. Lesiones congénitas o adquiridas de uretra han sido motivo para derivar la orina por encima de la vejiga. Es así como numerosos métodos de derivaciones urinarias han sido ideados, siendo los primeros en su orden la nefrostomía y ureterostomía cutánea, con los inconvenientes de cambios de tubos, infección, formación de cálculos y daño progresivo renal. (1

    La implantación de los uréteres al intestino fue utilizada con el fin de evitar el uso de tubos y bolsas colectoras; pero la absorción de electrolitos, las infecciones renales, la estenosis de las anastomosis y la insuficiencia renal progresiva, llevaron a muchos urólogos a no practicar más estos procedimientos y buscar otras soluciones al problema.

    La implantación de los uréteres al sigmoides (Ureterosigmoidostomía se realiza en Colombia por primera vez por el Profesor Jorge E. Cavelier en 1932, cuando usa la técnica submucosa de Coffey, y en trabajo para ingresar a la Academia Nacional de Medicina informa sobre sus resultados.

    Era necesario separar las materias fecales de la orina, por razones obvias; esto llevó al uso de segmentos aislados de intestino en los cuales se implantaron los uréteres, esperando en esta forma reducir la incidencia de insuficiencia renal progresiva; se acepta hoy, que los segmentos intestinales aislados constituyen los mejores órganos para sustituir, en todo o en parte, alguna porción del tracto urinario. (2

    En 1944 el Profesor Santiago Triana Cortés usa el segmento ileocecal y apendicostomía en 5 pacientes y presenta este importante trabajo con carácter de comunicación preliminar a la Academia Nacional

  10. Estratificación de riesgo en pie diabético Risk stratification in diabetic foot

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    Héctor González de la Torre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El pie diabético es una complicación crónica de la diabetes mellitus y constituye una problemática sanitaria al conllevar un enorme gasto económico a los servicios sanitarios y provocar a las personas que lo padecen y a su entorno familiar enormes repercusiones emocionales. La educación sanitaria en el cuidado de los pies de los diabéticos, así como la cuantificación del riesgo son aspectos que el enfermero debe incorporar en los planes de cuidados de los pacientes diabéticos. La detección de los posibles factores de riesgo es un paso previo imprescindible para estos cometidos. Este estudio tiene como finalidad analizar la presencia de determinados factores de riesgo en pie diabético en la población diabética del Centro de Salud de Triana, con el objetivo de poder realizar, así, una estratificación del riesgo. Para ello, se optó por la realización de un estudio observacional descriptivo. La muestra analizada estaba constituida por 96 sujetos diabéticos pertenecientes a dicho centro de salud. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó un sistema de tres niveles consistente en entrevista, exploración física y consulta de registros disponibles (a través de las historias clínicas de los sujetos. Los datos se registraron en un formulario de recogida de datos para pie diabético. Se determinó la existencia de factores de riesgo, analizando las relaciones entre éstos y permitiendo la estratificación del riesgo en la población estudiada.The diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and constitutes a sanitary problem which causes not only enormous expenses for the sanitary system but also provokes emotional repercussions for the person who suffers the illness and for the family. The sanitary education in taking care of the feet of diabetics and the identification of the health risk are both aspects that the nurse must include in the healthcare planning of diabetic patients. The detection of the possible risk

  11. Acremoxanthone E, a novel member of heterodimeric polyketides with a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene ring, produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. GAMS (Clavicipitaceae) endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-González, Claudio; Murià-González, M Jordi; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the organic mycelium extract of the endophytic fungus Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae), isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), led to the isolation of six major heterodimeric polyketides, including one not previously characterized acremoxanthone derivative. In addition, the already known acremoxanthone C, acremonidins A and B, and acremoxanthones A and B were obtained. The structure of the new compound was established by extensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC methods. The trivial name proposed for this compound is acremoxanthone E. In addition, the structure of acremoxanthone C was unequivocally established for the first time, through X-ray crystal-structure analysis. The anti-oomycete activities of the pure compounds were tested against four economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes. Inhibitory concentration for 50% diameter growth reduction, IC50 , values for the four phytopathogens ranged from 6 to 38 μM. Also, in parallel, the cytotoxic activities against six cancer cell lines were evaluated showing IC50 values similar to those of cisplatin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on three different groups of heterodimeric polyketides, linked by a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene, such as xanthoquinodins, acremonidins, and acremoxanthones, which are isolated from an endophytic fungus. In addition, a common biosynthetic origin could be proposed. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-Guerrero, Gil Alfonso; Santiago-Mejía, Jacinto; Carrasco, Omar F

    2017-01-01

    Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg ., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl . and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose-induced hypertension. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the HR, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba ; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the BP after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose-response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension. The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension.

  13. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Interaction of Tubulin with Potent Natural Analogues of Podophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez-Mojica, Mayra; Rodríguez-Salarichs, Javier; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; León, Alejandra; Barasoain, Isabel; Canales, Ángeles; Cañada, F J; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Alvarez, Laura; Díaz, J Fernando

    2016-08-26

    Four natural analogues of podophyllotoxin obtained from the Mexican medicinal plant Bursera fagaroides, namely, acetyl podophyllotoxin (2), 5'-desmethoxy-β-peltatin A methyl ether (3), 7',8'-dehydro acetyl podophyllotoxin (4), and burseranin (5), have been characterized, and their interactions with tubulin have been investigated. Cytotoxic activity measurements, followed by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry studies, demonstrated that these compounds disrupt microtubule networks in cells and cause cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase in the A549 cell line. A tubulin binding assay showed that compounds 1-4 were potent assembly inhibitors, displaying binding to the colchicine site with Kb values ranging from 11.75 to 185.0 × 10(5) M(-1). In contrast, burseranin (5) was not able to inhibit tubulin assembly. From the structural perspective, the ligand-binding epitopes of compounds 1-3 have been mapped using STD-NMR, showing that B and E rings are the major points for interaction with the protein. The obtained results indicate that the inhibition of tubulin assembly of this family of compounds is more effective when there are at least two methoxyl groups at the E ring, along with a trans configuration of the lactone ring in the aryltetralin lignan core.

  14. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OFBURSERA MORELENSISRAMÍREZ ESSENTIAL OIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Canales-Martinez; C R, Rivera-Yañez; J, Salas-Oropeza; H R, Lopez; M, Jimenez-Estrada; R, Rosas-Lopez; D A, Duran; C, Flores; L B, Hernandez; M A, Rodriguez-Monroy

    2017-01-01

    Bursera morelensis , known as "Aceitillo", is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis . The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae , V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC 50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species.

  16. Differential effects of landscape-level environmental features on genetic structure in three codistributed tree species in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L

    2012-10-01

    Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Polliniferous plants and foraging strategies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Rogel

    2002-01-01

    A study of the most important polliniferous plants for European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) was made in Quintana Roo state. Comparisons were made between the plants visited by both bee types in order to determine whether there were qualitative or quantitative differences in their choice of plant species. Also some foraging strategies of the honeybees were analysed. Pollen from pollen load samples was acetolysed and mounted on slides. Subsequently the pollen grains were identified, counted and photographed. A total of 206 pollen load samples were collected at Palmas and St. Teresa during two years. The most frequent species in the pollen load samples from European and Africanized honeybees were Cecropia peltata, Metopium brownei, Lonchocarpus sp. 2, Viguiera dentata, Eragrostis sp. 1, Bursera simaruba and Eupatorium albicaule. Both types of honey bees show a high reliance on pollen from only a few species, the first five named above comprised around 50% of all the mean percentage frequencies. Families that contributed with the largest number of pollen species were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceae, Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae and Tiliaceae. C. peltata, Trema micrantha, B. simaruba, Eugenia sp. 1, Thouinia canesceras, Pouteria sp. 1, Mimosa bahamensis and V. dentata, were the pollen species with the largest percentages of occurrence in both European and Africanized bee pollen load samples, and also represent a "long-term" food resources during the year.

  18. Viabilidad y germinación de semillas de tres especies arbóreas nativas de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México

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    Carolina Orantes-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la proporción de semillas viables y la pérdida de viabilidad debido al periodo de almacenamiento, así como el efecto de tratamientos pregerminativos que favorecen la germinación en semillas deCordia alliodora, Terminalia amazoniayBursera bipinnata, árboles nativos de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México. Se encontró que las semillas recién colectadas presentaron más del 90% de viabilidad, la cual fue disminuyendo hasta mostrar un 15% enB. bipinnata, 34% enC. alliodoray 18% enT. amazoniadespués de 12 meses de almacenamiento. De acuerdo con la germinación acumulada se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (pB. bipinnata63%,C. alliodora62% yT. amazonia54%. En conclusión, para poder obtener un mayor porcentaje de semillas germinadas en poco tiempo, es necesario dar un tratamiento previo a la siembra para las semillas de estas especies. El almacenamiento de las semillas durante un año provocó una declinación en la capacidad germinativa.

  19. A Late Holocene Record of Human Impact in the Tropical Lowlands of the Mexican Gulf Coast: Lago Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, L.; Sosa, S.; Caballero, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Ortega, B.

    2005-05-01

    Lago Verde is a maar lake (18 36 43 N; 95 20 52 W) located on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in "Los Tuxtlas" region. The area was cover by tropical rain forest and is part of the core area of the earliest Mesoamerican cultures. A 6 m sediment core was obtained in order to document vegetation and lake level history of this area. Lago Verde is a shallow, eutrophic lake (max. 4 m), the natural vegetation has been removed and grasslands with some tropical trees such Bursera grows around the lake. According with the radiocarbon chronology the sequence covers the last 2500 yr BP. At the base of the sequence low abundance of tropical trees is record, with intermediate lake levels. A sudden change in the pollen stratigraphy occurs at ca. 2000 yr BP, with important presence of Poaceae, Ambrosia and Cheno.-Am. along with Zea mays indicating human activity in the area. This is associated with a change in limnological conditions, recording turbid, shallow environments. This pollen signals correlates with dry phases in Yucatan, suggesting that this dry climatic signal probably had effect on an ample area of Mexico. However, at 1200 yr BP, no more Zea mays pollen is recovered suggesting the abandonment of the area. Lake levels recover as well as the tropical forest. The last 150 yr BP is characterized by the reduction in the pollen of tropical forest trees, presence of Zea mays, increased erosion rates, turbidity and eutrophication in the lake, all related to deforestation.

  20. Suitability of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years "D. I. A. F." (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University, has been testing the effectiveness of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bioengineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank protection in Nicaragua. Furthermore, we have also been aiming at economic efficiency.

    These techniques are appropriate for sustainable watershed management especially in underdeveloped countries. Concerning the plants to be used we experimented four native species. Gliricidia Sepium, Cordia dentata and Jatropha curcas are suitable for soil bioengineering more than Bursera Simaruba. Economically speaking, the sustainability of such interventions in underdeveloped countries, has been shown by the evaluation of the cost of riverbank protection using vegetated crib-walls in Nicaragua compared to the cost in different contexts.

  1. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-Guerrero, Gil Alfonso; Santiago-Mejía, Jacinto; Carrasco, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose-induced hypertension. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Results: After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the HR, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the BP after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose-response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar-induced hypertension. Conclusions: The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension. PMID:28894625

  2. [Original humus forms in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, G

    2001-08-01

    Humus profiles underneath the canopy of dominant tree species in two secondary semi-evergreen forest sites in Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) were analysed with a micromorphological method. In the vertisol of a tree plantation, the humus formed was rather similar under all tree species being an eumull and essentially due to the activity of the endoanecic earthworm Polypheretima elongata. In a natural secondary forest located on a steep slope and associated with a rendzina soil (without endoanecic earthworms), the humus forms were described at lower, mid- and upper slope. In this forest, two particular humus forms were observed. At the middle slope, underneath the canopy of Pisonia subcordata L. that produces nitrogen-rich litter, a calcareous amphimull, characterised by an OH horizon made of millipede faecal pellets, was formed. In the upper slope, underneath the canopy of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. that produces a litter rich in resins and aromatic compounds that are poorly consumed by soil animals, a dysmull with a thick root mat (OFRh horizon) developed. Other humus forms were intermediate. The formation of these humus forms is discussed.

  3. The copal of the Chichen Itza offerings and of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan; El copal de las ofrendas de Chichen Itza y del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montufar L, A. [Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico INAH, Moneda No. 6, Col Centro, 06060 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez W, C.E.; Mendoza A, D. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres M, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, A.P. 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Literature from the post conquest shows that the Mayans used copal resins in their religious celebrations and ceremonial rites, specially as a sahumerio material. Historical precedents have been fully documented, establishing its use in the calendar ceremonies performed by the Aztecs towards their agricultural practices, mainly for the corn crop; and that according to the registries of sacred figures of their gods, they were made out of copal resin. Abundant fragments of this resin were found in a number of offerings at the digging of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. These facts indicate the intensive use of the copal as a link with divinities of life, maintenance and fertility, among many other aspects of existence, as stated by the Mexicas cosmos view. In order to determine the possible origin of the different types of copal, small samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, both from Chichen Itza and the pre hispanic from Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. Results show a great similarity between each absorption band, the one from Templo Mayor and the modern sample Bursera bipinnata and the one from Chichen Itza and the modem resin of Protium copal. This suggests that the pre hispanic copal form Chichen Itza was obtained from the Protium copal tree. (Author)

  4. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  5. Efeito de diferentes temperaturas na germinação de sementes e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana é uma espécie nativa do Brasil utilizada na medicina tradicional em comunidades rurais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a temperatura mais adequada para a germinação de sementes e formação de plântulas de M. albicans. Para avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação da espécie foram utilizadas 1200 sementes postas a germinar sob temperaturas constantes de 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC e nas temperaturas alternadas de 20-30 e 25-35 ºC. Foram avaliados a percentagem de germinação (PG, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, o tempo médio de germinação (TMG, e o comprimento das raízes primárias e do caule das plântulas. Os resultados encontrados indicaram PG acima de 63% paras as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC. Para o IVG, foram observados valores entre 2,17 a 2,93 para as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC, indicando maior vigor; em relação ao TMG, a maioria dos tratamentos alcançou resultado acima de 15 dias, indicando que as sementes germinaram lentamente. Levando-se em consideração todos os parâmetros avaliados, a temperatura de 25 ºC propiciou o melhor desempenho para as sementes da espécie.

  6. El Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, expresión moderna de la Expedición Botánica de Mutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Forero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de Ciencias Naturales cumple 80 años. Me sorprendo ahora al pensar que yo entré a hacer parte de esta importante institución cuando solo habían pasado 24 años desde su fundación como Departamento de Botánica de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Ingresé como estudiante de la recién fundada Carrera de Ciencias Naturales en el año de 1960. Eso quiere decir que he visto su discurrir por 56 años, a veces muy de cerca, a veces de lejos. Creo que solo María Teresa Murillo – a quien rindo aquí un homenaje de admiración, de respeto y de amistad - me sobrepasa en esa historia. El Instituto lleva con orgullo la herencia de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, dirigida por José Celestino Mutis entre finales del Siglo XVIII y comienzos del XIX y en la cual participaron próceres de la independencia colombiana como Francisco José de Caldas, Camilo Torres y Jorge Tadeo Lozano. La historia actual del Instituto puede trazarse con facilidad a aquella primera gran empresa científica. En efecto, uno de los dibujantes más ilustres de la Expedición, Francisco Javier Matís, quien aprendió botánica con Mutis y fue llamado por Alexander von Humboldt “el primer pintor de flores del mundo”, afortunadamente no fue sacrificado por los pacificadores españoles y se convirtió en maestro de José Jerónimo Triana.

  7. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  8. Factibilidad económica de la asociación maíz-pasto en el establecimiento de un sistema silvopastoril en el piedemonte llanero de Colombia¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sánchez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar financieramente una alternativa para el establecimiento de un sistema silvopastoril de sombra (SSP-S con leguminosas arbóreas nativas, conjuntamente con la producción de ensilaje de maíz y la renovación de praderas degradadas. Para ello se plantaron árboles en surcos y entre estos se sembró maíz, que fue cosechado para ensilar. Se seleccionaron tres especies nativas adaptadas a las condiciones de acidez del suelo (4,6, y se utilizó un arreglo factorial en bloques al azar con cuatro tratamientos, constituidos por las tres especies arbóreas a evaluar y el testigo: T O: testigo, T1: Piptadenia flava (acacia flava, T2: Cassia moschata (cañafistol y T3: Mimosa trianae (yopo, con cinco repeticiones por tratamiento, para un total de 20 unidades experimentales. Posteriormente se volvió a sembrar maíz, pero asociado con pasto, y se cosechó el maíz para ensilar, con lo que se renovó la pradera y se obtuvieron ingresos por concepto de ensilaje. Estos ingresos por la venta del ensilaje amortizaron los costos de la fase de establecimiento y generaron ganancias que hicieron viable económicamente el proyecto durante dicha fase, al lograr una utilidad neta por hectárea de USD 714, un valor presente neto (VPN de USD 407 y una tasa interna de retorno (TIR de 31,63 %. En otro tipo de SSP el costo de establecimiento puede llegar a más de USD 2 500 por hectárea y el retorno de la inversión puede tardar más de cuatro años.

  9. Relationship between oviposition, virulence gene expression and parasitism success in Cotesia typhae nov. sp. parasitoid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, R; Chantre, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Bodet, M; Mougel, F; Calatayud, P A; Dupas, S; Huguet, E; Jeannette, R; Obonyo, J; Odorico, C; Silvain, J F; Le Ru, B; Kaiser, L

    2017-12-01

    Studying mechanisms that drive host adaptation in parasitoids is crucial for the efficient use of parasitoids in biocontrol programs. Cotesia typhae nov. sp. (Fernández-Triana) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described parasitoid of the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Braconidae are known for their domesticated bracovirus, which is injected with eggs in the host larva to overcome its resistance. In this context, we compared reproductive success traits of four Kenyan strains of C. typhae on a French and a Kenyan populations of its host. Differences were found between the four strains and the two most contrasted ones were studied more thoroughly on the French host population. Parasitoid offspring size was correlated with parasitism success and the expression of bracovirus virulence genes (CrV1 and Cystatin) in the host larva after parasitism. Hybrids between these two parasitoid strains showed phenotype and gene expression profiles similar to the most successful parental strain, suggesting the involvement of dominant alleles in the reproductive traits. Ovary dissections revealed that the most successful strain injected more eggs in a single host larva than the less successful one, despite an equal initial ovocyte number in ovaries. It can be expected that the amount of viral particles increase with the number of eggs injected. The ability to bypass the resistance of the allopatric host may in consequence be related to the oviposition behaviour (eggs allocation). The influence of the number of injected eggs on parasitism success and on virulence gene expression was evaluated by oviposition interruption experiments.

  10. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  11. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  12. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  14. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  15. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  16. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

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    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  18. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

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    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  19. Ethnopharmacological approach to the herbal medicines of the "Antidotes" in Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron.

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    Valiakos, E; Marselos, M; Sakellaridis, N; Constantinidis, Th; Skaltsa, H

    2015-04-02

    This paper focuses on the plants quoted in the recipes of the first chapter entitled "About the Antidotes" belonging to the first and largest section "Element Alpha" of Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron, a medieval medical manuscript. Nikolaos Myrepsos was a Byzantine physician at the court of John III Doukas Vatatzes at Nicaea (13th century). He wrote in Greek a rich collection of 2667 recipes, the richest number known in late Byzantine era, conventionally known as Dynameron and divided into 24 sections, the "Elements". The only existing translation of this work is in Latin, released in 1549 in Basel by Leonhart Fuchs. Since no other translation has ever been made in any language, this work still remains poorly known. Our primary source material was the codex written in 1339 and kept in the National Library of France (in Paris) under the number grec. 2243. For comparison, all the other codices, which contain the entire manuscript, have also been studied, namely the codices EBE 1478 (National Library of Greece, Athens), grec. 2237 and grec. 2238 (both in Paris), Lavra Ε 192 (Mont Athos, Monastery of Megisti Lavra), Barocci 171 (Oxford) and Revilla 83 (Escorial). The exhaustive study of the "About the Antidotes" led us to the interpretation of 293 plant names among which we recognized 39 medicinal plants listed by the European Medicines Agency, (Herbal Medicines, www.ema.eu); the therapeutic indications of some of them provided by Myrepsos were similar or related to their current ones, as given in their monographs. The plants belong to various families of which the most frequent are: Apiaceae 10.6%; Lamiaceae 9.2%; Asteraceae 8.9%; Fabaceae 6.8% and Rosaceae 5.1%. The most frequently mentioned plants even under several different names are the following: Apium graveolens L., Crocus sativus L., Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Rosa centifolia L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Papaver somniferum L., Costus sp., Petroselinum

  20. Polliniferous plants aud foraging strategles Of Apis mellifera (Hyínenoptera: Apidae in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

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    Rogel Villanueva-G

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the most important polliniferous plants for European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. was made in Quintana Roo state. Comparisons were made between the plants visited by both bee types in order to determine whether there were qualitative or quantitative differences in their choice of plant species. Also some foraging strategies of the honeybees were analysed. Pollen from pollen load samples was acetolysed and mounted on slides. Subsequently the polien grains were identified, counted and photographed. A total of 206 pollen load samples were collected at Palmas and St. Teresa during two years. The most frequent species in the ponen load samples from European and Africanized honeyhees were Cecropia peltata, Metopium brownei, Lonchocarpus sp. 2, Viguiera dentata, Eragrostis sp. 1, Bursera simaruba and Eupatorium albicaule. Both types of honey bees show a high reliance on pollen from only a few species, the first five named above comprised around 50% of all the mean percentage frequencies. Families that contributed with the largest number of polien species were Fabaceae, Asteraceac, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaecae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceac, Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae and Tiliaceae. C. peltata, Trema micrantha, B. simaruba, Eugenia sp. 1, Thouinia canesceras, Pouteria sp. 1, Mimosa bahamensis and V. dentata, were the pollen species with the largest percentages of oceurrence in both European and Africanized bee pollen load samples, and also represent a "long-term" food resources during the year.Un estudio de las plantas poliníferas más importantes para las abejas europeas y africanizadas (Apis melifera L. se realizó en el estado de Quintana Roo. Se hicieron comparaciones entre plantas visitadas por ambos tipos de abejas, con el objetivo de determinar si hay diferencias cualitativas o cuantitativas en la elección de la especie de planta. Adicionalmente, se analizaron algunas estrategias de forrajeo de las abejas. Muestras

  1. Riqueza y biogeografía de la flora arbórea del estado de Colima, México Tree flora richness and biogeography of the State of Colima, Mexico

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    Eloy Padilla-Velarde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la revisión de obras taxonómico-florísticas, ejemplares de los herbarios IBUG, IEB, MEXU y ZEA y la colecta de 800 ejemplares botánicos, se registran 92 familias, 285 géneros y 550 especies de plantas arbóreas para el estado de Colima. Las familias mejor representadas a nivel de género y especie son Fabaceae (42 y 115, respectivamente, Euphorbiaceae (19 y 36 y Rubiaceae (13 y 23. Los géneros con mayor número de especies son Quercus (22, Bursera (19, Ficus (12, Lonchocarpus (11 y Senna (11. Únicamente 3 especies son endémicas de Colima, mientras que 22 se comparten sólo con otro estado (21 especies con Jalisco y otra con Michoacán. Un 43.4% están restringidas al territorio mexicano y 40.2% son de amplia distribución. El 56.6% de las especies se encuentran en un solo tipo de vegetación, destacando por su grado de restricción (37.7% y número de especies (66.8%, el bosque tropical caducifolio. Un total de 33 especies se encuentra bajo alguna categoría de riesgo; el 64% han sido localizadas dentro de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, cuyo territorio se comparte entre Colima y Jalisco. Se aportan recomendaciones específicas para realizar exploraciones florísticas y acciones de conservación para la flora arbórea de Colima.As a result of the revision of taxonomic publications, herbaria specimens (IBUG, IEB, MEXU y ZEA, and field work (800 specimens collected, we register 92 families, 285 genera, and 550 tree species in the State of Colima. The families with more genera and species are Fabaceae (42 and 115, respectively, Euphorbiaceae (19 and 36, and Rubiaceae (13 and 23. The richest genera are Quercus (22, Bursera (19, Ficus (12, Lonchocarpus (11, and Senna (11. We found that only 3 species are endemic of Colima and 22 species are shared only with another state (21 with Jalisco and one with Michoacan. A total of 43.4% species are endemic to Mexico and 40.2% are widely distributed. 56.6% of the species are

  2. The evolution of bark mechanics and storage across habitats in a clade of tropical trees.

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    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    • Bark functional strategies vary conspicuously within communities. As a result, predicting most community-level bark traits based on environment often reveals little association. To complement this community-based view, we took a clade-based approach to study potentially adaptive differences in bark water storage and biomechanics across habitats and examined ontogenetic mechanisms that lead to these differences.• We studied the branches of nine species in the simaruba clade of Bursera in dry to wet, fire-free neotropical forests. We measured mechanical properties from branch tips to bases, as well as the relative area and water content of bark. Using raw data and phylogenetically independent contrasts, we then tested predictions regarding trait associations with environment and mapped branch tip-to-base ontogenetic changes.• Across our wet-dry gradient, bark water storage was greater in drier habitats, whereas bark tissue mechanical rigidity was greater in the taller species of moister forests. Bark was the principal mechanical tissue in branch tips and an important contributor even in branches 3 m long. Within species, bark contributions to mechanical support and water storage came mostly through a tip-to-base increase in bark quantity rather than alterations in tissue properties. Quantitative developmental alterations in proportions of bark to wood led to habit differences.• Our clade-based approach shows that, in marked contrast to most community-based results, environment can strongly predict bark functional traits across species in ways that seem plausibly adaptive. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Study of the influencing effect of pigments on the photoageing of terpenoid resins used as pictorial media.

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    Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Kuckova, Stepanka; de la Cruz-Cañizares, Juana; Osete-Cortina, Laura

    2006-07-21

    Terpenoid resins have been mainly used as components of pictorial varnishes and binding media from ancient times. In such latest instances, the resin is mixed with pigments affecting its physical and chemical properties. A new procedure based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied, in this work, in combination with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), with the aim of determining the changes undergone by di- and triterpenoid resins employed as components of binding media. The GC/MS method is based on the derivatisation of these resins using trimethylsilylimidazol. Characterization of the main components of the di- and triterpenoid fractions and their oxidised products, occurring in the diterpenoid resin colophony and a triterpenoid Mexical copal (Bursera cuneata (Schl) Engl.), has been achieved. Artificially photoaged specimens of pure resin and binary systems pigment+resin prepared as thin films using lead white, ochre yellow, umber raw and verdigris have also been analysed to study the changes undergone by the di- and triterpenoid components of the resins. Oxidation processes taking place on di- and triterpenoids during photoageing are described. Moreover, the results obtained indicate that pigments have a different effect on the two studied resins. Thus, the presence of pigments induces, in general, a catalysing effect on the oxidative polymerisation reactions in the earliest stages of the natural curing of the paint films whereas a loss of the catalysing effectiveness, in particular, for verdigris containing specimens, is observed during photoageing. Complexation of diterpenoid molecules with copper(II) ions in the earliest stages of the curing has also been evidenced by FTIR analysis.

  4. Interspecific variation in xylem vulnerability to cavitation among tropical tree and shrub species.

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    Lopez, Omar R; Kursar, Thomas A; Cochard, Hervé; Tyree, Melvin T

    2005-12-01

    In tropical moist forests, seasonal drought limits plant survival, productivity and diversity. Drought-tolerance mechanisms of tropical species should reflect the maximum seasonal water deficits experienced in a particular habitat. We investigated stem xylem vulnerability to cavitation in nine tropical species with different life histories and habitat associations. Stem xylem vulnerability was scored as the xylem water potential causing 50 and 75% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P50 and P75, respectively). Four shade-tolerant shrubs ranged from moderately resistant (P50=-1.9 MPa for Ouratea lucens Kunth. Engl.) to highly resistant to cavitation (P50=-4.1 MPa for Psychotria horizontalis Sw.), with shallow-rooted species being the most resistant. Among the tree species, those characteristic of waterlogged soils, Carapa guianensis Aubl., Prioria copaifera Griseb. and Ficus citrifolia Mill., were the most vulnerable to cavitation (P50=-0.8 to -1.6 MPa). The wet-season, deciduous tree, Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.) Oken., had resistant xylem (P50=-3.2 MPa), whereas the dry-season, deciduous tree, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. was among the most vulnerable to cavitation (P50=-0.8 MPa) of the species studied. For eight out of the nine study species, previously reported minimum seasonal leaf water potentials measured in the field during periods of drought correlated with our P50 and P75 values. Rooting depth, deciduousness, soil type and growth habit might also contribute to desiccation tolerance. Our results support the functional dependence of drought tolerance on xylem resistance to cavitation.

  5. [Vegetation diversity, composition and structure in a cattle agro-landscape of Matiguás, Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlos, Dalia Sánchez; Harvey, Celia A; Grijalva, Alfredo; Medina, Arnulfo; Vílchez, Sergio; Hernández, Blas

    2005-01-01

    The diversity, composition and structure of vegetation in a cattle landscape in Matiguás, Nicaragua was characterized, and the floristic and structural differences of six types of habitats (secondary forests, riparian forests, charrales, live fences and pastures with high and low tree cover) were compared. A total of 3 949 trees of 180 species and 52 families were recorded. Forty six percent of the total trees reported for the landscape were represented by Guazuma ulmifolia (18.5%), Bursera simaruha (13.2%), Tabebuia rosea (6.3%), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (4.2%) and Albizia saman (3.4%). Many of the dominant species in the landscape were typical of open and disturbed areas. There were significant differences between the different habitats in the patterns of tree species richness, abundance, diversity, structure and floristic composition. The riparian forests had greater tree richness (p=0.0001) and diversity (p=0.0009) than other habitats. The floristic composition varied across habitats. with pairs of habitats sharing between 18.4 and 51.6% of the same tree species, and with clear differences in composition between the forested (riparian and secondary forests) and agricultural habitats. Of the habitats studied, the riparian forests and secondary forests seem to have greatest value for the conservation of the flora in the agropaisaje because they have the greatest species richness, and maintain small populations of endangered species. On the basis of the study, we recommend including agricultural landscapes in strategies to conserve tree diversity and suggest measures to ensure the maintenance of tree diversity in the Matiguas landscape.

  6. Diversity and genetic structure of the Mexican endemic epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae).

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    González-Astorga, Jorge; Cruz-Angón, Andrea; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Vovides, Andrew P

    2004-10-01

    The monoecious, bird-pollinated epiphytic Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys is an endemic bromeliad of the tropical dry forests of Mexico with clonal growth. In the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve this species shows a host preference for Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc ex. DC) Bullock. As a result of deforestation in the study area, B. copallifera has become a rare tree species in the remaining forest patches. This human-induced disturbance has directly affected the population densities of T. achyrostachys. In this study the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation were assessed by comparing the genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic differentiation in six populations of T. achyrostachys in the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve, Mexico. Allozyme electrophoresis of sixteen loci (eleven polymorphic and five monomorphic) were used. The data were analysed with standard statistical approximations for obtaining diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Genetic diversity and allelic richness were: HE = 0.21 +/- 0.02, A = 1.86 +/- 0.08, respectively. F-statistics revealed a deficiency of heterozygous plants in all populations (Fit = 0.65 +/- 0.02 and Fis = 0.43 +/- 0.06). Significant genetic differentiation between populations was detected (Fst = 0.39 +/- 0.07). Average gene flow between pairs of populations was relatively low and had high variation (Nm = 0.46 +/- 0.21), which denotes a pattern of isolation by distance. The genetic structure of populations of T. achyrostachys suggests that habitat fragmentation has reduced allelic richness and genetic diversity, and increased significant genetic differentiation (by approx. 40 %) between populations. The F-statistic values (>0) and the level of gene flow found suggest that habitat fragmentation has broken up the former population structure. In this context, it is proposed that the host trees of T. achyrostachys should be considered as a conservation priority, since they represent the

  7. SCREENING OF THE ACARICIDAL EFFICACY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTS ON THE CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: ixodidae BY LARVAL IMMERSION TEST

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    Jose Alberto Rosado-Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal efficacy of selected native plants from Yucatán, Mexico on acaricide resistant larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Methanolic extracts from roots, leaves, stems, and stem barks of 15 plants were tested using the modified larval immersion test. A final concentration of 10% (100 mg/ml of plant crude-extract was used. The percentage mortality from different plants and extracts were: Petiveria alliacea  leaves (95.7±2.9 % and stems (99.2±0.5 %; Diospyros anisandra leaves (87.9±8.6 % and stem bark (98.8±1.0 %; Havardia albicans leaves (93.0±12.0 %, Caesalpinia gaumeri (90.1±4.8 % and Capraria biflora (86.6±9.9 %, stems of Solanum tridinamum (98.0±1.7 % and Solanum erianthum (97.8±1.8 %, stem bark of Bursera simaruba (99.1±0.7 % and Cassearia corymbosa (99.5±0.5 %; and the root of Ocimum micrantun (87.0±3.2 %. We concluded that plants from Yucatan, Mexico showed a high acaricidal efficacy that could be used to control R. (B. microplus acaricide resistant larvae. P. alliacea, Havardia albicans and Caesalpinia gaumeri were of the most encouraging plants to be used as an acaricide. Further studies are needed to evaluate these plants on adult ticks (in vivo conditions and to identify the active compound(s on R. (B. microplus.

  8. ESTRUCTURA Y DIVERSIDAD ARBÓREA DE VEGETACIÓN SECUNDARIA DERIVADA DE UNA SELVA MEDIANA SUBPERENNIFOLIA EN QUINTANA ROO

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    Roy J. Carreón-Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La estructura y diversidad de una selva mediana subperennifolia se analizó en el ejido Andrés Quintana Roo, municipio de Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo. Para ello, se establecieron seis unidades de muestreo de 20 x 50 m (1,000 m2, dos unidades por condición de desarrollo de la selva (edad de la perturbación: a incendio hace 10 años (C10, b uso agrícola hace 24 años (C20 y c uso ganadero hace 33 años (C30. La estructura se caracterizó mediante la distribución diamétrica y de altura de los individuos en cada condición, así como empleando los índices de valor de importancia (IVI y forestal (IVF. Pouteria reticulata fue la especie con mayor IVI y Ficus sp. tuvo el mayor IVF, ambas en C10 y C20, mientras que Bursera simaruba y Lysiloma latisiliquum obtuvieron los mayores IVI e IVF, respectivamente, en C30. La diversidad se evaluó aplicando índices de abundancia proporcional (Shannon: H’ y semejanza florística (Sorensen: IS. La diversidad de especies de brinzales, fustales y latizales fue mayor en C10, C30 y C20, respectivamente. Los fustales tuvieron, en promedio, semejanzas florísticas de 60 % entre las condiciones de desarrollo de la selva, mientras que los brinzales y latizales tuvieron menos de 50 %.

  9. Use and management of tree fodder resources on farms in central Veracruz, Mexico

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    L. Ascencio-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó este estudio para determinar el uso y potencial de árboles y arbustos en 60 explotaciones ganaderas de los municipios de Tlapacoyan, Misantla y Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México. Los productores fueron encuestados con el objetivo de identificar, localizar y describir el uso de especies leñosas promisorias de interés forrajero, en tres sistemas de producción animal. Las encuestas registraron información acerca de: tamaño de la explotación, miembros (edad, escolaridad, años de experiencia de la familia, sistema de producción animal, manejo de pasturas, principales productos de la explotación; y la identificación, manejo y uso de árboles y arbustos en el sitio. Los datos se analizaron por estadísticos descriptivos como promedios y frecuencias relativas. Se caracterizaron tres sistemas de producción animal. Doble propósito (57%, cría y finalización (30%, y finalización en pasturas (13%; donde se identificaron 145 especies de árboles, siendo Bursera simaruba, Gliricidia sepium y Cedrela odorata las más comunes. Las dos primeras, de 12 especies fueron las más consumidas por el ganado, principalmente en ramoneo (38.80% o corte y acarreo (3.50%. El uso principal de estas especies fue: leña, carbón, madera y cercos vivos. El estudio mostró que existe una alta diversidad de especies leñosas de uso forrajero, con múltiples funciones en las explotaciones, destacando algunas especies como forrajeras, con un valor añadido en los sistemas de producción animal durante las épocas críticas del año.

  10. Ecology and removal of introduced rhesus monkeys: Desecheo Island National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M A

    1989-04-01

    A field project was conducted to remove an introduced population of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from Desecheo Island National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico. A group of 57 monkeys from Cayo Santiago was released on Desecheo Island in 1966 to study processes of adaptation. Observations in 1969 and 1970 implicated the monkeys in a drastic decline of the nesting populations of brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Previous efforts at trapping and removal had been conducted in 1977, 1979, and 1981. The present removal project began in 1985 and continued through 1987. During this period, field investigations were conducted regarding ecology and behavior, simultaneous with the removal of 66 monkeys from the island. Estimates of the monkey population size have been inaccurate. The total number present on the island has been extremely difficult to determine due to the rugged terrain and the furtiveness of the monkeys. The population did increase since introduction and was composed of apparently healthy individuals, generally in excellent physical condition. The population was well adapted to the harsh environment of Desecheo Island. No permanent sources of fresh water exist on the island and feeding adaptations focused on consumption of the wood pulp of the almacigo tree (Bursera simaruba) as a result. Huge amounts of this wood pulp were consumed daily for both nutrition and as a source of moisture. Cactus and other plant species were utilized as secondary sources of moisture and nutrition, including lesser amounts of almacigo fruit and leaves. Circumstantial evidence indicates the monkeys are egg predators. Social adaptations involved dispersal into small groups to optimize foraging conditions.

  11. Composición florística y estructura arbórea de la selva mediana subperennifolia del ejido "El Remolino", Papantla, Veracruz

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    A. J. Basáñez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la comunidad de “El Remolino”, municipio de Papantla, Veracruz, con la finalidad de caracterizar un sitio en la selva mediana subperennifolia que muestra diferentes altitudes y pendientes, hecho que permite diferenciar dos áreas. Se muestrearon aleatoriamente ocho cuadrantes. Se obtuvo la densidad, frecuencia y cobertura relativa, para estimar el Valor de Importancia; fueron censados 257 árboles > 4.77 cm de diámetro a la altura del pecho; la similitud se basó en el índice de Sorensen y la diversidad con los Índices de Shanon-Wiener y Fisher. Se registraron 30 especies y 20 familias; las especies con alto valor de importancia fueron: Heliocarpus microcarpus, Brosimum alicastrum, Bursera simaruba, Aphananthe monoica y Myrsine coriacea. El área basal del sitio 1 fue de 85.83 m2 ha-1 y 67.72 m2 ha-1 en el 2. El sotobosque registró el 27% de las especies, el estrato intermedio, 37%; y el dosel superior, 10%; el resto de las especies (26% ocupan varios estratos. El índice de Sorensen indica una similitud de 28% entre áreas; el análisis Cluster UPGM (Ligamiento de Grupos no Ponderado utilizando Promedios Aritméticos indica dos agrupamientos de cuadrantes, relacionados con las dos áreas. El índice de Shanon-Wiener registró en el área 2, 2.25; y para el Índice de Fisher se presentó en el área 1 un valor de 7.83. Se concluye que: la poca similitud entre las áreas de estudio estuvo fuertemente asociada con la presencia-ausencia de especies; mientras que por su riqueza se establece que ambas áreas son iguales

  12. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  13. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.

  14. Evolution of the SPATULA/ALCATRAZ gene lineage and expression analyses in the basal eudicot, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae

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    Cecilia Zumajo-Cardona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SPATULA (SPT and ALCATRAZ (ALC are recent paralogs that belong to the large bHLH transcription factor family. Orthologs of these genes have been found in all core eudicots, whereas pre-duplication genes, named paleoSPATULA/ALCATRAZ, have been found in basal eudicots, monocots, basal angiosperms and gymnosperms. Nevertheless, functional studies have only been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, where SPT and ALC are partially redundant in carpel and valve margin development and ALC has a unique role in the dehiscence zone. Further analyses of pre-duplication genes are necessary to assess the functional evolution of this gene lineage. Results We isolated additional paleoSPT/ALC genes from Aristolochia fimbriata, Bocconia frutescens, Cattleya trianae and Hypoxis decumbens from our transcriptome libraries and performed phylogenetic analyses. We identified the previously described bHLH domain in all analyzed sequences and also new conserved motifs using the MEME suite. Finally, we analyzed the expression of three paleoSPT/ALC genes (BofrSPT1/2/3 from Bocconia frutescens, a basal eudicot in the Papaveraceae. To determine the developmental stages at which these genes were expressed, pre- and post-anthesis carpels and fruits of B. frutescens were collected, sectioned, stained, and examined using light microscopy. Using in situ hybridization we detected that BofrSPT1/2/3 genes are expressed in floral buds, early sepal initiation, stamens and carpel primordia and later during fruit development in the dehiscence zone of the opercular fruit. Conclusions Our expression results, in comparison with those available for core eudicots, suggest conserved roles of members of the SPT/ALC gene lineage across eudicots in the specification of carpel margins and the dehiscence zone of the mature fruits. Although there is some redundancy between ALC and SPT, these gene clades seem to have undergone some degree of sub-functionalization in the core

  15. Seville and the double guadalquivir: a brief analysis of the recent city-river integration phenomenon

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    Peter Ribon Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Após um complexo conjunto de obras hidráulicas realizado durante o século 20, o rio Guadalquivir, principal curso d'água da Andaluzia (Espanha, sofre uma série de intervenções físicas que altera radicalmente seu desenho desde sua foz até Sevilha. Dentro dos limites dessa cidade, a reconfiguração - iniciada pela corta de Tablada (anos 20 e seguida pelas cortas de Triana (anos 50 e da Cartuja (anos 70, com o objetivo de melhorar as atividades portuárias e evitar constantes inundações - provoca uma curiosa duplicação do rio, que se desdobra em um trecho" histórico" (então estancado e transformado em doca e um trecho" vivo" (por onde segue até o mar. Ao mesmo tempo, a capital andaluza se expande às zonas sul (incentivada pela Exposição Iberoamericana de 1929, leste e norte, tornando-se sede da nova região metropolitana. Com os investimentos para a Exposição Internacional de 1992 (Expo'92, são, finalmente, ocupados, os terrenos da Cartuja, a oeste do centro histórico, e o rearranjo dos sistemas ferroviário e rodoviário devolve à cidade um grande trecho do rio então isolado (avenida Torneo. Enquanto o porto se direciona ao sul, junto da zona de Tablada, o velho cais do Arenal ganha o primeiro projeto de reintegração do rio à cidade. Novos passeios e pontes interligando o antigo núcleo urbano à Cartuja complementam essa nova paisagem, com o respaldo dos atuais planos urbanísticos. Com a descrição histórica desse processo e de uma breve análise visual do duplo Guadalquivir, buscamos identificar valores refletidos na atual conformação urbana do rio, detendo-nos, especialmente, à abertura realizada (e que segue em andamento em seu" histórico" curso.

  16. Improving urban environment through public commitment toward the implementation of clean and healthy living behaviors

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    Hartini N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nurul Hartini, Atika Dian Ariana, Triana Kesuma Dewi, Afif Kurniawan Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia Background: Some parts of northern Surabaya are slum areas with dense populations, and the majority of the inhabitants are from low-income families. The condition of these areas is seemingly different from the fact that Surabaya city has won awards for its cleanliness, healthy environment preservation, and maintenance. Aim: This study aimed at turning the researched site into a clean and healthy environment. Methods: The research was conducted using a quasi-experiment technique with a non-randomized design and pretest–posttest procedures. The research subjects were 121 inhabitants who actively participated in the public commitment and psychoeducation program initiated by the researchers to learn and practice clean and healthy living behaviors. Results: The statistical data showed that there was a substantial increase in the aspects of public commitment (t-value = 4.008, p = 0.001 and psychoeducation (t-value = 4.038, p = 0.001 to begin and maintain a clean and healthy living behaviors. Conclusion: A public commitment in the form of a collective declaration to keep learning and practicing a clean and healthy living behaviors were achieved. This commitment followed by psychoeducation aimed at introducing and exercising such behaviors was found to have effectively increased the research subjects’ awareness to actively participate in preserving environmental hygiene. Developing communal behaviors toward clean and healthy living in inhabitants residing in an unhealthy slum area was a difficult task. Therefore, public commitment and psychoeducation must be aligned with the formulation of continuous habits demonstrating a clean and healthy living behaviors. These habits include the cessation of littering while putting trash in its place, optimizing the usage of public toilets, planting and maintaining vegetation

  17. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Tumah, Haitham N; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-05-01

    Natural flora are considered a major source of new agents for the treatment of Helicobactor pylori. The plants used in this study were selected based on previous traditional use. In this study, we evaluated the effect of extracts of 16 medicinal plants grown in Jordan against clinical isolates of H. pylori. Tested plant extracts included Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc ex. DC. (Rosaceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Lavandula officinalis Chaix. (Lamiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae), Origanum syriaca L. (Lamiaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Passiflora incarnate L. (Passifloraceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach (Rosaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). Clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested in vitro for susceptibility to each of the above plant crude extracts using disk diffusion method, and the MIC value was determined for each plant extract using the serial dilution method. Results showed that ethanol extracts of most medicinal plants exerted cytotoxiciy against H. pylori isolates. Among the tested plant extracts, A. triphylla (MIC: 90 µg/mL, MBC: 125 µg/mL) and I. viscosa (MIC: 83 µg/mL, MBC: 104 µg/mL) showed the strongest activity against both isolates of H. pylori. Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources of starting materials for the synthesis of new antibacterial agents against H. pylori.

  18. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

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    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  19. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Phytotoxic Activities of Peganum harmala Seed Essential Oils from Five Different Localities in Northern Africa

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    Ida Apostolico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from five different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia was studied by GC and GC-MS analyses. A total of 105 compounds were identified, the main components being oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is the main component in all oils. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against some bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM4384, Escherichia coli (DMS 857 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071. All the oils showed different inhibitory activity. In the twentieth century this is an important result; we need possible new botanical drugs because the problem of resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become apparent. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their possible in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., and Ruta graveolens L. The results showed that both germination and radical elongation were sensitive to the oils.

  20. Medicinal Plants Used in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) as Contraceptive Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Karimpour-Razkenari, Elahe; Saeedi, Mina; Bagheri, Maryam S; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sadati, Narges; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Ardekani, Mohammad R S

    In recent years, rapid population growth and unsafe abortions have emerged as controversial health issues in some countries. Hence, safe and effective contraceptive methods or agents have attracted a great deal of attention and the corresponding market has been widely expanded. In this study, we present a review profiting from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) to introduce expedient plants as efficient contraceptive agents. Medicinal plants suggested as contraceptive agents were obtained from ITM text books and they were also investigated using search engines to confirm their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. According to credible Iranian medical literature a wide spectrum of plants possesses contraceptive activity and among them, Ruta graveolens, Ricinus communis, Piper nigrum, and Physalis alkekengi were found to be more efficient. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), particularly herbal remedies have received a lot of attention because of their truly healing properties. Focusing on ITM knowledge, there are various comments based on medicinal plants to reduce unsafe abortions leading to better public health in the society.

  1. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens.

  2. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  3. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

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    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  4. Efficacy and Tolerability of Phytomedicines in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Nia, Marjan Moghaddam; Najafi, Fariba; Rahimi, Roja

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that can cause cognition, mobility, and sensory impairments. It is considered one of the most common non-traumatic causes of disability in the world. The aim of the present article was to review the clinical evidence related to medicinal plants in the management of MS symptoms. Electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, and Scopus, were searched for entries from 1966 to February 2017. Only clinical studies were included in this review. Different medicinal plants have positive effects on MS, including Andrographis paniculata, Boswellia papyrifera, Ruta graveolens, Vaccinium spp., Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng, Aloysia citrodora, Ginkgo biloba, Oenothera biennis, and Cannabis sativa. C. sativa had the highest level of clinical evidence, supporting its efficacy in MS symptoms. Proanthocyanidins, ginkgo flavone glycosides, ginsenosides, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cannabinoids (including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol), boswellic acid, and andrographolide were presented as the main bioactive components of medicinal plants with therapeutic benefits in MS. The main complications of MS in which natural drugs were effective include spasticity, fatigue, scotoma, incontinence, urinary urgency, nocturia, memory performance, functional performance, and tremor. Herbal medicines were mostly well tolerated, and the adverse effects were limited to mild to moderate. Further well-designed human studies with a large sample size and longer follow-up period are recommended to confirm the role of medicinal plants and their metabolites in the management of MS.

  5. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  6. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Amanlou, Arash; Ghanadian, Naghmeh; Pasalar, Parvin; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed.

  7. Aplicación de un modelo experimental de valoración económica del uso y manejo de la flora colombiana. Estudio de caso: Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae

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    Campos Héctor Aníbal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se proponen un modelo y un indicador de valoración económica como alternativas para valorar el uso y
    manejo de la flora colombiana y se aplican a nueve especies de Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae: Swietenia macrophylla
    King (caoba, Cedrela odorata L. (cedro, Carapa guianensis Aubl. (carapa, andiroba o tangare, Guarea guidonia
    (L. Sleumer (trompillo, Anacardium occidentale L. (marañón, Anacardium giganteum Hancock ex Engler (marañón gigante, Spondias mombin L. (hobo, Camnosperma panamense Standl. (sajo y Astronium graveolens Jacq. (diomate o quiebracha. El modelo y el indicador propuestos integran todos los tópicos que se consideraron partícipes del valor económico de las especies en dos grandes aspectos: el biológico y el biocultural y socioeconómico. El indicador produce un valor aproximado de la especie valorando los aspectos contemplados en el modelo a través de cinco componentes: valor actual de uso, valor actual de importancia cultural, valor actual de los productos y servicios, valor potencial de los productos y servicios y estatus de la información. Con su aplicación en el estudio de caso se determinó a Cedrela odorata como la especie más valiosa.

  8. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Saxena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  9. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  10. Comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, I; Filgueiras, A V; Bendicho, C

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, three dissolution methods using pressure digestion vessels (low-, medium-, and high-pressure vessels) for the determination of metals in plant samples are described. The Plackett-Burman saturated factorial design was used to identify the significant factors influencing wet ashing and to select optimized dissolution conditions. The three methods were statistically compared (on-way ANOVA) on the same sample; no significant differences were obtained. In all cases the relative standard deviation values were microwave oven was validated against CRM GBW07605 tea leaves. This method was applied to the determination of Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Mg, and Ca in 22 different medicinal, aromatic, and seasoning plants by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration intervals of metal in the plants analyzed were the following: Cu, 4 (Allium sativum)-35 (Thea sinensis) microg g(-1); Zn, 7 (Piper nigrum)-90 (Betula alba) microg g(-1); Mn, 9 (Allium sativum)-939 (Caryophylus aromaticus) microg g(-1); Fe, 33 (Allium sativum)-2486 (Anethum graveolens) microg g(-1); Mg, 495 (Allium sativum)-7458 (Ocimum basilicum) microg g(-1); Ca, 386 (Allium sativum)-21500 (Ocimum basilicum) microg g(-1).

  11. The role of a novel fungal strain Trichoderma atroviride RVF3 in improving humic acid content in mature compost and vermicompost via ligninolytic and celluloxylanolytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, D; Singh, M; Wasnik, K; Chanotiya, C S; Kalra, A

    2015-12-01

    With the rising concerns about indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and accumulation of agro-industrial wastes in huge quantities, the present experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of a novel fungal strain of Trichoderma atroviride in hastening the compost/vermicompost production process and for the production of humic acid (HA) rich compost and vermicompost. Rice (Oryza sativa) straw and distillation waste of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), two important agricultural/industrial crop wastes were subjected to composting and vermicomposting. T. atroviride strains GVF10 (cellulase and xylanase producing), and RVF3 (ligninase and celluloxylanase producing) were inoculated alone or in combination. The HA content was found to increase maximally in rice vermicompost treated with ligninase producing strain RVF3 (85% with respect to HA standard) followed by geranium vermicompost + RVF3. The addition of the strain GVF10 increased HA content to about 35-62% with respect to HA standard. The addition of the fungal inoculum reduced the composting/vermicomposting time from 110 to 90 days. Our results indicate that the use of selected fungal strain(s) hold potential to produce qualitatively superior compost and vermicompost with high HA content in a shorter period. Use of appropriate fungal strains may increase the efficiency of composting/vermicomposting processes producing compost and vermicompost with higher HA content, and alleviating the problems of solid waste accumulation and declining soil fertility. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  13. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  14. Inibição do crescimento micelial de Cercospora calendulae Sacc. por extratos de plantas medicinais

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    J.M. Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais tem sido amplamente estudado no controle de doenças de plantas. O objetivo da realização do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos de Ruta graveolens L., Mentha x villosa, Calendula officinalis L., Momordica charantia L., Symphytum officinale L., Ageratum conyzoides L. e Ricinus comunis L., nas concentrações de 0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 e 10000 mg L-1, sobre a inibição do crescimento micelial de Cercospora calendulae Sacc. in vitro. Os extratos foram obtidos por infusão. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia da FCA/UFGD, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, esquema fatorial 7 extratos x 7 concentrações, com seis repetições. Foi detectado efeito dos extratos e suas concentrações sobre o crescimento do fungo, sendo a interação significativa. Os extratos de calêndula, arruda, hortelã e melão de São Caetano, nas maiores concentrações resultaram em maiores porcentagens de inibição, próximas de 100%, 30%, 35% e 40%, respectivamente, a 10000 mg L-1.

  15. Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients: Role of Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, S; Welter, S; Ruppel, E; Lehmann, K; Schwarz, D; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Zieglmayer, P; Franken, P; Worm, M

    2018-01-25

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed world-wide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. In this study, we examined the allergenicity of distinct celeriac cultivars. Sixteen celery-allergic patients were identified using a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Ten different celeriac cultivars were used for skin prick testing in the patients. Two cultivars were further applied for oral food challenges; their protein composition was analysed by immunoblotting, and contents of major allergen Api g 1 were quantified. From the 10 investigated celeriac cultivars, two cultivars elicited significantly different skin reactivity ("Anita": 5.0 [2.0-12.0] mm vs "Prinz": 7.0 [3.0-9.5] mm; P = .047). Moreover, "Anita" induced fewer symptoms after a controlled oral-celeriac challenge in 14 patient (P Api g 1 in "Prinz" than in "Anita." Taken together, the data from this study suggest that cultivar Anita is better tolerated in celery-allergic patients than "Prinz." Differences in the protein expression profile between the cultivars, particularly the different content of Api g 1, could cause the different allergenicity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Assessment of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.; Young, E.C.M

    1998-12-01

    A dynamic food chain model has been built for the modeling of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong, namely, white flowering cabbage (Brassica chinensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and celery (Apium graveolens). Some parameters have been estimated from the experimental data obtained in this work. The experimental data include the transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the different vegetable species which are determined through high resolution gamma spectrometry, maximum crop biomasses for the vegetable species, the dry-to-fresh ratios for the vegetable species, the bulk density of soil layers and the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in air. The derived parameters include the deposition rate and the root uptake rate, information for tillage, the logistic growth model and radionuclide concentrations in vegetables. The dynamic food chain model is solved by the Birchall-James algorithm to give the {sup 137}Cs concentration in subsurface soil, from the 0.1-25 cm soil layer, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in harvested and unwashed vegetables. As validation of the model and parameters, the concentrations obtained experimentally and from the model are compared and are found to be in good agreement.

  17. Activity of essential oils from spices against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dal Pozzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OE de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lipia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, e de suas frações majoritárias, carvacrol e timol, frente a 32 isolados de Staphylococcus spp, oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros bovinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Orégano, tomilho e lípia (Orégano Mexicano apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana similar, médias geométrica de CIM de 1600µg mL-1; 1564µg mL-1; 1562µg mL-1, respectivamente, no entanto menos ativos que carvacrol, 584µg mL-1 e thymol, 427µg mL-1. Isolados com diferentes perfis de susceptibil idade aos antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina, quando subagrupados, foram inibidos por concentrações semelhantes de OE . Estes resultados confirmam a atividade antimicrobiana de OE e algumas frações majoritárias.

  18. State of the (tart. Analytical approaches in the investigation of components and production traits of archaeological bread-like objects, applied to two finds from the Neolithic lakeshore settlement Parkhaus Opéra (Zürich, Switzerland.

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    Andreas G Heiss

    Full Text Available The site of Parkhaus Opéra is located on the north-eastern shore of Lake Zürich (Switzerland and was documented during a rescue excavation in 2010 and 2011 by the Office for Urbanism, City of Zürich. Two charred bread-like objects were found in late Neolithic Layer 13 of the pile-dwelling, and are investigated using a novel set of analyses for cereal-based foodstuffs. Tissue remains of barley and wheat were identified, as well as a schizocarp of celery (cf. Apium graveolens, providing the first evidence for the use of bread condiments in the Neolithic. Cereal particle sizes were recorded and used to draw conclusions regarding milling and sieving of the raw material. Gas bubbles in the charred objects were measured in order to evaluate possible leavening of the dough. The outcomes of this research significantly advance the understanding of the production traits of cereal-based food during the Neolithic. The analytical techniques proposed by this study open up new possibilities for systematic and consistent investigations of cereal-based archaeological foodstuffs.

  19. The detection of antibacterial actions of whole herb tinctures using luminescent Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Kathryn; Christofi, Nick; Young, Rodney

    2007-12-01

    Two whole cell Escherichia coli luminescent biosensors were used to determine the antibacterial actions of 16 herbal tinctures. These bioassays can detect genotoxic (strain DPD2794) and general oxidative stress (DE135) events when challenged with antibacterial substances. Many of the herbal tinctures were active against these Gram-negative bacteria, affecting their metabolism without, in some cases, arresting cell growth or causing cell death. Antibacterial activity ranged from undetectable for Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Apium graveolens to highly effective against both E. coli strains in the case of Rosmarinus officinalis. Some of the results were unexpected. Althaea officinalis affected microbial metabolism in spite of the lack of literature precedent, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum did not appear to be antimicrobial, as claimed in some literature. It is concluded that studies using luminescent bacterial biosensors can provide important new insights into the potency and modes of the lethal and sub-lethal antibacterial action of whole herbs, and thereby provide crucial evidence for efficacy demanded by modern science and medicine. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Identification and Quantification of Celery Allergens Using Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance PCR

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    Devin Daems

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Accurate identification and quantification of allergens is key in healthcare, biotechnology and food quality and safety. Celery (Apium graveolens is one of the most important elicitors of food allergic reactions in Europe. Currently, the golden standards to identify, quantify and discriminate celery in a biological sample are immunoassays and two-step molecular detection assays in which quantitative PCR (qPCR is followed by a high-resolution melting analysis (HRM. In order to provide a DNA-based, rapid and simple detection method suitable for one-step quantification, a fiber optic PCR melting assay (FO-PCR-MA was developed to determine different concentrations of celery DNA (1 pM–0.1 fM. The presented method is based on the hybridization and melting of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles to the FO sensor surface in the presence of the target gene (mannitol dehydrogenase, Mtd. The concept was not only able to reveal the presence of celery DNA, but also allowed for the cycle-to-cycle quantification of the target sequence through melting analysis. Furthermore, the developed bioassay was benchmarked against qPCR followed by HRM, showing excellent agreement (R2 = 0.96. In conclusion, this innovative and sensitive diagnostic test could further improve food quality control and thus have a large impact on allergen induced healthcare problems.