WorldWideScience

Sample records for bursera graveolens triana

  1. Triterpenos aislados de corteza de Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae y su actividad biologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Robles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae, known in Colombia as "sasafrás", is useful for its medicinal properties and is rich in secondary metabolites. In our research, we carried out antimicrobial tests of several fractions and ethanolic extracts from aerial parts against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, that showed growth inhibitory activity when applied at 250 mg/mL for extracts and 150 mg/mL for fractions. We carried out an antiinflamatory assay also, that showed 71% of inhibition by extracts (81% of Indomethacin and 70% of inhibition by fractions (78% of Indomethacin. Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae yielded three tetracyclic triterpene acids that have oxygenation in C-3, carboxylic acid in C-21 and unsaturation in C-24 and have been identified as 3-oxotirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (b-elemonic acid, 3a-hydroxytirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (a-elemolic acid and 3a-hydroxytirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid. The isolated compounds were identified using spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY experiments and comparison with published data. This is the first report of the isolated compounds in Bursera graveolens and they have a very important chemotaxonomic significance within the Burseraceae family and related families from the order Rutales.

  2. Efectos citotoxicos in vitro de extractos y fracciones de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a lineas celulares tumorales humanos Efeitos citotóxicos in vitro de extratos e frações de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a linhagens celulares tumorais humanos In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, against human tumor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Robles Camargo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A los extractos, fracciones y subfracciones obtenidos de hojas, flores y corteza de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, se les evalúo su actividad citotóxica preliminar frente a las líneas celulares CSC-1595 y Colo 205, siguiendo el método de fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayo de citotoxicidad MTT. Los resultados obtenidos de esta prueba muestran a la subfracción en diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5 obtenida de la fracción acetato de etilo del extracto en éter de petróleo de hojas, como la que presentó las sustancias bioactivas con una marcada actividad citotóxica, con porcentajes de viabilidad del 3% y 15.3% a la concentración 30 µg/mL en las líneas tumorales humanas Colo 205 y CSC-1595 respectivamente.A atividade citotóxica de extratos frações e subfrações obtidas das folhas e cascas de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, foram preliminarmente avaliados pelo método MTT frente a linhagens celulares tumorais CSC-1595 e Colo 205. Os resultados mostraram que a subfração diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5, obtidos a partir da fração acetato de etila do extrato em éter de petróleo das folhas, como sendo a que apresenta substâncias bioativas com forte atividade citotóxica, taxa de viabilidade de 3% e de 15,3% na concentração de 30 µg/mL em linhagens de células tumorais humanas Colo 205 e CSC-1595, respectivamente.To the extracts, fractions and subfractions obtained from leaves, flowers and bark of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, its preliminary cytotoxic activity against to the cellular lines CSC-1595 and Colo 205 were evaluated, following the MTT method. The results showed that dichloromethane-methanol (9.5:0.5 subfraction obtained of ethyl acetate part from petroleum extract of leaves, like to display the bioactives substances with a strong cytotoxic activity, showing viability percentage of 3% and 15,3% to the concentration 30 µg/mL in human tumor cellular

  3. El puente de Triana y su tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Jalvo, José Miguel

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Before the XIX century, nobody dare to construct a bridge on Guadalquivir river, from Córdoba to Sanlucar. It was, really, a great venture. In Sevilla, one of the most flourishing towns by the time in Spain, this problem was solved with a boat's bridge. That means that the technicians did not trust in the river bed. But, thanks to the fact of Sevilla’s prosperity and of the new technologies and new materials, they decided, finally, to undertake the work. The industrial use of the iron concerning communications and the success of the first suspension bridges -with span alike or higher to those herewith stated-, encouraged the technicians to jump over the one hundred and fifty meters between Sevilla and Triana . The choice of the suspension bridge was taken because it was useful to introduce other options, like this of the masonry, with Silvestre Pérez not used from the XV century, and this of iron (arcs or beams. But, no one of them solved the bed problems.La labor de construir un puente sobre el Guadalquivir no debía de ser empresa fácil si consideramos que desde Córdoba a Sanlúcar nadie se atreviera a emprenderla hasta mediado el siglo XIX. Que en la Sevilla de la Casa de Contratación, una de las ciudades más prósperas de la época moderna, este salto estuviera resuelto con un puente de barcas, explica, sin necesidad de otra justificación, lo insensato que le debía parecer a los expertos de la zona el fiarse del lecho del río. Esa misma prosperidad hizo que, gracias a nuevas técnicas y nuevos materiales, se retomara la intención de emprender la obra. El uso industrial del hierro, su aplicación a las comunicaciones y el éxito de los primeros puentes suspendidos -con luces iguales y superiores a la que aquí se plantea-, anima a resolver el salto de ciento cincuenta metros que, hablando en términos de distancia, separan a Sevilla de Triana. La opción de un puente colgante prospera porque salva limpiamente los problemas

  4. Ruta Graveolens intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seak, Chen-June; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of unintentional poisoning from Ruta Graveolens, a medicinal herb that is used for heart protection in Taiwan. A 78-year-old woman developed bradycardia, acute renal failure with hyperkalemia, and coagulopathy after three days of consuming a decoction made from Ruta Graveolens for the treatment of palpitations and heart protection. She was treated with hemodialysis in the emergency department for hyperkalemia. Her bradycardia and hypotension improved gradually three days later. Ruta use might cause multi-organ toxicity. We believe this case report helps in the recognition of the systemic toxicity of Ruta Graveolens.

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  6. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  7. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  8. Acremonium camptosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper draws on morphological and molecular analyses to determinate the systematic position of an interesting endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba, a tree of semideciduous dry tropical forest at El Eden Ecological Reserve. The cultured strain develops the characteristic...

  9. Diagnóstico del potencial empresarial: análisis de la zona comercial Triana 

    OpenAIRE

    Batista Canino, Rosa María

    1999-01-01

    [ES] El objeto de este trabajo es articular el proceso a seguir y determinar los factores que permiten medir el potencial empresarial de un individuo, una organización o un entorno concreto. La aplicación de la metodología propuesta se desarrolla en la Zona Comercial Triana.

  10. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.

  11. Efecto de Bursera grandiflora sobre el peso corporal y lipemia en ratones obesos

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía AGUILAR SANTAMARÍA; Ofelia ROMERO CERECERO; Manasés GONZÁLEZ CORTAZAR; Tortoriello, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    El sobrepeso y la obesidad están claramente vinculados con la ingesta calórica que lleva a la instalación crónica de inflamación sistémica de bajo grado. La terapia farmacológica es altamente recomendable para este padecimiento. Dentro de la familia Burseraceae existen especies utilizadas para el tratamiento de la obesidad, de las cuales, Bursera grandiflora es referida también por su efecto anti-inflamatorio. Evaluar el efecto de B. grandiflora en un modelo de obesidad, su potencial toxicoló...

  12. Estudios morfoanatómicos en Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae. I. Etapas tempranas del desarrollo del fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gamboa-Gaitán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La flor nacional de Colombia, Cattleya trianae, es un emblemático ejemplo de las orquídeas ornamentales de importancia económica. Si bien algunos estudios se han realizado en aspectos como reproducción y ecología, no hay estudios morfoanatómicos registrados para esta especie, por lo que con el presente manuscrito se pretende iniciar una serie de publicaciones que aporten información en este campo acerca de una especie particularmente atractiva por ser un símbolo nacional. Este estudio se centra en la anatomía del ovario y en los cambios que experimenta en los siguientes días a la polinización. El ovario muestra dos cavidades longitudinales, una para atraer al polinizador y otra para contener los óvulos que serán semillas tras la fertilización. Varios cambios anatómicos como la acumulación de un material de depósito que tapona el acceso a los óvulos y la formación de haces vasculares, son notables en los primeros días luego de la polinización en esta especie. La importancia de dichos cambios así como el uso de la anatomía para el estudio de la historia natural de las especies se discute aquí, ya que hay posiciones contradictorias al respecto.

  13. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Núñez, R. Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Arizmendi, María del Coro

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. PMID:27326382

  14. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction.

  15. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2006-01-01

    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction. PMID:17059340

  16. Segunda restauración de bursera ovalifolia y nombre nuevo para otro componente del complejo de b. simaruba (burseraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Rzedowski; Rosalinda Medina Lemos; Graciela Calderón de Rzedowski

    2007-01-01

    Uno de los grupos taxonómicamente más difíciles del género Bursera es el que comprende los elementos ubicados alrededor de B. simaruba, pues varias de tales especies son morfológicamente tan parecidas que no siempre resultan fáciles de distinguir de esta última entidad, a la vez muy variable, ni tampoco muchas veces entre sí. En 1936 Bullock redujo a varios componentes de este conjunto a la sinonimia de uno solo, para el que usó el nombre de B. ovalifolia (Schltdl.) Engl., pues juzgó que la p...

  17. Evaluación preliminar de la calidad de biofertilizante para Bursera bipinnata

    OpenAIRE

    Diego-Sánchez, T.; Corlay-Chee, L.; Hernández-Tapia, A.

    2015-01-01

    La Bursera bipinnata se reproduce difícilmente en su medio natural, el constante ramoneo, pisoteo y cambios en su hábitat impiden que las plantas logren madurar para que puedan aprovecharse. Por esta situación, es necesario buscar alternativas que favorezcan la supervivencia del copal, una de ellas es mediante establecimiento de simbiosis con Hongos Micorrizógenos Arbusculares (HMA). Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue preparar un biofertilizante de HMA, con la finalidad evaluar ...

  18. Orbit Determination (OD) Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission and for the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    The Triana spacecraft was designed to be launched by the Space Shuttle. The nominal Triana mission orbit will be a Sun-Earth L1 libration point orbit. Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination (OD) error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana mission from the first correction maneuver through approximately launch plus 6 months. Results are also presented for the science data collection phase of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission concept with momentum unloading thrust perturbations during the tracking arc. The Triana analysis includes extensive analysis of an initial short arc orbit determination solution and results using both Deep Space Network (DSN) and commercial Universal Space Network (USN) statistics. These results could be utilized in support of future Sun-Earth libration point missions.

  19. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Czygan, F-Ch

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dynamics of accumulation of linear furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, imperatorin) and their biogenetic precursor, umbelliferone, in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The metabolites under study were almost exclusively accumulated in the cultured biomass. The total content of all metabolites increased 4.8- and 2.0-fold, in R. graveolens and R. graveolens ssp. divaricata cultures, respectively. Xanthotoxin and bergapten, which are the most important therapeutic compounds, were the dominating metabolites in cultures of both plants. The maximum content of xanthotoxin (25.0 mg/100 g dry wt.) and bergapten (18.4 mg/100 g dry wt) and the maximum content of all metabolites (64.0 mg/100 g dry wt) in R. graveolens ssp. divaricata callus obtained on the 35th culture day were relatively low. However, maximum contents of xanthotoxin (136.8 mg/100 g dry wt), bergapten (210.4 mg/100 g dry wt.) and isopimpinellin (96.7 mg/100 g dry wt), and total content of all metabolites in R. graveolens shoots (520.8 mg/100 g dry wt) obtained on the 42nd culture day are interesting from a practical point of view.

  20. Ontogenetic modulation of branch size, shape, and biomechanics produces diversity across habitats in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Aguirre-Hernández, Rebeca; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Organismal size and shape inseparably interact with tissue biomechanical properties. It is therefore essential to understand how size, shape, and biomechanics interact in ontogeny to produce morphological diversity. We estimated within species branch length-diameter allometries and reconstructed the rates of ontogenetic change along the stem in mechanical properties across the simaruba clade in the tropical tree genus Bursera, measuring 376 segments from 97 branches in nine species in neotropical dry to rain forest. In general, species with stiffer materials had longer, thinner branches, which became stiffer more quickly in ontogeny than their counterparts with more flexible materials. We found a trend from short stature and flexible tissues to tall statures and stiff tissues across an environmental gradient of increasing water availability, likely reflecting a water storage-mechanical support tradeoff. Ontogenetic variation in size, shape, and mechanics results in diversity of habits, for example, rapid length extension, sluggish diameter expansion, and flexible tissues results in a liana, as in Bursera instabilis. Even species of similar habit exhibited notable changes in tissue mechanical properties with increasing size, illustrating the inseparable relationship between organismal proportions and their tissue mechanics in the ontogeny and evolution of morphological diversity.

  1. Discrete nanoparticles of ruta graveolens induces the bacterial and fungal biofilm inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Deepa, Oyyappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2014-08-01

    Ruta graveolens silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed the color change within 30 min and characterized using UV-visible spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). UV-visible spectrum of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the sharp peak at the wavelength of 440-560 nm. XRD patterns confirmed that crystalline nature of R. graveolens AgNPs and FTIR results revealed that phytochemical reaction of these R. graveolens is responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. TEM results showed the size of the R. graveolens AgNPs around 30-50 nm with spherical and triangular nature. Further, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of R. graveolens AgNPs showed the effective inhibitory activity against clinically important Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Our findings suggest that R. graveolens AgNPs can be exploited toward the development of potential antibacterial agents for various biomedical and environmental applications.

  2. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  3. Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

    2007-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent.

  4. Antiprotozoal activity of the constituents of Teloxys graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Velázquez, Claudia; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto; Esquivel, Baldomero

    2003-08-01

    Antiprotozoal activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens led to the isolation of one coumarinic acid derivative, melilotoside, and five flavonoids, pinocembrine, pinostrobin, chrysin, narcissin and rutin. Among them, melilotoside exhibited the most potent activity toward Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (IC(50) 12.5 and 16.8 micro g/mL, respectively). Narcissin showed selectivity against E. histolytlica (IC(50) 17.2 micro g/mL). The results support data for the traditional use of T. graveolens in some gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:12916068

  5. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvre, Karine; Tran, Thi Lê Minh; Doerper, Sébastien; Hehn, Alain; Lacoste, Paul; Thomasset, Brigitte; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Gontier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to develop a genetic transformation method for a medicinal plant Ruta graveolens. The direct plant regeneration strategy is preferred to callus line establishment. In vitro seedlings, 2- -to 3-wk-old, are used to excise hypocotyls and co-cultivated for 3 d with A. tumefaciens strain C58C1Rif containing plasmid pTDE4 harbouring neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II, kanamycin resistance) and beta-glucuronidase encoding genes. The Southern blot analysis has shown that 78% kanamycin resistant plants contain gene encoding beta-glucuronidase. The GUS histochemical assay shows that 67% transgenic plants exhibit the corresponding enzymatic activity. Routine transformation efficiency of R. graveolens L. is 11% and could reach up to 22%. Transgenic plants are grown in the greenhouse within 4 months after the initial seedlings.

  7. Furanocoumarins: novel topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2009-10-01

    Topoisomerase I inhibitors from Ruta graveolens are reported for the first time. Potent topoisomerase I inhibitory activity from in vitro culture extracts R. graveolens were observed. Stabilization of DNA-topoisomerase covalent complex was observed in all the tested extracts. The mechanism of topoisomerase inhibition was determined by preincubation studies. The irreversible topoisomerase I mediated relaxation of plasmid in enzyme-substrate preincubation study, indicated that the observed inhibitory activity of extract constituents was not mediated through conformational changes in the DNA. Furthermore, the affinity of inhibitors with the enzyme was tested by enzyme-extract preincubation study. Increase in inhibition of topoisomerase activity and promotion of DNA-enzyme complex was observed after enzyme-extract preincubation. The activity could be assigned to furanocoumarins-psoralen, bergapten and xanthotoxin, identifying them as novel, potent topoisomerase I inhibitors.

  8. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Mirhosseini; Azar Baradaran; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens) were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily) and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily) for 2 months. The ...

  9. A New Cytotoxic Clerodane Diterpene from Casearia graveolens Twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Sripisut, Tawanun; Maneerat, Wisanu; Machan, Theeraphan; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    The first phytochemical investigation of Casearia graveolens twigs led to the isolation and identification of a new clerodane diterpene, caseariagraveolin (1), together with six known compounds (2-7). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity against oral cavity and breast cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 2.48 and 6.63 µM, respectively.

  10. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Oropeza, Fabiola; Duarte, Georgina; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Anaya, Ana Luisa

    2010-10-01

    Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms. PMID:20809145

  11. Variaciones de la comunidad de visitadores florales de Bursera copallifera (Burseraceae) a lo largo de un gradiente de perturbación antropogénica

    OpenAIRE

    Sombra Patricia Rivas-Arancibia; Eribel Bello-Cervantes; Hortensia Carrillo-Ruiz; Agustina Rosa Andrés-Hernández; Dulce María Figueroa-Castro; Silvia Guzmán-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    El cambio en las condiciones ambientales y el grado de perturbación antropogénica afectan las comunidades de visitadores florale s. Así, se identificó y caracterizó la comunidad de visitadores florales de Bursera copallifera , en Jolalpan, Puebla, México, considerando cambios en variables ambientales (temperatura, humedad y altitud) y factores asociados con un gradiente de perturbación. Se usó un índice multimétrico cuantitativo para medir la perturbación en 13 zonas de la localidad. Se s...

  12. Effect of Ruta graveolens L. on pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tanise Gonçalves; Augusto, Patrice Martins; Montanari, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is used in many countries, including Brazil, as an abortifacient. To determine its effect on pregnancy, the lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of its aerial parts was administered orally at a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day to mice between the first and third day of pregnancy (DOP), between the fourth and sixth DOP or between the seventh and ninth DOP. The extract did not cause preimplantation embryonic loss or reabsorptions. Fetal death was found. Estrogenic activity was not exhibited by the extract.

  13. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae Baker, en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gómez María Argenis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se trataron algunos aspectos sobre la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae, una bromelia terrestre de los páramos colombianos. Se observó una separación espacio-temporal de los órganos
    reproductivos que determina la condición de protoginia en las flores a partir del inicio de la antesis, fase de la
    flor cuyo estigma se torna receptivo y la producción de néctar es significativa. Se encontró en P. trianae un sistema reproductivo auto compatible, lo que permitió a las inflorescencias auto polinizarse y ser fecundadas con polen foráneo; la fructificación de la población bajo condiciones naturales (éxito reproductivo estuvo limitada por la predación y los polinizadores. Las rosetas solo asignaron el 13% de su biomasa en su esfuerzo reproductivo, el porcentaje restante fue invertido en su crecimiento vegetativo. Se registró la floración de la población hacia la época húmeda (junio-agosto de 2003, el clima fue poco favorable para los polinizadores, pero adecuado para evitar la deshidratación de las flores y la evaporación del néctar. La fructificación ocurrió en la época seca (diciembre-febrero de 2004, tiempo propicio para la dehiscencia de los frutos y la dispersión eólica de las semillas. Se observaron y determinaron los colibríes Aglaeactis cupripennis y Pterophanes cyanopterus como polinizadores eficientes, además de los insectos residentes de las familias Nitidulidae (Coleoptera y Phoridae (Diptera, cuyas larvas fueron predadores importantes de la inflorescencia.

  14. Antioxidant and antiangiogenic activity of Astronium graveolens Jacq. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Vanessa; Malafronte, Nicola; Mora, Flor; Pesca, Maria S; Aquino, Rita P; Mencherini, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in many physiological and pathological conditions. Natural compounds with antioxidant activity have also been reported to possess potent antiangiogenic properties by regulating angiogenesis modulators such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Based on this, we screened the antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of Astronium graveolens leaf extracts by a DPPH test and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. MeOH extract expressed a significant free radical-scavenging activity (EC₅₀ = 37.65 μg/mL) and it was able to inhibit the interaction between placental growth factor (PlGF) (placental growth factor), a VEGF family member, and its receptor Flt-1 by more than 50% at 1 mg/mL. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-d-glucopyranose, 6 is the most active compound of the extract. It exhibited a high potency in scavenging DPPH (EC₅₀ = 2.16 μg/mL) and reduced by 58% the PlGF/Flt-1 interaction at a concentration of 50 μM. Moreover, the known compounds (1-6) have been isolated for the first time in A. graveolens. PMID:24588321

  15. Antigiardial effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salih Sahib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardia lamblia is the most common intestinal parasite of humans identified worldwide. In spite of metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans, low patient compliance and side effects especially in children encourage efforts to look for new and safe agent; many plants used in folk medicine thought to have antigiardial effect,Anethum graveolens(Dill is an annual herb cultivated in Iraq used both as medicinal agent and as food spice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens leave in the treatment of giardiasis, compared with that of standard drug metronidazole. Patients and Methods:A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 28 pediatric patients of both sexes with age of less than one year ranging from 3-11 months, who attend to outpatient private clinic in Baghdad for a period of six months from June 2013-December 2013, Patients participate in this study were allocated into two groups: Group A composed of 14 patients treated with Metronidazole 15 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days. Group B composed of 14 patients treated with Anethum graveolensaqueous extract 1ml three times a day for 5 days. Stool samples were collected at zero time before administration of treatment, after five days and after 14 days from starting the treatments to checkthe efficacy of treatment. Results:Administration of Anethum graveolensaqueous extract results in significant decrease in incidence of Giardia lamblia after five days of treatment indicating the efficacy of Anethum graveolensaqueous extract in the treatment of giardiasis a result that is comparable to that of metronidazole. Conclusion:This study showed that pediatric patients with giardiasis may benefit from five days treatment with Anethum graveolensaqueous extract administered as 1 ml three times daily, the improvement in the symptom with this herbal agent was comparable to the standard

  16. Free phenolic acids in Ruta graveolens L. in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A; Kuś, A

    2009-10-01

    Eight phenolic acids were determined using HPLC method in methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) shoots cultured in vitro on four variants of Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium differing in contents of growth regulators, NAA and BAP (ranging between 0.1-3.0 mg/l). Four compounds: protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic and p-coumaric acid were detected and quantified. The total content of metabolites was dependent on LS medium variants. The contents of protocatechuic acid, quantitatively dominating on all tested LS medium variants, were considerable (from 67.15 to 93.24 mg/100 g d.w.) in comparison with its contents in the plant material under analysis (46.36 to 218.27 mg/ 100 g d.w.). This is the first report of the isolation of protocatechuic acid from an in vitro plant culture.

  17. Fototoxicidad tras exposición a ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zayas-Pinedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La fototoxicidad es un tipo de reacción cutánea inflamatoria que se produce como consecuencia de la exposición a una sustancia química en combinación con la exposición a radiaciones lumínicas. Ruta graveolens, comúnmente llamada ruda, ha sido descrita en numerosas publicaciones como sustancia causante de reacciones de fototoxicidad. Presentamos el caso de una pareja que sufrió una reacción de fototoxicidad que requirió ingreso en la Unidad de Quemados como consecuencia del contacto con una infusión de ruda y posterior exposición solar. Consideramos que todo profesional que se ocupa del tratamiento de quemaduras debe incluir las fitofotodermatitis dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de las pérdidas cutáneas de espesor parcial.

  18. Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin by Pelargonium graveolens essential oil against selected uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tripti; Singh, Padma; Pant, Shailja; Chauhan, Nirpendra; Lohani, Hema

    2011-08-01

    The recent approach of using herbs and antibiotics in combination constitutes a strategy to overcome the problems of resistance and side effects associated with conventional antibiotics. In the present study, the antimicrobial effect of Pelargonium graveolens L' Hér essential oil in combination with ciprofloxacin was evaluated on uropathogens, namely, Klebsiella pneumoniae KT2, Proteus mirabilis PRT3 and Staphylococcus aureus ST2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin were determined by the microbroth dilution method and further, the interaction between these two agents was studied by a checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated to be 0.375 for both K. pneumoniae KT2 and P. mirabilis PRT3, while for S. aureus ST2 it was found to be 0.5. The values of FICI for the tested microorganisms were found to be ≤0.5, which indicates synergism between P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin. The concave shaped curve in the isobolograms also depicted a synergistic effect of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin against the tested microorganisms. Hence, the synergistic action of P. graveolens essential oil and ciprofloxacin may be applied for the treatment of UTIs, which have hitherto been treated by using only synthetic drugs.

  19. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily for 2 months. The blood lipids including total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol from each group were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Use of gemfibrozil brought about increased HDL-cholesterol by 3.91% (P < 0.05 and reduced triglyceride and total cholesterol by 32.7% (P < 0.05 and 9.41% (P < 0.05, respectively. Applying Dill tablet for 2 months resulted in reduction of total cholesterol up to 18% (P < 0.05 and triglyceride by 7.38% (P < 0.05. However, circulating HDL-cholesterol was not affected by this treatment. In this study, gemfibrozil decreased triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol more than anethum (P < 0.05. Anethum decreased total cholesterol more than gemfibrozil (P < 0.05. Patients treated with anethum did not report any side effects. Conclusion: The results of this trial indicate that Dill might be beneficial for hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglycemic patients.

  20. Infraspecific morphological variations in Acinos graveolens (M.B. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Talebi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of ecological factors on phenotype plasticity in the natural populations of Acinos graveolens in Iran. In total, twenty six quantitative and qualitative morphological traits were examined in the sixteen populations at two sections: inter- and intrapopulation. In the interpopulation section, averages amounts of morphological characteristics of populations were examined, while in the intrapopulation, morphological features of the seventy six plant samples of the populations were investigated. The obtained data showed that these characteristics differed between and within the populations and the analysis of variance test and one-sample test have shown significant differences of all quantitative characteristics. The biplot Principal Correspondence Analysis (PCA-biplot of traits showed some populations had indicator morphological characteristic(s which were useful in detecting of these populations. Significant correlations were found between some quantitative characteristics with ecological factors. The studied populations were separated from each other in the PCA and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO plots and the Unweighted Paired Group using Average method (UPGMA tree. The PCA plot of morphological features showed that some characteristics separated from others and the rest ones were together and had overlapping. The individuals of the studied populations were separated from others in the PCA and PCO plots and the UPGMA tree of the morphological characteristics. Individuals of some populations arranged separately and placed far from others, but this condition was reverse in the rest populations and most of individuals placed near each other. The obtained data confirmed high variations within some populations.

  1. Powdery mildew of Ruta graveolens in Brazil caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli Oídio de Ruta graveolens no Brasil causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Liberato; Robert Weingart Barreto

    2006-01-01

    Oidiopsis haplophylli is described causing powdery mildew on Ruta graveolens for the first time in Brazil (Viçosa, MG). The fungus causes yellowing of infected leaves accompanied by the presence of a whitish mycelial colony abaxially. The following combination of characters typical of this species was observed on the specimens collected in Viçosa: mycelium hypophyllous, hemiendophytic (partly external and partly internal), entering the leaves through the stomata; conidiophores hypophyllous, p...

  2. Extraction, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was extract, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. The leaves and stems of S. graveolens were collected in the district of Puquio 3800 m.s.n.m., Lucanas province, and department of Ayacucho. The essential oil was obtained by steam water destilation dried leaves and stems with yield 1.26% (w/w to which physical testing were performed. The chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography with mass detector (GC-MS. Antibacterial activity of S. graveolens oil was tested by agar diffusion method in wells against Gram positive strains such as S. aureus ATCC 29923 and Gram negative as E. coli. The density a 20 ºC was 0.8755 g/ml; the index refraction was 1.4726 and the rate rotation was 102° 85' and the solubility miscible in ethanol. The GC-MS showed the main components sabinene (52.39 %, (+-4-carene (8.20 %, τ-terpinen (7.11 %, β-myrcene (6.74 %, 4-terpinenol (3.78 % and pulegone (3.67 %. The results showing activity strong antibacterial activity and moderate, respectively, for the strains tested, observing formation of inhibition halos for essential oil concentrations at 80, 90 and 100 % in both strains. The essential oil of S. graveolens presented with promising antibacterial activity.

  3. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  4. Inhibitory effects of Ruta graveolens L. extract on guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, Saieed; Saieed, Pirouzpanah; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Reza, Rashidi Mohammad; Delazar, Abbas; Abbas, Delazar; Razavieh, Seyyed-Vali; Seyyedvali, Razavieh; Hamidi, Aliasghar; Aliasghar, Hamidi

    2006-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plant with various biological properties. In the present study, the effects of R. graveolens extract on aldehyde oxidase, a molybdenum hydroxylase, are investigated. Aldehyde oxidase was partially purified from liver homogenates of mature male guinea pigs by heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation. The total extract was obtained by macerating the aerial parts of R. graveolens in MeOH 70% and the effect of this extract on the enzyme activity was assayed using phenanthridine, vanillin and benzaldehyde as substrates. Quercetin and its glycoside form, rutin were isolated, purified and identified from the extract and their inhibitory effects on the enzyme were investigated. R. graveolens extract exhibited a high inhibition on aldehyde oxidase activity (89-96%) at 100 microg/ml which was comparable with 10 microM of menadione, a specific potent inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effect of extract against the oxidation of benzaldehyde, vanillin and phenanthridine were 10.4, 10.1, 43.2 microg/ml, respectively. Both quercetin and rutin at 10 microM caused 70-96% and 27-52% inhibition on the enzyme activity, respectively. Quercetin was more potent inhibitor than rutin, but both flavonols exerted their inhibitory effects mostly in a linear mixed-type.

  5. Caracterização morfológica da semente e da plântula de bacurizinho (Rheedia acuminata (Ruiz et Pav. Plachon et Triana - Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASCIMENTO WALNICE MARIA OLIVEIRA DO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O bacurizinho é uma espécie frutífera do gênero Rheedia, nativa da Amazônia, e raramente cultivada, pois seus frutos, embora comestíveis, apresentam polpa escassa. Os estudos com o bacurizinho visam a sua utilização como porta-enxerto, redutor de porte para outras espécies do gênero Rheedia e Garcinia que apresentam altura elevada, como o bacuripari (Rheedia macrophylla Planchon et Triana- Clusiaceae e o mangostão (Garcinia mangostana L.. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar, morfologicamente, a semente e a plântula dessa espécie. A semente é exalbuminosa, bitegumentada, com a testa de coloração marrom, apresentando vários feixes vasculares bem visíveis, distinguindo-se por sua coloração um pouco mais clara. O hilo é arredondado, de coloração escura, com pequena região mais clara ao centro, correspondendo no ponto de entrada de feixe vascular. A micrópila situa-se próxima ao hilo, sobre uma pequena protuberância triangular. O embrião é anômalo, hipocotilar e é representado unicamente por um longo eixo hipocótilo-radícula, sendo os cotilédones diminutos, aparecendo apenas na extremidade superior no lado oposto da micrópila. Durante a germinação, ocorre primeiramente a emergência de delgada raiz primária, no pólo oposto onde será originado o epicótilo. Essa raiz cresce aproximadamente 5-7cm e cessa, fenecendo posteriormente. Por ocasião da emergência do epicótilo, ocorre ao mesmo tempo a formação de uma raiz adventícia, na base do epicótilo, bem mais robusta que a anterior e que se constituirá no sistema radicular da planta. Precedendo a abertura do primeiro par de metáfilos, desenvolvem-se no epicótilo três pares de catafilos opostos e de coloração esverdeada. A germinação é hipógea e a plântula do tipo criptocotiledonar.

  6. Antifungal activity of essential oil from Asteriscus graveolens against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znini, Mohamed; Cristofari, Gregory; Majidi, Lhou; Mazouz, Hamid; Tomi, Pierre; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2011-11-01

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Asteriscus graveolens have been studied using GC and GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oil amounting to 94.9% of the total oil. The aerial part oils showed similar chromatographic profiles and were characterized by having a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with 6-oxocyclonerolidol (66.7% +/- 5.5) and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol (8.8% +/-1.2) as the major components. The antifungal effect of the essential oil from A. graveolens leaves was evaluated in vitro against three phytopathogenic fungi of apples (Alternaria sp., Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer). The results suggest that this essential oil has fungicidal properties towards Alternaria sp. from direct contact assay at 0.2% (v/v) and to P. expansum from vapor assay tests at 80 microL.

  7. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Daljit S; Kaur Gurinder J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory conc...

  8. Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varamini, P; Soltani, M; Ghaderi, A

    2009-01-01

    There are reports on the presence of various compounds exerting different biological activities in Ruta graveolens, a plant of Rutaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the total extract of R. graveolens against tumor cell lines of different origin. Aerial parts of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol by sonication method and cytotoxic activity was examined on RAJI, RAMOS, RPMI8866, U937, Jurkat, MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, LNCap-FGC-10, 5637, HeLa, SK-OV-3, A549, Mehr-80 and also peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the use of WST-1 assay. Results were expressed as IC(50) values. R. graveolens extract showed high cytotoxic activity against RAJI and RAMOS, two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, with an IC(50) equal to 24.3 microg/ml and 35.2 microg/ml respectively and LNCap-FGC-10, a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line with an IC(50) equal to 27.6 microg/ml as well as Mehr-80, a newly established Large Cell Lung Carcinoma (IC(50)=46.2 microg/ml). No significant anti-proliferative activity was observed on other cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, HeLa, 5637, JURKAT and RPMI8866. Adverse cytotoxic effect of R. graveolens was investigated against PBMCs and a significantly lower effect of this extract (IC(50)=104 microg/ml) was seen on normal cells compared with RAJI and RAMOS, two haematopoietic cell lines.

  9. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  10. Lippia graveolens and Carya illinoensis Organic Extracts and there in vitro Effect Against Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco D. Hernandez-Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter, water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50×101 and C. illinoensis (4.33×102 extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.

  11. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  12. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  13. Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Nair, Cherappally K K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well as a flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presents evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathic preparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. The percentage of aberrated cells in the 400mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with 1,000 mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The value for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to the 3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract (400 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight) and Ruta 200C for 30 days. Administration of the extract (1,000 mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of the bone marrow cells increased from 4.5 to 50.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7. These results indicate that Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals.

  14. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  15. Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath C; Nair, Cherappally K K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well as a flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presents evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathic preparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. The percentage of aberrated cells in the 400mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with 1,000 mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The value for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to the 3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract (400 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight) and Ruta 200C for 30 days. Administration of the extract (1,000 mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of the bone marrow cells increased from 4.5 to 50.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7. These results indicate that Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals. PMID:19256773

  16. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella, 1995. This study is aimed at assessing "in vivd'the effect of extracts of "oregano", "ruda" and "palta" to 20% on the morphology and growth of preimplantational mouse embryos.

  17. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F Ch

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate dynamics of accumulation of five linear furanocoumarins and umbelliferone in stationary liquid cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The contents of individual metabolites in biomass increased 1.8-3.5 times while their total content rose 2.3 times. Maximum contents of xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin (112.3, 76.2 and 84.0mg/100g d.w., respectively) and maximum total content of all metabolites (283.4 mg/100 g d.w.), obtained on 35th culture day, are interesting from practical point of view.

  18. Identification of Ruta graveolens L. metabolites accumulated in the presence of abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Kumirska, Jolanta; Maliński, Edmund; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Gajdus, Jerzy; Lojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to elucidate the effects of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and saccharin on the biosynthesis of simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins, and furoquinolone alkaloids in shoots of R. graveolens cultivated in vitro. The biosynthesized metabolites were analyzed and identified by GC-MS and by comparison of Kovats indices. Eight coumarin metabolites were identified: bergapten, chalepin, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, rutacultin, rutamarin, and xanthotoxin, and also four alkaloids: dictamnine, gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, and kokusaginine. Each of the tested BTH concentrations induced a significant production of furanocoumarins and furoquinolone alkaloids. The use of saccharin also increased the production of bergapten, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, and xanthotoxin several times.

  19. Pelargonium oil and methyl hexaneamine (MHA): analytical approaches supporting the absence of MHA in authenticated Pelargonium graveolens plant material and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Weerasooriya, Aroona; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas; Eichner, Amy; Bowers, Larry D

    2012-09-01

    Methylhexaneamine (MHA) has been marketed in dietary supplements based on arguments that it is a constituent of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaves, stems, roots or oil, and therefore qualifies as a dietary ingredient. The purpose of this study is to determine whether P. graveolens plant material (authenticated) or its oil contains detectable quantities of MHA. Two analytical methods were developed for the analysis of MHA in P. graveolens using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results were further confirmed using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty commercial volatile oils, three authenticated volatile oils and authenticated P. graveolens leaves and stems (young and mature, and fresh and dried) were analyzed for MHA content. In addition, three dietary supplements containing MHA that alleged P. graveolens as the source are analyzed for their MHA content. The data show that none of the authenticated P. graveolens essential oils or plant material, nor any commercial volatile oil of Pelargonium (geranium oil) contain MHA at detectable levels (limit of detection: 10 ppb). The dietary supplements that contained MHA as one of their ingredients (allegedly from geranium or geranium stems) contained large amounts of MHA. The amounts of MHA measured are incompatible with the use of reasonable amounts of P. graveolens extract or concentrate, suggesting that MHA was of synthetic origin.

  20. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant induced model of arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Helen, A

    2009-04-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens (MER) exhibited maximum percentage of oedema inhibition at a dose of 20 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis. The effect was higher than that of standard drug indomethacin. The activities of cycloxygenase-2 and myeloperoxidase and concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C & E and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with MER. The increment in ESR and total WBC, reduction in RBC count and haemoglobin and aberrant changes to the C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin levels observed in the arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in MER treated rats. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased oedema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with MER. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

  1. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies.

  2. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds. PMID:26072200

  3. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  4. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  5. Determinacion del efecto antiinflamatorio de los extractos hexánicos, etanólicos y clorofórmicos de las plantas medicinales: Bursera aloexylon, Amphypteryngium adstringens, Tilia mexicana, Verbascum thapsus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia hispanica, Aloe vera, Opuntia ficus-indica en un modelo animal

    OpenAIRE

    Baez Castillo, Glenda

    2007-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto antiinflamatorio de los extractos hexánico, de etanólico y de clorofórmico de las siguientes plantas medicinales del estado de Puebla: Bursera aloexylon (linaloe), Amphypterygium adstringens (cuachalalate), Tilia mexicana (tila), Verbascum thapsus (gordolobo), Rosmarinus officinalis (romero), Salvia hispanica (chía), Aloe vera (sábila), Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal). La planta seca y molida (100g) se dejó macer...

  6. Application of chitin and chitosan as elicitors of coumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids in Ruta graveolens L. (common rue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Malinski, Edmund; Kumirska, Jolanta; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Łojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    Common rue (Ruta graveolens L.) accumulates various types of secondary metabolites, such as coumarins furanocoumarins, acridone and quinolone alkaloids and flavonoids. Elicitation is a tool extensively used for enhancing secondary-metabolite yields. Chitin and chitosan are examples of elicitors inducing phytoalexin accumulation in plant tissue. The present paper describes the application of chitin and chitosan as potential elicitors of secondary-metabolite accumulation in R. graveolens shoots cultivated in vitro. The simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids biosynthesized in the presence of chitin and chitosan were isolated, separated and identified. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of R. graveolens shoots in the presence of either chitin or chitosan. Moreover, the results of the elicitation of coumarins and alkaloids accumulated by R. graveolens shoots in the presence of chitin and chitosan show that both compounds induced a significant increase in the concentrations of nearly all the metabolites. Adding 0.01% chitin caused the increase in the quantity (microg/g dry weight) of coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7, rutacultin up to 287.0, bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5 and rutamarin up to 133.7). The higher concentration of chitosan (0.1%) induced production of simple coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7 and rutacultin up to 287.0), furanocoumarins (bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5) and dihydrofuranocoumarins (chalepin up to 18 and rutamarin up to 133.7). Such a dramatic increase in the production of nearly all metabolites suggests that these compounds may be participating in the natural resistance mechanisms of R. graveolens. The application of chitin- and chitosan-containing media may be considered a promising prospect in the biotechnological production of xanthotoxin

  7. Powdery mildew of Ruta graveolens in Brazil caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli Oídio de Ruta graveolens no Brasil causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Liberato

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis haplophylli is described causing powdery mildew on Ruta graveolens for the first time in Brazil (Viçosa, MG. The fungus causes yellowing of infected leaves accompanied by the presence of a whitish mycelial colony abaxially. The following combination of characters typical of this species was observed on the specimens collected in Viçosa: mycelium hypophyllous, hemiendophytic (partly external and partly internal, entering the leaves through the stomata; conidiophores hypophyllous, produced from the internal mycelium emerging through the stomata, cylindrical, hyaline, smooth; conidia, isolate, dimorphic - primary conidia lanceolate, 66.5-91.5 x 11.0-20.0 mm l/w ratio 3.5-6.2, secondary conidia cylindrical with rounded ends, 57.0-81.5 x 13.5-20.0 mm, l/w ratio 3.1 - 5.3, aseptate, hyaline, smooth.Oidiopsis haplophylli é relatado causando oídio em arruda (Ruta graveolens pela primeira vez no Brasil (Viçosa, MG. O fungo causa um amarelecimento de folhas de arruda sem bordos definidos acompanhado de cobertura fúngica branca na superfície abaxial. O seguinte conjunto de características, típico desta espécie foi observado nos espécimes coletados em Viçosa: presença de micélio hemiendofítico (parcialmente interno e parcialmente externo, tênue a denso com penetração das folhas através dos estômatos; conidióforos originando do micélio interno, emergindo através dos estômatos, cilíndricos, hialinos, lisos; conídios unicelulares, hialinos, produzidos isoladamente, dimórficos - conídios primários lanceolados, 66,5-91,5 x 11,0-20,0 mm, razão c/l 3,5-6,2, conídios secondários cilíndricos com extremidades arredondadas, 57,0-81,5 x 13,5-20,0 mm, razão c/l 3,1-5,3.

  8. Micropropagação e aclimatização de gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F Arrigoni-Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens L. é uma planta medicinal e aromática nativa do sul da África, cujo óleo essencial é amplamente empregado nas indústrias de perfumaria e cosmético, além de ser usado como terapêutico. Avaliou-se o efeito da luminosidade e dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA na multiplicação in vitro e o uso de diferentes substratos na aclimatização de mudas micropropagadas. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, 0; 0,1 e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA e duas condições de luminosidade (ausência e presença de luz, em esquema fatorial 4x3x2; para a aclimatização foram utilizados quatro substratos, pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 (PCBC; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (1:1 (PCBCV 1:1; pó de coco + Biosafra® (3-12-6 (12 g L­-1 + calcário (1 g L-1 + vermiculita (PCBCV 2:1 e vermiculita e adição semanal de sais MS (VS. Para a micropropagação de P. graveolens a utilização de 1,3 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA é eficiente na regeneração direta de plantas de gerânio, sendo a condição de escuro a mais indicada por proporcionar o maior número de brotos por explante. Para a aclimatização das mudas de gerânio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em mudas aclimatizadas no substrato vermiculita com adição semanal de sais de MS seguido do substrato PCBCV 1:1.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. is a medicinal and aromatic plant native to the south of Africa and whose essential oil is widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries, as well as in therapeutics. The effect of luminosity and growth regulators BAP and NAA on in vitro multiplication was evaluated, together with the use of different substrates on the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings. The evaluated concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP; 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA; and two luminosity conditions (absence and presence of

  9. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group's oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  10. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006 and AGEs formation (P=0.003 significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications.

  11. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L. on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Kooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, volume (5, issue (2, year 2015, an article entitled “Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats” was published and the papers like this should be appreciated. However, the paper has some drawbacks which if not resolve, could be misleading for researchers who tend to use it or do research in its direction. So, with all due respect to the research team, we decided to evaluate the paper ambiguities in order to improve the quality of future articles.

  12. Salt-induced changes in germination and vegetative stages of Anethum graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehr, Zahra Setayesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the response of dill (Anethum graveolens L. to salt stress during germination and vegetative stages. In the first stage, response of dill seeds germination to levels of salinity (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM was investigated. In the second stage, influence of salt stress on physiological and biochemical parameters in dill seedlings were investigated. Results showed germination rate and percentage, radical, plumule length and dry weight decreased significantly with the increase of salinity levels. Effect of salt stress on amount of chlorophyll a, b and total was significant. Results indicated that, amount of proline, total soluble carbohydrates and proteins and catalase (CAT activity in shoots and roots significantly increased with the increase of salinity. These results showed that dill maintained higher carbohydrates, proteins, proline and activity of CAT under salt stress and these traits could have partially to its salt tolerance.

  13. Effect of polyamines on shoot multiplication and furanocoumarin production in Ruta graveolens cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2012-07-01

    The influence of the polyamines putrescine (Put), spermine (Spr) and spermidine (Spd) on growth and furanocoumarin production was investigated by exogenous addition, at different concentrations, to shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens at different phases of growth. Preliminary studies indicated that addition of Put (20 microM) and Spr (80 microM) had a promotive effect on shoot multiplication rate and number of multiple shoots formed. Spd was toxic, even at lower concentrations. The growth-phase of the culture at the time of exogenous addition of polyamines was found to be an important factor. Put was most effective when added at the lag phase, while Spr was most effective when added in the log phase. Time course studies of growth and furanocoumarin content were carried out for each polyamine and phase of addition. It was seen that maximum production of furanocoumarins (256.8 mg/10 g DW) occurred in the second week when Put was added in the lag phase and 260.5 mg/10 g DW in the fourth week when Spr was added in the log phase. Put addition resulted in a 3.10 fold increase in psoralen, 6.12 in xanthotoxin and 1.46 fold in bergapten production. Spr addition resulted in a 1.31 fold increase in psoralen, 4.11 fold in xanthotoxin and 1.49 fold in bergapten production. Results indicate that alteration of growth and furanocoumarin production kinetics is a combined outcome of choice of polyamine and the phase of culture at the time of exogenous addition. Polyamine addition enabled significant enhancement in production of pharmaceutically important bergapten and xanthotoxin in shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens, which could be explored for commercial production.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, S K; Gupta, B; Agrawal, C; Goswami, K; Das, H R

    2006-03-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is used for several therapeutic purposes worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of plant extract of Ruta graveolens on murine macrophage cells (J-774) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induces inflammatory response by stimulating the production of nitric oxide and other mediators. Significant inhibition (p=0.01 to p<0.002) of the LPS-induced nitric oxide production was observed in cells treated with plant extract in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition observed for the extract was significantly higher than that observed for rutin, a flavonoid constituent of the plant. At 40 microM rutin, a comparable concentration of this flavonoid in the highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of plant extract was used in this study; a 20% inhibition (p=0.058) was observed. Inhibition in inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene expression in the cells treated with the plant extract suggests an inhibition at the transcription level. Interestingly, a concomitant decrease in transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene has also been observed in cells treated with the plant extract and this inhibition is significantly higher than that observed with the highest concentration of rutin (80 microM) used in the study. As an inflammatory response, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 enzymes leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. Hence, the significant inhibitory effects on both of these inflammatory mediators unravel a novel anti-inflammatory action of this plant.

  15. In silico target fishing for rationalized ligand discovery exemplified on constituents of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Danzl, Birgit; Schwaiger, Stefan; Markt, Patrick; Schmidtke, Michaela; Gertsch, Jürg; Raduner, Stefan; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    The identification of targets whose interaction is likely to result in the successful treatment of a disease is of growing interest for natural product scientists. In the current study we performed an exemplary application of a virtual parallel screening approach to identify potential targets for 16 secondary metabolites isolated and identified from the aerial parts of the medicinal plant RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. Low energy conformers of the isolated constituents were simultaneously screened against a set of 2208 pharmacophore models generated in-house for the IN SILICO prediction of putative biological targets, i. e., target fishing. Based on the predicted ligand-target interactions, we focused on three biological targets, namely acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the human rhinovirus (HRV) coat protein and the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB (2)). For a critical evaluation of the applied parallel screening approach, virtual hits and non-hits were assayed on the respective targets. For AChE the highest scoring virtual hit, arborinine, showed the best inhibitory IN VITRO activity on AChE (IC (50) 34.7 muM). Determination of the anti-HRV-2 effect revealed 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and arborinine to be the most active antiviral constituents with IC (50) values of 11.98 muM and 3.19 muM, respectively. Of these, arborinine was predicted virtually. Of all the molecules subjected to parallel screening, one virtual CB (2) ligand was obtained, i. e., rutamarin. Interestingly, in experimental studies only this compound showed a selective activity to the CB (2) receptor ( Ki of 7.4 muM) by using a radioligand displacement assay. The applied parallel screening paradigm with constituents of R. GRAVEOLENS on three different proteins has shown promise as an IN SILICO tool for rational target fishing and pharmacological profiling of extracts and single chemical entities in natural product research.

  16. Specific accumulation and revised structures of acridone alkaloid glucosides in the tips of transformed roots of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovkina, Inna; Al'terman, Irina; Schneider, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    The root tips of Ruta graveolens (common rue) show strong autofluorescence of acridone alkaloids, which are characteristic secondary metabolites of this plant. To study the specific distribution and accumulation of acridone alkaloids in various root segments of Ruta graveolens, root material was harvested from genetically transformed root cultures and extracts were investigated by chromatographic techniques and HPLC-(1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cells of the elongation and differentiation zones contained acridone glucosides and large amounts of acridone alkaloids, mainly rutacridone. Gravacridondiol glucoside was identified as the dominant secondary compound of the root tips and its structure revised by means of spectroscopic methods. In addition, minor acridones, including the structurally revised gravacridontriol glucoside and unknown natural products, were found in the root tip.

  17. Hoya thuathienhuensis and Hoya graveolens (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a new species and a new record for the Flora of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rodda, M.; Trân, Thê Bách; Simonsson Juhonewe, N.; Sâm, Lý Ngọc

    2012-01-01

    A new species from the Annamite mountain range of central Vietnam, Hoya thuathienhuensis, is here described and illustrated. Its flowers bear similarity with Hoya lockii, a taxon recently described from the same area with which it shares the reflexed corolla and the thin coriaceous laves. Hoya lockii is an epiphytic shrub, whereas H. thuathienhuensis is a strong climbing liana. We also report the noteworthy extension into southern Vietnam of Hoya graveolens, a taxon previously considered to b...

  18. Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

    2011-11-10

    Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/μL extract.

  19. Protective effects of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fractions of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2010-02-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India, were evaluated for their protective effect in acute and chronic models of inflammation. Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and adjuvant induced arthritis were employed as the experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation respectively. Isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction (AFR) from Ruta graveolens and evaluated its anti inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced acute model. AFR with a dose 10 mg/kg showed higher anti inflammatory effect than polyphenols and standard drug diclofenec. AFR significantly decreased the paw edema in arthritic rats. TBARS, COX-2, 5-LOX and MPO level were decreased and the levels of antioxidant enzymes and GSH level were increased on treatment with AFR. The increment in CRP level and ceruloplasmin level observed in arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in AFR treated rats. The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats.

  20. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsouna Anis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Ferrous Ion Chelating, Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Pure and Commercial Essential Oils of Anetrhum Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Darvish Alipour Astaneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite slight toxicities of essential oils, they are not under strict control in many countries. Anethum graveolens is widely consumed and its essential oils are at public reach. This study was designed to study essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Methods: The biological properties of pure and commercial essential oils of Anethum graveolens were investigated. In fact, Ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging property, tyrosinase inhibition and total flavonoids of the oils were determined. Results: Chelating activity of 7.8 µg of EDTA was equivalent to 2 µg of the pure oil. The oils had superoxide anion radical scavenging activities which may be related to their total phenol and flavonoid contents. IC50 of ferrous ion chelating, antityrosiase and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of pure and commercial oils were 1.3, 1.4, 1 and (171.6, 589, 132 µg respectively. Antityrosiase activity of 6.4 µg pure oil was equal to 1000 µg of the commercial oil. Conclusion: Anethum possesses antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties. This oil chelates ferrous ions and superoxide radicals. It is effective in formation of reactive toxic products. Anethum has good potentials regarding its applications in food and drug industries.

  2. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  3. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  4. Unusually divergent 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Alexander; Martens, Stefan; Wellmann, Frank; Matern, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Most angiosperms encode a small family of 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases (4CLs) activating hydroxycinnamic acids for lignin and flavonoid pathways. The common rue, Ruta graveolens L., additionally produces coumarins by cyclization of the 4-coumaroyl moiety, possibly involving the CoA-ester, as well as acridone and furoquinoline alkaloids relying on (N-methyl)anthraniloyl-CoA as the starter substrate for polyketide synthase condensation. The accumulation of alkaloids and coumarins, but not flavonoids, was enhanced in Ruta graveolens suspension cultures upon the addition of fungal elicitor. Total RNA of elicitor-treated Ruta cells was used as template for RT-PCR amplification with degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from conserved motifs in AMP-binding proteins, and two full-size cDNAs were generated through RACE and identified as 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases, Rg4CL1 and Rg4CL2, by functional expression in yeast cells. The recombinant enzymes differed considerably in their preferential affinities to cinnamate (Rg4CL1) or ferulate (RgCL2) besides 4-coumarate, but did not activate hydroxybenzoic or (N-methyl)anthranilic acid. Most notably, the Rg4CL1 polypeptide included an N-terminal extension suggesting a chloroplast transit peptide. The genes were cloned and revealed four exons, separated by 1056, 94 and 54 bp introns for RgCL1, while Rg4CL2 was composed of five exons interupted by four introns from 113 to 350 bp, and the divergent heritage of these genes was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Both genes were expressed in shoot, leaf and flower tissues of adult Ruta plants with preference in shoot and flower, whereas negligible expression occurred in the root. However, Rg4CL1 was expressed much stronger in the flower, while Rg4CL2 was expressed mostly in the shoot. Furthermore, considerable transient induction of only Rg4CL1 was observed upon elicitation of Ruta cells, which seems to support a role of Rg4CL1 in coumarin biosynthesis.

  5. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health. PMID:25522521

  6. IMPROVED PLANT REGENERATION AND IN VITRO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN Ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraida AR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro callus cultures initiated from stem segments of Ruta graveolen which later on differentiated into somatic embryoids and subsequently regenerated whole plants. Callus formation was observed in culture medium containing low concentrations of the plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. At 0.2 mg/L NAA was showing the highest rate (85% of callus induction. The callus appeared watery, but showed no sign of browning after a month of culture. Sub-culturing the callus on to medium with 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D showed enhanced the callus proliferation rate up to 95%. Somatic embryogenesis from callus was most successful on MS medium containing either 6 g/L agar and supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP, or with 9 g/L agar, supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN. The former medium was more successful in plantlet regeneration when the embryoids were subsequently transferred to regeneration medium with 3 g/L agar and 0.5 mg/L BAP.

  7. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively).

  8. Genetic variation for silvicultural traits in open-pollinated progenies of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the genetic variation for silvicultural traits in an open-pollinated progeny test of Astronium graveolens Jacq., established at Luiz Antônio Experimental Station (State of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was planted in a random block experimental design, containing 23 families, six replications and five plants per plot. The traits measured were diameter at breast height (DBH, total height and stem form. The assessments were taken at the age of 19 years. Significant differences were not detected by the analysis of variance, suggesting that the genetic variation was low, as well as the probability to raising genetic gains through selection among progenies. The coefficient of genetic variation was moderate for the traits height (8.2% and DBH (21.2% and low to stem form (4.0%. However, the average coefficient of heritability among progenies was low for all studied traits (ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, confirming the low probability of genetic improvement of this population by selection among progenies.

  9. [The fatty acid composition of Ruta graveolens seed oil and its byological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B Iu; Zurabishvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Nikolaĭshvili, M N

    2013-11-01

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography methods are qualitatively and quantitatively identified most biological important high fatty acids, contained in Ruta graveolens seed oil grown on the experimental plot of Kutateladze Institute of Pharmakochemistry (Georgia) and compare its biological activity. Their relative concentration is expressed as percentages of the total fatty acid component. The sample contained the range of fatty acids from С12:0 to С22:0. The investigation showed different sensitivity of components. In order of elution the list of compound are reported. The oil contained 2,08±0,1 mg% lauric, 2,18±0,1 mg% miristic, 3,98±0,1 mg% palmitic, 30,90±1,2 mg% stearic, 41,92±1,8 mg% oleic, 10,14±0,4 mg% linolic, 6,50±0,3 mg% linolenic, 2,00±0,1 mg% arachinic and 2,10±0,1 mg% begenic acid. The chromatography signals with retention values 7,96 and 14,08 minuts are qualitatively not identified.

  10. Algicidal and antifungal compounds from the roots of Ruta graveolens and synthesis of their analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Schrader, Kevin K; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2005-11-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens roots yielded rutacridone epoxide with potent selective algicidal activity towards the 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB)-producing blue-green alga Oscillatoria perornata, with relatively little effect on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. The diol-analog of rutacridone epoxide, gravacridondiol, which was also present in the same extract, had significantly less activity towards O. perornata. Rutacridone epoxide also showed significantly higher activity than commercial fungicides captan and benomyl in our micro-bioassay against the agriculturally important pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fragariae, C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, and Botrytis cineara and Fusarium oxysporium. Rutacridone epoxide is reported as a direct-acting mutagen, precluding its use as an agrochemical. In order to understand the structure-activity relationships and to develop new potential biocides without toxicity and mutagenicity, some analogs containing the (2-methyloxiranyl)-dihydrobenzofuran moiety with an epoxide were synthesized and tested. None of the synthetic analogs showed comparable activities to rutacridone epoxide. The absolute stereochemistry of rutacridone was determined to be 2'(R) and that of rutacridone epoxide to be 2'(R), 3'(R) by CD and NMR analysis.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Ruta graveolens L. on oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteromic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. in reducing oxidative damage, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. For the study rats were divided into three groups - control group, hypercholesteremic group and treatment group (20 mg MER/kg/d orally) - and were fed for 90 days. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, total WBC count, CRP level, TBARS, atherogenic index, activities of COX, 15 LOX in monocyte and serum myeloperoxidase were increased in cholesterol fed rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration reduced glutathione in liver and heart tissue and serum HDL-C were decreased in cholesterol fed rats. The results showed that level of total cholesterol, LDL-C, atherogenic index was decreased and HDL-C was increased in MER treated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be increased and the activity of MPO, COX and 15 LOX were decreased on supplementation with MER. Concentration of TBARS and total WBC count were decreased and GSH was increased on supplementation with MER. Histopathology of aorta of cholesterol fed rat showed marked alterations whereas the aorta of MER administrated rat showed no significant changes. These results suggested that MER reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and aortic pathology in hypercholesteremic rats. Thus the plant may therefore be useful for therapeutic treatment of clinical conditions associated atherosclerosis.

  12. Immobilising effect of Ruta graveolens L. on human spermatozoa: coumarin compounds are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Harat, Z; Lakpour, N; Sadeghipoor, H R; Kamalinejad, M; Eshraghian, M R; Naghibi, B; Akhondi, M M; Binaafar, S; Sadeghi, M R

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to find out Ruta graveolens L. functional components, which have immobilisation effect on human spermatozoa for contraceptive use. A five-step fractionation method was used to derive different components from rue aqueous extract by using hexane, chloroform, ethanol, acetone and ultrapure water. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometery (GC-MS) of all fractions and the aqueous extract were performed to determine the chemical components. The immobilisation assay and membrane integrity test were also performed with four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Hexane, chloroform, acetone and ethanol fractions could significantly decrease motility of sperms within the first and the second hours. Hexane fraction had also significant immediate effect. The aqueous fraction had no effect on sperm motility. Meanwhile, GC-MS revealed that aqueous extract and effective fractions had similar coumarin compounds. We performed the immobilisation assay on four different coumarins, which were found in GC-MS in a concentration of 10 μm. Reduction of sperm motility was only significant for xanthotoxin. In the sperm viability and membrane integrity tests, hexane and ethanolic fractions could impair sperm vitality significantly, in contrast to coumarins. These results indicated that a part of immobilising effect of rue could be due to its coumarins. The possible mechanism could be blocking of spermatozoa potassium channels.

  13. New quinoline alkaloid from Ruta graveolens aerial parts and evaluation of the antifertility activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Josline Y; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Hassan, Emad M; Shafik, Nabila H; Abdel-Latif, Sally M; Brouard, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanol extract of Ruta graveolens L. leaves yielded a new quinoline alkaloid, (4S) 1,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-1,4-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)quinoline 2,7-diol, and nine phenolic compounds including rutin as a major compound. Structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using chromatography, UV, HR-ESI-MS and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The uterotonic activity of methanol extract fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction) as well as the isolated major compounds was tested in the isolated mouse uterus in vitro. The n-butanol-soluble fraction was found to demonstrate the most potent uterotonic activity in a dose-dependent manner, also the major isolated compound rutin revealed the occurrence of an uterotonic response, which was maximum at a concentration level of 0.25 mg/mL, accounting for 68.7% of that exhibited by the chosen concentration of oxytocin.

  14. Biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ruta graveolens (L.) and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, K.; Raja Naika, H.; Manjunath, K.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.; Suresh, D.

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by biological method using aqueous stem extract of Ruta graveolens act as reducing agent. Formation of ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were subjected to biological properties such as antibacterial and antioxidant studies. The PXRD pattern reveals that ZnO sample belongs to hexagonal phase with Wurtzite structure. The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows an absorption band at 355 nm due to ZnO nanoparticles. SEM images show that the particles have spherical like structure with large surface area and the average crystallite sizes were found to be in the range ~28 nm. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis. The ZnO nanoparticles are found to inhibit the antioxidant activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals effectively. ZnO Nps exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Gram -ve bacterial strains such as Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Gram +ve Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion method.

  15. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  16. The effect of radiation of LED modules on the growth of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frąszczak Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Light quality is thought to affect the growth and development of plants. We examined how light influences the growth and content of some chemical compounds in dill (Anethum graveolens L.. The plants were grown under different light quality. The share of orange and green light in the spectrum was constant and amounted to 10% for either colour. In the first combination (A, 70/10, there was 70% of red light and 10% of blue light. Other combinations had the following proportions: B 60/20, C 50/30, D 40/40 and E 30/50 of red and blue light. The PPFD was about 155 μmol m-2 s-1. Blue light inhibited the elongation growth as well as leaf area. It had positive influence on the accumulation of dry mass, glucose and fructose in the herb. In the combinations with higher percentage of red light the plants were characterised by higher content of essential oils, macronutrients and zinc. To sum up, we can say that the proportion of red and blue light has significant influence on the morphological qualities, chemical composition and dynamics of photosynthesis in these plants. On the other hand, the selection of spectral composition of LEDs will depend on the result we want to achieve.

  17. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively). PMID:26594749

  18. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens leaves on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Golmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anethum graveolens or Dill (local name: Shevid belongs to the family of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae and is used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion and diabetes in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. graveolens leaves on the histology of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice kindled by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. In this experimental study, the epileptic BALB/c mice kindled by PTZ were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Three experimental groups received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extract for 21 days. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. After the treatment period, the mice were anesthetized, and their hippocampi were dissected for the histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 activity. Histopathological examinations showed that the mean numbers of the healthy neuronal cells in the dentate gyrus of the mice received 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens extracts were significantly higher than those of the mice received 250 and 750 mg/kg/day of the extracts as well as the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively. In addition, the results of immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day of A. graveolens; the numbers of caspase-3-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly lower than those of the two other test and the control groups. The findings of this study suggest that 500 mg/kg/day of the A. graveolens extract could have protective effect on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the epileptic mice.

  19. 驱蚊草挥发物化学成分分析%Chemical components of Pelargonium graveolens volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 金荷仙; 蔡宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Under the condition of TDS, the volatile matter was extracted by dynamic headspace collection method with good adult Pelargonium graveolens, and the composition of the extract was detected by gas chrom atograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There were 58 kinds of volatile matter,including ten types of compounds, such as alkane, olefins etc. There were 32 types terpenoid (relative content of 61. 35% ), and the content of citronellal was the highest in simple carbohydrate (relative content of 14.46% ). Then, our work demonstrated that retention index could provide a complementary and convenient method for accurate analysis of the volatile matter from leaves of P. Graveolens. The results obtained may be helpful for the further exploitation of P. Graveolens.%以长势优的成年驱蚊草为研究材料,采用顶空套袋法收集挥发物,并在TDS条件下用气相色谱一质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对收集挥发物进行分析检测,测出叶片挥发物有58种.包括烷烃、烯烃等10类化合物,烯烃中的萜烯类化合物有32种(相对含量为61.35%),其中香茅醛含量最多(相对含量为14.46%);同时结合保留指数分析驱蚊草叶片挥发物化学成分,比单独使用GC-MS其结果更加准确、可靠,有助于驱蚊草的进一步开发利用.

  20. Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be β-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium.

  1. The selective cytotoxicity elicited by phytochemical extract from Senecio graveolens (Asteraceae) on breast cancer cells is enhanced by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echiburú-Chau, Carlos; Alfaro-Lira, Susana; Brown, Nelson; Salas, Cristian O; Cuellar, Mauricio; Santander, Javier; Ogalde, Juan Pablo; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer‑related deaths in woman and the incidence of the disease has increased worldwide, in part due to improvements in early detection. Several drugs with anticancer effects have been extracted from plants in the last 20 years, many of which are particularly effective against breast cancer cells. In particular, we have become interested in the ethanolic extract from Senecio graveolens (synonym of S. nutans), a plant commonly called Chachacoma, in an effort to isolate compounds that could demonstrate cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells. Senecio (Asteraceae) is the largest gender in Chile comprising approximatly 200 species. These herbs inhabit areas over 3,500 meters above the sea level in the Andes Mountains. S. graveolens is commonly used by local communities for its medicinal properties, particularly its capacity to ameliorate high-altitude-associated sickness. The cytotoxic effect of the alcoholic extract from S. graveolens, as well as its most abundant compound 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, were tested in the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231, and non-tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. We show that the phytochemical extract was able to induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells but not in MCF-10F. Importantly, this effect was enhanced under hypoxic conditions. However, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, the main compound, did not by itself show an effective anticarcinogenic activity in comparison to the whole extract. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the phytochemical extract was dependent on the basal MnSOD protein expression. Thus, cytotoxicity was increased when MnSOD levels were low, but resistance was evident when protein levels were high. Additionally, the crude extract seems to trigger cell death by a variety of processes, including autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis, in MCF-7 cells. In summary, S. graveolens extract possess anticancer activity displaying a specific

  2. Actividad antioxidante de flavonoides del tallo de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens HBK var. berlandieri Schauer)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Celina González Güereca; Marcos Soto Hernández; Geoffrey Kite; Mariano Martínez Vázquez

    2007-01-01

    México es el principal exportador a nivel mundial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens), con 35 – 40 % del mercado internacional; su alta demanda se debe al contenido de aceite esencial de calidad en la hoja. Su recolección es complementaria a la agricultura de temporal o secano en zonas áridas y semiáridas. El desaprovechamiento del tallo y los escasos estudios fitoquímicos y farmacológicos reportados, indujeron esta investigación en la que determinó el tipo de flavonoides y se evaluó la...

  3. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME. PMID:26013821

  4. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  5. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  6. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME.

  7. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  8. Isolation of Insecticidal Constituent from Ruta graveolens and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies against Stored-Food Pests (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Isolates from essential oil extracted from the flowers and leaves of Ruta graveolens and commercial phenolic analogs were evaluated using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against adults of the stored-food pests Sitophilus zeamais, Sitophilus oryzae, and Lasioderma serricorne. The insecticidal activity of these compounds was then compared with that of the synthetic insecticide dichlorvos. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol and its analogs was examined against these stored-food pests. Based on the 50% lethal dose, the most toxic compound against S. zeamais was 3-isopropylephenol, followed by 2-isopropylphenol, 4-isopropylphenol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and 2-methylphenol. Similar results were observed with phenolic compounds against S. oryzae. However, when 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol isolated from R. graveolens oil and its structurally related analogs were used against L. serricorne, little or no insecticidal activity was found regardless of bioassay. These results indicate that introducing and changing the positions of functional groups in the phenol skeleton have an important effect on insecticidal activity of these compounds against stored-food pests.

  9. Novel technique for scaling up of micropropagated Ruta graveolens shoots using liquid culture systems: a step towards commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2008-06-01

    Wide applications of Ruta graveolens L. in pharmaceutical industry has led to increased interest in large-scale plant production, with emphasis on use of in vitro cultures. Earlier reports describe use of in vitro germinated seedlings for raising shoot cultures and not regeneration. There is only a single regeneration protocol of R. graveolens; however, it employs conventional labour intensive techniques deterring automation. The aim of present investigation was to establish a cost effective protocol for large-scale plant production. We report for the first time a one-step protocol with improved regeneration efficiency for multiple shoots induction employing liquid culture systems. Effect of polyamines (putrescine and spermine) on growth and furanocoumarin was studied. Addition of spermine enhanced the number of multiple shoots formed (2.5-fold) and reduced the time taken by half. Spermine addition resulted in 1.47-fold in furanocoumarin production. The selected shoot line, RS2 was successfully scaled up to 5L in culture vessels, with 1.53-fold increase in biomass without affecting the productivity of these cultures. This proves to be a commercially feasible alternative to bioreactors for large-scale biomass and furanocoumarin production.

  10. Effects of Apium graveolens Extract on the Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukketsiri, Wanida; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Tanasawet, Supita; Choosri, Nutjanat; Wongtawatchai, Tulaporn

    2016-06-01

    Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) is an indigenous plant of the North and South Americas, Southern Europe, and Asia and has been widely used as a food or a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation and arthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of a methanolic extract of A. graveolens (AGE) against liver oxidative stress in an adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. The AGE (250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally for 24 consecutive days after induction by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant. Liver and spleen weights were recorded. The superoxide anion level, total peroxide (TP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant status, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also measured. AGE treatment significantly decreased the levels of the superoxide anion, TP, and OSI whereas the GPx and SOD activities significantly increased in the liver of the arthritic rats. These results indicated that AGE showed an ameliorative effect against liver oxidative stress in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats by reducing the generation of liver free radicals and increasing the liver antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27390722

  11. Antibacterial Activity and Composition of Essential Oils from Pelargonium Graveolens L’Her and Vitex Agnus-Castus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghannadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities.Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity.Results and Conclusion: Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes. The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

  12. Effects of Apium graveolens Extract on the Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukketsiri, Wanida; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa; Tanasawet, Supita; Choosri, Nutjanat; Wongtawatchai, Tulaporn

    2016-01-01

    Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) is an indigenous plant of the North and South Americas, Southern Europe, and Asia and has been widely used as a food or a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation and arthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of a methanolic extract of A. graveolens (AGE) against liver oxidative stress in an adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. The AGE (250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) was given orally for 24 consecutive days after induction by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant. Liver and spleen weights were recorded. The superoxide anion level, total peroxide (TP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant status, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also measured. AGE treatment significantly decreased the levels of the superoxide anion, TP, and OSI whereas the GPx and SOD activities significantly increased in the liver of the arthritic rats. These results indicated that AGE showed an ameliorative effect against liver oxidative stress in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats by reducing the generation of liver free radicals and increasing the liver antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27390722

  13. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels. PMID:26501253

  14. Investigation of cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines of arborinine and furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthy, Borbála; Zupkó, István; Minorics, Renáta; Hohmann, Judit; Ocsovszki, Imre; Falkay, George

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of a series of furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) and of two further acridone alkaloids (arborinine and evoxanthine) were investigated by means of the MTT assay, using the human cell lines HeLa, MCF7 and A431. Arborinine proved best in inhibiting the proliferation of all three cell lines. The cytotoxic potency of the furacridone alkaloids was a function of their lipid solubility, which was determined by means of PAMPA. The capacity of the most effective furanoacridones to induce apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and by staining with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. This finding was reinforced by determining the apoptosis-regulating factors Bcl-2 and Bax, which were revealed by means of RT-PCR to change dose-dependently. The data presented here indicate that naturally occurring furanoacridones can be regarded as excellent starting structures for the potential development of new anticancer agents.

  15. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  16. Effective biotic elicitation of Ruta graveolens L. shoot cultures by lysates from Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlita, A; Sidwa-Gorycka, M; Malinski, E; Czerwicka, M; Kumirska, J; Golebiowski, M; Lojkowska, E; Stepnowski, P

    2008-03-01

    Growth of Ruta graveolens shoots was induced when Bacillus sp. cell lysates were added to the culture medium. Elicitation of coumarin by this lysate was also very effective; the concentrations of isopimpinelin, xanthotoxin and bergapten increased to 610, 2120 and 1460 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively. It also had a significant effect on the production of psoralen and rutamarin (680 and 380 microg g(-1) dry wt) and induced the biosynthesis of chalepin, which was not detected in the control sample, up to 47 microg g(-1) dry wt With lysates of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum, their effect on growth was not so significant and had no effect on the induction of coumarin accumulation. But elicitation with this lysate was much more effective for inducing the production of furoquinolone alkaloids; the concentrations of gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, dictamnine and kokusaginine rose to 99, 680, 172 and 480 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively.

  17. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  18. The effects of chrysin and pinostrobin, two flavonoids isolated from Teloxys graveolens leaves, on isolated guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; Paz, D; Acosta, J; Mata, R

    1998-12-01

    The pharmacological effects of pinostrobin and chrysin obtained from the aerial parts of Teloxys graveolens (Chenopodiaceae) were evaluated using isolated in vitro guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle. Both flavonoids inhibited the contractions evoked by high concentrations of potassium. The potency of the relaxant effect was determined by measuring the capacity of each product in reducing the phasic and the slower sustained tonic contractile responses induced by depolarization with 60 mM K(+). Concentrations up to 5 × 10(-7) M of pinostrobin and 1 × 10(-7) M of chrysin induced a non-competitive depression of responses to Ca(2+) in ileum preparations bathed in a Ca(2+)-free, high K(+) medium. Both compounds produced a rightward displacement of the concentration-response curves to Ca(2+) with a concentration-dependant increase of EC(50) and a decrease of the maximal response. Examination of the inhibitory effect produced by these flavonoids on the phasic component of contractile response evoked with K(+) and on the contraction induced with caffeine, led to propose a different intracellular mechanism of action used by these compounds. The results obtained led us to conclude that the previously detected relaxant effect of Teloxys graveolens crude extract is due in part, to the presence of chrysin and pinostrobin, which inhibit intestinal smooth muscle contractions by means of a calcium-mediated mechanism. Since the modulation of calcium fluxes in the mucosal epithelium may play a role in antidiarrheal drug action, the observed effects in vitro could in the same way explain the popular use of the plant for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:23196029

  19. In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Antonio; Vitali, Cesare; Piarulli, Monica; Mazzotta, Manuela; Argentieri, Maria Pia; Mallamaci, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    In this study we investigated a synergistic effect between the essential oils Origanum vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens and Melaleuca alternifolia and the antifungal compound Nystatin. Nystatin is considered a drug of choice in the treatment of fungal infections, but it can cause some considerable problems through its side effects, such as renal damage. Finding a new product that can reduce the Nystatin dose via combination is very important. Our findings showed an experimental occurrence of a synergistic interaction between two of these essential oils and Nystatin. The essential oil O. vulgare appeared to be the most effective, inhibiting all the Candida species evaluated in this study. Some combinations of Nystatin and P. graveolens essential oil did not have any synergistic interactions for some of the strains considered. Associations of Nystatin with M. alternifolia essential oil had only an additive effect.

  20. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais de Pelargonium graveolens l'Herit e Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson dos S. Niculau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens, Lippia alba and compounds geraniol, linalool, 1,8-cineole, limonene, carvone, citral and Azamax® were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Topical application assay showed essential oil of P. graveolens has acute toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (third instar with LD50 1.13 µg/mg per insect and LD90 2.56 µg/mg per insect. Three essential oils of L. alba also exhibited insecticidal activity with LD50 ranging from 1.20 to 1.56 µg/mg per insect and LD90 from 2.60 to 3.75 µg/mg per insect. Geraniol, linalool, carvone and citral caused significant mortality of 30, 90, 84 and 64% respectively, compared to negative control. The bioinsecticide, Azamax®, caused lower mortality than the compounds of the essential oils.

  1. Overview of Pharmaceutical Research on Pelargonium graveolens L%香叶天竺葵药学研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党璇; 张晓珍; 姚默; 高昂; 巩江; 倪士峰

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of extensive literature search, the flora, composition, pharmacology and clinical application of Pelargonium graveolens L. Have been reviewed, to provide reference for further development and utilization.%在广泛检索文献基础上,综述了香叶天竺葵种属、成分、药理及临床应用,为深入开发利用提供参考依据.

  2. Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64 µL mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401

  3. UJI IRITASI DAN AKTIVITAS PERTUMBUHAN RAMBUT TIKUS PUTIH: EFEK SEDIAAN GEL APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerasan seledri (Apium graveolens L. biasa dipergunakan untuk memacu pertumbuhan rambut. Salah satu senyawa utama yang terkandung di dalam seledri adalah apigenin. Penelitian ini membahas tentang pengaruh pemakaian gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri sebagai penumbuh rambut, meliputi uji iritasi dan aktivitas pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih jantan galur Spraque-Dawley. Uji iritasi menggunakan metode Kamkaen dan Rao, sedangkan uji aktivitas penumbuh rambut menggunakan metode Hattori-Ogawa dan Suzuki-Hamada. Berdasarkan indeks iritasi primer, semua formulasi gel tidak potensial menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit tikus putih (p>0,05. Gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik dalam memacu pertumbuhan rambut (p<0,05 dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan. Apigenin menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik (p<0,05 dalam meningkatkan ketebalan rambut dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Namun perlakuan perasan herba seledri tidak nyata (p>0,05 meningkatkan ketebalan rambut. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Kata kunci : seledri, apigenin, gel, iritasi kulit, penumbuh rambutAbstractCelery (Apium graveolens L. juice is widely used for promoting hair growth. One of the main compounds in celery is apigenin. This research discusses about the effect of gel containing apigenin and celery juice application as hair growth in term of skin irritation and its hair growth activity on Spraque-Dawley male mice. The irritation test was Kamkaen and Rao methods, while hair growth activity was HattoriOgawa and Suzuki-Hamada methods. Based on primary index irritation, all of the gel formulations did not signifiantly potential in resulting skin irritation on the mice (p>0,05. Gel containing apigenin andcelery juice showed better activity in promoting hair growth (p<0,05 than

  4. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  5. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil. PMID:26696243

  6. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species. PMID:26805742

  7. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shagun; Tandon, Simran

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of various potencies of Ruta graveolens (Ruta) on COLO-205 cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, migration, clonogenecity, morphological and biochemical changes and modification in the levels of genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle. On treatment of COLO-205 cells maximal effects were seen with mother tincture (MT) and 30C potencies, wherein decrease in cell viability along with reduced clonogenecity and migration capabilities were noted. In addition morphological and biochemical alterations such as nuclear changes (fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin) and DNA ladder-like pattern (increased amount of fragmented DNA) in COLO-205 cells indicating apoptotic related cell death were seen. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory genes assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed an up-regulation of caspase 9, caspase-3, Bax, p21 and p27 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The mode of cell death was suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic pathway along with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals present in Ruta showed potential for natural therapeutic product development for colon carcinoma.

  8. Unusual pseudosubstrate specificity of a novel 3,5-dimethoxyphenol O-methyltransferase cloned from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Laura; Wellmann, Frank; Lukacin, Richard; Witte, Simone; Schwab, Wilfried; Schröder, Joachim; Matern, Ulrich

    2005-08-01

    A cDNA was cloned from Ruta graveolens cells encoding a novel O-methyltransferase (OMT) with high similarity to orcinol or chavicol/eugenol OMTs, but containing a serine-rich N-terminus and a 13 amino acid insertion between motifs IV and V. Expression in Escherichia coli revealed S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent OMT activity with methoxylated phenols only with an apparent Km of 20.4 for the prime substrate 3,5-dimethoxyphenol. The enzyme forms a homodimer of 84 kDa, and the activity was insignificantly affected by 2.0 mM Ca2+ or Mg2+, whereas Fe2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ or Hg2+ were inhibitory (78-100%). Dithiothreitol (DTT) suppressed the OMT activity. This effect was examined further, and, in the presence of Zn2+ as a potential thiol methyltransferase (TMT) cofactor, the recombinant OMT methylated DTT to DTT-monomethylthioether. Sets of kinetic OMT experiments with 3,5-dimethoxyphenol at various Zn2+/DTT concentrations revealed the competitive binding of DTT with an apparent Ki of 52.0 microM. Thus, the OMT exhibited TMT activity with almost equivalent affinity to the thiol pseudosubstrate which is structurally unrelated to methoxyphenols.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  10. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Thawatchai PRABSATTROO; Wannisa SUKHORUM; Supaporn MUCHIMAPURA; Panee SRISAARD; Nongnut UABUNDIT; Wipawee THUKHAMMEE

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency,histology of testis and epididymis,and sperm physiology.Methods:Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50,150,and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1,7,and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency,testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting,sperm concentration,sperm acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis,respectively.Results:AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group.Additionally,rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group.In histological analyses,AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration,acrosome reaction,and histological structures of testis and epididymis.Conclusions:AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  11. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  12. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil.

  13. Study on the Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides to prevent Leucocytozoonosis%驱蚊草驱除库蠓预防鸡白冠病的应用试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代友洪; 蒋清蓉; 叶兆美; 赖守勋

    2012-01-01

    This test. used sticky paper to collect Culicoides, understanding the effect of Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides inside and outside henhouse. The resuhs showed that using Pelargonium graveolens could effectively reduce the number of Culicoides in the range of 1.5 m (P〈0.05). Placing Pelargonium graveolens in the house dispelling Culicoides better than without placing Pelargonium graveolens significantly (P〈0.05). Pelargonium graveolen had no significant effect on laying rate and death rate for laying hens. So we summarized that Pelargonium graveolens had significant effect of dispelling Culicoides, also reached the purpose of preventing white-crowned disease.%本试验采用粘蚊帖收集库蠓的方法,了解在鸡舍内和鸡舍外使用驱蚊草对库蠓的驱除作用。试验结果证明:使用驱蚊草在鸡舍外能够在1.5m范围内有效地减少库蠓的数量(P〈0.05):放置了驱蚊草的鸡舍相比未放置驱蚊草的鸡舍其库蠓数量明显减少(P〈0.05);另外,驱蚊草对蛋鸡的产蛋率与死淘率无明显影响。由此可见,驱蚊草有明显的驱库蠓效果,能达到预防鸡白冠病的目的,

  14. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Maria Teresa; Ciniglia, Claudia; Reccia, Mafalda G; Volpicelli, Floriana; Gatti, Monica; Thellung, Stefano; Florio, Tullio; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy) five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138) widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1) obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  15. The Effects of Anethum graveolens L. Seeds on the Male Reproductive Functions and CREM Gene Expression in the Testis of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shojaee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the increasing of the population in the developing countries is an anxiety, therefore finding safe and effective contraceptive materials can be very useful. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Anethum graveolens L. on the reproductive system of male rat and CREM gene expression in testis of rat. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of control (treated with normal salin for the period of 56 days, n = 8 and experimental (treated with 150 mg/kg/day of Anethum graveolens extract for 56 days, n = 8. RT-PCR and histological studies, hormonal assay and sperm analysis were carried out for evaluating of extract on reproductive function of rat. Results indicated no significant differences between body weights of control and experimental groups. Sperm counts and motility were reduced however there was an increase sperm abnormality by applying of extract. Indeed existence of disorganized germinal epitheliums, degeneration, necrotic cells in some of seminiferous tubules and lower concentration of sperms in the center of seminiferous tubules of experimental group was noticeable. Results also showed reduction in the diameter of seminiferous tubules of experimental groups comparing with control groups. Administration of extract caused a significant decline in the plasma level of testosterone. Our RT-PCR data revealed that CREM mRNA levels decreased significantly in testes from the experimental group in compared to control group. In conclusionAnethum graveolens has strong anti-spermatogenic activity by decreasing sperm parameters. This study strongly proposes that this plant can be a good candidate for manufacturing antifertility drugs.

  16. Evaluation of Safety and Protective Effect of Combined Extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens (PM52) against Age-Related Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wipawee Thukham-mee; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine acute toxicity, the protective effect, and underlying mechanism of PM52, a combined extract of Cissampelos pareira and Anethum graveolens, against age-related cognitive impairment in animal model of age-related cognitive impairment. PM52 was determined as acute toxicity according to OECD guideline. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given PM52 at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg at a period of 14 days before and 7 days after the bilateral admini...

  17. Estimación de la capacidad germinativa y el vigor de las semillas de diomate (astronium graveolens jacq.) sometidas a diferentes tratamientos y condiciones de almacenamiento.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Restrepo, Martha Ligia

    2011-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  19. 蚊净香草叶片离体培养研究%Study on leaves in vitro culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊辉; 杨妙贤; 冼元香

    2005-01-01

    以蚊净香草(Pelargonium graveolens L'herit)不同叶龄的叶片为外植体进行离体培养,结果表明,只有成熟的叶片可诱导形成愈伤组织,培养基MS+6-BA 1.00mg/L+NAA 0.20mg/L最适于愈伤组织的诱导、不定芽分化和丛生芽的增殖,培养基MS+NAA 0.20 mg/L最适合根系诱导及幼苗生长.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed; S. Shahidi-Motlagh; H. Bagherzadeh; S. Azad Forouz; H. Tafazoli

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL). In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, signific...

  1. The effect of chronic administration of Apium graveolens aqueous extract on learning and memory in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdad Roghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: Diabetes mellitus accompanies with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of Apium graveolens (AG , this research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic i.p. administration of AG on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests.   Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, AG-treated control, diabetic, and AG-treated diabetic groups. AG treatment continued for 4 weeks. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, alternation behavior percentage was determined using Y maze. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups after 4 weeks as compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.05 in AG-treated diabetic group as compared to control group at the end of study. In addition, STL did not significantly change in AG-treated control group in comparison with control group. In addition, results of Y-maze test showed that there is no significant difference between diabetic and Ag-treated diabetic groups and between control and Ag-treated control group regarding alternation behavior. Discussion: In summary, chronic oral administration of AG could enhance the consolidation and recall capability of stored information only in diabetic animals and did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals.  

  2. Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50 µL on Petri dish of 8.5 cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5 µL/20 mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses.

  3. Optimization Experiment to Extract Citronellol from Pelargonium graveolens with Ethanol%利用乙醇提取香叶天竺葵中香茅醇研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 谭乐和; 徐飞; 刘向阳; 郝朝运; 吴刚; 张翠玲

    2012-01-01

    本文利用香叶天竺葵的叶片,对香叶天竺葵中香茅醇的提取率进行研究.对提取香茅醇的最适乙醇浓度、温度、时间、料液比分别进行了测定.结果表明,乙醇提取法的最佳工艺条件为乙醇浓度75%、温度40℃、时间4h、料液比1:20的最佳组合,在该条件下香茅醇提取率可达0.88 mg/g.%The extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens were determined. The optimum ethanol concentration, temperature, time, and solid-liquid ratio for extracting the citronellol were examined. The results of statistical analysis showed that the ideal extraction condition was as follows; 75 % ethanol concentration, 40℃, 4 h, and 1:20 of the solid-liquid ratio. Under this condition, the extraction rate of citronellol from leaves of Pelargonium graveolens was 0.88 mg/g.

  4. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética Efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, nos níveis de glucose, colesterol e triacilglicerídeos num modelo do rato diabético Induced effects by Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, and Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, on glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerides levels in a diabetic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (Diversas plantas com propriedades hipoglicêmicas foram usadas na medicina popular e em sistemas tradicionais de curas em torno do mundo. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos induzidos por Ruta graveolens L, Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, e Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, em modelo do rato diabético onde níveis da glucose foram determinados a cada 24 h em um mês antes da administração gástrica do extrato das plantas. Colesterol e triacilglicerídeos foram avaliados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Os resultados mostraram que a administração de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dose de 0,5 a 1,5 g/kg induz um aumento hipoglicêmico ( 200 mg/dL. Outros resultados, mostraram que Citrus aurantium exerce mudanças na concentração de triacilglicerídeos (158-172 mg/dL e colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, a administração de Ruta graveolens na dose de 0.5 g/kg induziu um efeito hipoglicêmico (Several plants with hypoglycemic properties have

  5. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  6. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  7. A 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Ruta graveolens L. exhibits p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase activity (C2'H): a missing step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialart, Guilhem; Hehn, Alain; Olry, Alexandre; Ito, Kyoko; Krieger, Celia; Larbat, Romain; Paris, Cedric; Shimizu, Bun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2012-05-01

    Coumarins are important compounds that contribute to the adaptation of plants to biotic or abiotic stresses. Among coumarins, umbelliferone occupies a pivotal position in the plant phenylpropanoid network. Previous studies indicated that umbelliferone is derived from the ortho-hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid by an unknown biochemical step to yield 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, which then undergoes spontaneous lactonization. Based on a recent report of a gene encoding a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Arabidopsis thaliana that exhibited feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase activity (Bourgaud et al., 2006), we combined a bioinformatic approach and a cDNA library screen to identify an orthologous ORF (Genbank accession number JF799117) from Ruta graveolens L. This ORF shares 59% amino acid identity with feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and converted feruloyl CoA into scopoletin and p-coumaroyl CoA into umbelliferone with equal activity. Its bi-functionality was further confirmed in planta: transient expression of JF799117 in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded plants with leaves containing high levels of umbelliferone and scopoletin when compared to control plants, which contained barely detectable traces of these compounds. The expression of JF799117 was also tightly correlated to the amount of umbelliferone that was found in UV-elicited R. graveolens leaves. Therefore, JF799117 encodes a p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase in R. graveolens, which represents a previously uncharacterized step in the synthesis of umbelliferone in plants. Psoralen, which is an important furanocoumarin in R. graveolens, was found to be a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, and it may exert this effect through negative feedback on the enzyme at an upstream position in the pathway.

  8. CYP98A22, a phenolic ester 3’-hydroxylase specialized in the synthesis of chlorogenic acid, as a new tool for enhancing the furanocoumarin concentration in Ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamat Fazeelat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Furanocoumarins are molecules with proven therapeutic properties and are produced in only a small number of medicinal plant species such as Ruta graveolens. In vivo, these molecules play a protective role against phytophageous insect attack. Furanocoumarins are members of the phenylpropanoids family, and their biosynthetic pathway is initiated from p-coumaroyl coA. The enzymes belonging to the CYP98A cytochrome P450 family have been widely described as being aromatic meta-hydroxylases of various substrates, such as p-coumaroyl ester derivatives, and are involved in the synthesis of coumarins such as scopoletin. In furanocoumarin-producing plants, these enzymes catalyze the step directly downstream of the junction with the furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway and might indirectly impact their synthesis. Results In this work, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of the first CYP98A encoding gene isolated from R. graveolens. Using Nicotiana benthamiana as a heterologous expression system, we have demonstrated that this enzyme adds a 3-OH to p-coumaroyl ester derivatives but is more efficient to convert p-coumaroyl quinate into chlorogenic acid than to metabolize p-coumaroyl shikimate. Plants exposed to UV-B stress showed an enhanced expression level of the corresponding gene. The R. graveolens cyp98a22 open reading frame and the orthologous Arabidopsis thaliana cyp98a3 open reading frame were overexpressed in stable transgenic Ruta plants. Both plant series were analyzed for their production of scopoletin and furanocoumarin. A detailed analysis indicates that both genes enhance the production of furanocoumarins but that CYP98A22, unlike CYP98A3, doesn’t affect the synthesis of scopoletin. Conclusions The overexpression of CYP98A22 positively impacts the concentration of furanocoumarins in R. graveolens. This gene is therefore a valuable tool to engineer plants with improved therapeutical values that might

  9. Comparison of leaf morphology and anatomy among Malva sylvestris ("gerânio-aromático", Pelargonium graveolens ("falsa-malva" and Pelargonium odoratissimum ("gerânio-de-cheiro" Comparação da Morfologia e da anatomia foliar entre as espécies Malva sylvestris (gerânio-aromático, Pelargonium graveolens (falsa-malva e Pelargonium odoratissimum (gerânio-de-cheiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Romitelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris is generally confused with Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium odoratissimum due to similarities in their leaf morphology. The leaves of M. sylvestris have anthocyanins with scientifically proven cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. The leaves of P. odoratissimum have essential oil with antibacterial and spasmolytic properties, while the essential oil from P. graveolens has antimicrobial and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to morpho-anatomically analyze the leaves of these species, indicating differences that can be used to clarify controversies about their use as medicinal plants. To anatomically compare the structure of each plant, samples were observed by Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Leaf anatomy among species was quite different. Malva sylvestris showed capitate starry tector trichomes, as well as druses and mucilaginous cells. P. graveolens and P. odoratissimum differed as to trichomes. Both species had tector and glandular trichomes, and P. graveolens is distinguished for the greater height of tector trichomes and less quantity of the latter relative to P. odoratissimum. This study allowed the detection of anatomical differences, assisting in the taxonomy and classification of these species.Malva sylvestris é comumente confundida com Pelargonium graveolens e Pelargonium odoratissimum devido às semelhanças na morfologia foliar. As folhas de M. sylvestris possuem antocianinas com propriedades citotóxicas, antiinflamatória, antitumoral e antioxidante já comprovadas cientificamente. As folhas de P. odoratissimum apresentam óleo essencial com propriedades antibacteriana e espasmolítica, e o óleo essencial da folha de P. graveolens possui atividade antimicrobiana e antifúngica. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar morfo-anatomicamente as folhas destas espécies, apontando diferenças que possam ser utilizadas para esclarecer controvérsias na

  10. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae. Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.

  11. Effect of Vermicompost on Chemical and Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content during Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill. Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker UZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate impact of vermicompost on chemical and biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content in the presence of plant under the open field conditions in semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study also included farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers for comparison and was conducted in two consecutive growth seasons in the same plots to observe any cumulative effect. Plots were amended with fertilizers in different rates and celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce Mill. was grown as the test plant. In general, vermicompost appeared to be more effective to increase organic matter, N, P, and Ca compared to farmyard manure. Soil alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities, especially in the second growth season, were significantly elevated by the vermicompost application. Urease activity, however, appeared not to be influenced by the type of organic fertilizer. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria with vermicompost giving the lower values. Results showed that, in general, vermicompost significantly alters chemical and biological properties of the alkaline soil with high lime content during celery production under field conditions compared to farmyard manure and that it has a high potential to be used as an alternative to conventional organic fertilizers in agricultural production in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  12. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  13. Graveoline isolated from ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens triggers apoptosis and autophagy in skin melanoma cells: a novel apoptosis-independent autophagic signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samrat; Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Anti-cancer drugs generally kill cancer cells by apoptosis but fail to do so when they become resistant and escape apoptosis signals. But these resistant cells can still be killed by autophagy. Therefore, drugs having both apoptotic and autophagic abilities are solicited in effective cancer management. In search of such a drug, we examined the efficacy of graveoline, a bioactive compound isolated from Ruta graveolens on skin melanoma A375 cells through the use of specific signaling cascades and their inhibitors. Cytotoxicity of graveoline was tested by conducting MTT assay. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis was checked. Expression of related proteins and their localization were studied by conducting immunoblot assay and through confocal microscopy, respectively. We found graveoline-induced Beclin-1 associated autophagy in A375 cells and 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy did not affect apoptosis. Conversely, caspase inhibitor that blocked apoptosis did not affect autophagic cell death, suggesting thereby that these two were independent events. Use of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers inhibited cell death, but blocking autophagy did not affect graveoline-induced ROS generation, suggesting that ROS generation ensued autophagy. Thus, graveoline-induced both apoptotic and autophagic cell death in skin melanoma cells, a desirable quality in effective anti-cancer drug design.

  14. An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her for potential use by resource-limited animal owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Botha

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary needs appraisals in rural, peri-urban and urban areas have indicated a need for affordable and accessible veterinary health care. It was also found that farmers and animal owners used indigenous plants for treating animals. In Africa, insects such as Culex, Culicoides and Stomoxys may transmit diseases, cause irritation to animals or prevent wound healing. Insect repellents used topically are generally safer and cheaper than insecticides. Using readily available commercial sources of ethanol 43 %v/v (brandy and cane spirits, it was shown that citronellol could be extracted from uncrushed leaves of the indigenous shrub Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. Efficacy of extraction was compared to that using reagent grade absolute ethanol. The peak concentration of citronellol was achieved within 7 days of extraction and thereafter remained constant for 4 months. Extraction methods using tap water and cooking oil were not successful. The extraction was also less successful when the leaves were crushed or macerated before being placed into ethanol. Gas chromatography was used to monitor the concentration of citronellol in the different extracts.

  15. 驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导和增殖%Effects on induction and proliferation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春燕; 刘树楠; 周吉源

    2006-01-01

    以驱蚊香草(Pelargonium graveolens)的幼嫩叶片为外植体,接种于附加不同浓度的NAA、2,4-D、6-BA、KT及其组合的MS固体培养基上,结果表明:单独使用4种植物生长调节物质对驱蚊香草愈伤组织的诱导在一定浓度范围内都有效果,其中单独使用KT时效果不太明显;最佳的组合培养基为MS+2,4-D0.2 mg/L +6-BA0.5 mg/L.在黑暗和光照培养条件下,愈伤组织的增殖呈"S"型,且生长周期均为30 d.

  16. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K. and European (Origanum vulgare L. Oregano Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Hernández-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO’s of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO’s was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME. The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO’s was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO’s and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO’s varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol and γ-terpinene (pentane as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO’s showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO’s remained the same, while free EO’s decreased 41% (MXO and 67% (EUO from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO’s from oregano.

  17. Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun ZHANG; Jianbing WANG; Zhongyi YANG; Guorong XIN; Jiangang YUAN; Junliang XIN; Charlie HUANG

    2013-01-01

    To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggang- kangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.

  18. Bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming Yang; Zhongren Nan; Zhuanjun Zhao; Zhaowei Wang; Shengli Wang; Xia Wang; Wangqiang Jin; Cuicui Zhao

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the bioaccumulation and translocation of cadmium (Cd) in cole (Brassica campestris L.) and celery (Apium graveolens) grown in the Cd-polluted oasis soil,Northwest of China.The results showed that Cd in the unpolluted oasis soil was mainly bound to carbonate fraction (F2) and Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3).However,marked change of Cd fractions was observed with increasing soil Cd concentrations,in which the concentration of Cd in F1 (exchangeable fraction),F2 and F3 increased significantly (p < 0.001 for F1,F2 and F3).The growth of cole and celery could be facilitated by low concentrations of Cd,but inhibited by high concentrations.The correlation analysis between the fraction distribution coefficient of Cd in the soil and Cd concentration accumulated in the two vegetables showed that Cd in FI in the soil made the greatest contribution on the accumulation of Cd in the two vegetables.The high bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor of Cd in both cole and celery were observed,and Cd had higher accumulation in the edible parts of the two vegetables.Therefore,both cole and celery grown in Cd-polluted oasis soil have higher risk to human health.And the two vegetables are not suitable to be cultivated as vegetables consumed by human in the Cd-polluted oasis soil.

  19. Observation on Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cells in Apium graveolens%芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬; 张蜀宁; 张宇; 李俊星; 刘惠吉

    2011-01-01

    The flower buds of celery (Apium graveolens ) were used to study the mitosis in pollen mother cells with enzyme - dye -squash technique.The results showed that the pollen mother cells carried on their meiosis and cytokinesis simultaneously and their tetrads were tetrahedral or decussate type; at metaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there showed a small number of chromosomes scattered outside their equatorial plate; at anaphases Ⅰ and Ⅱ there appeared chromosome bridges and lagged chromosomes in some pollen mother cells.%以中国芹品种铁杆芹花蕾为材料,采用改良卡宝染色压片法对芹菜花粉母细胞减数分裂进行了细胞学研究.结果表明:花粉母细胞减数分裂为胞质同时型,四分体为正四面体型或十字交叉型,中期Ⅰ和中期Ⅱ细胞可见赤道板外染色体,后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ部分细胞出现染色体桥及落后染色体.

  20. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  1. Ethnopharmacology, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter. Which Has Been Used as Remedies Antirheumatic, Anti-inflammation and Antiinfection against Leishmaniasis in the Traditional Medicine of Gorgan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was survey to investigate of ethnopharmacology, antibacterial and antioxidant capacity of Dittrichia graveolens (L. W. Greuter extract in in vitro from waste ground region of Gorgan, Iran, which has been used in traditional as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene, and antiinfection. Materials and Methods: Ethnopharmacological data were obtained among well-known indigenous herbal practitioner (70 ages in Gorgan, Iran. Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Gorgan waste ground (80 m in October 2013. Methanol and acetone extracts were obtained by maceration, antioxidant activity were evaluated spectrophotometrically by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power to compare of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole antioxidant standard and antibacterial activity were determined by disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs method against tree Gram-positive and negative pathogenic bacteria. Results: D. graveolens (L. W. Greuteris is usually wild grow in Golestan Province and has been used in traditional medicine as a strong anti-inflammation, antirheumatism, antitumor, antipathogene and antiinfection specially in treat of leishmaniosis metanolic extract of plant has strong antioxidant activity against free radical scavenging specially in DPPH methode than aceton extract with IC50 (6.2 ± 0.13 μg/ml and Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus with inhibition zone 35, 30, 26, 21 mm were the most sensitive bacteria, with MIC ranging from 12.6 to 112 μg/ml, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium have moderate sensitivity and other bacteria were resistant to the plant extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the methanolic extract of D. graveolens can become good potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity for controlling certain Gram

  2. Morfoanatomía y efecto del secado en la germinación de semillas de caléndula y eneldo Morphology, anatomy and influence of drying on germination of seeds of Calendula officinalis and Anethum graveolens

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge A Victoria T; Carmen R Bonilla C; Manuel S. Sánchez O

    2007-01-01

    En semillas de caléndula Calendula officinalis y de eneldo Anethum graveolens , se realizaron la descripción morfológica y anatómica y mediciones del contenido de humedad en equilibrio (CHE). La descripción morfológica y anatómica permitió precisar e ilustrar detalladamente los órganos y tejidos internos de la semilla, además, clarificar aspectos en la definición de semilla pura de caléndula. Se elaboraron curvas de secado y se midió el CHE en diferentes ambientes de secamiento artificial, ob...

  3. Estudio comparativo de la composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ruta graveolens L. recolectada en los estados Mérida y Miranda, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from two R. graveolens samples collected from Mérida and Miranda states, Venezuela, were analyzed by GC/MS identifying as major components: 2-undecanone, 2-nonanonae and pregeijerene. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity assays showed the wide range of activity of the oils that inhibited the bacterial strains grow not only for the Gram positive (S. aureus and E. faecalis but the Gram negative (E. coli and K. pneumonie as well, displaying MIC values between 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL.

  4. Atividade in vitro de plantas condimentares (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. contra o calicivírus felino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Felli Kubiça

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O calicivírus felino (FCV é um importante patógeno de gatos que causa lesões ulcerativas orais e infecções respiratórias. O vírus tem sido utilizado como modelo experimental para avaliação de agente antivirais contra norovírus (NoVs. Nesse estudo, investigou-se a ação dos óleos essenciais de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L., orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens HBK. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L. frente ao FCV, in vitro. A toxicidade celular foi testada pelo método de MTT e os ensaios antivirais pelo teste de redução de placas. Três protocolos foram aplicados: a diferentes concentrações não tóxicas dos óleos essenciais (CNTOE foram incubadas com o vírus por 1 hora antes da inoculação (ensaio virucida; b CNTOE foram adicionadas às células CRFK e incubadas por 1 hora antes da adsorção viral (ensaio de pré-tratamento; c CNTOE foram adicionadas às células após a inoculação do FCV e mantidas por 18 horas (ensaio de pós-tratamento. A CC50 para os óleos de alecrim, orégano mexicano e tomilho foram: 1300,21 μg mL-1; 435,92 μg mL-1 e 675,34 μg mL-1; respectivamente. O óleo essencial de tomilho apresentou índice de seletividade [IS=CC50/CI50] de 8,57 para o ensaio de pré-tratamento e 6,2 no ensaio virucida. O óleo de alecrim mostrou atividade antiviral no ensaio virucida (IS=6,54 e de pós-tratamento (IS=6,86. O orégano mexicano apresentou IS de 5,75 no ensaio virucida e 5,59 no de pós-tratamento. Conclui-se que os óleos essenciais de tomilho e alecrim apresentaram atividade frente ao FCV em diferentes momentos da infecção viral.Palavras-chave: Norovírus. FCV. óleos essenciais. Citotoxicidade. MTT. ensaio de placa. ABSTRACTIn vitro activity of plants used as condiments (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia graveolens HBK e Thymus vulgaris L. against the feline calicivirusThe feline calicivirus (FCV is an important pathogen of feline causing oral ulcerative lesions and respiratory disease. This virus

  5. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germinativa, los menores tiempos de germinación y el vigor más alto. La pérdida total de vigor en las semillas varió según el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento así: al cabo de un mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 7 y 10ºC, al sexto mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 20 y 33ºC y al undécimo mes cuando fueron almacenadas a temperatura ambiente entre 12 y 18ºC. El tipo de empaque no influyó significativamente en los resultados finales.Two studies of diomate seeds (Astronium graveolens Jacq were conducted. The first was conducted to determine the effect that substrate and light condition has on germination. The second was to evaluate the germinative response of seeds stored over differing time periods and under temperature and packaging conditions. The diomate seeds sowed in full exposure in soil substrate had the greatest germinative potential, the fastest germination times and the highest vigor. The total loss of vigor in the seeds varied according to time and temperature of storage, as follows: after a month of storage at temperatures between 7 and 10ºC, after six months of storage at temperatures between 20 and 33ºC and after eleven months of storage at ambient temperatures between 12 and 18ºC. The type of packing did not significantly influence the final results.

  6. Larvicidal, Repellent and Irritant Potential of the Seed-derived Essential oil of Apium graveolens against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita eKumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti L., the primary carrier for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever is widespread over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. Keeping in view the adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures; the eco-friendly, bio-degradable essential oil extracted from the seeds of celery, Apium graveolens; was investigated for anti-mosquito potential against Ae. aegypti. Evaluation of larvicidal potential of celery seed oil against early fourth instars of Ae. aegypti resulted in LC50 and LC90 values of 16.10 ppm and 29.08 ppm, respectively, after an exposure to 24 h; the toxic effect of the oil increasing by 1.2 fold with an LC50 value of 13.22 ppm after an exposure to 48h. Interestingly, the seed oil did not cause rapid mortality, suggesting a delayed type of larval killing effect. The remarkable finding of the present study was effective repellency of the essential oil leading to 100% protection till 165 min as compared to control that did not show any repellency against mosquitoes. Only 1 bite was recorded in the 165th minute after which only 2 bites were scored until 180 min of exposure of the oil to the adult mosquitoes. An exciting observation was the knocked-down of mosquitoes caused by the exposure to 10% oil-impregnated papers. The exposure to 1% oil resulted in first flight only after 4 sec and a total of 63.66 average flights during 15 min exposure revealing the relative irritability of 26.97.The qualitative phytochemical study of the oil showed the presence of terpenoids, lactones and flavonoids as the major constituents suggesting their possible role in the toxicity. Present investigations proved celery seed essential oil to be an efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the active principles involved, their mode of action, formulated preparations for enhancing potency and stability, toxicity and effects on non-target organisms and the

  7. Evaluation of the Antitoxic Effect of Phthalides from Apium graveolens in Acrylamide Intoxication I. Evolution of the Hepatic Cytolysis and Proteosynthetic Parameters in Acrylamide Intoxication on the Background of Phthalide Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PRISACARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a toxic compound formed during thermical processing of foods that contain amino acids, mainly asparagine, and reducing sugars. The toxicodynamics of acrylamide, exerted mainly by its major metabolite glycidamide, is expressed by mutagenic, carcinogenic and imunosupressive effects. Due to its toxicity and its high prevalence in aliments, the present paper approaches a possible way of reducing the toxic effects of acrylamide by using phytotherapeutical means. In this direction, the antitoxic potential of some phytopreparates obtained from Apium graveolens (Apii aetheroleum, extractive solutions from A. radix, A. folium and A. semen were monitorized on the background of acrylamide intoxication. The antitoxic potential of phthalides has been evaluated by determining biochemical parameters: hepatic cytolysis parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanil aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and protesosynthesis parameters (colinesterase, total poteins, albumins. The biochemical investigation confirmed the antitoxic potential fo phthalides from celery, the highest protection being obtained for the phytopreparate from Apii semen.

  8. Analysis on Content and Composition of Essential Oil in Different Month of Growth in Pelargonium graveolens%不同月份香叶天竺葵精油的含有率与成分变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2006-01-01

    对生长在上海地区的香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L.)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在1月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  9. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase mechanism-based inactivation by psoralen derivatives: cloning and characterization of a C4H from a psoralen producing plant-Ruta graveolens-exhibiting low sensitivity to psoralen inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravot, Antoine; Larbat, Romain; Hehn, Alain; Lièvre, Karine; Gontier, Eric; Goergen, Jean Louis; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) complete cDNA was cloned from the leaves of Ruta graveolens, a psoralen producing plant. The recombinant enzyme (classified CYP73A32) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mechanism-based inactivation was investigated using various psoralen derivatives. Only psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were found to inactivate C4H. The inactivation was dependent on the presence of NADPH, time of pre-incubation, and inhibitor concentration. Inactivation stoichiometry was 0.9 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A1 and 1.1 (+/-0.2) for CYP73A32. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that [3H]psoralen was irreversibly bound to the C4H apoprotein. K(i) and k(inact) for psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen inactivation on the two C4H revealed a lower sensitivity for CYP73A32 compared to CYP73A1. Inactivation kinetics were also determined for CYP73A10, a C4H from another furocoumarin-producing plant, Petroselinum crispum. This enzyme was found to behave like CYP73A32, with a weak sensitivity to psoralen and 8-MOP inactivation. Cinnamic acid hydroxylation is a key step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds, psoralen derivatives included. Our results suggest a possible evolution of R. graveolens and P. crispum C4H that might tolerate substantial levels of psoralen derivatives in the cytoplasmic compartment without a depletive effect on C4H and the general phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  10. 不同倍性种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Ploidy Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 任洪涛; 周斌; 夏凯国

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the aroma characteristics of essential oils of different ploidy seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens,oils from tissue-cultured seedlings with normal and doubling chromosomes were analyzed by gas chromatography,respectively.It was shown that the aroma chemical constituents from two different seedlings were identical but differed in amounts.The contents of geraniol and iso-menthone were higher in polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings,while the contents of citronellol,citronellyl formate and citronellyl acetate were higher in normal tissue-cultured seedlings.The main constituents are citronellol 30.83 %-38.25 %,geraniol 5.30 %-9.72 %,and β-gurjunene 3.71 %-5.50 %,for normal tissue-cultured seedlings ; citronellol 26.1%-38.8%,geraniol 5.94%-14.81%,and β-gurjunene 3.21%-6.16%,for polyploidy tissue-cultured seedlings.%以香叶天竺葵的不同倍性组培苗为研究材料,对不同采样时间的香叶油进行气相色谱分析,比较其香气特征.结果表明:常规组培苗和染色体加倍苗的香叶油的化学成分相同,且各个成分含量随月份变化的规律一致,但在各成分的含量上有差异.多倍体组培苗香叶油中香叶醇、异薄荷酮的含量较高,而常规组培苗香叶油中香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、乙酸香茅酯的含量较高.常规组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇30.83%~38.25%、香叶醇5.30%~9.72%、β-古芸烯3.71%~5.50%,多倍体组培苗香叶油主要指标成分含量分别为香茅醇26.1%~38.8%、香叶醇5.94%~14.81%、β-古芸烯3.21%~6.16%.

  11. 芹菜黄酮合成酶Ⅰ基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of flavone synthase I gene in Apium graveo-lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸云; 王枫; 徐志胜; 谭国飞; 李梦瑶; 熊爱生

    2014-01-01

    The flavone synthase I gene (AgFS I), the key gene for flavonoids synthesis, was cloned from Apium graveolens cultivars Liuhehuangxinqin, Jinnanshiqin and Meiguoxiqin, respectively. The length of AgFS I gene was 1 616 bp, containing 359-bp intronⅠ and 190-bp intronⅡ. The AgFS I gene encodes 355 amino acids, belonging to the 20G-FeII Oxy superfamily. There were differences in 5 nucleotide sites and 5 amino acid sites among the three cultivars of Api-um graveolens. Multiple sequence alignment of AgFS Is with FSIs from other plants showed that FSⅠs were highly conser-vative. Phylogenetic tree revealed the AgFS Is had the closest relationship to Daucus carota and Cuminum cyminum, which belong to the Apiaceae. Amino acid sequence analyses indicate that AgFS I belong to the hydrophobic protein. The AgFS Is from three cultivars of Apium graveolens are similar in three dimentional structure.%选用3个芹菜材料六合黄心芹、津南实芹和美国西芹,分别从中克隆了合成黄酮类化合物的关键酶基因---芹菜黄酮合成酶I基因( AgFS I)。该基因全长均为1616 bp,含有359 bp的内含子I和190 bp的内含子II。芹菜AgFS I基因编码355个氨基酸,属于20G-FeII Oxy超级家族。序列分析结果显示,3种芹菜中AgFS I基因在核苷酸水平上有5个碱基的差异,编码的氨基酸有5个位点的差异。芹菜黄酮合成酶I( AgFS I)与其他来源植物的FSI氨基酸多重序列比对分析结果表明,该酶具有高度保守性。对AgFS I进行进化树分析,氨基酸序列的疏水性/亲水性分析,三级结构预测与分析,结果显示AgFS I与同属于伞形科的胡萝卜和孜然芹的FSI进化关系最近, AgFS I属于疏水性蛋白质,3种芹菜AgFS I的空间结构相似。

  12. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-1beta through suppression of NF-kappaB activation by 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin isolated from Ruta graveolens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Bhawna; Shrivastava, Anju; Das, Hasi Rani

    2007-03-29

    The Ruta graveolens L. plant is used in traditional medicine to treat a large number of diseases. The methanol (50%) extract of the whole plant was observed to inhibit the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells (J774A.1, [Raghav, S.K., Gupta, B., Agrawal, C., Goswami, K., Das, H.R., 2006b. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104, 234-239]). The effect of whole plant extract on the expression of other pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kappaB) were investigated in LPS stimulated macrophage cells. An active compound was isolated from this methanol extract by further solvent fractionation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The purified compound was identified as 3-(1'-1'-dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-coumarin having IUPAC nomenclature of 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-methyl but-3-en-2yl)-2H-chromen-2-one by ESI-MS, MALDI, FT-IR and NMR. Effect of this purified compound was assessed on iNOS, COX-2 and various pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and was observed to inhibit both the protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and IL-1beta in LPS challenged macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analyses indicated that the plant extract and the isolated active compound blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB through the prevention of inhibitor-kB (IkB) degradation. The purified compound also showed the anti-oxidant activity. The active compound at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight was observed to inhibit the iNOS and IL-1beta gene expression significantly in endotoxin-induced inflammatory model of BALB/c mice. The low level of nitric oxide production was also observed in the sera of compound treated mice

  13. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Ruta graveolens L. sob influência de fenantreno e benzo[a]pireno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomara Dias da Costa Lemos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A exposição a contaminantes orgânicos como os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos tem atraído considerável atenção devido aos efeitos dessas substâncias sobre a saúde humana, o ambiente e o desenvolvimento vegetal. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do fenantreno e do benzo[a]pireno sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal in vitro de R. graveolens. Sementes comerciais descontaminadas foram inoculadas em tubos de ensaio com meio MS suplementado com 0 (controle; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e 0 (controle; 0,001; 0,01 e 0,1 mg L-1 de benzo[a]pireno. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sementes germinadas, o índice de velocidade de germinação e a entropia. Após dois meses, avaliou-se o comprimento da parte aérea e radicular e contabilizou-se o número de folhas desenvolvidas. Durante o primeiro mês, a presença do fenantreno não alterou o processo germinativo, enquanto que o benzo[a]pireno na concentração de 0,01 mg L-1 proporcionou aumento significativo da germinação (p≤0,05. Durante o segundo mês, as concentrações de 5,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e de 0,001 mg L-1 benzo[a]pireno resultaram em desenvolvimento radicular significativamente superior. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas quanto à fitomassa, ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e número de folhas por plântulas. Tais resultados sugerem potencial para o cultivo de R. graveolens em áreas contaminadas, nos níveis investigados.

  14. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  15. Fruit ontogeny of Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae Ontogênese do fruto de Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eglaé Camargo Asinelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae is a small to medium-sized tree that usually occurs on the floodplains of the Paraná River and it is an important food source for the local inhabitants. The fruit itself is consumed in natura, and juices and sweets are made from it. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological and structural aspects of fruits and seeds of this species in order to classify the fruit type and the pulpy layer which involves the seeds. The material analyzed consisted of ovary and fruits in different stages of development, collected from five plants from Aurélio Island, Baía River (MS, BR and the description was done according to standard procedures in anatomy. The fruit is a yellowish-orange spherical berry ("bacóide" type. The smooth, coriaceous skin consists of the lignified exocarp. The endocarp cell layers are derived from the activity of an adaxial meristem that undergoes radial elongation. The edible sweet white pulp is formed by the endocarp, as well as the spongy mesocarp, in which the secretory ducts lose their function. The unitegmic anatropous ovules develop into anatropous exalbuminous seeds with a collapsed and undifferentiated testa. The embryo is hypocotylar. The features here described generally occur in Clusioideae-Garcinieae and Symphonieae.Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae é árvore de pequeno a médio porte frequente na Planície de Inundação do Alto Rio Paraná e de importância na alimentação das populações ribeirinhas, sendo consumida in natura e na forma de sucos e doces. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie como contribuição à classificação do tipo de fruto e da porção carnosa e comestível que envolve as sementes. Ovários e frutos, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento foram coletados de cinco espécimes de uma população localizada na ilha do Aurélio, rio Baía (MS, BR e processados segundo técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal. O fruto é bacóide, esférico, de coloração amarelo-alaranjado. A casca é lisa e coriácea, constituída pelo exocarpo lignificado. O endocarpo é derivado da atividade de um meristema adaxial, cujas células alongam-se radialmente. A polpa tem coloração branca, comestível, de sabor doce, de origem principalmente endocárpica, mas é constituída também por parte do mesocarpo esponjoso, cujos ductos perdem a funcionalidade. Os óvulos anátropos e unitegumentados originam sementes também anátropas, exalbuminosas, com testa colapsada. O embrião é hipocotilar. Os caracteres aqui descritos de maneira geral são comuns a Clusioideae-Garcinieae e Symphonieae.

  16. The Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil in Pelargonium graveolens Polyloid Seedlings%香叶天竺葵多倍体精油的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 江明; 杨艳琼; 周斌; 夏凯国; 秦太峰

    2014-01-01

    探讨香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens L‘He’rit)染染色体加倍后精油的香气特征,为香叶新品种选育提供理论基础.对香叶天竺葵扦插苗、组培苗和多倍苗的香叶油进行GC-9A分析,并与玫瑰香叶油、法国波尔蓬香叶油的主成分进行对比.这5种油的化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异.组培苗及多倍苗香叶油中香叶醇、甲酸香叶酯、芳樟醇的含量显著提高,而香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、玫瑰醚的含量有所下降.其中,多倍苗香叶油含:香茅醇26.1%,香叶醇14.81%,p-古芸烯4.77%,这3个主香成分接近法国波尔蓬香叶油中的含量.香叶天竺葵染色体加倍后能改善其精油的品质,其精油中香茅醇、香叶醇的含量更接近法国波尔蓬等国外香叶油中的含量.

  17. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

  18. Antidiarrhoea and toxicological evaluation of the leaf extract of Dissotis rotundifolia triana (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoto Pius E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves of Dissotis rotundifolia are used ethnomedically across Africa without scientific basis or safety concerns. Determination of its phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity, effects on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT as well as toxicological profile will provide supportive scientific evidence in favour of its continous usage. Method Chemical and chromatographic tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Inhibitory activity against clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were compared with Gentamycin. Our report includes minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the tested organisms. The effect of the ethanol extract on the motility of the GIT in mice using the charcoal plug method and castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats was evaluated. Toxicological evaluation was determined by administering 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of extracts on male Wistar rats for 14 days with normal saline as control. The tissues of the kidneys, liver, heart and testes were examined. Results Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin and cardiac glycosides. The crude ethanol extract and fractions inhibited the growth of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhi to varying extents. The degree of transition exhibited by the charcoal meal was dose-dependent. In the castor oil induced diarrhoea test, all the doses showed anti-spasmodic effects. The LD50 in mice was above 500 mg/kg body weight. Toxicological evaluation at 500 mg/kg showed increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia and densely stained nuclei of the liver, tubular necrosis of the kidney, presence of ill-defined testes with indistinct cell outlines and no remarkable changes in the heart. Conclusion Ethanol extracts of Dissotis rotundifolia have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of selected microorganisms. The plant showed potential for application in the treatment of diarrhoea, thereby justifying its usage across Africa. It also demonstrated toxicity in certain organs at the dose of 500 mg/kg, and it will be necessary to fully establish its safety profile.

  19. Beslenme ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemli Bazı Sebzeler I: Sarımsak (Allium sativum L.), Enginar (Cynara scolymus L.), Kereviz (Apium graveolens L.) ve Lahana (Brassica oleraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Altıniğne, Nejat; Gönül, Meral

    1988-01-01

    Karbonhidrat, mineral madde ve vitamin gibi önemli bazı besin ögelerini çok miktarda içeren sebzeler, beslenme amacıyla kullanıldıkları gibi, içerdikleri bazı ilaç etken maddeleri nedeniyle halk sağlığında tedavi amacıylada kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede genel özellikleri, besin içerikleri ve halk sağlığında kullanılma amaçları yönünden sarımsak (A. sativum), enginar (C. scolymus), kereviz (A. graveolens) ve lahana (B. oleraceae) sebzeleri ele alınarak incelenmiştir.   ...

  20. Muscodor yucatenensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the dry tropical forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or huk´up by indigenous mayas. ...

  1. Comparison of Current Chemical and Stereochemical Tests for the Identification and Differentiation of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. (Geraniaceae Essential Oils: Analytical Data for (--(1S, 4R, 5S-Guaia-6,9-diene and (--(7R,10S-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain sesquiterpenes, viz., (-- guaia-6,9-diene and (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol. The stereochemical tests include the stereochemical distribution of i citronellol, ii menthone and isomenthone, and iii rose oxides. The most reliable chemical test was the presence or absence of the sesquiterpene probes. The stereochemical tests proved to be less reliable. Most of the tests could be used to classify geranium oils into general types; however, none of the tests provided a foolproof method to distinguish cultivars or country of origin. During this study, the ambiguity in the absolute stereochemistry of (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol and (--guaia-6,9-diene was addressed, and these two sesquiterpenes could serve as effective markers for the authentication of P. graveolens essential oils.

  2. 两种天竺葵不同生长时期的精油含有率及成分研究%Monthly Variation of the Content and Composition of Essential Oils of Pelargonium graveolens and Pelargonium × fragrans in Different Growth Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷; 梁建生

    2007-01-01

    本文对生长在上海地区的香天竺葵(Pelargonium × fragrans)和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)不同月份的精油的含有率及其成分变化进行研究.采样后,用水蒸馏法提取精油,用GC-MS对精油成分进行分析;结果显示,香天竺葵在一月份精油含有率最低,七月份达到了最高点.其精油成分的含量在各个月份不稳定.香叶天竺葵精油成分在6月份和9月份精油含有率最高,精油含有率最低的是在一月份.无论哪个月份的精油,在它们的成分中,香茅醇及它的酯类的含量最高,其次是香叶醇和它的酯.

  3. Determination of the contents of monosaccharide components in non-starch polysaccharides of aerial part of Apium graveolens L. By pre-column derivatization GC%柱前衍生化GC法测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亮; 杨洋; 张琦; 霍鑫; 毕开顺; 贾英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish pre-column derivatization GC method for determination of monosaccharide component of non-starch polysaccharides of the aerial part of Apium graveolens L. Methods The derivatives were determined by GC and DB-17 column(30 m ×0. 25 mm,0. 25 μm)was used. The inlet temperature was maintained for 270 ℃. The column oven was begun at 180 ℃ ,then programmed from 180 ℃ to 225℃ at 3 ℃- min -1, hold for 2 min, then programmed from 225 ℃ to 260 ℃ at 6 ℃· min -1, and finally, hold for 7 min. Manner of sample injection was splitless. Detector temperature was maintained at 270 ℃. Sample amount was I. 0 μL. Results Seven monosaccharides L-( + )-rhamnose,L-( + )-arabinose,D-( + )-fucose, D-( + )-xylose,D-( + )-mannose,D-( + )-glucose and D-( + )-galactose were determined in INSP. Except D-( + )-fucose,other six monosaccharides were the same as from INSP in SNSP. Conclusions The method is accurate and reproducible,which is suitable for the determination of monosaccharide component in soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides in Apium graveolens L.%目的 建立测定旱芹非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分含量的柱前衍生化GC法.方法 非淀粉多糖经衍生化生成糖腈乙酯,采用GC法进行分析.色谱柱:DB-17柱(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25 μm);柱温:程序升温;载气:N2;进样温度:270℃;进样方式:不分流;检测器温度:270℃;进样量:1.0μL.结果 水不溶性非淀粉多糖(insoluble non-starch polysaccharides,INSP)水解后得到7种单糖,分别是:L-(+)-鼠李糖、L-(+)-阿拉伯糖、D-(+)-岩藻糖、D-(+)-木糖、D-(+)-甘露糖、D-(+)-葡萄糖和D-(+)-半乳糖;水溶性非淀粉多糖(soluble non-starch polysaccharides,SNSP)水解后得到6种单糖,除无D-(+)-岩藻糖外,其余均同INSP水解后单糖.结论 本方法准确度高,重现性好,可用于测定旱芹水溶性和水不溶性非淀粉多糖中各单糖组分的含量.

  4. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensisPlanch. & Triana againstAedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Anholeti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone, against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L, however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis.

  5. Micropropagación de Ilex kunthiana Triana & Planchon (Aquifoliaceae, una especie de gran importancia en programas de revegetalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Pedroza–Manrique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúo el cultivo de tejidos vegetales in vitro como una alternativa en la propagación y preservación de Ilex kunthiana, especie endémica de gran interés en programas de revegetalización. Se determinó que el efecto del Benlate® a 0,5% durante 12 horas y el hipoclorito de sodio al 0,5% por 1 min., como agentes desinfectantes de las semillas, permiten obtener el 100% de explantes adaptados a condiciones in vitro. Las semillas son cultivadas en medio MS con Ácido Giberélico (AG3 (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L. Cuando las plántulas germinaron, se aislaron los nudos con yemas axilares y se cultivaron en medio MS enriquecido con la Auxina Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L y la citoquinina 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L. A fin de inducir su enraizamiento, posteriormente los brotes regenerados se cultivaron con las Auxinas Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 mg/L y Ácido Naftalén Acético (ANA (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg/L. Se estableció que 0,5 mg/L de AG3 favoreció la 100% de germinación de las semillas que fueron la fuente de los nudos. El mejor índice de formación de brotes se logró cuando los nudos se cultivaron con 0,5 mg/L del BAP y 0,5 mg/L del AIB que posteriormente fueron exitosamente enraizados con 0,5 mg/L de AIB, estableciendo las condiciones mas adecuadas para la propagación in vitro de Ilex kunthiana. Palabras clave: Ilex kunthiana; micropropagación; plantas en vías de extinción; AIB; BAP; micropropagatio; endangered plant.

  6. Yo quiero ser Marifé de Triana. Experiencia para el desarrollo de la Inteligencia Emocional a través de la Musicoterapia / I want to be Marifé de Triana. An experience for the development of Emotional Intelligence through Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Prieto Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Presentamos el desarrollo de un programa denominado “¡Escúchame!” basado en la experiencia “Mami Sounds” llevada a cabo en Argentina por Federico (2007, teniendo como hilo conductor la Musicoterapia. Nuestro propósito es desarrollar la inteligencia emocional de personas con Síndrome de Down, mediante la estimulación sensorial a través de la música, que genera y despierta toda clase de sentimientos y emociones. Para la evaluación del programa, se han elaborado instrumentos de carácter cualitativo y cuantitativo que nos indican una mejora en las conductas sociales y afectivas de la muestra participante tras la implementación del programa.Abstract: We show the results of a study called “Listen to me”, based on the experience developed in Argentina by Federico (2007, where the leitmotiv is the Music therapy in a sample of people with disabilities, specifically Down syndrome. We implement a programme which mainly works emotional intelligence by using music of different styles. Our aim is to develop the emotional intelligence of people with Down syndrome, by the sensory stimulation through music, which generates and raises all types of feelings and emotions. Results show there is an improvement in social and affective attitudes and behaviors of the people participating in this experience after the implementation of the programme.

  7. Wet season precipitation during the past century reconstructed from tree-rings of a tropical dry forest in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucha-Cofrep, Darwin; Peters, Thorsten; Bräuning, Achim

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the dendroclimatic potential of tree species in a tropical dry forest in southern Ecuador. From 10 selected tree species, Bursera graveolens and Maclura tinctoria exhibited distinct annual and cross-datable tree-rings. It was possible to synchronize individual tree-ring series and to establish two tree-ring chronologies of 203 and 87 years length, respectively. The characteristic ENSO frequency band is reflected in wavelet power spectra of both chronologies. Both species show a strong correlation between ring width and precipitation of the wet season (January-May). Strong El Niño events (1972, 1983 and 1998) lead to strong growth responses in the tree-ring chronologies, whereas 'normal' ENSO events do not trigger long-lasting growth responses. The first ring-width based wet-season precipitation reconstruction for the past 103 years was developed. Statistical and spatial correlation analysis verified the skills of the reconstructed precipitation which captures a great part of the Rainfall Index over the land area of Ecuador and the equatorial Pacific. Furthermore, teleconnections with central Pacific precipitation and SST patterns were found.

  8. Chemistry, technology, and nutraceutical functions of celery (Apium graveolens L.): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbhagya, H B

    2014-01-01

    Celery is a commercially important seed spice belonging to the family Umbelliferrae. Celery is used in various forms such as fresh herb, stalk, seeds, oil, and oleoresin for flavoring of foods and for medicinal purposes. Celery seed contains 2% volatile oil that finds application for flavoring of foods and also in perfumery industry. Limonene and selinene form about 60% and 20% of the oil, respectively. However, the important flavor constituents of the oil responsible for the typical aroma are 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide (sedanenolide), 3-n-butyl phthalide, sedanolide, and sedanonic anhydride present in very low levels (1-3%). Celery contains 15% fatty oil with the fatty acids: petroselenic (64.3%), oleic (8.1%), linoleic (18%), linolenic (0.6%), and palmitic acids. Phthalides especially sedanenaloide possess many health benefits. Celery extracts are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties, viz., antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anti-platelet aggregation. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of celery and the components responsible are discussed. PMID:24188309

  9. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L.) on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Wesam Kooti; Najmeh Kafash-Farkhad; Ali Ghorbani-Ranjbari; Naim Sharafi-Ahvazi

    2016-01-01

    Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, v...

  10. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density. PMID:26025573

  11. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  12. EVALUASI, UJI STABILITAS FISIK DAN SINERESIS SEDIAAN GEL YANG MENGANDUNG MINOKSIDIL, APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMinoxidil, apigenin and celery are believed to have the same bioactivity as a vasodilator that can widen blood vessels. This study discusses about the gel formulation in the scope of evaluation of gel preparation, using carbomer as a gelling agent each containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice. The method used in gel evaluation were organoleptic observation, homogeneity, pH, consistency and viscosity; physical stability at 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C and syneresis. Based on the result, all gel formulations showed their consistency and viscosity were higher after 8 weeks of storage at room temperature. The rheogram of three gel formulations in term of flow properties remain unchanged after 8 weeks of storage. It was indicated that the flow properties of gel formulation was pseudoplastis tixotropic. The gel containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice showed good physical stability at 28±2 °C and 40±2 °C, but less stable at 4±2 °C after 14 weeks of storage. The highest number of syneresis was found in a gel containing celery juice.Keywords : Celery, Apigenin, Gel, StabilityAbstrakMinoksidil, apigenin dan seledri memiliki aktivitas biologi yang sama sebagai vasodilator yang dapat memperlebar pembuluh darah. Penelitian ini sebagai evaluasi sediaan gel, menggunakan karbomer sebagai gelling agentyang mengandung masing-masing minoksidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri. Metode yang digunakan dalam evaluasi gel adalah pengamatan organoleptis, homogenitas, pH, konsistensi dan viskositas; stabilitas fisik pada suhu 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C dan sineresis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ketiga formula gel menunjukkan konsistensi dan viskositas yang lebih tinggi setelah 8  minggu  penyimpanan  pada  temperatur  ruang.  Hasil  rheogram  dari  ketiga  formula gel  menunjukkan  sifat  alir  yang  tetap  tidak  berubah  setelah  8  minggu  penyimpanan, yaitu pseudoplastis tiksotropik. Gel yang mengandung minoxidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan stabil fisik pada penyimpanan suhu 28±2 °C dan 40±2 °C, tetapi kurang stabil pada suhu 4±2 °C setelah 14 minggu penyimpanan. Angka sineresis tertinggi terdapat pada gel yang mengandung perasan herba seledri.Kata kunci : Seledri, Apigenin, Gel, Stabilitas

  13. De novo assembly, gene annotation and marker development using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences in celery (Apium graveolens L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery is an increasing popular vegetable species, but limited transcriptome and genomic data hinder the research to it. In addition, a lack of celery molecular markers limits the process of molecular genetic breeding. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is an efficient method to generate a large transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery, molecular marker development and marker-assisted selection breeding. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Celery transcriptomes from four tissues were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 42,280 unigenes (average length of 502.6 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. 78.43% and 48.93% of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant protein database (Nr and Swiss-Prot database respectively, and 10,473 (24.77% unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. 21,126 (49.97% unigenes harboring Interpro domains were annotated, in which 15,409 (36.45% were assigned to Gene Ontology(GO categories. Additionally, 7,478 unigenes were mapped onto 228 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG. Large numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs were indentified, and then the rate of successful amplication and polymorphism were investigated among 31 celery accessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information by Illumina paired-end sequencing and efficient assembling. Our results provide a valuable resource for celery research. The developed molecular markers are the foundation of further genetic linkage analysis and gene localization, and they will be essential to accelerate the process of breeding.

  14. 芸香根系生物学研究%Biological reserch on ruta graveolens root system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 秦荣; 齐红

    2003-01-01

    在时芸香根的外观形态、内部解剖、根系变化一般观察研究的基础上,重点研究了根中淀粉含量的变化,揭示芸香的根为须根状直根系,根的次生木质部有明显的年轮;芸香根一年中淀粉积累高峰有二个,一个在花前期(6月下旬),一个在入冬前(10月下旬).并对芸香的营养积累与抗寒性关系问题进行了讨论.

  15. Effects of calcium peroxide on arsenic uptake by celery (Apium graveolens L.) grown in arsenic contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-ping; Luo, Chun-ling; Xu, Xiang-hua; Wu, Chuang-an; Li, Fang-bai; Zhang, Gan

    2012-03-01

    The ability of calcium peroxide (CaO(2)) to immobilize As of contaminated soil was studied using pot and field experiments. In pot experiment, CaO(2) applied at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) significantly increased celery shoot weight and decreased shoot As accumulation, which was ascribed to the formation of stable crystalline Fe and Al oxides bound As and the reduction of labile As fractions in the soil. The labile As fractions were pH dependent and it followed a "V" shaped profile with the change of pH. In field experiment, the dose of CaO(2) application at 750 kg ha(-1) was optimal and at which the celery was found to produce the highest biomass (63.4 Mg ha(-1)) and lowest As concentration (0.43 mg kg(-1)). CaO(2) probably has a promising potential as soil amendment to treat As contaminated soils.

  16. Environ: E00434 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit Anethi fructus Crude drug Carvone [CPD:C01767 C1138...3], Limonene [CPD:C06078] Anethum graveolens [TAX:40922] Apiaceae (carrot family) Anethum graveolens fruit (...dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit ...

  17. The role of the white-eyed vireo in the dispersal of bersera fruit on the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; Foster, M.S.; Marquez-Valdelamar, L.

    1995-01-01

    White-eyed vireos (Vireo griseus) winter in the forests and secondary growth of the Yucatan Peninsula where Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is an abundant tree Twenty-five per cent of all white-eyed vireos observed foraging visited Bursera trees In addition, presence and abundance of territorial white-eyed vireos in small forest patches were correlated with the size of the Bursera crop Vireos were the most reliable dispersers of Bursera seeds These birds visited 32 of 35 trees observed for at least three hours. They accounted for approximately half of all bird visits, and two-thirds of the seeds dispersed. Most of the other species rarely visited (visual cues, although these are few In addition, only a small portion of the crop ripens daily over a 7- or 8-month period. The vireo-Bursera simaruba relationship, found regionally on the Yucatan Peninsula, may result from the prolonged fruit ripening period (October-March), the relatively depauperate frugivore community and the relatively high density of small Bursera trees in the hurricane-disturbed dry forests. Small trees at all times, and all trees from October to February, depend upon territorial vireos for continuous, highly efficient local dispersal of a small number of fruits In March and April residual fruits ripen rapidly and synchronously, attracting a greater variety of visitors for broad spectrum dispersal during a period of food scarcity. Thus, Bursera has an unusual two-phase phenological pattern, perhaps alternately to take advantage of both specialized and opportunistic dispersers.

  18. Parameters of Cs 137 and Sr 90 transition from soil into salad crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition coefficients of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from soil into plants for potherb of bulb onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), celery (Apium graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been defined. (authors)

  19. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L. y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisell Martelo C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura, considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1 y atmosférica (X y g, y la porosidad disponible (Ee al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por efecto de la posición. En las etapas de proceso se obtuvieron para el apio y el pepino valores de X1 (-14.32 ± 2.75 y -5.51±1.76%, g1 (-0.587±0.69 y -0.079±0.99%, X(13.49±2.32 y 6.72±2.72%, g (-1.40±1.042% y -2.33±1.26% y Ee (15.73±2.31 y 9.35±2.57%, respectivamente. Estos resultados indicaron una salida de líquido nativo (X1<0 y una ligera contracción volumétrica de las estructuras (g y g1<0, lo cual se evidenció microestructuralmente. Conclusiones. La respuesta a la IV en apio y pepino, permite identificar estas matrices alimentarias, como aptas para la incorporación de componentes que le proporcionen un valor agregado a estos productos.

  20. 低温对芸香抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Ruta Graveolens Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺; 曾丽; 徐娜

    2010-01-01

    通过在低温胁迫下对芸香的研究,结果表明:在5℃低温胁迫下,芸香叶片的脂膜相对透性与MDA呈上升趋势;O2-呈波动性变化,H2O2呈线性增加;SOD先升高后下降,而POD呈波动性变化.证明,芸香通过体内一系列生理特性的变化来抵抗低温.

  1. Biological Study on overground organs of Ruta Graveolens%芸香地上器官的生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞

    2004-01-01

    对芸香的茎、叶及花等器官的形态结构进行了较为系统的观察研究,对花芽形成及开花过程进行了客观描述.芸香花有顶生和侧生两种,柱头为"湿柱头",叶片具有典型旱生型植物特点,茎叶中均含有簇晶和油腔,这些特征可作为分类学上鉴别该物种的性状.茎的淀粉积累过程:花前期淀粉积累很少(6月下旬),10月下旬达高峰,之后略有减少并保持稳定直至被冻死.对此结合当地温度及水分条件进行了抗寒、抗旱的讨论.

  2. Effects of aqueous fraction of Anethum graveolens L. (dill extracts on fertility and terminal sugar of female rat\\\\\\'s reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihezaman Monsefi

    2013-02-01

    Results: Duration of diestrus phase under high dose of aqueous extract increased 2 times compared to the control group. Uterus thickness, longitudinal and transverse diameters of ovaries, granulosa cells of corpus luteum diameters of the experimental groups decreased 1.5 to 2 times compared to the control group's. Female rats of the experimental groups did not get pregnant. Intensity of reactions of α-mannose, N-acetyl glucosamine, and N-acetyl galactoseamine of endometrium and ovarian cell surfaces changed after being stained by ConA, DBA and SBA. Conclusion: Oral administration of ethanol fraction and aqueous dill seeds extracts can induce infertility in female rats.

  3. Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid: A randomized, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has negative effects on women′s life. Due to side-effects of chemical drugs, there is growing trend toward herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Dill compared to mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial study was conducted on 75 single female students between 18 and 28 years old educating in Nursing and Midwifery School and Paramedical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences of Iran in 2011. They were allocated randomly into one of the three groups: In Dill group, they took 1000 mg of Dill powder q12h for 5 days from 2 days before the beginning of menstruation for two cycles. Other groups received 250 mg mefenamic acid or 500 mg starch capsule as placebo, respectively. Dysmenorrhea severity was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analog scale (VAS. Students with mild dysmenorrhea were excluded. Data were analyzed by SPSS using the descriptive statistic, paired-samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There were no significant differences between three groups for demographic or descriptive variables. Comprising the VAS showed that the participants of Dill and mefenamic acid groups had lower significant pain in the 1 st and the 2 nd months after treatment, whereas in the placebo group this was only significant in the 2 nd month (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dill was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding side-effects of Dill and its interactivity are recommended.

  4. 不同种苗香叶油的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Different Seedlings of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 任洪涛; 周斌

    2010-01-01

    为探讨不同种苗香叶油的香气特征,对7~9月扦插苗和组培苗的香叶油进行GC-9A气相色谱分析,结果发现,两者化学成分相同,但各成分的百分含量有差异,其中:扦插苗香叶油含香茅醇31.81%~34.79%,香叶醇6.84%~7.43%,β-古芸烯5.91%~6.59%;组培苗香叶油含香茅醇30.02%~31.64%,香叶醇10.21%~10.29%,β-古芸烯5.24%~5.33%.

  5. Study on tissue culture and rapid regeneration of Pelargonium graveolens%香叶天竺葵组培快繁体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申玉华; 刘冰; 田艳春; 李学风

    2010-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵无菌苗叶片为外植体,MS为基本培养基进行组培快繁研究,结果表明:愈伤组织诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+2,4-D 0.1 mg/L;不定芽诱导最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;不定芽增殖最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L,生根率达100%,且根系长势良好.

  6. 云南热区柑桔套种香叶天竺葵技术%Intercropping of citrus and Pelargonium graveolens in Yunnan hot area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文翠; 唐文冲; 李云平; 万福术; 陈艺齐; 袁理春

    2010-01-01

    为了提高云南热区柑桔种植区土地利用率,实施柑桔套种香叶天竺葵的栽种模式,有效地解决了果树幼龄期土地产出率低的问题,每年每公顷可增加经济收入12万元左右,为果树套种香料作物提供了可行的栽培模式,该模式具有很好的推广前景.

  7. 香叶天竺葵的组织培养和快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芳; 娄利华

    2003-01-01

    培养条件 种子萌发培养基:(1)MS。分化培养基:(2)MS+6-BA0.5mg·L-1(单位下同);(3)MS+6-BA0.5+NAA0.1;(4)MS+6-BA1.0;(5)MS+6-BA1.0+NAA0.1。壮苗培养基:(6)MS+6.BA0.5+GA1.0。生根培养基:(7)1/2MS+IBA1.0;(8)1/2MS+IBA0.5+NAA0.1:(9)1/2MS+IBA0.25。

  8. 香叶天竺葵的离体培养研究%Studies on Technology of Isolated Culture of Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚莲; 李绅崇; 吴丽芳; 杨春梅; 贾玉梅; 黎霞

    2007-01-01

    以香叶天竺葵的嫩茎为外植体进行组织培养研究,结果表明:培养基MS+BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L既适合于愈伤组织的诱导,也适合于不定芽的分化增殖;培养基1/2MS+BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.7 mg/L为生根诱导的最佳配方.组培苗的过渡成活率可达到90%以上.

  9. Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Boon, Jo; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Triana, María-Jesús; Retalis, Simeos

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Boon, J., Martínez-Monés, A., Rodríguez-Triana, M. J., & Retalis, S. (2013, 17-21 September). Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools. Presentation at the Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) workshop (http://www.kbs.uni-hann

  10. Live Outdoor Webcams and the Construction of Virtual Geography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2008-01-01

    perception of the Internet as a globally distended and thus "geographical" medium. Moreover, due to its role in the NASA Triana mission, the never-realised flagship of the Clinton-Gore administration's Digital Earth project, the live webcam seemed to play an important part in the construction of what leading...... within technological innovation and the public sector. Udgivelsesdato: 1. december 2009...

  11. Raadiosse jõudsid eesti laulud Lätist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Raadiosse jõudsid Eurovisiooni eelvõistlusel Lätis teise koha võitnud Läti ansambli Triana Park eestikeelsed laulud "Kesköine tramm" (muusika Aivars Rakovskis) ja "Reeda mind" (muusika Agnese Rakovska), mille tekstid on kirjutanud Lääne-Virumal Lehtses suvitav raadioajakirjanik Ivan Makarov

  12. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  13. Study on the Bacteriostasis in Vitro of Compound Ruta graveolens L. Tablets%复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2001-01-01

    目的:实验研究复方芸香片的体外抑菌作用.方法:采用抑菌实验,观察复方芸香片及其组成的水提物、醇提物对所选用的8种细菌的最低抑菌浓度和相对抑菌浓度作用程度.结果:醇提的复方芸香片对化脓性链球菌、藤黄八叠球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、B群链球菌、肺炎链球菌、绿脓杆菌、大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌,均有同等的较弱的抑菌作用.复方芸香药材醇提物对上述细菌的抑菌作用大为增强,其中最强的是前两种,其次是金黄色葡萄球菌和B群链球菌.芸香醇提物对前4种菌的抑菌作用也较强.H对上述细菌也有一定抑制作用.结论:复方芸香片对一般细菌有抑菌作用.

  14. 香叶天竺葵精油及单体抗氧化能力比较%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Its Monomer from Pelargonium graveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 徐志敏; 王淳凯; 瞿伟菁; 林承杰

    2005-01-01

    根据试样对二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH·)的清除作用,评价了香叶天竺葵茎和叶精油及其单体,以及蒸馏后的残渣和废水的抗自由基活性.所试样品中几乎都有一定的抗氧化作用,以中午采集的叶片提取物的DPPH·清除率最高,达99.70%.废水和残渣的清除率分别达97.56%和90.24%.提示天然香料工业所弃的废水和残渣可提取到具有较强的抗自由基活性的物质,为种植香叶天竺葵综合利用提供了可能.

  15. 香叶天竺葵离体芽的培养及生产应用研究%Study on in vitro Shoot Culture of Pelargonium graveolens and Its Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易清元; 夏凯国; 江明; 任洪涛

    2010-01-01

    香叶天竺葵生产上采用扦插繁殖,存在病害加重,品种退化的现象.本实验用离体芽进行诱导培养,探索产业化快繁优质种苗的方法,从而达到改良品种的目的.试验表明:MS+BA 0.5~2.0 mg/L+NAA 0~0.2 mg/L的配比可直接诱导产生较多的不定芽;MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L可作为微型扦插的继代培养基;MS+IBA 0.5 mg/L为最佳生根培养基,试管苗移栽成活率可达95 %.

  16. Study on tissue culture and high frequency propagation of Pelargonium graveolens L.Her%香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷开荣

    2005-01-01

    对香叶天竺葵组织培养快速繁殖技术进行了研究,建立了种苗快速繁殖技术规程.结果:适宜的增殖培养基为MS+6-BA为0.5~1.0 mg/ L,继代周期为25~30 d,繁殖系数5以上;生根培养基为1/ 2MS+IBA 0.2 mg/ L,生根诱导率达100 %;生根培养20 d后,将试管苗移栽到菜园土:河沙=1:1的混合基质中,保湿培养,移栽成活率达98.6 %.

  17. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  18. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L. Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)%旱芹籽粗提取物对埃及伊蚊的效果评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wej Choochote; 郑剑宁; 裘炯良; 杨定波

    2005-01-01

    埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti)是众所周知的虫媒病毒性疾病——登革热的传播媒介,分布于东南亚、太平洋岛屿、非洲和美洲。它也是中美、南美和西非传播黄热病的媒介。登革热因报告的病例数逐年上升,尤其是因该病有多种类型——登革出血热、登革休克综合症和其他诸如侵犯中枢神经系统等少见类型,已成为当今社会严重的公共卫生问题。据2003年世界卫生组织的报告,全球受到登革热威胁的人口约占全球人口总数的40%。目前,减少该病发生的最有效措施是加强个人防护和控制埃及伊蚊。

  19. Humus forms in two secondary semi-evergreen tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Loranger, Gladys; PONGE, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    International audience The dynamics and function of humus forms in tropical forests are still poorly understood. Humus profiles in two secondary semi-evergreen woodlands in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) were analysed micromorphologically. The humus forms are described under the canopy of five dominant tree species at two sites: under Pisonia subcordata and Bursera simaruba in a secondary forest on a Leptosol (Rendzina), and under Swietenia macrophylla, Tabebuia heterophylla and B. simaru...

  20. Diversity and Genetic Structure of the Mexican Endemic Epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ-ASTORGA, JORGE; CRUZ-ANGÓN, ANDREA; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Andrew P. Vovides

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The monoecious, bird-pollinated epiphytic Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys is an endemic bromeliad of the tropical dry forests of Mexico with clonal growth. In the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve this species shows a host preference for Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc ex. DC) Bullock. As a result of deforestation in the study area, B. copallifera has become a rare tree species in the remaining forest patches. This human-induced disturbance...

  1. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  2. Review of the world species of Exoryza (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with description of five new species

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L.; Whitfield, James B.; Smith, M. Alex; Dapkey, Tanya; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    The world species of the genus Exoryza (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) are revised. Ten species are recognized, including five new, authored by Fernandez-Triana: mariabustosae, richardashleyi, ritaashleyae, rosamatarritae and yeimycedenoae. The species Dolichogenidea oryzae Walker, 1994 is considered as related to Exoryza – although is not formally transferred to that genus. A dichotomous key to all species, descriptions and illustrations are provided. The only region where the genu...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1698 - Rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1698 Rue. (a) Rue is the perennial herb of several species of Ruta (Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L.). The leaves, buds, and...

  4. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  5. STUDY OF DRUG LIKENESS ACTIVITY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sathya; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemicals in medicinal plants can deliver potential therapeutic drugs such as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant etc. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and each phytochemical cannot be tested in the wetlab preparations. Hence the main aim of the study is the drug likeness activity of phytochemicals in medicinal plants such as Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens against hepatocellular carcinoma. These plants have anticancer, antilivercancer, hepatoprotective, antiv...

  6. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. PMID:25194330

  7. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil.

  8. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, A. Polvorinos; Castaing, J.; Aucouturier, M.

    2006-08-01

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  9. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa, two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia, one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii, one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii. Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  10. Keylimepie peckorum gen. n. and sp. n., (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from southern Florida, U.S., the first known brachypterous member of the subfamily Microgastrinae

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Boudreault, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Keylimepie peckorum Fernandez-Triana, gen. n. and sp. n., are described from southern Florida, U.S. Females have the shortest wings (0.6–0.7 × body length) of any known microgastrine wasp. The genus can also be recognized on features of the head, propodeum and first three metasomal tergites. All specimens were collected in hammock forests of the Florida Keys and Everglades National Park, but their host caterpillar is unknown. Because its morphology is unique and it is the first new microgastr...

  11. Keylimepie peckorum gen. n. and sp. n., ( Hymenoptera , Braconidae ) from southern Florida, U.S., the first known brachypterous member of the subfamily Microgastrinae

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Boudreault, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Keylimepie peckorum Fernandez-Triana, gen. n. and sp. n., are described from southern Florida, U.S. Females have the shortest wings (0.6–0.7 × body length) of any known microgastrine wasp. The genus can also be recognized on features of the head, propodeum and first three metasomal tergites. All specimens were collected in hammock forests of the Florida Keys and Everglades National Park, but their host caterpillar is unknown. Because its morphology is unique and it is the first new m...

  12. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A. [Departamento de Cristallografia, Mineralogia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, avenida Reina Mercedes s/n (Spain); Castaing, J. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jacques.castaing@culture.fr; Aucouturier, M. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  13. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics

  14. Contributions to the study of the Holarctic fauna of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae. I. Introduction and first results of transatlantic comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from both sides of the Holarctic region (Nearctic and Palaearctic were sampled for DNA barcoding and examined morphologically. Two species are recorded for the first time for the Nearctic: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, and Microgaster raschkiellae Shaw. Another European species, Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, previously introduced as a biological control agent, is confirmed to be present in North America. For another 13 species significant range extension is documented, including new records for France, Canada, United States, and Sweden. New host data are also provided for several species. The species name Apanteles masmithi Fernández-Triana is considered a syn. n. of Dolichogenidea britannica (Wilkinson.

  15. AcEST: DK954867 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pulus ... 162 1e-39 sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 162 1e-39 sp|P37115|...140 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 5...TGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta graveolen... 161 3e-38 tr|Q6IV46|Q6IV46_CAMAC Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase OS

  16. AcEST: DK955574 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available INST Chalcone synthase OS=Pinus strobus GN=CHS P... 166 1e-40 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta...p|Q9FSB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 161 2e-39 sp|O22652|CHSY_RAPSA Chalcone s...EWG-QPKSK 128 >sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CHS3 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 393 Sc

  17. Distributing Workflows over a Ubiquitous P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Al-Shakarchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses issues in the distribution of bundled workflows across ubiquitous peer-to-peer networks for the application of music information retrieval. The underlying motivation for this work is provided by the DART project, which aims to develop a novel music recommendation system by gathering statistical data using collaborative filtering techniques and the analysis of the audio itsel, in order to create a reliable and comprehensive database of the music that people own and which they listen to. To achieve this, the DART scientists creating the algorithms need the ability to distribute the Triana workflows they create, representing the analysis to be performed, across the network on a regular basis (perhaps even daily in order to update the network as a whole with new workflows to be executed for the analysis. DART uses a similar approach to BOINC but differs in that the workers receive input data in the form of a bundled Triana workflow, which is executed in order to process any MP3 files that they own on their machine. Once analysed, the results are returned to DART's distributed database that collects and aggregates the resulting information. DART employs the use of package repositories to decentralise the distribution of such workflow bundles and this approach is validated in this paper through simulations that show that suitable scalability is maintained through the system as the number of participants increases. The results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  18. Alternativní způsoby ochrany zeleniny proti houbovým patogenům

    OpenAIRE

    Zusková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on assessment of the effectiveness of 12 selected essential oils originaly from the following plants Thymus vulgaris, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus sinensis, Eucalypthus citriodora, Litsea cubeba, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Artemisia dracunculus, against selected pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani and Alternaria brassicae. The first chapter of literature re...

  19. First Report of Apium Virus Y on Cilantro, Celery, and Parsley in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently Apium virus Y (ApVY) was detected in field grown cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in California. Previously, in 2003, cilantro plants from 3 different fields in California showed symptoms of mosaic, vein clearing and stunting. Whe...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1699 - Oil of rue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... distillation of the fresh blossoming plants of rue, the perennial herb of several species of Ruta—Ruta montana L., Ruta graveolens L., Ruta bracteosa L., and Ruta calepensis L. (b) Oil of rue meets...

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation And Some Plant Oils on Mating Competitiveness of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma radiation and plant oils on mating competitiveness of Phthorimaea operculella. When full grown pupae were irradiated with two sub-sterilizing doses and sterilizing dose (650 Gy) separately or combined with LC50 of 2% conc. Menth pepirita or Pelargonium graveolens. The fecundity and fertility were decreased by increasing the radiation dose. When males of Ph. operculella (Zeller) were sub-sterilized with gamma irradiation (150 or 200 Gy) or sterilized by 650 Gy and caged with non-irradiated pairs of adults at ratios of 1:1:1 and 5:1:1 (I male : U male : U female), the calculated degree of competitiveness showed that males irradiated with the lowest dose (150 Gy and 150 Gy + 2% conc. of M. pepirita or P. graveolens) were more competitive than males irradiated with the highest dose (650Gy). However, increasing the ratio of irradiated males with 650 Gy + 2% conc. M. pepirita to 10 increased the competitiveness value (CV), and the irradiated males were full competitive. The CV was more high among the irradiated males with 200 Gy while males were full competitive when irradiated and treated with 200 Gy + 2% conc. P. graveolens. The irradiated males with 150 Gy separately or combined with plant oil could be used in an effective sterile male release program at the ratio 1:1 (I male:N male) after suppression the field population with LC50 2% of plant oils M. pepirita or P. graveolens

  2. The antibacterial activity of some essential oils against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is categorized as a red alert pathogen that is increasingly associated with a high mortality rate in infected patients due to its resistance to extensive antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of some essential oils (Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Eugenia caryophyllata, Ziziphora tenuir and Trachyspermum copticum oils against 32 clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The antibacterial evaluations and chemical composition of essential oils was determined. Thymol, eugenol, -terpineol, -citronellol and thymol were the chief portions of T. copticum, E. caryophyllata, Z. tenuir, O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils, respectively. The MIC values of oils against these clinical isolates revealed the three subsets of oils including 1- T. copticum, E. caryophyllata and O. decumbens, 2- Z. tenuir and 3- P. graveolens oils. These oils showed the synergistic activity with amikacin, the lower Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI was for P. graveolens oil (0.23 and the higher FICI was for E. caryophyllata (0.325.

  3. Study of antinociceptive effects of Pelargonium geraveolens L. leaves hydroethanolic extract in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Heydari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Running title: Anti nociceptive, Pelargonium graveolens Abstract: Introduction: Pain is a somatosensory sense that as an indicator to diagnoses for diseases . Pelargonium graveolens is known as a medicinal plant with use in traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens leaves extract (PGE in male mice Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male mice were divided in 6 groups (n=7. The control group(taking normal saline,0.25 ml, i.p, morphine group( 1mg/kg, i.p, treated groups with PGE at doses of 100, 200 and 600mg/kg and group induced with naloxone (0.1mg/kg, i.p + 200mg/kg of PGE. In order to evaluate the analgesic effects of PGE the tail flick and writhing tests were used. The data for each test were compared with One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post test. Results: Our results showed that PGE (200 and 600 mg/kg increased pain thershold compared with control group in writhing and tail flick test significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion: The PGE has anitinociceptive effects in male mice. This analgesic effect of Pelargonium graveolens extract probably related to its flavonoids composition which has effect on opioid system.

  4. Sensitization Prevalence, Antibody Cross-Reactivity and Immunogenic Peptide Profile of Api g 2, the Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 of Celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Gadermaier; M. Hauser; M. Egger; R. Ferrara; P. Briza; K.S. Santos; D. Zennaro; T. Girbl; L. Zuidmeer-Jongejan; A. Mari; F. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Background: Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. Methodology: 786 no

  5. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinn...

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Maria Lara; Adriano Bonfim Carregaro; Deise Flores Santurio; Mariangela Facco de Sá; Janio Moraes Santurio; Sydney Hartz Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each ...

  7. Taxonomical notes on macrofungi in roadside verges planted with trees in Drenthe (The Netherlands) — II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Peter-Jan; Arnolds, Eef

    1995-01-01

    In the second part of this study special attention is paid to the genera Hebeloma, Psathyrel la and Russula. Psathyrella rhombispora is described as a new species. Russula cicatricata Romagn., R. elaeodes (Bres.) Romagn. and R. purpurata Crawsh. are reduced to formae of R. graveolens Romell. in Brit

  8. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype analysis in Carrot and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome localization of the rDNA gene clusters was determined for the first time in several Apiaceae using double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Twenty-one Apioideae species including taxa of economic importance (e.g. Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Cumin cyminum, Daucus c...

  9. Suitability of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2008-10-01

    In the last few years "D. I. A. F." (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University), has been testing the effectiveness of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bioengineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank protection in Nicaragua. Furthermore, we have also been aiming at economic efficiency. These techniques are appropriate for sustainable watershed management especially in underdeveloped countries. Concerning the plants to be used we experimented four native species. Gliricidia Sepium, Cordia dentata and Jatropha curcas are suitable for soil bioengineering more than Bursera Simaruba. Economically speaking, the sustainability of such interventions in underdeveloped countries, has been shown by the evaluation of the cost of riverbank protection using vegetated crib-walls in Nicaragua compared to the cost in different contexts.

  10. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  11. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  12. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  13. Estructura y composición de la vegetación leñosa de selvas en diferentes estadios sucesionales en el Ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B García-Licona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la diversidad florística de la selva mediana subperennifolia del ejido El Carmen II, Calakmul, Campeche, en diferentes estadios sucesionales en un área de 2700 m2. En nueve parcelas de 300 m2 se representó vegetación secundaria (acahual con siete años de abandono, 15 años de abandono y selvas maduras, en las cuales se identifi caron y midieron todos los individuos leñosos con un DAP = 1 cm. Se encontraron 996 individuos de 78 especies distribuidas en 29 familias, las familias con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Fabaceae, Rubiaceae y Sapindaceae. Las especies con mayor abundancia en el área de estudio fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Pouteria reticulata, Croton icche y Bursera simaruba, esta última especie fue la única que se presentó en todas las parcelas de estudio. Las especies con mayor valor de importancia relativo (VIR en los acahuales con siete años de abandono fueron Lysiloma latisiliquum, Bursera simaruba y Guettarda combsii; en los acahuales con 15 años de abandono las especies con mayor VIR fueron Nectandra salicifolia, Piscidia piscipula y Dendropanax arboreus; mientras en las parcelas de selva madura fueron Brosimum alicastrum, Manilkara zapota y Pouteria reticulata. Además se presentaron 15 especies sólo en parcelas de acahuales con siete años de abandono, cinco especies únicas en las parcelas de acahuales de 15 años y 18 especies únicas en las parcelas de selvas maduras. Concluimos que analizar la estructura y composición florística en vegetación en distintas fases sucesionales permite documentar mejor la diversidad florística de áreas que han sido altamente impactadas por distintos disturbios

  14. Launch and Commissioning of the Deep Space Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Nicholas P.; Davis, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), formerly known as Triana, successfully launched on February 11th, 2015. To date, each of the five space-craft attitude control system (ACS) modes have been operating as expected and meeting all guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) requirements, although since launch, several anomalies were encountered. While unplanned, these anomalies have proven to be invaluable in developing a deeper understanding of the ACS, and drove the design of three alterations to the ACS task of the flight software (FSW). An overview of the GN&C subsystem hardware, including re-furbishment, and ACS architecture are introduced, followed by a chronological discussion of key events, flight performance, as well as anomalies encountered by the GN&C team.

  15. Fast Identification of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine Using Direct Analysis in Real Time-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been found in preworkout products and dietary supplements. A fast direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time of flight-MS method was used for identification of DMAA in dietary supplements and to determine if this compound is present in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plants or oil. This method involved the use of [M+H]+ ions in the positive mode based on the exact mass of DMAA. The results of this investigation showed that DMAA was not detected from authentic samples of P. graveolens plant material or pelargonium oil or in multiple samples of commercially available pelargonium oil. DMAA was detected in three samples of dietary supplements. The LOD of DMAA was found to be 10 ng/mL. PMID:26086254

  16. Responses of a tropical tree species to ozone: visible leaf injury, growth, and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-04-01

    The Brazilian native tree species Astronium graveolens was indicated as sensitive to ozone in a fumigation experiment. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate how sensitive A. graveolens is to ozone under realistic conditions in the field. Eighteen saplings were exposed to ozone in a contaminated area and in a greenhouse with filtered air during two exposure periods of approximately 63 days each (March-May 2012 and September-October 2012). Leaf injury was analyzed by means of its incidence and severity, the leaf injury index (LII) and the progression of leaf abscission. These variables were monitored weekly, whereas growth and lipid peroxidation were monitored monthly. Plants exposed to ozone showed significant growth decrease and visible leaf injury increase, but lipid peroxidation and leaf abscission remained unchanged. These results indicated that plants subjected to ozone possibly diverted energy from growth to the production of antioxidants necessary to cope with ozone-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26780049

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from Pelargonium graveolens Ait. (family Geraniaceae, against one standard S. aureus strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical S. aureus strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from P. graveolens has strong activity against all of the clinical S. aureus isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VOLATILE OIL ISOLATED FROM SOME TRADITIONAL INDIAN SPICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuyan Anupam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the antimicrobial activity of Volatile Oils isolated from Traditional Indian Spices, Anethum Graveolens (Umbelliferae, Foeniculum Vulgare (Umbelliferae and Coriandrum Sativum (Umbelliferae were studied. The isolated Volatile Oils in varying concentrations were studied against Staphylococcus Coagulase, E.Coli, Streptococcus fecaelis and Staphylococcus aureus, by paper disc diffusion method, using Amoxicillin as standard drug.The results indicated that all the Volatile Oil samples from Anethum Graveolens (Dill, Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel and Coriandrum Sativum (Coriender has antimicrobial potential and were active against almost all the microorganisms but in a dose dependent manner. Foeniculum Vulgare by far was the most potent volatile oil showing the highest activity against Staphylococcus Coagulase.

  19. Antimicrobial and antiviral effects of essential oils from selected Umbelliferae and Labiatae plants and individual essential oil components

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, İlkay ERDOĞAN; ÖZÇELİK, Berrin; Kartal, Murat; Kan, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare collected at fully-mature and flowering stages, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum (green- and purple-leaf varieties), Origanum onites, O. vulgare, O. munitiflorum, O. majorana, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, and Satureja cuneifolia, as well as the widely encountered components in essential oils (g-terpinene, 4-allylanisole, (-)-carvone, dihydrocarvone, D-limonene, (-)-ph...

  20. Sviluppo di fertilizzanti azotati con inibitore della nitrificazione di origine vegetale

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cillo, Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Le proprietà di inibizione della nitrificazione di sostanze naturali offrono potenziali benefici per l’agricoltura e l’ambiente. Al fine di valutare le performance di oli estratti da Mentha spicata e Artemisia annua e di Acque di Vegetazione delle Olive come inibitori della nitrificazione per regolare la trasformazione dell’azoto dal Solfato Ammonico. Questi effetti sull’efficienza dell’uso dell’azoto sono stati testati su sedano (Apium graveolens). I risultati di questa ricerca suggeriscono ...

  1. Morphology, anatomy and influence of drying on germination of seeds of Calendula officinalis Morfoanatomía y efecto del secado en la germinación de semillas de caléndula y eneldo

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria T. Jorge A.; Sánchez O Manuel Salvador; Bonilla C Carmen Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory tests with seed of Calendula officinalis and Anethum graveolens to describe morphology and anatomy components such as humidity content in balance (CHB) in different atmospheres to get appropriate conservation of the germsplasm to determine physiological behavior in short seed storage to evaluate and to stablish an appropriate methodology for germination, were carried out. The morphological and anatomical description allowed to specify and to illustrate the organs and internal struc...

  2. ANALYSIS OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash Rout; Rabinarayan Acharya; Rakshapal Gupta; Sagar Kumar Mishra; Rashmibala Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a preliminary data of occurrence of elemental concentration in medicinal plants i.e Apium graveolens (seed), Sida cordifolia (root), Solanum surattense (whole plant), Tribulus terrestris(fruit) and Withania somnifera (root) used in Ayurveda, using Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) following standard procedures. The elemental concentration i.e. Mn, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were found in various proportions. The data obtained from the study can...

  3. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago da Silva Domingos; Eliana Mara Braga

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and afte...

  4. Review on plants with CNS-effects used in traditional South African medicine against mental diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Gary Ivan; Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; van Staden, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    inhibitory activity from Boophone disticha and Crinum species. Extracts of Mentha aquatica, Gasteria croucheri, Ruta graveolens and Scotia brachypetala inhibited MAO-B. Naringenin was isolated from Mentha aquatica as a MAO inhibitor. Only a small number of the more than 300 southern African plant species...... reported to treat or affect the CNS have been scientifically evaluated. Very few of the active compounds have been isolated and identified....

  5. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Dionizio Moreira; Marcelo Coutinho Picanço; Luiz Cláudio de Almeida Barbosa; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Mateus Ribeiro de Campos; Gerson Adriano Silva; Júlio Cláudio Martins

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  6. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. - Highlights: • We searched for tree species from Atlantic Forest for future air pollution monitoring in Brazil. • Croton floribundus, Astronium graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha were possible bioindicators. • P. gonoachanta was a potential bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. • C. floribundus was a potential bioindicator of heavy metals and sulfur. • A. graveolens may be used for monitoring oxidative pollutants, due to its biochemical leaf traits. - Inherent characteristics of the most abundant native tree species were potential biomarkers for assessing pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

  7. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, César G.; Torres, Enrique; de Vis, Raf

    2011-01-01

    En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA) de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca), se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis) sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de z...

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of two plants belonging to the Apiaceae and the Euphorbiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bahar; Alam, Tanveer; Varshney, Manoj; Khan, Shah Alam

    2002-03-01

    The different extracts of Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) and Croton oblongifolius Roxb. (Euphorbiaceae) were tested for their hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin. The methanolic extracts showed the most significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin. Other extracts namely petroleum ether and acetone also exhibited a potent activity. PMID:11849834

  9. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Nagy; Maria Tofană; Sonia A. Socaci; Ana viorica Pop; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Anca Fărcaş; Ovidiu Moldovan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare), dill (Anethum graveolens) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officin...

  10. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani; Sameerah I. Al-Saeedi; Rasmiah Almufarij

    2015-01-01

    The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV) extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca), Eruca Sativa (Arugula), Petroselinum crispum (Parsley), and Anethum Graveolens (Dill) were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss) method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inh...

  11. Antidiabetic and Cytotoxicity Screening of Five Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional African Health Practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Huyssteen, Mea; Milne, Pieter J; Campbell, Eileen E; VAN DE VENTER, MARYNA

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisatio...

  12. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson Bianchini; Garcia, Cristina C.; José A. Pimenta; José M.D. Torezan

    2010-01-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. a...

  13. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    A. CHERITI; N. BELBOUKHARI; S. HACINI

    2013-01-01

    A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist ...

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    A. CHERITI; N. BELBOUKHARI; S. HACINI

    2013-01-01

    A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk a...

  16.  Determination of lethal doses of volatile and fixed oils of several plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hanefi, Özbek; Mustafa, Öztürk; Abdurrahman, Öztürk; Ebubekir, Ceylan; Zabit, Yener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine lethal doses of fixed and/orvolatile oils extracted from leafs or fruits of Pimpinellaanisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sesamum indicum,Eugenia caryophyllata, Nigella sativa, Urtica pilulifera,Apium graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Coriandrumsativum and Thymus fallax.Method:   Swiss albino mice were injectedintraperitoneally with different concentrations of theextract and results were evaluated with the method ofprobit analysis.Results: Maximum volume of oil administered to mice...

  17. R-(+)-ABP a novel derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide possesses anti-convulsant and neuroprotective properties in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ELESTAGE; A.ROGER; L.DANOBER; ERENARD; X-Q.PENG; Z.GUO; J.T.ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    ABP is a novel phthalide derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide (NBP) synthesized at the Beijing Institute of Materia Medica.NBP was isolated from several plants including Apium graveolens Linn. The juice squeezed from fresh celery leaves has long been used in Southeastern China for the treatment of epilepsy, and NBP has been reported to possess anti-convulsant properties (Drugs Future 2000; 25: 16-23). The present study

  18. Response of Brazilian native trees to acute ozone dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; de Souza, Sílvia Ribeiro; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic secondary pollutant able to cause an intense oxidative stress that induces visual symptoms on sensitive plant species. Controlled fumigation experiment was conducted with the aim to verify the O3 sensibility of three tropical species: Piptadenia gonoachanta (Mart.) Macbr. (Fabaceae), Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae), and Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae). The microscopical features involved in the oxidative stress were recognized based on specific histochemical analysis. The three species showed visual symptoms, characterized as necrosis and stippling between the veins, mostly visible on the adaxial leaf surface. All the studied species presented hypersensitive-like response (HR-like), and peroxide hydrogen accumulation (H2O2) followed by cell death and proanthocyanidin oxidation in P. gonoachanta and A. graveolens. In P. gonoachanta, a decrease in chlorophyll autofluorescence occurred on symptomatic tissues, and in A. graveolens and C. floribundus, a polyphenol compound accumulation occurred. The responses of Brazilian native species were similar to those described for sensitive species from temperate climate, and microscopical markers may be useful for the detection of ozone symptoms in future studies in the field. PMID:24297466

  19. 6种芳香植物精油的提取及综合品质评价%Extraction of Essential Oils from 6 Aromatic Plants and Evaluation on Their Comprehensive Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小兰; 赵林森; 李恒安; 张蕴薇

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为芳香精油的生产提供理论指导.[方法]分别从蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘中提取芳香精油,然后比较其出油率并采用灰色关联度法对6种精油的品质进行综合评价.[结果]蓝桉、猴樟、香叶天竺葵、柠檬草、薄荷和柑橘的平均出油率分别为0.86%、0.33%、0.24%、1.29%、1.27%和1.88%.精油颜色由亮到暗为:猴樟>薄荷>蓝桉>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>柑橘;香味强弱为:柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>猴樟>蓝桉>薄荷>柑橘;香味持久性为:蓝桉>柑橘>香叶天竺葵>柠檬草>猴樟>薄荷;透明度为:猴樟>薄荷>柠檬草>香叶天竺葵>蓝桉>柑橘;香味好感度为:柠檬草>猴樟>香叶天竺葵>薄荷>柑橘>蓝桉.综合评价值最高的是柠檬草精油.[结论]该试验建立了精油品质的综合评价体系.%[Objective] The purpose was to provide theoretical direction for the production of aromatic essential oil. [Method] The aromatic essential oils were extracted from Eucalyptus globules, Cinnamomum bodinier, Pelargonium graveolens, Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha haploca-lyx and Citrus reticulata. Then their oil yielding rates were compared and the qualities of 6 essential oils were evaluated comprehensively by gray related degreeMethod. [Result] The average oil yielding rates of E. globules, C. bodinier, P. graveolens, C. citralus, M. haplocalyx and C. reticulata were 0. 86% , 0.33% , 0.24% , 1.29% , 1. 27% and 1. 88% resp. The colors of these essential oils from bright to dark were; C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > E. globules > C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. reticulata; their fragrance intensities were; C. citrates > P. graveolens > C. bodinier > E. globules > M. haplocalyx > C. reticulata; their fragrance endurances were: E. globules > C. reticulate > P. graveolens > C. citrates > C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx; their transparencies were: C. bodinier > M. haplocalyx > C. citrates > P. graveolens > E. globules > C. reticulata and

  20. Riqueza y diversidad de especies leñosas del bosque tropical caducifolio El Tarimo, Cuenca del Balsas, Guerrero Richness and diversity of woody species in the tropical dry forest of El Tarimo, Cuenca del Balsas, Guerrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pineda-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la composición florística, la riqueza y la diversidad de especies de un bosque tropical caducifolio en la provincia florística Cuenca del Balsas, México. Se seleccionaron 4 sitios de 1000 m² cada uno, censándose los árboles, arbustos y lianas con d.a.p. >1 cm. En total se registraron 1456 individuos, pertenecientes a 82 especies, 56 géneros y 24 familias. Independientemente del sitio y de la forma de crecimiento, Leguminosae fue la familia con mayor número de especies y de individuos. Los géneros más diversos fueron Bursera (Burseraceae y Cordia (Boraginaceae con 9 y 4 especies, respectivamente. La riqueza entre los sitios varió de 43 a 55 especies y su similitud fue más alta en el nivel de familia que en el de especie. Los árboles fueron la forma de crecimiento con mayor riqueza de especies. Respectoa otros bosques tropicales caducifolios de México y del mundo, los sitios que se estudiaron en este bosque ocupan una posición baja en cuanto a sus valores de riqueza y estructura.Floristic composition, species richness, and diversity of the seasonally dry tropical forest in the floristic province of the Balsas Depression, México, is described. We sampled four 1,000 m² sites and recorded species and dbh of trees, shrubs and lianas >1 cm dbh. Data from 1,456 individuals were recorded, representing 82 species, 56 genera, and 24 families. Independently of site or growth form, Leguminosae was the family with the highest number of species and individuals. Bursera (Burseraceae and Cordia (Boraginaceae were the most speciose genera, with nine and four species, respectively. Species richness among sites ranged from 43-55 species and their similarity was higher at the family level than the species level. Trees had higher numbers of species than shrubs and lianas. Our results indicate that these forests have low values of species richness and structure attributes in relation with other tropical dry forests of Mexico and the world.

  1. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  2. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  3. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  4. Characterization of a member of a new Potyvirus species infecting arracacha in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orílio, A F; Dusi, A N; Madeira, N R; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

    2009-01-01

    An arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) plant collected in Brazil was found to be infected by a new virus. This viral isolate (named C17) systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana and Apium graveolens. A polyclonal antibody was raised, and analysis of our arracacha germplasm collection showed a high infection rate of C17-like viruses (93% infection). Sequencing of the ca. 1.7 kb 3'-terminal genomic region revealed a typical potyvirus genome organization. It shared less than 70% nucleotide identity with any other potyvirus sequence, which thus indicated that it is possibly a member of a new Potyvirus species tentatively named Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV).

  5. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and antioxidant effect of Mexican oregano-soy based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernández, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godínez, L A; Mendoza, S

    2008-08-01

    Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion.

  6. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  7. Root development of beetroot, sweet corn and celeriac, and soil N content after incorporation of green manure

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, J.S.; Thorup-Kristensen, K.; Kristensen, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Root development in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris var. conditiva Alef.), sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. Saccharata Koern.) and celeriac (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.) was followed during two growing seasons with the aim of describing the root systems and nitrogen (N) utilisation of the three vegetables. The crops were grown after incorporation of green manure either in the preceding Autumn or Spring. Beetroot reached a final root depth of 1.55 – 1.8 m. For sweet corn, th...

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo; Julio Viégas; Deise Flores Santurio; Luana Rossatto; Isaura Helena Soares; Sydney Hartz Alves; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs) de Origanum vulgare (orégano), Thymus vulgaris (tomilho), Lippia graveolens (lípia), Zingiber officinale (gengibre), Salvia officinalis (sálvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim) e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão), bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bacteri...

  9. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  10. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  11. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira; Margareth de Fátima Melo Diniz; EDELTRUDES O. LIMA

    2008-01-01

    Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas planta...

  12. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  13. Chinese herbal extract dl-3n-butylphthalide A commonly used drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke as a novel therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfang He; Wensheng Zhou; Zhiping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Dl-3n-butylphthalide is the active component isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. A number of pharmacological and clinical studies have proven that dl-3n-butylphthalide is highly po-tent and multi-targeted with low toxicity and has a long time-window for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying dl-3n-butylphthalide include improving mi-tochondrial function and microcirculation, inhibiting apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress. Fur-thermore, dl-3n-butylphthalide may also be promising for the treatment of neurodegenerative dis-eases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease.

  14. Caracteres morfológicos e número de cromossomos em Pelargonium Morphological characters and chromosome numbers in Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reune observações morfológicas e citológicas em dez cultivares e cinco espécies de Pelargonium aromático e em onze cultivares ornamentais. Os cultivares aromáticos são, morfològicamente, muito semelhantes ao P. x asperum, do qual possivelmente devem ter-se originado; apresentam meiose irregular, com alta freqüência de monovalentes. Os cultivares ornamentais pertencem todos à espécie P. zonale, e dentre êles uns são diplóides e outros tetraplóides. Das espécies em coleção algumas se identificam com as descrições anteriores, mas outras devem ter sido introduzidas erroneamente classificadas. Considerando o material estudado, foram encontrados, para Pelargonium, três números básicos de cromossomos: x = 8, x = 9 e x = 11.Morphological characters and chromosome number of ten cultivars and five species of aromatic Pelargonium, as well as ornamental cultivars, were compared. The oil cultivars are very alike morphologically and they are supposed to be clones of P x asperum. They have irregular meiosis with high frequency of univalents and are male sterile; their chromosome number is 2n=77. Some of the species (P. graveolens from Italy, P. odoratissimum, P. tomentosuni and P. grossularioides agree with previous descriptions, but others, as P. graveolens from Argentina and P. radula from Italy, were probably introduced with a wrong classification. Their chromosome number were counted and compared to previous determinations with excelent agreement. No data was found concerning P. grossularioides; the present chromosome counting seems to be the first. The ornamental cultivars studied here belong to the species P. zonale; some are diploid, others tetraploid; in the diploid cultivars mixoploidy is frequent. As chromosome number is concerned, three basic numbers were established; x=8 for P. odoratissimum, x = 9 for P. grossularioides cv. cocoanut, P. graveolens from Italy and P. zonale (ornamental cultivars, and x=11

  15. Revisión de la producción, composición fitoquímica y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano mexicano Revision of the production, phytochemical composition, and nutraceutical properties of Mexican oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Pérez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El orégano es una planta de distribución mundial, el cual está representado principalmente por dos especies: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace nativo de Europa, y Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, originaria de América. México ocupa el segundo lugar como productor mundial de orégano con la especie L. graveolens H. B. K. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies explotadas son silvestres y su cultivo es aún tradicional y limitado. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las estrategias de propagación, composición química y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano. Los fitoquímicos presentes pueden clasificarse en tres categorías: compuestos volátiles, lípidos y fenólicos. Estos componentes presentan diversas propiedades nutracéuticas entre las que destacan la actividad antioxidante, hipoglucémica, hipotensiva, hipolipidémica y anticancerígena. Los avances en el estudio de la composición fitoquímica y su relación con nuevas propiedades nutracéuticas hacen del orégano un producto de alto valor comercial con amplias aplicaciones quimioterapéuticas.The oregano plant is distributed worldwide, and represented mainly by two species: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace native of Europa, and Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae, native of America. Mexico is the second largest producer of oregano in the world, with the species L. graveolens H. B. K. However, most of the species used are wild, and raising them is done in a traditional and limited way. In this study we present an analysis of the dissemination strategies, chemical composition and nutraceutical properties of oregano. Phytochemicals present can be classified into three categories: volatile, lipids and phenolic compounds. These components present diverse neutraceutical properties, the most important of which are antioxidant activities, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypolypidemic and anti-carcinogenic. The advances in the study of the phytochemical composition and its relationship with new

  16. Óleos essenciais para aromaterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Meirilane Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biotecnologia e Bio-empreendedorismo em Plantas Aromáticas e Medicinais O potencial terapêutico de óleos essenciais de Salvia sclarea, Salvia officinalis cv. ‘purpurascens’, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) em doenças neurodegenerativas e de óleos essenciais de Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) como ansiolítico, muitas vezes utilizados em Aromaterapia sugerem o papel relevante da regulamentação deste sector, designadamente quanto a critérios d...

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  19. Sensitization Prevalence, Antibody Cross-Reactivity and Immunogenic Peptide Profile of Api g 2, the Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 of Celery

    OpenAIRE

    Gadermaier, G.; Hauser, M.; Egger, M.; Ferrara, R; Briza, P.; Santos, K.S.; Zennaro, D.; Girbl, T.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L.; Mari, A.; F. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Background: Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. Methodology: 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP) and nPru p 3 (peach LTP) using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected pati...

  20. ANALYSIS OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Rout

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a preliminary data of occurrence of elemental concentration in medicinal plants i.e Apium graveolens (seed, Sida cordifolia (root, Solanum surattense (whole plant, Tribulus terrestris(fruit and Withania somnifera (root used in Ayurveda, using Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS following standard procedures. The elemental concentration i.e. Mn, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were found in various proportions. The data obtained from the study can be used to evaluate the potentiality of these plants in their used for Ayurvedic drugs

  1. The copal of the Chichen Itza offerings and of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan; El copal de las ofrendas de Chichen Itza y del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montufar L, A. [Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico INAH, Moneda No. 6, Col Centro, 06060 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez W, C.E.; Mendoza A, D. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres M, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, A.P. 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Literature from the post conquest shows that the Mayans used copal resins in their religious celebrations and ceremonial rites, specially as a sahumerio material. Historical precedents have been fully documented, establishing its use in the calendar ceremonies performed by the Aztecs towards their agricultural practices, mainly for the corn crop; and that according to the registries of sacred figures of their gods, they were made out of copal resin. Abundant fragments of this resin were found in a number of offerings at the digging of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. These facts indicate the intensive use of the copal as a link with divinities of life, maintenance and fertility, among many other aspects of existence, as stated by the Mexicas cosmos view. In order to determine the possible origin of the different types of copal, small samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, both from Chichen Itza and the pre hispanic from Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. Results show a great similarity between each absorption band, the one from Templo Mayor and the modern sample Bursera bipinnata and the one from Chichen Itza and the modem resin of Protium copal. This suggests that the pre hispanic copal form Chichen Itza was obtained from the Protium copal tree. (Author)

  2. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera. PMID:26911160

  3. Structure and floristic composition of tree stand in tropical forest in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Sudhakar Reddy; Shilpa Babar; Giriraj Amamath; Chiranjibi Pattanaik

    2011-01-01

    The changes in species composition,abundance and forest stand structure were analyzed across altitudinal regimes in tropical forests of Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh,India.Three 1-ha plots were established with one each in low,medium and high altitudes.A total of 153 species,2129 stems (709 stems ·ha-l) of>10 cm girth were enumerated.Species richness and diversity pattern varied along altitudinal gradient and increased with the altitude.Species richness varied from 52 to 110 species·ha-1 and stand density from 639 to 836 stems·ha-1 with average basal area of 34.39 m2·ha-1.Shannon-Wiener index (H) ranged from 4.55 to 5.17.Low altitude (i.e.,Site 1) is dominated by Xylia xylocarpa (59.22) and Lagerstroemia parviflora (23.90),medium altitude (i.e.,Site 2) by Xylia xylocarpa (45.50) Bursera serrata (17.29),and high altitude (i.e.,Site 3) has Schleichera oleosa (28.25) Pterocarpus marsupium (26.55) as predominant species.Taxonomically,Rubiaceae (12 species),Fabaceae (12),Euphorbiaceae (11),Rutaceae (7) and Lauraceae (7) were dominant families.Density-wise,Fabaceae,Combretaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Anacardiaceae and Myrtaceae were abundant.Thus,conservation assessment based on altitudinal regimes and the information on species structure and function can provide baseline information for monitoring and sustaining the biodiversity.

  4. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  5. Viabilidad y germinación de semillas de tres especies arbóreas nativas de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Orantes-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la proporción de semillas viables y la pérdida de viabilidad debido al periodo de almacenamiento, así como el efecto de tratamientos pregerminativos que favorecen la germinación en semillas deCordia alliodora, Terminalia amazoniayBursera bipinnata, árboles nativos de la selva tropical, Chiapas, México. Se encontró que las semillas recién colectadas presentaron más del 90% de viabilidad, la cual fue disminuyendo hasta mostrar un 15% enB. bipinnata, 34% enC. alliodoray 18% enT. amazoniadespués de 12 meses de almacenamiento. De acuerdo con la germinación acumulada se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (pB. bipinnata63%,C. alliodora62% yT. amazonia54%. En conclusión, para poder obtener un mayor porcentaje de semillas germinadas en poco tiempo, es necesario dar un tratamiento previo a la siembra para las semillas de estas especies. El almacenamiento de las semillas durante un año provocó una declinación en la capacidad germinativa.

  6. [Original humus forms in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, G

    2001-08-01

    Humus profiles underneath the canopy of dominant tree species in two secondary semi-evergreen forest sites in Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) were analysed with a micromorphological method. In the vertisol of a tree plantation, the humus formed was rather similar under all tree species being an eumull and essentially due to the activity of the endoanecic earthworm Polypheretima elongata. In a natural secondary forest located on a steep slope and associated with a rendzina soil (without endoanecic earthworms), the humus forms were described at lower, mid- and upper slope. In this forest, two particular humus forms were observed. At the middle slope, underneath the canopy of Pisonia subcordata L. that produces nitrogen-rich litter, a calcareous amphimull, characterised by an OH horizon made of millipede faecal pellets, was formed. In the upper slope, underneath the canopy of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. that produces a litter rich in resins and aromatic compounds that are poorly consumed by soil animals, a dysmull with a thick root mat (OFRh horizon) developed. Other humus forms were intermediate. The formation of these humus forms is discussed.

  7. Differential effects of landscape-level environmental features on genetic structure in three codistributed tree species in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L

    2012-10-01

    Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow.

  8. A fluid Foucault pendulum: the impossibility of achieving solid-body rotation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert; Zimmerman, Daniel; Triana, Santiago; Lathrop, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Rotating fluid dynamics is key to our understanding of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and core, along with a plethora of astrophysical objects. Laboratory study of these natural systems often involves spinning experimental devices, which are assumed to tend to rigid rotation when unstirred. We present results showing that even at the tabletop scale, there is a measurable oscillatory flow driven by the precession of the experiment's axis as the earth rotates. We measure this flow in a rotating cylinder with an adjustable aspect ratio. The horizontal flow in the rotating frame is measured using particle tracking. The steady state is well-described by an inertial mode whose amplitude is maximum when the height to diameter ratio is 0.995, which matches theoretical predictions. We also quantify the resonant amplitude of the inertial mode in the cylinder and estimate the amplitude in other devices. We compare our results to similar studies done in spherical devices. [Triana et al., JGR, 117 (2012), B04103][Boisson et al., EPL, 98 (2012), 59002].

  9. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  10. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new species and five species of Microplitis previously described from Mesoamerica. In ACG, all Microplitis were reared exclusively from Sphingidae, while all Snellenius were reared from Noctuoidea (Noctuidae and Erebidae. All of the wasp species with known host records are unambiguously specialists, parasitizing one or a few related hosts. Biological information (wasp cocoon and caterpillar hosts in the Neotropical region seems to differ from similar data reported in previous works for the Oriental region -but more studies on the world fauna are needed. Although the distinction between these two genera has been controversial, we consider that the available evidence, although not conclusive, suggests that these two genera are best kept as separate (based on the presence of at least a partial epicnemial carina in Snellenius, which is absent in Microplitis. The following 28 species, all authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described as species nova: Microplitis adrianguadamuzi, M. alexanderrojasi, M. francopupulini, M. hebertbakeri, M. jorgehernandezi, Snellenius billburgeri, S. bobdressleri, S. donstonei, S. felipechavarriai, S. gerardoherrerai, S. irenebakerae, S. isidrochaconi, S. johnkressi, S. jorgecampabadali, S. jorgegomezlauritoi, S. josesarukhani, S. kerrydresslerae, S. lucindamcdadeae, S. luisdiegogomezi, S. mariakuzminae, S. mariamartachavarriae, S. phildevriesi, S. quiricojimenezi, S. robertoespinozai, S. sandyknappae, S. velvaruddae, S. vickifunkae, S. warrenwagneri.

  11. Effect of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda on Sandhigata Vata (osteoarthritis of knee joint).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Perera, Manaram; Kumarasinghe, Nishantha

    2014-01-01

    Reported case was a 63-year-old female with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) (Sandhigata Vata) of the left knee joint accompanied by exostoses. Radiology (X-ray) report confirmed it as a Kellgren-Lawrence grade III or less with exostoses. At the beginning, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were poor, and function score was fair. Srilankan traditional and Ayurveda medicine treatment was given in three regimens for 70 days. After 70 days, external treatment of oleation and 2 capsules of Shallaki (Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch) and two tablets of Jeewya (comprised of Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Millers. and Terminalia chebula Retz.), twice daily were continued over 5 months. Visual analogue scale for pain, knee scores in the Knee Society online rating system and a Ayurveda clinical assessment criteria was used to evaluate the effects of treatments in weekly basis. After treatment for 70 days, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were also improved up to good level and function score was improved up to excellent level. During the follow-up period, joint symptoms and signs and the knee scores were unchanged. In conclusion, this OA patient's quality of life was improved by the combined treatment of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda. PMID:26195904

  12. Sevilla, una encrucijada de caminos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martín Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El mundo del flamenco, tan acostumbrado a contemplar la historia del género como una sucesión de nombres distinguidos que, por su significación expresiva o por su carácter de maestría incontestable, simbolizan una época, olvida con frecuencia el universo en que esa constelación de estrellas irradia su luminosidad más intensa, esto es, relega a un rol de menor importancia el ámbito en que se desarrollaron unos talentos especiales que, a lapostre, describirían situaciones y formas que el tiempo estimaría de verdadera trascendencia. Sin ánimo de caer en un determinismo localista demasiado forzoso, justo es decir que uno de los más grandes milagros de la música flamenca, se llama Sevilla, su barrio de Triana y muchos pueblos de la provincia. Una unidad demográfica que ofrece en grado sumo el origen de la complacencia en los goces de los sentidos.

  13. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  14. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  15. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L; Engela, Marcela R G S; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B; Alves, Edenise S; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Gomes, Eduardo P C; Furlan, Claudia M; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. PMID:25818087

  16. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  17. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  18. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paz Elia,1 Raya Zach,1 Sharon Hazan,2 Sofiya Kolusheva,2 Ze’ev Porat,1,3 Yehuda Zeiri1,3 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Ilse Katz Institute of Nanotechnology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 3Division of Chemistry, Negev Nuclear Research Center Beersheba, Israel Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. Keywords: gold nanoparticles, Lippia citriodora, Salvia officinalis, Pelargonium graveolens, Punica granatum, antioxidants, size distribution, zeta potential

  19. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community. PMID:21562693

  20. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

  1. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bingxin; Ban, Xiaoquan; Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  2. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  3. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  4. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  5. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.

  6. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  7. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha

    2012-11-01

    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  8. Composición florística y estructura arbórea de la selva mediana subperennifolia del ejido "El Remolino", Papantla, Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Basáñez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la comunidad de “El Remolino”, municipio de Papantla, Veracruz, con la finalidad de caracterizar un sitio en la selva mediana subperennifolia que muestra diferentes altitudes y pendientes, hecho que permite diferenciar dos áreas. Se muestrearon aleatoriamente ocho cuadrantes. Se obtuvo la densidad, frecuencia y cobertura relativa, para estimar el Valor de Importancia; fueron censados 257 árboles > 4.77 cm de diámetro a la altura del pecho; la similitud se basó en el índice de Sorensen y la diversidad con los Índices de Shanon-Wiener y Fisher. Se registraron 30 especies y 20 familias; las especies con alto valor de importancia fueron: Heliocarpus microcarpus, Brosimum alicastrum, Bursera simaruba, Aphananthe monoica y Myrsine coriacea. El área basal del sitio 1 fue de 85.83 m2 ha-1 y 67.72 m2 ha-1 en el 2. El sotobosque registró el 27% de las especies, el estrato intermedio, 37%; y el dosel superior, 10%; el resto de las especies (26% ocupan varios estratos. El índice de Sorensen indica una similitud de 28% entre áreas; el análisis Cluster UPGM (Ligamiento de Grupos no Ponderado utilizando Promedios Aritméticos indica dos agrupamientos de cuadrantes, relacionados con las dos áreas. El índice de Shanon-Wiener registró en el área 2, 2.25; y para el Índice de Fisher se presentó en el área 1 un valor de 7.83. Se concluye que: la poca similitud entre las áreas de estudio estuvo fuertemente asociada con la presencia-ausencia de especies; mientras que por su riqueza se establece que ambas áreas son iguales

  9. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  10. Inertial modes and their transition to turbulence in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Andrés Triana, Santiago; Egbers, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    dominant mode (l,m,ˆω) = (3,2,˜ 0.71) is increasing with increasing |Ro| until a critical Rossby number Rocrit. Accompanying with this is an increase of the zonal mean flow outside the tangent cylinder, leading to enhanced angular momentum transport. At the particular Rocrit, the wave mode, and the entire flow, breaks up into smaller-scale turbulence [6], together with a strong increase of the zonal mean flow inside the tangent cylinder. We found that the critical Rossby number scales approximately with E1/5. References [1] Aldridge, K. D.; Lumb, L. I. (1987): Inertial waves identified in the Earth's fluid outer core. Nature 325 (6103), S. 421-423. DOI: 10.1038/325421a0. [2] Greenspan, H. P. (1968): The theory of rotating fluids. London: Cambridge U.P. (Cambridge monographs on mechanics and applied mathematics). [3] Kelley, D. H.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2010): Selection of inertial modes in spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 81 (2), 26311. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.026311. [4] Rieutord, M.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2012): Excitation of inertial modes in an experimental spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 86 (2), 026304. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.026304. [5] Hoff, M., Harlander, U., Egbers, C. (2016): Experimental survey of linear and nonlinear inertial waves and wave instabilities in a spherical shell. J. Fluid Mech., (in print) [6] Kerswell, R. R. (1999): Secondary instabilities in rapidly rotating fluids: inertial wave breakdown. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 382, S. 283-306. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112098003954.

  11. Caracterização morfológica de minas foliares em espécies de Melastomataceae de Mata Atlântica, PE Morphological characterization of leaf mines in species of Melastomataceae in Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretuza B Brito-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a morfologia e a anatomia de folhas íntegras e minadas de cinco espécies de Melastomataceae, ocorrentes em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, PE. As minas foram visualizadas em uma ou ambas as faces das folhas, possuindo padrão sinuoso ou retilíneo, distribuídas entre as nervuras ou por toda a lâmina, sendo estas características distintas para cada espécie. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada com estômatos presentes na face abaxial e tricomas dendríticos, multicelulares, estrelados e com mais de cinco ramos, em ambas ou apenas uma das faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e o sistema vascular em forma de arco. As larvas minadoras observadas em Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl. DC., M. albicans (Sw. Triana e Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl. D. Don consomem o parênquima paliçádico e esponjoso, enquanto as de M. prasina (Sw. DC. e M. ciliata (Rich. DC. se alimentam do conteúdo e das paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas, caracterizando-as como do tipo epidérmica. Entretanto, em M. minutiflora, M. albicans e C. capitellata a epiderme permaneceu intacta formando uma proteção para o minador, enquanto que em M. prasina e M. ciliata a proteção é realizada pelas paredes periclinais externas e cutícula da folha. Tecido de cicatrização foi observado ao longo das minas em M. prasina.This study describes the morphology and anatomy of whole and mined leaves of five species of Melastomataceae native to an Atlantic Forest fragment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Mines can be found on one or both sides of the leaves, with a sinuous or rectilinear pattern, and distributed between the veins or throughout the entire leaf blade. These characteristics are distinct for each species. The leaves, in cross section, have a uniseriate epidermis, stomata on the abaxial surface, and unbranched hairs on both or at least one side. The mesophyll is bifacial and the vascular bundle is semi-circular. The leaf-miner larvae observed in

  12. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  13. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL ARBÓREA DE UMA FLORESTA DE VÁRZEA NA RESERVA EXTRATIVISTA CHOCOARÉ-MATO GROSSO, PARÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Jesus Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura da regeneração natural arbórea de uma floresta de várzea na Reserva Extrativista Chocoaré-Mato Grosso, Santarém Novo, Pará. O estudo foi realizado no período de janeiro a junho de 207 com a marcação de 10 parcelas temporárias de 10 x 100 m (1 ha e calculada a riqueza, a frequência relativa e a densidade relativa das espécies distribuídas em cinco classes de tamanho (CT baseada na altura e CAP. Foram registrados 33.738 indivíduos distribuídos em 20 famílias, 48 gêneros e 53 espécies. As famílias com as maiores densidades foram Clusiaceae, Fabaceae e Arecaceae. As espécies com maiores frequência e densidade relativas foram Symphonia globulifera L. f. (26,06%, Rheedia macrophylla (Mart. Planch. & Triana (11,83%, Inga alba (Sw. Willd. (6,34%, Inga edulis Mart. (6,11% e 91,6% indivíduos da regeneração ocorreram na classe de tamanho 1. A riqueza floristica foi inferior quando comparada com outras florestas de várzeas, contudo, os mecanismos de adaptação são estratégias para a dominância e representação quantitativa de algumas espécies na área como Symphonia globulifera. Palavras-chave: riqueza, classes de tamanho, unidade de conservação. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p139-145

  14. Efeito de diferentes temperaturas na germinação de sementes e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana é uma espécie nativa do Brasil utilizada na medicina tradicional em comunidades rurais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a temperatura mais adequada para a germinação de sementes e formação de plântulas de M. albicans. Para avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação da espécie foram utilizadas 1200 sementes postas a germinar sob temperaturas constantes de 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC e nas temperaturas alternadas de 20-30 e 25-35 ºC. Foram avaliados a percentagem de germinação (PG, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, o tempo médio de germinação (TMG, e o comprimento das raízes primárias e do caule das plântulas. Os resultados encontrados indicaram PG acima de 63% paras as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC. Para o IVG, foram observados valores entre 2,17 a 2,93 para as sementes sob temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC, indicando maior vigor; em relação ao TMG, a maioria dos tratamentos alcançou resultado acima de 15 dias, indicando que as sementes germinaram lentamente. Levando-se em consideração todos os parâmetros avaliados, a temperatura de 25 ºC propiciou o melhor desempenho para as sementes da espécie.

  15. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  16. Ground Data System Risk Mitigation Techniques for Faster, Better, Cheaper Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, John J.; Saylor, Rick; Casasanta, Ralph; Weikel, Craig; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of faster, cheaper, and better missions, NASA Projects acknowledged that a higher level of risk was inherent and accepted with this approach. It was incumbent however upon each component of the Project whether spacecraft, payload, launch vehicle, or ground data system to ensure that the mission would nevertheless be an unqualified success. The Small Explorer (SMEX) program's ground data system (GDS) team developed risk mitigation techniques to achieve these goals starting in 1989. These techniques have evolved through the SMEX series of missions and are practiced today under the Triana program. These techniques are: (1) Mission Team Organization--empowerment of a closeknit ground data system team comprising system engineering, software engineering, testing, and flight operations personnel; (2) Common Spacecraft Test and Operational Control System--utilization of the pre-launch spacecraft integration system as the post-launch ground data system on-orbit command and control system; (3) Utilization of operations personnel in pre-launch testing--making the flight operations team an integrated member of the spacecraft testing activities at the beginning of the spacecraft fabrication phase; (4) Consolidated Test Team--combined system, mission readiness and operations testing to optimize test opportunities with the ground system and spacecraft; and (5). Reuse of Spacecraft, Systems and People--reuse of people, software and on-orbit spacecraft throughout the SMEX mission series. The SMEX ground system development approach for faster, cheaper, better missions has been very successful. This paper will discuss these risk management techniques in the areas of ground data system design, implementation, test, and operational readiness.

  17. Compendium of dietary sources of vitamin A in the Thar desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The undisputed long term solution to prevent nutritional blindness lies in changing the dietary habits of a given population through nutritional education, nutritional supplementation, and nutritional rehabilitation. Before such strategies can be successfully implemented, it becomes necessary to study the existing dietary pattern of the population and to identify locally grown foods rich in vitamin A. Seventy eight rural women were interviewed to determine the common dietary items in western Rajasthan. These items were then matched with their B-carotene contents, only to discover that, 100 grams of any of them would not provide the RDA for a 1-3 year old child, with the exception of Suva (Peucedanum graveolens and Bathua (Chenopodium album leaves. The B-Carotene contents of several food items is unknown at present and there is an urgent need to evaluate them.

  18. Chemical composition of phytonciders from tw o aromatic plants by HS-SPM E and comparison with their essential oil%固相微萃取技术分析两种芳香植物精气成分及与其精油成分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓生; 庄东红; 吴清韩; 李妙清; 马瑞君

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱‐质谱(GC‐MS)联用技术对香叶天竺葵与柠檬香蜂草的精气进行分析鉴定,并用面积归一法测定其相对含量.结果显示,在香叶天竺葵和柠檬香蜂草中分别鉴定出62和43种化学成分,分别占总精气成分的99.5%和99.9%.其中,香叶天竺葵的主要成分为香叶醇(17.8%)、愈创蓝油烃(14.6%)、 d‐杜松烯(12.0%)、 香茅醇(8.7%),而柠檬香蜂草的主要成分则为β‐石竹烯(11.4%)、 异戊醇(9.5%)、 月桂烯(9.0%)、 3‐辛酮(8.4%),顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱‐质谱(GC‐MS)联用技术比动态顶空采样和热脱附/GC/MS 联用技术所得到精气成分种类多,且主要成分差异性明显.与精油相比,香叶天竺葵精气与精油的共有成分为香叶醇、香茅醇、α‐水芹烯、罗勒烯、芳樟醇、薄荷酮、异薄荷酮、丙酸香茅酯、α‐石竹烯;柠檬香蜂草精气和精油的共有成分是甲基庚烯酮、芳樟醇、香茅醇、α‐石竹烯.%The chemical composition of phytonciders from the Pelargonium graveolens L and Melissa officinalis L are collected and identified by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS‐SPME) with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) , and their relative contents are determined by normalization of area . A total of 62 and 43 compounds are identified from P graveolens and M officinalis , which account for 99.4% and 99.9% of the total aroma components , respectively . The main constituents of phytoncider are geraniol(17.8% ) , guaiazulenum(14.6% ) , d‐cadinene(12.0% ) and citronellol(8.7% ) in P graveolens , β‐caryophyllene (11.4% ) , isoamyl alcohol (9.5% ) , myrcene (9.0% ) and 3‐octanone (8.4% ) in M officinalis . The HS‐SPME can detect more volatile ingredients than the purge & trap‐thermal desorption(P & T‐TD) , and have obvious different in the

  19. Efficient surface functionalization of wound dressings by a phytoactive nanocoating refractory to Candida albicans biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2013-12-01

    The present study reports the fabrication and characterization of a novel nanostructured phyto-bioactive coated rayon/polyester wound dressing (WD) surface refractory to Candida albicans adhesion, colonization and biofilm formation, based on functionalized magnetite nanoparticles and Anethum graveolens (AG) and Salvia officinalis (SO) essential oils (EOs). TEM, XRD, TGA, FT-IR were used for the characterization of the fabricated nanobiocoated WDs. Using magnetic nanoparticles for the stabilization and controlled release of EOs, the activity of natural volatile compounds is significantly enhanced and their effect is stable during time. For this reason the nanobiocoated surfaces exhibited a longer term anti-biofilm effect, maintained for at least 72 h. Besides their excellent anti- adherence properties, the proposed solutions exhibit the advantage of using vegetal natural compounds, which are less toxic and easily biodegradable in comparison with synthetic antifungal drugs, representing thus promising approaches for the development of successful ways to control and prevent fungal biofilms associated infections. PMID:24706124

  20. Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.; Shabaka, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  1. Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  2. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts.

  3. 生物灭鼠新探索——芸香雄性不育毒饵的实验研究%Study on Rat Male Sterility by Rue Bait to a Purpose of Biological Deratization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 秦荣; 杨艳芳; 刘路; 梁晓明; 曲万明

    2010-01-01

    目的:芸香(Ruta graveolens)是一种药用植物,其地上茎的产量高,制成植物灭鼠剂,为植物灭鼠剂的生产和应用提供理论基础.方法:芸香茎部制成高、中、低浓度的毒饵,饲喂雄性小鼠,现察体重、睾丸重量、小肠重量变化以及雄鼠不育率.结果:毒饵组与对照组比,体重、睾丸重量、小肠重量显著降低,雄鼠不育率提高.结论:芸香毒饵能够有效地抑制小鼠的繁殖速度.

  4. AcEST: DK953240 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q9AR74 Definition sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta...ns-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta gra... 124 4e-28 sp|Q43054|TCMO_POPKI Trans-...e-12 >sp|Q9AR74|TCMO_RUTGR Trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CYP73A2 PE=2 SV=1 Length = ...tr|Q5IDB4|Q5IDB4_PINTA Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (Fragment) OS=Pin... 130 6e-29 tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta...RTRNVVFDIFTGKGQDMVFTVY 129 >tr|Q8H6A1|Q8H6A1_RUTGR Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase OS=Ruta

  5. 生物灭鼠新探索——制备芸香毒饵降低小鼠生育的实验研究%A New Exploration on Biological Rodenticide.Study on the Reproductive Ability of Mice Decreased by Rue Poison Bait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗霞; 杨艳芳; 秦荣; 赵东; 王建勃

    2009-01-01

    芸香(Ruta graveolens)是一种药用植物,有良好避孕效果,刺成植物灭鼠剂,为植物灭鼠剂的大批量生产和应用提供理论基础.实验把芸香全草包煎制成水煎剂,制成毒饵,孕前和孕后分别饲喂小鼠,观察体重变化、怀孕率和流产率.统计分析结果,毒饵组与对照组比,体重变化差异不显著,怀孕率明显降低,流产率明显增高.结论:芸香毒饵可以有效的抑制小鼠繁殖速度.

  6. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  7. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca, Eruca Sativa (Arugula, Petroselinum crispum (Parsley, and Anethum Graveolens (Dill were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inhibited the corrosion process by a physical adsorption mechanism that followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters that were calculated include, free energy of adsorption (∆G°ads, activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH°ads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔS°ads are proposed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl in the absence and presence of GLV extract.

  8. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  9. 香桂、香叶林草间作试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖玉平; 陈岩冰; 何天平

    2005-01-01

    种植香桂(Cinnamomum petrophium N.Chao)前3年无收益,可以采用间种香叶(Pelargonium graveolens L.Herit.)加以弥补.本试验667m2定植香桂苗450株(1.5m×1.0m),行间种植香叶1 200株(40 cm×40cm),定植后1~3年的产值为2 100元、1 800元、1 222元.取得了以短养长的良好效果.

  10. 香桂、香叶林草间作试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖玉平; 陈岩冰; 何天平

    2005-01-01

    种植香桂(Cinnamornum petrophilum N.Chao)前3年无收益,可以采用间种香叶(Pelargonium graveolens L.Herit.)加以弥补。本试验667m2定植香桂苗450株(1.5m×1.0m),行间种植香叶1200株(40cm×40cm),定植后1-3年的产值为2100元、1800元、1222元。取得了以短养长的良好效果。

  11. 小茴香及其混淆品莳萝子的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓君丽

    1998-01-01

    @@ 小茴香为常用中药,系伞形科植物茴香Foeniculum vulgare Mill.的干燥成熟果实.有些地区则把同科植物莳萝Anethum graveolens L.的干燥果实作小茴香入药.据文献[1~3]记载,小茴香和莳萝子是功效不同的2种中药,不宜混淆使用.为保证临床用药的准确,本文从性状、紫外吸收光谱和薄层色谱三方面进行了比较鉴别.

  12. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  13. Desarrollo de apio mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingeniería de matrices. / Development of minimally processed celery fortified with vitamin E, by matrix engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    MARTELO CASTAÑO, YISELL JOHAN; Cortés Rodríguez, Misael; Suárez Mahecha, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingeniería de matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacío con dlαtocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solución isotónica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en función del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacío), en términos de la cuantificación...

  14. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cu2+ and Monitoring of Hg2+ and Ni2+ in some Iranian Vegetables Using 6-(2-Naphthyl)-2, 3-Dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, Fazel; Barazande Tehrani, Malehe; Mehravar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Recently, 6-(2-naphthyl)-2, 3-dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione (NDTT) was synthesized in laboratory and used successfully for the spectrophotometric determination of nanogram levels of Cu2+ in aqueous solution. This reagent forms a specific red complex with Cu2+ ions after the extraction by chloroform at alkaline pH. The absorption of the complex in the UV region (313 nm) is about 8 times as strong as in the visible one (510 nm). Mercury and nickel ions form yellow complexes with NDTT under the same conditions which interfere in the UV region and without effect on Cu (II) absorbance in the visible region. The studied vegetables include Mentha pipereta L., Anethum graveolens L., Beta vulgaris L., Coriandrum sativum, Petroselinum hortense H., Ocimum basilicum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Lactuca sativa L., and Brassica oleracea L. PMID:24250566

  15. The effect of celery and parsley juices on pharmacodynamic activity of drugs involving cytochrome P450 in their metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, V; Raskovic, A; Popovic, M; Sabo, J

    2002-01-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens) and parsley (Petroselinum sativum), plants used worldwide in human nutrition, are the natural sources of methoxsalen. In this study we investigated the effect of mice pretreatment with juices of this plants on the hypnotic action of pentobarbital and analgesic action of paracetamol and aminopyrine, the drugs involving cytochrome P450 superfamily in their metabolism. In mice pretreated with celery and parsley juices a prolonged action of pentobarbital with respect to control was observed, statistical significance being attained only with parsley-pretreated animals. Both pretreatments increased and prolonged the analgesic action of aminopyrine and paracetamol, pretreatment with parsley being again more effective. Celery and parsley juices given to animals two hours before their decapitation caused a significant decrease of cytochrome P450 in the liver homogenate as compared to control. PMID:12365194

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cu(2+) and Monitoring of Hg(2+) and Ni(2+) in some Iranian Vegetables Using 6-(2-Naphthyl)-2, 3-Dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, Fazel; Barazande Tehrani, Malehe; Mehravar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    Recently, 6-(2-naphthyl)-2, 3-dihydro-as-triazine-3-thione (NDTT) was synthesized in laboratory and used successfully for the spectrophotometric determination of nanogram levels of Cu(2+) in aqueous solution. This reagent forms a specific red complex with Cu(2+) ions after the extraction by chloroform at alkaline pH. The absorption of the complex in the UV region (313 nm) is about 8 times as strong as in the visible one (510 nm). Mercury and nickel ions form yellow complexes with NDTT under the same conditions which interfere in the UV region and without effect on Cu (II) absorbance in the visible region. The studied vegetables include Mentha pipereta L., Anethum graveolens L., Beta vulgaris L., Coriandrum sativum, Petroselinum hortense H., Ocimum basilicum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Lactuca sativa L., and Brassica oleracea L. PMID:24250566

  17. Mėsos gaminių su augalų ekstraktais mikrobiologinių rodiklių kitimas laikymo metu ir juslinės savybės

    OpenAIRE

    Šarkinas, A.; Šipailienė, A.; Venskutonis, P. R.; Čypienė, V.; Mieželienė, A.; Alenčikienė, G.

    2005-01-01

    Augalų ekstraktų antimikrobinės savybės išbandytos modelinėje maltos kiaulienos ir jautienos sistemoje, laikant produktą 4–6 C temperatūroje. Įvertintas gelsvės (Levisticum officinale WDJ Koch), petražolių (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm), salierų (Apium graveolens L), rozmarino (Rozmarinus officinalis L), raudonėlio (Origanum vulgare L) 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 % ekstrakto priedo poveikis. Vertinant bendro mikroorganizmų skaičiaus, koliforminių bakterijų, stafilokokų, salmonelių skaičiaus pokyčius nustaty...

  18. From traditional European medicine to discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Frustaci, A; Del Bufalo, A; Fini, M; Cesario, A

    2013-01-01

    The leading Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics to date involves inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which should, in principle, elevate cholinergic signaling and limit inflammation. In spite of the effectiveness in 20%-30% of AD patients, more attention has been paid to find new anti-AChE agents from medicinal plants. Galanthamine, contained in the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus and related genera like Narcissus, represents a good example. The aim of this study is to review the role of possible AChE inhibitors (AChEI) present in plants traditionally used in European medicine for improving memory. Starting from Galanthamine, properties of Melissa species, Salvia officinalis, Arnica chamissonis and Ruta graveolens are discussed to point to the role of these plants as potential sources for the development of therapeutic agents for AD. PMID:23210783

  19. Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2013-10-01

    The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct contact assays. Some successful EOs were fractionated and the fractions containing hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing molecules tested separately. Twenty EOs showed corrected mortalities ⩾96% at 2 μL/mL. These were further tested at lower concentrations. Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs showed lethal concentrations (LC100)capitata EOs are potential environmentally friendly alternatives for B. xylophilus control given their high nematotoxic properties. Nematotoxic activity of an EO should be taken in its entirety, as its different components may contribute, in distinct ways, to the overall EO activity. PMID:23829930

  20. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. PMID:24742906

  1. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  2. Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10 ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10 ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10 ppb detection level of the procedure used. PMID:25346500

  3. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  4. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  5. Potential interaction between the volatile and non-volatile fractions on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Jacqueline Y; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Van Vuuren, Sandy F

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have reported promising antimicrobial efficacy for the essential oils and solvent extracts of several indigenous Pelargonium species. This study aimed to determine if any pharmacological interaction (e.g. synergism or antagonism) exists between the volatile and non-volatile components when the different fractions were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the following fractions were tested; the essential oil prepared by hydrodistillation (EO), non-volatile fraction (NV), prepared by extraction of plant material remaining in the distilling apparatus (having no or negligible volatile constituents) and solvent extracts prepared from fresh (FC) and dried (DC) plant material containing both volatile and non-volatile constituents. Pelargonium quercifolium oil was dominated by p-cymene (42.1%) and viridiflorol (16.9%), while P. graveolens and P. tomentosum oil had high levels of isomenthone (84.0 and 58.8%, respectively). Menthone was noted as a major constituent in the P. tomentosum EO sample. It was evident from the results that the presence of volatile constituents in the three species; P. graveolens, P. quercifolium and P. tomentosum is generally not a pre-requisite for antimicrobial activity. The most significant variations of antimicrobial activity were noted for P. tomentosum where poorer activity was noted for the FC and EO fractions against Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans. Studies on Staphylococcus aureus, however, showed the converse, where best activity was noted for the FC fraction (3.0 mg/mL). For P. quercifolium, the DC fraction indicated a notable increase in anti-staphylococcal activity (2.0 mg/mL) when compared with the FC (8.0 mg/mL) and EO (16.0 mg/mL) fractions. For P. tomentosum, the FC fraction indicated much lower antimicrobial activity (against both B. cereus and C. albicans) when compared with all other fractions, suggesting that the essential oils may impact negatively on the antimicrobial activity when tested against

  6. Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10 ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10 ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10 ppb detection level of the procedure used.

  7. АЛЛЕЛОПАТИЧЕСКАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ У СЕМЯН ОВОЩНЫХ СЕЛЬДЕРЕЙНЫХ КУЛЬТУР

    OpenAIRE

    Бухаров, А.; Балеев, Д.

    2014-01-01

    Исследовали стабильность проявления аллелопатической активности у овощных сельдерейных культур. Объектами-донорами служили семена сельдерея корневого ( Apium graveolens ) сорта Купидон, петрушки корневой ( Petroselinum crispum ) сорта Любаша, пастернака ( Pastinaca sativa ) сорта Кулинар и укропа ( Anethum graveolens ) сорта Кентавр; объекты-тестеры семена редиса ( Raphanus sativus ), салата ( Lactuca sativa ), капусты японской ( Brassica chinesis var. japonica ), кресс-салата ( Lepidium sati...

  8. Larvicidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against aedes albopictus and formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Sung-Woong; Hyun, Jinho; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-11-18

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase with their components. Of the 12 plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), caraway seed (Carum carvi), carrot seed (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), dill (Anethum graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) resulted in >90% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Of the compounds identified, α-phellandrene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, γ-terpinene, cuminaldehyde, neral, (S)-+-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, carvacrol, myristicin, apiol, and carotol resulted in >80% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Two days after treatment, 24.69, 3.64, and 12.43% of the original amounts of the celery, cumin, and parsley oils, respectively, remained in the water. Less than 50% of the original amounts of α-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, cuminaldehyde, and trans-antheole were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. Carvacrol, α-pinene, and β-pinene inhibited the activity of Ae. albopictus acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.190 mg/mL, respectively. A spherical microemulsion of parsley essential oil-loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared, and the larvicidal activity of this formulation was shown to be similar to that of parsley oil. PMID:26500081

  9. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  10. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  11. Review of scientific evidence of medicinal convoy plants in traditional Persian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Nargess Sadati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh. According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs, which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort, the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory, and Apium graveolens (celery seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, and Cucumis melo (melon seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper, Piper longum (long pepper, red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea, hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal, Anethum graveolens (dill, Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  12. Community ecology and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Feroz; Md Rabiul Alam; Prokash Das; Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition, woody species diversity and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracks, Bangladesh. We recorded 25 families, 37 genera, 40 species and 1771 woody individuals in a 0.09 ha plot. Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae were the most species-rich families, and Castanopsis, Ficus and Terminalia were the most species-rich genera. Bursera serrata Wall. ex Colebr. was the dominant species in terms of highest importance value (13%). Trema orientalis (L.) Bl was typically a light demanding species as it appeared in the top can-opy with only one individual having the seventh highest IV, but had no regeneration. The expected maximum number of species (Smax) was 140, indicating that many species may invade the forest as the Smax is greater than the recorded total number of species. The nature of the disappear-ance and appearance of species in the present forest reflects instability of floristic composition. The values of Shannon’s index H′ and Pielou’s index J′ (evenness) were 3.36 bit and 0.63, respectively. These values show moderately high species diversity as compared to other subtropical forests in the tropics. In addition, a sample area of 200 m2 in this forest would be sufficient for measuring the diversity indices H′ and J′ , whereas the trend of J′may indicate the rate of equality of individuals among the different species decreased with increasing area. The distribu-tion pattern for the total stand was completely random. However, the dominant species showed aggregate distribution for small areas, but random distribution for large areas. The spatial association between species showed that the strongest positive interspecific association oc-curred between Streblus asper Lour. and Castanea indica Roxb. (ω =0.51). As a whole, most species were weakly associated with each other, of which 58%species associations were completely negative. The result of

  13. Análisis de la relación vegetación-lluvia de polen actual de las comunidades vegetales en el noroeste de la península de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana del Socorro Escarraga Paredes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva de la Biosfera Los Petenes (RBLP conforma una unidad ecológica de gran valor, por ello la importancia de generar mayor conocimiento biogeográfico del sitio. El análisis palinológico es una herramienta útil para la interpretación de la dinámica vegetal y el análisis de patrones biológicos de distribución. Con el objetivo de analizar la relación lluvia de polen-vegetación en el gradiente de comunidades vegetales del Noroeste de la Península de Yucatán se establecieron 30 parcelas de vegetación y se examinó el espectro polínico en muestras superfi ciales de sedimento dentro de la RBLP. Para identificar el grado de relación entre la vegetación y la lluvia de polen, los datos fueron analizados con métodos de asociación, ordenación y modelación estadística. De los 50 taxones identificados en la lluvia polínica, 13 muestran algún grado de asociación, de las cuales, las especies con mayor grado de asociación para manglar fueron:Rhizophora mangle,Avicennia germinansyConocarpus erectus. La mayoría de las especies de selva muestran altos valores de sobrerepresentación y subrepresentación,Bursera simaruba, Euphorbiaceae y Fabaceae mostraron asociación. De los 20 taxones utilizados para la correlación,Avicennia germinansyConocarpus erectusmostraron correlación para las diferentes comunidades de manglar, la vegetación de peten de selva no mostró especies correlacionadas. La ordenación indica una agrupación definida por el gradiente hidrológico, factor importante que determinó la estructura de la vegetación y su capacidad de dispersión. El análisis de la relación de la lluvia de polen y la vegetación actual de RBLP, constituye una herramienta fundamental para obtener información sobre la dinámica ecológica actual e integra una fuente de información para los estudios paleoecológicos.

  14. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  15. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  16. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  17. 14种植物精油对茶尺蠖行为的影响%Effect of 14 Plant Essential Oils on the Behavior of Ectropis obliqua (Prout)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正群; 孙晓玲; 罗宗秀; 高宇; 边磊; 辛肇军; 蔡晓明; 陈宗懋

    2014-01-01

    To study the repellency, oviposition deterrence and antifeeding effect of 14 plant essential oils against Ectropis obliqua (Prout) and to explore essential oils as the behavior-modifying stimuli of E. obliqua “push-pull”strategy in tea plantations. Behavioral bioassays were conducted to test the repellent and oviposition deterrence activity of 14 different essential oils on adults of E. obliqua, and the antifeeding activities of plant essential oils against the 3rd-instar larvae were investigated by leaf disc choice bioassays. The results showed that Ocimum basilicum oil, Rosmarinus officinalis oil, Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil, Cuminum cyminum oil and Pelargonium graveolens oil displayed strongest repellency against the female and male adults of E. obliqua, and R. officinalis oil and P. graveolens oil also have deterred oviposition for female E. obliqua. Under three tested concentrations of essential oil, C. cyminum oil, O. basilicum oil and Agastache rugosa oil showed strong antifeeding activities to E. obliqua larvae. The antifeedant rates of essential oils increased differently, and the growth rates of E. obliqua larvae decreased with the increase of concentration of essential oils. The results demonstrated that among those 14 plant essential oils, R. officinalis oil, O. basilicum oil, C. cyminum oil and P. graveolens oil showed the remarkable behavior regulating functions on E. obliqua, with the potential to be developed as the components of the „push-pull‟strategy for control of this pest.%为获得能够应用于茶园茶尺蠖Ectropis obliqua“推-拉”策略的行为调节剂,在室内测定了茶尺蠖成虫对14种植物精油的趋性反应,及植物精油对茶尺蠖雌虫产卵行为的干扰作用,并采用叶碟法测定了植物精油对茶尺蠖幼虫的拒食作用。结果表明,罗勒、迷迭香、肉桂、茴香及天竺葵5种植物精油对茶尺蠖成虫表现出一定的驱避活性,并且迷迭香油和天竺葵油还

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  19. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  20. Estudo fitossociológico de um trecho da floresta estacional semidecidual em Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Phytosociology in semi-deciduous seasonal forest fragment in Diamate do Norte, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erci Marcos Del Quiqui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual de 1.426 ha, localizada na Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (54° 49’W e 22° 34’S em Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram locadas 29 parcelasgeoreferenciadas de 50 m x 30 m, totalizando 4,35 ha. Em cada parcela, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP > 5,0 cm, e, em subparcelas, os indivíduos com DAP £ 5 cm, totalizando 3.812 indivíduos arbóreos pertencentes a 38 famílias, 85 gêneros e 102 espécies. As famílias Myrtaceae, Rutaceae e do grupo das Leguminosaea destacaram-se pelo elevado número de espécies. Xylosma venosa, Metrodorea nigra, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Plinia rivularis, Eugenia uniflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Actinostenon concolor, Zygia cauliflora, Caesaria gossypiosperma, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Astronium graveolens, Campomanesia xanthocarpa e Balfourodendron riedelianum destacaram-se como as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’ obtido foi de 3,56 e índice de similaridade de Sorensen (ISS neste trabalho foi de 75,5% entre os estratos avaliados.The aim of this work was to study a Semideciduous Seasonal Forest fragment. It was carried out at the Ecological Station Caiuá (54° 49’W and 22° 34'S, in Diamante do Norte, Paraná State, Brazil. The study covered an area of 1.426 ha. The plots were located by GPS in that fragment. The area was divided in 29 parcels with 50 x 30 m, totalizing 4.35 ha. The individuals belonging to regeneration and the ones with DBH higher than or equal to 5.0 cm were then measured, totalizing 3,812 adult individuals, gathered into 38 families, 85 genera and 102 species. The families with the highest number of species were Myrtaceae, Rutaceae and Leguminosaea groups. Xylosmavenosa, Metrodorea nigra, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, Plinia rivularis, Eugenia uniflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  2. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  3. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  4. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de grandes lianas em três ambientes florestais de terra firme na Amazônia Central Floristic and ecological aspects of large lianas from three forest environments on terra firme in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As lianas, ou trepadeiras lenhosas são importantes componentes estruturais de muitos ambientes florestais. O estudo objetivou investigar os aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de grandes lianas em três ambientes florestais de terra firme na Amazônia Central (2º35' S e 60º12' W. Para o levantamento florístico, foram alocadas 20 parcelas de 50 x 10 m em cada um dos ambientes florestais (platô, vertente e baixio, nas quais foram mensurados todos os espécimes lianescentes com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP > 10 cm. Na floresta de platô foram inventariados 17 indivíduos, pertencentes a nove famílias, dez gêneros e treze espécies. Fabaceae e Combretaceae foram as famílias com maior número de espécies, representando juntas mais de 46% do total amostrado. As espécies com os maiores Índices de Valor de Importância (IVI foram Doliocarpus brevipedicellatus Garcke (IVI = 55,2 e Abuta candollei Triana & Planch. (IVI = 33,3. Um total de doze espécimes, compreendendo quatro famílias, quatro gêneros e oito espécies foram registrados na floresta de vertente. Nesse ambiente florestal, Caesalpiniaceae foi a família mais rica, representando cerca de 38% das espécies identificadas. Abuta rufescens Aubl. (IVI = 68,8 e Bauhinia alata Ducke (IVI = 49,2 foram as espécies com os maiores valores de importância. Na floresta de baixio foram registrados quatro indivíduos, distribuídos em quatro famílias, quatro gêneros e quatro espécies. Nos três ambientes florestais estudados, sete indivíduos atingiram DAP > 20 cm. Quanto às espécies, a similaridade florística entre os ambientes florestais foi muita baixa, com a menor dissimilidaridade anotada entre as florestas de vertente e baixio (Is = 0,17. Nesse estudo, de acordo com os índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener, Simpson e alfa de Fisher, a floresta de platô mostrou-se mais diversa em lianas de maior porte que as florestas de vertente, o mesmo ocorrendo quando comparado com os

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  6. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs. PMID:26434145

  7. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products. PMID:26553262

  8. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  9. Antifungal activity of plant-derived essential oils on Candida tropicalis planktonic and biofilms cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Caio Marcelo Cury; Pereira Junior, Silvio Alves; Moraes, Thaís da Silva; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Amorim Mendes, Suzana; Dias, Herbert Júnior; Stefani, Ricardo; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Pires, Regina Helena

    2016-07-01

    Dental prosthesis supports Candida species growth and may predispose the oral cavity to lesions. C. tropicalis has emerged as a colonizer of prosthesis and has shown resistance to clinically used antifungal agents, which has increased the search for new antifungals. This work describes the effectiveness of fifteen essential oils (EOs) against C. tropicalis The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antifungal activities of the EOs were evaluated by the microdilution method and showed that Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) (PG-EO) was the most effective oil. Geraniol and linalool were the major constituents of PG-EO. The 2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide (XTT) assay showed that all the clinical C. tropicalis strains formed viable biofilms. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the biofilms revealed a complex architecture with basal layer of yeast cells and an upper layer of filamentous cells. Treatments with PG-EO, linalool, and geraniol significantly reduced the number of viable biofilm cells and inhibited biofilm formation after exposure for 48 h. PG-EO, geraniol, and linalool were not toxic to normal human lung fibroblasts (GM07492A) at the concentrations they were active against C. tropicalis Together, our results indicated that C. tropicalis is susceptible to treatment with PG-EO, geraniol, and linalool, which could become options to prevent or treat this infection. PMID:26868902

  10. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

  11. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products.

  12. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  13. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  15. Activity of essential oils from spices against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dal Pozzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OE de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lipia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, e de suas frações majoritárias, carvacrol e timol, frente a 32 isolados de Staphylococcus spp, oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros bovinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Orégano, tomilho e lípia (Orégano Mexicano apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana similar, médias geométrica de CIM de 1600µg mL-1; 1564µg mL-1; 1562µg mL-1, respectivamente, no entanto menos ativos que carvacrol, 584µg mL-1 e thymol, 427µg mL-1. Isolados com diferentes perfis de susceptibil idade aos antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina, quando subagrupados, foram inibidos por concentrações semelhantes de OE . Estes resultados confirmam a atividade antimicrobiana de OE e algumas frações majoritárias.

  16. Development of biosensor for phenolic compounds containing PPO in β-cyclodextrin modified support and iridium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristiano P; Franzoi, Ana C; Fernandes, Suellen C; Dupont, Jairton; Vieira, Iolanda C

    2013-04-10

    A biosensor based on the iridium nanoparticles dispersed in ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (Ir-BMI·PF6) and a celery (Apium graveolens) extract as a source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was constructed. A modified support based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CDEP) was used for enzyme immobilization. The behavior of phenolic compounds was investigated by square-wave voltammetry and rutin was selected by presenting the greatest signal. The best performance was obtained with a composition of 70:10:10:10% (w/w/w/w) of the graphite powder:β-CDEP:Nujol:Ir-BMI·PF6 composition, a PPO concentration of 500unitsmL(-1), in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) with frequency, pulse amplitude and scan increment at 100Hz, 60mV, and 3.0mV, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the cathodic currents increased linearly for the rutin concentration range of 1.3×10(-7)-2.0×10(-6)M with a detection limit of 7.9×10(-8)M. This sensor demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and the results for the rutin recovery ranged from 92.8 to 103.4%. A relative error of 0.7% was obtained in the rutin determination in simulated samples.

  17. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  18. Anticancer Effects of HESA-A:An Herbal Marine Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrollah Ahmadi; Gholamreza Habibi; Mehdi Farrokhnia

    2010-01-01

    @@ HESA-A,a natural biological compound,is a mixture of herbal-marine substances that includes Penaeus latisculatus (king prawn),Carum carvi and Apium graveolens with anticancer properties(1,2).Although the exact mechanism of action of HESA-A on tumor cells is not fully understood,it appears to have multiple pharmacological effects(2). The lack of selectivity for tumor cells,which is associated with conventional cancer chemotherapy,is the main cause of chemotherapy complications and failure of anticancer agents.Many complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) studies are focused on products obtained from plants,animals or other natural sources to find compounds with high therapeutic indices.HESA-A inhibits the growth of cancer cells selectively and in a dose dependent manner.At the highest concentration (5.4 mg/mL),HESA-A completely inhibits the growth of cells and this effect gradually decreases as the dose is reduced.HESA-A is not cytotoxic towards normal cell lines unlike cancer cells.A major concern in this selectivity effect is the possible interaction with the cell DNA.The apoptotic effects of HESA-A may also have a major role in its anticancer properties(3,4).

  19. Methods for in vitro propagation of Pelargonium x Hortorum and others: from meristems to protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorion, Noëlle; Ben Jouira, Hatem; Gallard, Anthony; Hassanein, Anber; Nassour, Mazen; Grapin, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are among the most popular bedding and pot plants (25% of the French domestic market). On one hand, as vegetatively propagated plants, Pelargonium are submitted to pathogen pressure. On the other hand, innovation via interspecific hybridisation faces some difficulties. In this chapter, the two first protocols (from seeds and meristems) explain how in vitro plants free of virus could be obtained. The development of this technique is the long-term preservation of genetic resources via meristem cryopreservation. The third protocol describes propagation of Pelargonium with limited risks of variation. This technique also allows the constitution and the maintenance of a plant-stock from which explants can be taken for other studies. The two last protocols describe plant regenerations from leaf discs and mesophyll protoplasts, used for gene transfer and somatic hybridisation. These protocols were established mainly with Pelargonium x hortorum cultivars, but we propose possible solutions for the other species: P. x peltatum, P. x domesticum, P. capitatum and P. graveolens.

  20. Characterization of gallotannins from Astronium species by flow injection analysis- electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Viviane Cândida; Napolitano, Assunta; Eletto, Daniela; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Pizza, Cosimo; Vilegas, Wagner

    2011-01-01

    The species Astronium urundeuva (Allemao) Engl. and Astronium graveolens Jacq., which are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat allergies, inflammation, diarrhea and ulcers, were investigated for their composition. The aim of this study was to define a rapid and reliable analytical approach, based on the flow-injection analysis-electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS), to investigate the full range of hydrolyzable tannins present in the extracts of these Astronium species. The MALDI-ToF-MS analysis allowed us to ascertain the presence of hydrolysable tannins in both Astronium species as a series of gallotannins with degrees of polymerization of 7 to 13 galloyl units. Moreover, the analysis by FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS, as well as confirming this result and chemically defining gallotannins as galloylglucose compounds, highlighted the presence of further classes of hydrolysable tannins, such as hexahydrodiphenoyl esters of glucose and some gallic acid derivatives, providing information about their structure by a careful study of their fragmentation patterns. Finally, the evaluation of the number of positional isomers of gallotannins occurring in both Astronium species was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-IT-MS). This is the first mass spectrometric evidence relating to the existence of gallotannins in Astronium genus. PMID:22006629

  1. Efficacy of plant derived oils and extracts against white-fly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) on sesame crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a polyphagous pest and is reported on more than 600 host plants worldwide. Different methods are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and gera-nium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts have the potential to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be incorporated in the pest management programmes. (author)

  2. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Phytotoxic Activities of Peganum harmala Seed Essential Oils from Five Different Localities in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Apostolico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L., also known as Syrian rue or Pègano, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Zygohpyllaceae family, and is widely used in traditional medicine. The chemical composition of essential oils of P. harmala seeds from five different regions of Northern Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia was studied by GC and GC-MS analyses. A total of 105 compounds were identified, the main components being oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Eugenol is the main component in all oils. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against some bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM4384, Escherichia coli (DMS 857 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071. All the oils showed different inhibitory activity. In the twentieth century this is an important result; we need possible new botanical drugs because the problem of resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become apparent. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their possible in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., and Ruta graveolens L. The results showed that both germination and radical elongation were sensitive to the oils.

  3. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems

  4. Effect of homeopathic medicines on transplanted tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es, Sunila; Kuttan, Girija; Kc, Preethi; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2007-01-01

    Ultra low doses used in homeopathic medicines are reported to have healing potential for various diseases but their action remains controversial. In this study we have investigated the antitumour and antimetastatic activity of selected homeopathic medicines against transplanted tumours in mice. It was found that Ruta graveolens 200c and Hydrastis canadensis 200c significantly increased the lifespan of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma and Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites induced tumour-bearing animals by 49.7%, and 69.4% respectively. Moreover there was 95.6% and 95.8% reduction of solid tumour volume in Ruta 200c and Hydrastis 200c treated animals on the 31st day after tumour inoculation. Hydrastis 1M given orally significantly inhibited the growth of developed solid tumours produced by DLA cells and increased the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. Some 9 out of 15 animals with developed tumors were completely tumour free after treatment with Hydrastis 1M. Significant anti-metastatic activity was also found in B16F-10 melanoma-bearing animals treated with Thuja1M, Hydrastis 1M and Lycopodium1M. This was evident from the inhibition of lung tumour nodule formation, morphological and histopathological analysis of lung and decreased levels of gamma-GT in serum, a cellular marker of proliferation. These findings support that homeopathic preparations of Ruta and Hydrastis have significant antitumour activity. The mechanism of action of these medicines is not known at present. PMID:18159975

  5. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Saxena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  6. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  7. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  8. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sen; Multani, Asha S; Banerji, Pratip; Banerji, Prasanta

    2003-10-01

    Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. We investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. We treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma.

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Zaouali, Yosr; Ksouri, Riadh; Attou, Amina; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils have been investigated in order to suggest them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance and the increasing incidence of food borne diseases problems. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of four traditional plants essential oils, Ruta angustifolia, Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens and Ruta tuberculata, against standard bacterial and fungal strains. The chemical compounds of the oils were examined by GC/MS. Results revealed a powerful antifungal activity against filamentous fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum are the most sensitive strains to these oils with MIC values less than 3.5 μg ml(-1) for certain oils, reaching 7.8 μg ml(-1) for other. GC/MS essay exhibited ketones as the most abundant constituent of these oils except for R. tuberculata essential oil which has a completely different composition, monoterpenes alcohols being the most abundant. These compositions explain their potential antifungal activity.

  10. Aplicación de un modelo experimental de valoración económica del uso y manejo de la flora colombiana. Estudio de caso: Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Héctor Aníbal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se proponen un modelo y un indicador de valoración económica como alternativas para valorar el uso y
    manejo de la flora colombiana y se aplican a nueve especies de Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae: Swietenia macrophylla
    King (caoba, Cedrela odorata L. (cedro, Carapa guianensis Aubl. (carapa, andiroba o tangare, Guarea guidonia
    (L. Sleumer (trompillo, Anacardium occidentale L. (marañón, Anacardium giganteum Hancock ex Engler (marañón gigante, Spondias mombin L. (hobo, Camnosperma panamense Standl. (sajo y Astronium graveolens Jacq. (diomate o quiebracha. El modelo y el indicador propuestos integran todos los tópicos que se consideraron partícipes del valor económico de las especies en dos grandes aspectos: el biológico y el biocultural y socioeconómico. El indicador produce un valor aproximado de la especie valorando los aspectos contemplados en el modelo a través de cinco componentes: valor actual de uso, valor actual de importancia cultural, valor actual de los productos y servicios, valor potencial de los productos y servicios y estatus de la información. Con su aplicación en el estudio de caso se determinó a Cedrela odorata como la especie más valiosa.

  11. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  12. Characterization of rue extract and its potential for controlling rice blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinna Bannach Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to purify and standardize the rue (Ruta graveolens extract and evaluate its effect on Magnaporthe oryzae as an alternative to the integrated management of rice blast. The drug was characterized, the liquid extract was obtained, and the methodology for quantifying the standard markers psoralen and bergapten was validated. Rue extract and the markers, solely or in combination, were assayed in vitro, as well as in greenhouse conditions, for their ability to suppress leaf blast, by the evaluation of mycelial growth, conidial germination, and appressorium formation. Rue extract inhibited M. oryzae mycelial growth (100%, conidial germination (LD50=0.237 mg, and the appressorium formation (LD50=0.121 mg; besides, the extract reduced leaf blast severity by 80.84%. Fluorescence microscopy showed that rue extract did not damage M. oryzae cell wall and plasma membrane, indicating another mode of action. Rue extract has a great potential for controlling rice leaf blast.

  13. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in an ELISA for Detecting an Invasive Pest Insect, Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W C; Shang, H W; Guo, W; Xu, D; Huang, T Y; Zhu, L X

    2015-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody was prepared by the hybridoma technology. It reacted only with the protein of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and not with that of Chromatomyia horticola Goureau or Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was effective even after being diluted more than 8.192×10(6)-fold. The detection sensitivity of the antibody was 31.3 µg/ml under controlled conditions. Positive reaction was achieved with all laboratory-reared L. trifolii samples, including larvae, pupae, and adults. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was successfully established to detect L. trifolii in the field. This antibody was successfully used to determine the L. trifolii collected in different locations, from different host plants, and in different seasons. More than 50% of leafminers collected on Brassica chinensis var chinensis, Apium graveolens (Miller) Persoon, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lactuca sativa L., and Chrysanthemum coronarium (L.) Cassini ex Spach were L. trifolii, indicating that those six plant species might be the preference host plants of L. trifolii. Population of L. trifolii peaked in September, October, or November in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. These results suggest a great potential of using this McAb for precisely identifying L. trifolii and monitoring the population dynamics of L. trifolii in the field. PMID:26470159

  14. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  15. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  16. Arabidopsis POLYOL TRANSPORTER5, a new member of the monosaccharide transporter-like superfamily, mediates H+-Symport of numerous substrates, including myo-inositol, glycerol, and ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Geiger, Dietmar; Stadler, Ruth; Klebl, Franz; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Lemoine, Rémi; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Six genes of the Arabidopsis thaliana monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) superfamily share significant homology with polyol transporter genes previously identified in plants translocating polyols (mannitol or sorbitol) in their phloem (celery [Apium graveolens], common plantain [Plantago major], or sour cherry [Prunus cerasus]). The physiological role and the functional properties of this group of proteins were unclear in Arabidopsis, which translocates sucrose and small amounts of raffinose rather than polyols. Here, we describe POLYOL TRANSPORTER5 (AtPLT5), the first member of this subgroup of Arabidopsis MST-like transporters. Transient expression of an AtPLT5-green fluorescent protein fusion in plant cells and functional analyses of the AtPLT5 protein in yeast and Xenopus oocytes demonstrate that AtPLT5 is located in the plasma membrane and characterize this protein as a broad-spectrum H+-symporter for linear polyols, such as sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, or glycerol. Unexpectedly, however, AtPLT5 catalyzes also the transport of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol and of different hexoses and pentoses, including ribose, a sugar that is not transported by any of the previously characterized plant sugar transporters. RT-PCR analyses and AtPLT5 promoter-reporter gene plants revealed that AtPLT5 is most strongly expressed in Arabidopsis roots, but also in the vascular tissue of leaves and in specific floral organs. The potential physiological role of AtPLT5 is discussed. PMID:15598803

  17. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  18. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhiza differentially affects synthesis of essential oils in coriander and dill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlová, Jana; Jelínková, Marcela; Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Elena; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David

    2016-02-01

    Research on the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the synthesis of essential oils (EOs) by aromatic plants has seldom been conducted in field-relevant conditions, and then, only limited spectra of EO constituents have been analyzed. The effect was investigated of inoculation with AMF on the synthesis of a wide range of EO in two aromatic species, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and dill (Anethum graveolens), in a garden experiment under outdoor conditions. Plants were grown in 4-l pots filled with soil, which was either γ-irradiated (eliminating native AMF) or left non-sterile (containing native AMF), and inoculated or not with an isolate of Rhizophagus irregularis. AMF inoculation significantly stimulated EO synthesis in both plant species. EO synthesis (total EO and several individual constituents) was increased in dill in all mycorrhizal treatments (containing native and/or inoculated AMF) compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In contrast, EO concentrations in coriander (total EO and most constituents) were increased only in the treatment combining both inoculated and native AMF. A clear positive effect of AMF on EO synthesis was found for both aromatic plants, which was, however, specific for each plant species and modified by the pool of AMF present in the soil.

  20. The Preliminary Study on Effect of Intercropping Tobacco with Aromatic Plants on Agronomic and Economic Characters%间作芳香植物对烤烟农艺和经济性状的影响初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晟; 陈兴; 杨莹; 李世彪; 陈微; 赵明富

    2014-01-01

    为探索植烟地的间作利用,试验开展了烤烟K326分别与4种芳香植物柠檬草(Cymbopogoncitratus)、甜罗勒(Ocimum basilicum、美国薄荷(Monarda didyma)和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)间作的研究.采用160 cm烤烟行距中间间作芳香植物的种植模式与传统的110 cm烤烟行距种植模式比较,间作处理的烤烟在农艺性状(打顶株高、叶长、叶宽、茎围、有效叶数)和经济性状(单株产量、中上等烟叶比例)指标都优于单作对照;间作烟地的经济收入也高于单作对照.试验表明,该间作模式虽稍微减少了烤烟产量,却提高了植烟地的经济总产值,为提高植烟地的综合利用、增加烟农收入提供了一种有效的模式.

  1. Efecto embriotóxico y teratogénico de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda», en ratón (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gonzales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L. y R. chalepensis L. son plantas usadas en medicina folclórica como antiespasmódicos, antihelmínticos, antimicrobianos, emenagogos y abortivos. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto del extracto acuoso liofilizado (EAL de las hojas de R. chalepensis en embriones postimplantacionales de ratón. Ratonas albinas preñadas recibieron intraperitonalmente (ip 10 mg de ruda liofilizada/kg de peso corporal (grupo tratado, n=12 durante el periodo post-implantacional (día 9 – día 17 post-cópula, y un grupo control(C, n=18, que recibió sólo agua destilada durante el mismo período. El EAL de ruda no afectó negativamente el peso de la madre pero sí del útero durante el tratamiento (p<0,05. En el grupo tratado la frecuencia de reabsorciones fetales fue mayor (p<0,05 y el peso fetal fue significativamente menor en comparación con el control (p<0,01. Además en el grupo tratado se evidenció la presencia de malformaciones esqueléticas. En conclusión, encontramos que el EAL de R. chalepensis muestra efectos embriotóxicos en ratones expuestos durante el período postimplantacional.

  2. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  3. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I H; Loreto, É S; Rossato, L; Mario, D N; Venturini, T P; Baldissera, F; Santurio, J M; Alves, S H

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates. PMID:26281965

  4. Comparison of the Antioxidant Capacity of an Important Hepatoprotective Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine and the food industry. As plants produce significant amount of antioxidants to prevent the oxidative stress caused by photons and oxygen, they represent a potential source of new compounds with antioxidant activity. Commonly used medicinal plant extracts with standardized content of polyphenols were investigated for their antioxidant activity (AA. In the present paper ten plants (Picrorrhiza kurroa, Tephrosia purpurea, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Azadirachta indica, Apium graveolens, Swertia chirata, Phyllanthus amarus, and Aloe vera and their possible constituents responsible for its antioxidant property were compared by reducing power, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity method. The plants described contain antioxidant principles that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine (Hepatoprotective in the past as well as the present. These results suggest that AA determination is of interest for a comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential, but it needs to be combined with in vivo data for adequate assessment of the antioxidant capacity of medicinal plant extracts.

  5. DESARROLLO DE APIO MINIMAMENTE PROCESADO FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E, UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERIA DE MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio, en terminos de la cuantificacion de sus propiedades fisicoquimicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y caracteristicas sensoriales. Se formulo la emulsion con el objetivo de adicionar teoricamente un 73% del Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR vitamina E/100 g de apio fresco y su cuantificacion se realizo por HPLC. La respuesta a la impregnacion en la matriz fue de 12,10+-1,15%, lo cual permitio alcanzar un 112% VDR vitamina E/100g apio fresco, manteniendose este contenido durante el almacenamiento de 9 dias en ambos tipos de envasado. Los parametros fisicoquimicos del producto fueron afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, manteniendo su coloracion verdosa y presentando disminucion en la firmeza. La ingenieria de matrices constituye una metodologia efectiva para el desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado adicionado con vitamina E.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Valéria Maria; Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1)), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2909 μg mL(-1)), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 4800 μg mL(-1)) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL(-1). Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  7. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Carvalho Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér, a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure; 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure + 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien were obtained with mineral fertilizer.

  8. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  10. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  11. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-06-01

    Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

  12. Inibição do crescimento micelial de Cercospora calendulae Sacc. por extratos de plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais tem sido amplamente estudado no controle de doenças de plantas. O objetivo da realização do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos de Ruta graveolens L., Mentha x villosa, Calendula officinalis L., Momordica charantia L., Symphytum officinale L., Ageratum conyzoides L. e Ricinus comunis L., nas concentrações de 0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 e 10000 mg L-1, sobre a inibição do crescimento micelial de Cercospora calendulae Sacc. in vitro. Os extratos foram obtidos por infusão. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia da FCA/UFGD, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, esquema fatorial 7 extratos x 7 concentrações, com seis repetições. Foi detectado efeito dos extratos e suas concentrações sobre o crescimento do fungo, sendo a interação significativa. Os extratos de calêndula, arruda, hortelã e melão de São Caetano, nas maiores concentrações resultaram em maiores porcentagens de inibição, próximas de 100%, 30%, 35% e 40%, respectivamente, a 10000 mg L-1.

  13. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  14. Effects of foliar surfactants on host plant selection behavior of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-10-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.

  15. Mathematical modeling of microwave dried celery leaves and determination of the effective moisture diffusivities and activation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef leaves with 50±0.07 g weight and 91.75±0.15% humidity (~11.21 db were dried using 8 different microwave power densities ranging between 1.8-20 W g-1, until the humidity fell down to 8.95±0.23% (~0.1 db. Microwave drying processes were completed between 5.5 and 77 min depending on the microwave power densities. In this study, measured values were compared with predicted values obtained from twenty thin layer drying theoretical, semi-empirical and empirical equations with a new thin layer drying equation. Within applied microwave power density; models whose coefficient and correlation (R² values are highest were chosen as the best models. Weibull distribution model gave the most suitable predictions at all power density. At increasing microwave power densities, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 1.595 10-10 to 6.377 10-12 m2 s-1. The activation energy was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. The linear relationship between the drying rate constant and effective moisture diffusivity gave the best fit.

  16. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., dill (Anethum graveolens L., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.

  17. Effects of essential oils on the growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marisa; Sousa, Maria do Céu; Salgueiro, Lígia; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most important worldwide causes of intestinal infections produced by protozoa. Current therapy for giardiasis is unsatisfactory due to high incidence of undesirable side effects and significant failure in clearing parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. In the search for new therapeutic agents, we report on the effect of several essential oils on G. lamblia growth. Among eighteen tested essential oils, those with phenolic compositions were the most active, particularly if containing high contents of carvacrol, such as Thymbra capitata and Origanum virens (IC50 values of 71 and 85 microg x mL(-1), respectively). The oils from Syzygium aromaticum and Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris (IC50 values from 100 to 200 microg x mL(-1)), as well as, those from Mentha x piperita and Lippia graveolens (IC50 values over 200 microg x mL(-1)) were less active. Results support the concept that several essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of Giardia infections. PMID:20184039

  18. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  19. Direct observation of cell wall structure in living plant tissues by solid-state C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M C; Apperley, D C

    1990-01-01

    Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the following intact plant tissues were recorded by the crosspolarization magic-angle spinning technique: celery (Apium graveolens L.) collenchyma; carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), and nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) endosperm; and lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) seed cotyledons. All these tissues had thickened cell walls which allowed them to withstand the centrifugal forces of magic angle spinning and which, except in the case of lupin seeds, dominated the NMR spectra. The celery collenchyma cell walls gave spectra typical of dicot primary cell walls. The carob bean and fenugreek seed spectra were dominated by resonances from galactomannans, which showed little sign of crystalline order. Resonances from beta(1,4')-d galactan were visible in the lupin seed spectrum, but there was much interference from protein. The nasturtium seed spectrum was largely derived from a xyloglucan, in which the conformation of the glucan core chain appeared to be intermediate between the solution form and solid forms of cellulose.

  20. Response of Listeria monocytogenes-inoculated leafy salad vegetables following irradiation and refrigerated storage under modified atmosphere. Section 1. Radiation sensitivity and quality of fresh cut vegetables exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section summarizes research on quality of irradiated vegetables. Thirteen fresh-cut (minimally processed) vegetables (broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica), cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), red cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata), endive (Cichorium endivia), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), green and red leaf lettuce (L. sativa), Iceberg (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) and Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), carrots (Daucus carota), green onions, (Allium cepa) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) plus alfalfa sprouts (Medicago sativa) were gamma irradiated at doses up to 3 kGy at 0.5 kGy intervals. The samples were then stored in air at 4 deg. C for 14 days. At the beginning and end of 14 days, electrolyte leakage, visual quality, and sogginess were assessed. Results showed that electrolyte leakage of vegetables increased linearly with increasing radiation doses when measured immediately after irradiation. Radiation dose threshold, defined as the dose at which electrolyte leakage was significantly (P<0.05) increased, varied among vegetables, ranging from 2.44 kGy for broccoli to 0.60 kGy for carrots. Irradiation had no effect on visual quality on the day of irradiation. After 14 days of storage, the responses of individual vegetables to ionizing radiation varied greatly. Irradiation, especially at lower doses, improved visual quality, and reduced sogginess and electrolyte leakage of many vegetables. It appears that most tested vegetables can tolerate 0.6 kGy radiation based on appearance and electrolyte leakage measurements. The implication and limitation of the results are discussed. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Origanum vulgaris (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Cymbopogon nardus (citronella, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass, and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus against Escherichia coli (n=22 strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1, thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1, and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1 showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  2. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  3. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    partially attributed to a huge difference in the rainfall amount during the two growing seasons, equal to 810 mm in the 2013-14 growing season and 441 mm in 2014-15. Emission factors for each N rate was calculated through the whole monitoring period and resulted to be in the range of 0.5-0.9% in 2013-14, while between 0.2-0.3% in 2014-15, considerably lower than the IPCC Tier 1 EF (1%). References: Bosco S., Volpi I., Nassi o Di Nasso N., Triana F., Roncucci N., Tozzini C., Villani R., Laville P., Mattei F., Virgili G., Nuvoli S., Fabbrini L., Bonari E., 2015. LIFE+IPNOA mobile prototype for the monitoring of soil N2O emissions from arable crops: first year results on durum wheat. Italian Journal of Agronomy Vol 10:669, pp 124-131. Laville P., Neri S., Continanza D., Ferrante Vero L., Bosco S., Virgili G., 2015. Cross-Validation of a mobile N2O flux prototype (IPNOA) using Micrometeorological and Chamber methods. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 9 (2015) 375-385. Syakila A, Kroeze C., 2011. The global nitrogen budget revisited. Greenhouse Gas Meas. Manage. 1, 17-26.

  4. Flexible workflow sharing and execution services for e-scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacsuk, Péter; Terstyanszky, Gábor; Kiss, Tamas; Sipos, Gergely

    2013-04-01

    The sequence of computational and data manipulation steps required to perform a specific scientific analysis is called a workflow. Workflows that orchestrate data and/or compute intensive applications on Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs) recently became standard tools in e-science. At the same time the broad and fragmented landscape of workflows and DCIs slows down the uptake of workflow-based work. The development, sharing, integration and execution of workflows is still a challenge for many scientists. The FP7 "Sharing Interoperable Workflow for Large-Scale Scientific Simulation on Available DCIs" (SHIWA) project significantly improved the situation, with a simulation platform that connects different workflow systems, different workflow languages, different DCIs and workflows into a single, interoperable unit. The SHIWA Simulation Platform is a service package, already used by various scientific communities, and used as a tool by the recently started ER-flow FP7 project to expand the use of workflows among European scientists. The presentation will introduce the SHIWA Simulation Platform and the services that ER-flow provides based on the platform to space and earth science researchers. The SHIWA Simulation Platform includes: 1. SHIWA Repository: A database where workflows and meta-data about workflows can be stored. The database is a central repository to discover and share workflows within and among communities . 2. SHIWA Portal: A web portal that is integrated with the SHIWA Repository and includes a workflow executor engine that can orchestrate various types of workflows on various grid and cloud platforms. 3. SHIWA Desktop: A desktop environment that provides similar access capabilities than the SHIWA Portal, however it runs on the users' desktops/laptops instead of a portal server. 4. Workflow engines: the ASKALON, Galaxy, GWES, Kepler, LONI Pipeline, MOTEUR, Pegasus, P-GRADE, ProActive, Triana, Taverna and WS-PGRADE workflow engines are already

  5. SHIWA Services for Workflow Creation and Sharing in Hydrometeorolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terstyanszky, Gabor; Kiss, Tamas; Kacsuk, Peter; Sipos, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    pre-deployed workflow engines or submits workflow engines with the workflow to local or remote resources to execute workflows. The SHIWA Proxy Server manages certificates needed to execute the workflows on different DCIs. Currently SSP supports sharing of ASKALON, Galaxy, GWES, Kepler, LONI Pipeline, MOTEUR, Pegasus, P-GRADE, ProActive, Triana, Taverna and WS-PGRADE workflows. Further workflow systems can be added to the simulation platform as required by research communities. The FP7 'Building a European Research Community through Interoperable Workflows and Data' (ER-flow) project disseminates the achievements of the SHIWA project to build workflow user communities across Europe. ER-flow provides application supports to research communities within (Astrophysics, Computational Chemistry, Heliophysics and Life Sciences) and beyond (Hydrometeorology and Seismology) to develop, share and run workflows through the simulation platform. The simulation platform supports four usage scenarios: creating and publishing workflows in the repository, searching and selecting workflows in the repository, executing non-native workflows and creating and running meta-workflows. The presentation will outline the CGI concept, the SHIWA Simulation Platform, the ER-flow usage scenarios and how the Hydrometeorology research community runs simulations on SSP.

  6. La Botánica Sistemática en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, salvo algunos ensayos que por lo escasos no son menos meritorios, el estudio profundizado de la Botánica sistemática ha tenido pocos adeptos verdaderamente especializados. Aquellas figuras proceras que iluminaron un siglo de nuestra historia y dieron renombre científico a nuestra patria, buscando en el corazón de nuestras selvas, en la cima de nuestras cordilleras o en los horizontes infinitos de nuestros llanos las rarísimas plantas que ellos mismos estudiaron con esmero y clasificaron para la posteridad: los Mutis, los Caldas, los Trianas, fueron lumbreras que se extinguieron ante la indiferencia de un pueblo necesariamente preocupado ya por las, conmociones desugesta libertadora o por las revueltas de sus luchas políticas internas. Vivieron en época precaria para el desenvolvimiento de sus geniales profesiones y la mayor parte de sus esfuerzos quedó inmaterializada y archivada bajo el polvo de la incomprensión mientras que por todos los ámbitos del territorio patrio cruzaban y se sucedían expediciones extranjeras ávidas de descubrir novedades botánicas, acumulando materiales que fueron a enriquecer los Museos de capitales europeas y a aumentar así, en paísesextraños, el acervo de conocimientos relativos a nuestras riquezas naturales. Todo estudio sistemático importante ha de estar necesariamente basado sobre ejemplares de herbario y, cuando se publican especio géneros nuevos, los ejemplares respectivos se consideran comocomprobantes físicos y se les denomina tipos. Ser aficionado a las plantas y ser botánico sistemático, esto es: genuino y original clasificador de plantas, son cualidades que no se excluyen, pues antes bien armonizan perfectamente, pero sólo pueden complementarse en orden ascendente, porque lo último requiere una idoneidad especial y elementos de trabajo muy completos, El aficionado a las plantas puede quizás ser algo clasificador en el sentido que puede ordenar por familias, g

  7. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestal ripário no município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic and structure of the arboreal community of riparian forest remain at Guariba municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maria Marson DONADIO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a composição eestrutura de comunidades florestais é fundamentalpara embasar ações de conservação e restauração.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar olevantamento florístico e descrever a estrutura dacomunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestallocalizado no município de Guariba, Estado de SãoPaulo. Foram alocadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m,para amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivoscom diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP ³ 5 cm.Foram encontradas 54 espécies, pertencentes a 47gêneros, distribuídos em 32 famílias botânicas,com índice de diversidade (H’ de 2,67 eequabilidade (J de 0,20. As famílias Meliaceae eFabaceae apresentaram maior riqueza em espécies.Calophyllum brasiliensis, Astronium graveolens,Scheffera morototoni, Xylopia aromatica eProtium widgrenii destacaram-se como as espéciesde maior valor de importância. Foram amostrados420 indivíduos. A presença de espécies do cerradosugere condição de ecótono e a dominância de umaespécie higrófila indica saturação hídrica em parteda área. A distribuição dos indivíduos em classesde tamanho revelou uma comunidade emregeneração com a maioria dos indivíduos com até15,0 cm de DAP e distribuídos entre 7 e 14,9 m,e com estoques de jovens tanto das espéciespioneiras como secundárias podendo garantir ofuturo da comunidade. Em termos sucessionais aárea estudada encontra-se em estádio de médiopara avançado.Knowledge of the composition andstructure of arboreal communities is paramount forconservation and restoration efforts. The mainobjectives of this study were to characterize thearboreal species floristic composition and describethe structure of the arboreal community of aremaining forest located at the municipality ofGuariba, State of São Paulo. Thirty plots of 10 x 10 mwere allocated. In each plot, diameter and heightwere measured for each individual tree withdiameter at breast height (dbh ³ 5 cm. Fifty-fourspecies were

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de aves e bovinos Antimicrobial activity of spice essential oils against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A discutida questão da substituição do uso de antibacterianos em rações (promotores de crescimento requer urgentes alternativas. Face às necessidades de inibidores microbianos nesses alimentos, os óleos essenciais (OES se constituem em alternativa, sob avaliação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos OES de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela, Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de fezes de aves (n=43 e de bovinos (n=36. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, a partir da máxima concentração de 6400µg mL-1 de cada OE testado. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OES de orégano, orégano mexicano, tomilho, canela. Para todas as amostras testadas, independente de sua origem, os OES mais e menos efetivos quanto à atividade antimicrobiana foram o orégano e a canela, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmaram o potencial antibacteriano de alguns OES, os quais merecem novas investigações abordando sua adição na alimentação de aves e bovinos.The discussed issue about replacing the use of antibiotics in animal feed (growth promoters requires emerging alternatives. To meet the needs of microbial inhibitors in these foods, the essentials oils (EOS constitute potential alternatives under evaluation. In this study it was evaluated the antimicrobial activities of EOs from Oreganum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry (n

  9. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  10. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  11. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dionizio Moreira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae. The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth., rue (Ruta graveolens L., lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L. R.Br., jimson weed (Datura stramonium L., baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L., mint (Mentha piperita L., wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L., and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.. The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD50 from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g-1 a.i.. The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis.O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar plantas com atividade inseticida, para isolar, identificar e avaliar a bioatividade de compostos inseticidas presentes nessas plantas, contra as seguintes pragas de produtos armazenados da ordem Coleoptera: Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae, Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae e Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae. As espécies de plantas usadas foram: anis (Ocimum selloi Benth, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., cordão-de-frade (Leonotis nepetifolia L., datura (Datura stramonium L., erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea L., hortelã (Mentha piperita L., mel

  12. Spatial Distribution and Speciation of Selenium in Alkaline Soils and Agricultural Products of Lanzhou%兰州碱性土壤与农产品中硒分布及形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 李飞; 毕德; 王华魁; 李海勇; 周守标; 赵其国; 尹雪斌

    2012-01-01

    To know the spatial distribution of soil total Se and Se speciation in agricultural products, totally 473 Lanzhou soils and 122 agricultural products were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that the average total Se concentration of the topsoil in Lanzhou was (0.179± 0.066) mg/kg (n=473), which ranked in middle level of China. Soil pH value was 8.39+0.26. Soil Se varied significantly among sampling sites, and the highest averaged soil Se was found in Yuzhong Area. The bioavailable Se of soils ranged from 4.63% to15.8%, averagely 8.27% of the total Se. A significantly positive correlation between bioavilable Se and toal Se in soils was observed. For the agricultural products, the total Se in rose (Rosa rugosa), Chinese wolfberry (Lycium barbarum), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica) and celery (Apium graveolens) exceeded 0.01S mg/kg (a standard value for Se-enriched products in China). The organic Se covered averagely 73.4% of the total Se in these agricultural products. Generally, the areas with higher soil Se in Lanzhou could grow higher Se products. Because of alkaline properties of Lanzhou soil, it has a significant advantage in developing Se biofortiflcation agricultural products.%通过对兰州市主要农业区表层土壤总硒有效硒调查和部分农产品总硒有机硒测定,研究了兰州市碱性农田土壤与农产品中硒的积累特征和分布规律.结果表明,兰州市农田表层土壤pH 8.39±0.26,总硒含量为(0.179±0.066) mg/kg(n=473),处于全国中等水平.全市土壤总硒含量区域性差别较大,市辖区明显低于三县,榆中县居全市之首.土壤有效硒与总硒含量显著正相关,有效硒占比为4.63%~15.8%,平均8.27%.农产品中玫瑰(Rosa rugosa),部分西兰花(Brassicaoleracea var.italica)和芹菜(Apium graveolens)样品硒含量高于0.015 mg/kg,为该市天然富硒农产品.农产品中有机硒占总硒比例较高,均值为73.4%.从区域整体来看,土壤硒含量较高的

  13. Fitossociologia de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, Jardim, MS, Brasil Phythossociologic along a riparian forest at rio da Prata, Jardim, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanice Lube Battilani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos descrever a riqueza e a diversidade em espécies e analisar os aspectos fitossociológicos de um trecho da mata ciliar do rio da Prata, localizado na Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida no município de Jardim, MS. Seis transectos de 150 m cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente perpendiculares à margem do rio e subdivididos em 90 parcelas de 10 m×10 m. Em cada parcela foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à 1,30 m de altura do solo (DAP > 3,18 cm, totalizando 661 indivíduos pertencentes a 33 famílias, 57 gêneros e 66 espécies. As famílias Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Rutaceae destacaramse pelo elevado número de espécies. Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg D. Legrand, Adelia membranifolia (Müll. Arg. Chodat & Hassl., Dalbergia sp., Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Unonopsis lindmanii R.E. Fr., Guarea kunthiana A. Juss., Trichilia claussenii C. DC., Guarea guidonea (L. Sleumer, Averrhoidium paraguaiense Radlk.e Astronium graveolens Jacq. foram as espécies de maior valor de importância. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' obtido foi 3,413 nats/indivíduo e a eqüabilidade (J' foi 0,815. A densidade e a área basal estimada foi 734,44 indivíduos/ha e 21,32 m²/ha respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho reforçam a necessidade de preservação da mata ciliar do rio da Prata e são de extrema importância para subsidiar projetos de manejo e recomposição nestas formações.The present study describes species richness and diversity, and analyses phythossociologic aspects of a riparian forest at Rio da Prata, Jardim district, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The phytosociological study was carried out on six 150 m transects perpendicular to the river subdivided in 90 quadrats (10 m×10 m. All trees and shrubs with a minimum of 3,18 cm diameter at breast height were recorded, totalizing 661 individuals of 33 families, 57 genera and 66

  14. Effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of vegetal species on seed germination of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf/ Ação de extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies vegetais na germinação de sementes de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of medicinal species on seed germination of B. decumbens. The experimental design was completely randomized with 19 treatments (9 aquous extracts, 9 ethanolic extracts and a check was deionized water with 4 replicates. The species and organs used to obtain the extracts were Baccharis trimera (shoot, Baccharis articulata (shoot, Canna denudata (leaves, Cymbopogom citratus (leaves, Eucalyptus citriodora (leaves, Lippia alba (leaves and branches, Momordica charantia (leaves, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, branches and flowers e Ruta graveolens (leaves and branches. The extracts were obtained by aquous and ethanolic infusions in 10% and 1% concentration respectively. The seeds were treated with extracts for one hour and after this time sowed in plastic boxes. They were maintained in germination chamber (BOD with 16 hours of dark/20ºC and 8 hours of light/35ºC. The evaluation were made at 7Th and 21st days after seeding (DAS. The extraction methods affected seed germination. The use of aquous extract showed greater germination percentage than the ethanolic one at 7Th and 21st days. The evaluated extracts did not affect the seeds’ germination.O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies medicinais sobre germinação de sementes de B. decumbens. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 19 tratamentos (9 extratos aquosos, 9 extratos etanólicos e 1 testemunha com água deionizada com quatro repetições. As espécies e as partes das plantas utilizadas para a obtenção dos extratos foram Baccharis trimera (caule, Baccharis articulata (caule, Canna denudata (folhas, Cymbopogom citratus (folhas, Eucalyptus citriodora (folhas, Lippia alba (folhas e ramos, Momordica charantia (folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e sementes, Ocimum gratissimum (folhas, ramos e flores e

  15. Controle de mosca-branca com extratos vegetais, em tomateiro cultivado em casa-de-vegetação Use of plant extracts on whitefly control in tomato grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson LL Baldin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando buscar métodos alternativos no controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro, foram realizados testes de atratividade e preferência para oviposição em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se quatorze extratos aquosos a 3% (peso/volume. Os extratos foram preparados com partes de Azadirachta indica, Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora,Cymbopogon nardus e Coriandrum sativum. Numa segunda etapa, os extratos mais eficientes em casa-de-vegetação foram observados em laboratório, a fim de avaliar o possível efeito sistêmico dos mesmos sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. Constatou-se que as plantas de tomateiro pulverizadas com extratos à base de folhas de M. pulegium e folhas e sementes de A. indica foram menos atrativas aos adultos do inseto. Plantas pulverizadas com extratos de folhas de A. indica e folhas + ramos de R. communis mostraram efeitos deterrentes à oviposição do inseto, reduzindo o número de ovos; em contrapartida, o extrato à base de folhas de C. nardus estimulou a oviposição da mosca-branca sobre as plantas. O uso dos extratos por via sistêmica não afetou o período de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto da mosca-branca; entretanto, a presença de extratos de sementes e folhas de A. indica e de folhas de M. pulegium provocou aumento significativo na mortalidade de ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B.Looking for alternative methods of control to silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B in tomato, attractiveness and oviposition preference tests were accomplished in greenhouse using fourteen aqueous extracts at 3% (weight/volume. The extracts were prepared with parts from Azadirachta indica,Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon nardus and

  16. Espaçamento de plantio e intervalos de colheita na biomassa e no óleo essencial de gerânio Plant spacing and harvest intervals on biomass and essential oil of geranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie F Blank

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerânio (Pelargonium graveolens é uma erva aromática e seu óleo essencial é comumente utilizado na constituição de fármacos e cosméticos no mundo. A planta adapta-se bem às condições climáticas do nordeste brasileiro, mas são escassos os dados sobre seu rendimento quantitativo e qualitativo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de espaçamento de plantas e intervalos de colheita em gerânio na produção de biomassa e de óleo essencial. Foram testados três espaçamentos de plantio (50x50, 50x60 e 50x80 cm e três intervalos de colheita (8, 12 e 16 semanas. Os maiores valores totais de massa fresca e seca de folhas e caules (2679,04 g m-2; 424,62 g m-2; 1035,08 g m-2; 136,85 g m-2, respectivamente e rendimento de óleo essencial (7,56 mL m-2, que são características de interesse direto para o mercado, foram obtidos em intervalo de colheita de oito semanas e no espaçamento de 50x50 cm. Nas demais variáveis analisadas, houve pouca diferenciação entre os tratamentos, contudo, períodos longos de colheita são menos produtivos, pois houve queda nos valores de todas as variáveis nas ultimas colheitas de cada intervalo. Assim, melhores resultados de quantidade e qualidade para o gerânio foram obtidos com intervalo de 8 semanas e no espaçamento 50x50 cm.Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens is an aromatic herb and its essential oil is commonly used in the creation of drugs and cosmetics worldwide. The plant is well adapted to the climatic conditions of the Brazilian northeast, but there are few data on its quantitative and qualitative yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of plant spacing and harvest intervals of geranium on the production of biomass and essential oil. Three different plant spacings (50x50, 50x60 and 50x80 cm and three harvest intervals (8, 12 and 16 weeks were tested. The highest values of total fresh and dry weight of leaves and stems (2679.04 g m-2; 424.62 g m-2; 1035.08 g m-2

  17. Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides = Antifungal activity of plant extracts to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercia Ikarugi Bomfim Celoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito fungitóxico de extratos vegetais sobre o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir de plantas secas e moídas, utilizando-se água e etanol como meio extrator. Foram utilizadas 22 espécies de plantas para a obtençãodos extratos. Os extratos foram avaliados por meio da incorporação de 20% do extrato em meio BDA, antes ou após a autoclavagem do mesmo. Determinou-se a percentagem de inibição do crescimento micelial (PIC. Utilizando-se extrato na proporção de 50% e suspensão de esporos, determinou-se a percentagem de inibição da germinação de esporos (PIG. Verificou-se que os extratos hidroetanólicos proporcionaram maior PIC de C. gloeosporioides, enquanto maior PIG foi obtido com os extratos aquosos. Extratos não autoclavados foram mais eficientes na redução do crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides que os extratos autoclavados. Os extratos aquoso e hidroetanólico de melão-de-são-caetano e extrato hidroetanólico de eucalipto proporcionaram maiores PIC. Os extratos aquosos deLuffa acutangula, Eucalyptus citriodora, Chenopodium ambrosioides e Bauhinia, e os extratos hidroetanólicos de Ruta graveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, Zingiber officinale e Chenopodiumambrosioides inibiram mais de 90% da germinação de esporos.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect fungitoxic of plant extracts on the mycelial growth and on the spores germination of C. gloeosporioides. The plant extracts were obtained starting from dried ground plants, using water and ethilic alcohol as extractor. Twenty-two plant species were used to obtain the extracts. The extracts were tested by means of the incorporation of 20% (v/v in PDA medium, before or after sterilization. The percentage ofinhibition of the mycelial growth (PIM was determined. Extract in the proportion of 50% was added to a spore suspension used to

  18. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  19. Synthesis of L-ascorbic acid in the phloem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haupt Sophie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plants are the main source of vitamin C in the human diet, we still have a limited understanding of how plants synthesise L-ascorbic acid (AsA and what regulates its concentration in different plant tissues. In particular, the enormous variability in the vitamin C content of storage organs from different plants remains unexplained. Possible sources of AsA in plant storage organs include in situ synthesis and long-distance transport of AsA synthesised in other tissues via the phloem. In this paper we examine a third possibility, that of synthesis within the phloem. Results We provide evidence for the presence of AsA in the phloem sap of a wide range of crop species using aphid stylectomy and histochemical approaches. The activity of almost all the enzymes of the primary AsA biosynthetic pathway were detected in phloem-rich vascular exudates from Cucurbita pepo fruits and AsA biosynthesis was demonstrated in isolated phloem strands from Apium graveolens petioles incubated with a range of precursors (D-glucose, D-mannose, L-galactose and L-galactono-1,4-lactone. Phloem uptake of D-[U-14C]mannose and L-[1-14C]galactose (intermediates of the AsA biosynthetic pathway as well as L-[1-14C]AsA and L-[1-14C]DHA, was observed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf discs. Conclusions We present the novel finding that active AsA biosynthesis occurs in the phloem. This process must now be considered in the context of mechanisms implicated in whole plant AsA distribution. This work should provoke studies aimed at elucidation of the in vivo substrates for phloem AsA biosynthesis and its contribution to AsA accumulation in plant storage organs.

  20. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzić, Sulejman S

    2007-09-01

    This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and

  1. Lethal and Inhibitory Activities of Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanela, T L M; Baldin, E L L; Pannuti, L E R; Cruz, P L; Crotti, A E M; Takeara, R; Kato, M J

    2016-04-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B. tabaci biotype B in tomato and demonstrate that the essential oils (0.5%) of Piper callosum (PC-EO), Adenocalymma alliaceum (AA-EO), Pelargonium graveolens (PG-EO), and Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) inhibit the settlement and oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B adults in tomato plants. In fumigation tests, A. alliaceum (AA-EO) at 0.4 μL/L of air after 72 h and 0.1 μL/L of air after 6 h was the most effective against nymphs and adults of B. tabaci biotype B, respectively. The major chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified as being safrole (29.3%), α-pinene (19.2%), and β-pinene (14.3%), whereas diallyl trisulfide (66.9%) and diallyl disulfide (23.3%) were the major compounds identified in AA-EO. This is the first report on the reduction of oviposition by the use of P. callosum (PC-EO) and A. alliaceum (AA-EO). In addition, the fumigant effect of A. alliaceum (AA-EO) on nymphs and adults has also been reported here for the first time. PMID:26712319

  2. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  3. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  4. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  5. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mier Barona Carmen Elena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  6. Foliar accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in native tree species from the Atlantic Forest (SE-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Paula L; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to living organisms. They can accumulate on foliar surfaces due to their affinity with apolar organic compounds, which enables the use of native plant species as sentinels of atmospheric PAH deposition in polluted ecosystems. The present study extends the knowledge about this subject in the tropical region by focusing on the PAH accumulation in the foliage of dominant tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha) in four remnants of Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by diversified sources of PAHs and located in the cities of Campinas, Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópilis (central-eastern part of São Paulo State, SE-Brazil). Leaves of the tree species were collected in the forest remnants during the wet and dry seasons (2011 to 2013). All samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector for identification of 14 PAHs. The native tree species showed distinct capacities to accumulate PAHs. All of them accumulated proportionally more light PAHs than heavy PAHs, mainly during the dry period. P. gonoacantha was the most effective accumulator species. Higher accumulations of most of the PAHs occurred during the dry periods. The predominance of moderately (1 ≤ EF < 5) to highly enriched (EF ≥ 5) leaf samples of P. gonoacantha with regard to BaA and PHE in all of the forest remnants indicated that vehicular sources were widely distributed in the entire region. The predominance of the moderate to high enrichment of ACE in leaf samples from the forest remnants located in Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópolis indicated that they were also affected by emissions from petrochemical industries. PMID:26657363

  7. Nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of Astronium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; da Silva, Patrícia Bento; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; de Oliveira Lopes, Érica; de Souza, Leonardo Perez; Vilegas, Wagner; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    The genus Astronium (Anacardiaceae) includes species, such as Astronium fraxinifolium, Astronium graveolens, and Astronium urundeuva, which possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, healing, and antimicrobial properties. Nanostructured lipid systems are able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects and improving antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system that was developed as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of stems and leaves from Astronium sp. The antifungal activity against C. albicans (ATCC 18804) was evaluated in vitro by a microdilution technique. In addition to the in vitro assays, the Astronium sp. that showed the best antifungal activity and selectivity index was submitted to an in vivo assay using a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. In these assays, the extracts were either used alone or were incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (comprising 10% oil phase, 10% surfactant, and 80% aqueous phase). The results indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration of 125.00 µg/mL before incorporation into the nanostructured system; this activity was even more enhanced when this extract presented a minimal inhibitory concentration of 15.62 µg/mL after its incorporation. In vivo assay dates showed that the nanostructure-incorporated extract of A. urundeuva leaves was more effective than both the unincorporated extract and the antifungal positive control (amphotericin B). These results suggest that this nanostructured lipid system can be used in a strategy to improve the in vitro and in vivo anti-C. albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of Astronium sp. PMID:26300640

  8. Growth and photosynthetic performance of five tree seedlings species in response to natural light regimes from the Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, J Antonio; Cordero, Roberto A

    2013-09-01

    Environmental heterogeneity mostly dominated by differing light regimes affects the expression of phenotypic plasticity, which is important for plant growth and survival, especially in the forest understory. The knowledge about these responses to this heterogeneity is a key factor for forest restoration initiatives. In this study, we determine several phenotypic responses to contrasting light conditions in five native tree seedling species of La Cangreja National Park, Central Pacific of Costa Rica, four of them with threatened or relict populations. After 14 weeks at a medium gap condition (24% of full sun), seedlings were transferred and acclimated for 11 weeks to three different natural light regimes: large gap (LG), medium gap (MG) and small gap (SG), corresponding to 52%, 24%, 9% of the mean direct and indirect radiation at each site from full sun. Growth, biomass allocation and leaf gas exchange were measured after the acclimation period. Four species strongly reduced relative growth rate (RGR) in the lower light condition. Total biomass (TB) and RGR were different in Hymenaea courbaril and Platymiscium curiense. H. courbaril and Astronium graveolens had significant changes in the maximum assimilation rate, with a mean value in the LG of 11.02 and 7.70 micromolCO2/m2s, respectively. P. curuense showed the same trend and significant changes in RGR and biomass allocation. Aspidosperma myristicifolium and Plinia puriscalensis showed no adjustments to the light regimes in any of the measured variables. This study remarks the importance of determining the growth and physiological performance of these tree native species. It also demonstrates that the most threatened species are those with the less plastic responses to the light regimes, which stresses the difficult situation of their natural populations. This study highlights an urgent definition of the conservation and restoration needs of the degraded forests of the Costa Rican Central Pacific area, where these

  9. Synergism between ozone and light stress: structural responses of polyphenols in a woody Brazilian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francine Faia; Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2016-07-01

    Microscopic studies on isolated ozone (O3) effects or on those in synergy with light stress commonly report the induction of polyphenols that exhibit different aspects within the vacuole of photosynthesizing cells. It has been assumed that these different aspects are randomly spread in the symptomatic (injured) regions of the leaf blade. Interestingly, secretory ducts that constitutively produce polyphenols also exhibit these same variations in their vacuolar aspect, in a spatial sequence related to the destiny of these cells (e.g., programmed cell death (PCD) in lytic secretion processes). Here, we demonstrate that the deposition pattern of polyphenols prior to the establishment of the hypersensitive-like response, a type of PCD caused by O3, follows the same one observed in the epithelial cells of the constitutive lysigenous secretory ducts. Astronium graveolens, an early secondary Brazilian woody species, was selected based on its susceptibility to high light and presence of secretory ducts. The synergism effects were assessed by exposing plants to the high O3 concentrations at an urban site in São Paulo City. Confocal, widefield and light microscopies were used to examine polyphenols' occurrence and aspects. The spatial pattern of polyphenols distribution along the leaflets of plants submitted to the synergism condition, in which a dense vacuolar aspect is the target of a cell destined to death, was also observed in the constitutive secretory cells prior to lysis. This similar structural pattern may be a case of homology of process involving both the constitutive (secretory ducts) and the induced (photosynthesizing cells) defenses. PMID:27155473

  10. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC₅₀=16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC₅₀=0.43±0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC₅₀=0.49±0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC₅₀=2.5±0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

  11. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-09-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial activity of garlic was found to be the most effective against all the tested pathogens. Inhibition zones of garlic extract against all pathogens was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining spice extracts. Inhibition zones (12.50 ± 1.00 to 15.50 ± 1.00 mm) of ginger and R. graveolens ethanol extracts against all tested pathogens were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining solvent extracts. Inhibition zone of O. basilicum ethanol extract against all pathogenic bacteria was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than hexane and acetone extracts. Lactobacillus isolates were shown the highest antimicrobial activity than the other LAB isolates against all pathogens. The synergistic effect of spices together with LAB might be contributed a lot to preserve and extend shelf life of metata ayib. Their antimicrobial activity can reduce the risk of spoilage and pathogenesis. The possible reason of LAB isolates was may be due to production of lactic acid, acetic acid and secondary metabolites like bacteriocins. Aseptic processing of traditional cottage cheese (ayib) is by far needed to minimize risks associated during consumption of metata ayib. PMID:26344979

  12. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-09-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial activity of garlic was found to be the most effective against all the tested pathogens. Inhibition zones of garlic extract against all pathogens was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining spice extracts. Inhibition zones (12.50 ± 1.00 to 15.50 ± 1.00 mm) of ginger and R. graveolens ethanol extracts against all tested pathogens were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining solvent extracts. Inhibition zone of O. basilicum ethanol extract against all pathogenic bacteria was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than hexane and acetone extracts. Lactobacillus isolates were shown the highest antimicrobial activity than the other LAB isolates against all pathogens. The synergistic effect of spices together with LAB might be contributed a lot to preserve and extend shelf life of metata ayib. Their antimicrobial activity can reduce the risk of spoilage and pathogenesis. The possible reason of LAB isolates was may be due to production of lactic acid, acetic acid and secondary metabolites like bacteriocins. Aseptic processing of traditional cottage cheese (ayib) is by far needed to minimize risks associated during consumption of metata ayib.

  13. [Effects of ruta SSP on the activity of the smooth gastrointestinal muscle isolated of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorjev, Carlota A; Brizuela, Nilda Y

    2010-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta chalepensis L. are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive and for intestinal gases. Animals used as experimental model were rats of the Wistar line, adult females, clinically healthy and with a weight average of 250 grams. We used strips of stomach and duodenum. Each one of the segments mounted on two stirrups in a bath of organ isolated with Ringer-lactate solution, at 37° C , pH: 7.3-7.4, and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2. One of the stirrups was connected vertically to the bottom of the bath and the other to a transducer of tension connected to a Beckman polygraph. We applied 500 mgs of basal tension. After the stabilization, the ethanolic extract of Ruta ssp was added in increasing doses. At 50μl/ml the tone lower 23% in small intestine and lower 27% in stomach. However at 100 μl/ml the tone lower 32% and 35% respectively. In the other parameters the amplitude decrease 50% in the stomach at dose of 5 μl/ml while in the small intestine the amplitude lower 60%. With 10 μl/ml the amplitude change in both organs ( 96% in small intestine, and 75% in stomach). The frequency changes in both organs ( 32% in small intestine, and 50% in stomach) at 10 μl/ml Rue showed decreased effects on isolated small intestine and stomach were is dose dependent, maybe we were demonstrated the effects digestive of Ruta.

  14. Repelência e atividade inseticida de pós vegetais sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman em feijão-fava armazenado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Girão Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de Piper nigrum L. (pimenta do reino, Ruta graveolens L. (arruda, Laurus nobilis L. (louro, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry (cravo da índia, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, Piper tuberculatum Jaqc. (pimenta de macaco, Tagetes erecta L. (cravo de defunto, Cymbopogon nardus L. (citronela e Melissa officinalis L. (erva cidreira sobre Z. subfasciatus Boh. através dos testes de confinamento, onde os insetos foram confinados durante cinco dias em um recipiente contendo dez grãos de feijão-fava com 0,3 g do pó da planta a ser testada, e, com chance de escolha por meio de uma arena circular, os insetos tiveram a possibilidade de escolha entre grãos com os pós e a testemunha, grãos sem pó das plantas. Observou-se que houve plantas que atuaram como inseticida, outras que repeliram o inseto e não causaram a morte, e outras, que além de repelir também mataram os insetos quando em contato (cravo da índia e matruz. Concluímos que: P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, S. aromaticum e C. ambrosioides são tóxicas à Z. subfasciatus causando-lhes a morte, L. nobilis, T. erecta, e C. nardus não apresentaram efeito tóxico sobre Z. subfasciatus, C. ambrosioides, S. aromaticum, e C. nardus são repelentes à Z. subfasciatus; P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, e T. erecta são neutras, e que M. officinalis não apresentou nenhum efeito sobre Z. subfasciatus em relação aos parâmetros avaliados.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd. PMID:26013654

  16. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. PMID:12807304

  17. 驱蚊草(Pelargonium×citrosum Van leenii)挥发物成分的采集与分析%The Analysis of the Volatile Compounds Which Collected from Pelargonium × citrosum Van leenii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路荣春; 陈佳佳; 林宇杰; 闻海峰; 施文健

    2015-01-01

    利用固相微萃取(SPME)和水蒸气蒸馏(SD)2种方法对驱蚊草的挥发物进行采集,并通过气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)进行分析.共分离、检测出化合物60余种,鉴定了其中的42种化合物.在这些化合物中,以萜烯和酯类为主,另有少量醇、醛、酮和醚类化合物.其中香茅醛、反式薄荷酮、香茅醇、甲酸香茅酯、荜澄茄油烯、β-波旁烯、表双环倍半水芹烯、β-古云烯等化合物的含量较高.香茅醛和香茅醇是有效的驱蚊成分.驱蚊草的挥发物和香叶天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)的挥发物的组成成分和相对含量都比较相似.不同的是香叶天竺葵的挥发物中未检测到香茅醛.驱蚊草的挥发物与香茅草(Cymbopogon citratus)的挥发物的成分差别明显.

  18. Produtos naturais para o controle do ácaro Varroa destructor em abelhas africanizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Laércio Bragança Castagnino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido oxálico e de óleos essenciais de plantas no controle da infestação pelo ácaro Varroa destructor em colônias de Apis mellifera africanizadas. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em 30 colônias, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As colmeias foram tratadas com óleos essenciais de arruda (Ruta graveolens, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp. e hortelã (Mentha piperita, além de timol, ácido oxálico e do tratamento controle sem aplicação de produtos. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade de varroas e as taxas de mortalidade de crias e de infestação de varroas em crias e em abelhas adultas, antes e depois da aplicação de cada produto. O ácido oxálico e os óleos de arruda, timol, eucalipto e de hortelã reduziram a mortalidade de crias parasitadas pelo ácaro em 92,1, 83,3, 81,7, 86,4 e 81,3%, respectivamente. O tratamento com ácido oxálico reduziu em 87,4% a infestação de varroas em abelhas adultas. O uso desses produtos é eficiente na redução da mortalidade de crias de A. mellifera parasitadas por V. destructor.

  19. Furanocoumarin biosynthesis in Ammi majus L. Cloning of bergaptol O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehmann, Marc; Lukacin, Richard; Ekiert, Halina; Matern, Ulrich

    2004-03-01

    Plants belonging to the Apiaceae or Rutaceae accumulate methoxylated psoralens, such as bergapten or xanthotoxin, as the final products of their furanocoumarin biosynthesis, and the rate of accumulation depends on environmental and other cues. Distinct O-methyltransferase activities had been reported to methylate bergaptol to bergapten and xanthotoxol to xanthotoxin, from induced cell cultures of Ruta graveolens, Petroselinum crispum and Ammi majus. Bergaptol 5-O-methyltransferase (BMT) cDNA was cloned from dark-grown Ammi majus L. cells treated with a crude fungal elicitor. The translated polypeptide of 38.7 kDa, composed of 354 amino acids, revealed considerable sequence similarity to heterologous caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferases (COMTs). For homologous comparison, COMT was cloned from A. majus plants and shown to share 64% identity and about 79% similarity with the BMT sequence at the polypeptide level. Functional expression of both enzymes in Escherichia coli revealed that the BMT activity in the bacterial extracts was labile and rapidly lost on purification, whereas the COMT activity remained stable. Furthermore, the recombinant AmBMT, which was most active in potassium phosphate buffer of pH 8 at 42 degrees C, showed narrow substrate specificity for bergaptol (Km SAM 6.5 micro m; Km Bergaptol 2.8 micro m) when assayed with a variety of substrates, including xanthotoxol, while the AmCOMT accepted 5-hydroxyferulic acid, esculetin and other substrates. Dark-grown A. majus cells expressed significant BMT activity which nevertheless increased sevenfold within 8 h upon the addition of elicitor and reached a transient maximum at 8-11 h, whereas the COMT activity was rather low and did not respond to the elicitation. Complementary Northern blotting revealed that the BMT transcript abundance increased to a maximum at 7 h, while only a weak constitutive signal was observed for the COMT transcript. The AmBMT sequence thus represents a novel database accession

  20. Bacteriostasis Activity of Flower Extracts Against Three Species of Bacteria%花卉提取物对3种细菌的抑菌性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕慧; 孟雪; 王志英

    2010-01-01

    利用丙酮超声波提取和减压浓缩技术,获得17种花卉茎、叶的提取物,分析各提取物对3种细菌的抑菌结果.天竺葵(Pelargonium graveolens)对腐生葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus saprophyticus)和藤黄葡萄球菌(Micrococcus luteus)具有抑制作用;杜鹃(Rhododendronsimsii & R. spp.)对腐生葡萄球菌和炭疽杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)具有抑制作用.天竺葵提取物4种供试质量浓度对腐生葡萄球菌的抑菌率均达96%以上,杜鹃提取物对炭疽杆菌的抑菌率在77%~84%之间.但天竺葵、杜鹃提取物分别对炭疽杆菌和藤黄葡萄球菌无抑制效果.2种花卉提取物抑菌率卡方检验结果表明,不同质量浓度的天竺葵提取物对藤黄葡萄球菌抑菌率差异显著;杜鹃提取物不同质量浓度间对腐生葡萄球菌的抑菌率差异显著.

  1. Combined HPLC-CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay of parsley, celery leaves, and nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Leyla; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2008-10-19

    This study aims to identify the essential antioxidant compounds present in parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and celery (Apium graveolens) leaves belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) belonging to Urticaceae family, to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of these compounds with CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and ABTS spectrophotometric methods, and to correlate the TAC with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) findings. The CUPRAC spectrophotometric method of TAC assay using copper(II)-neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) as the chromogenic oxidant was developed in our laboratories. The individual antioxidant constituents of plant extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using a modified mobile phase of gradient elution comprised of MeOH-0.2% o-phosphoric acid and UV detection for polyphenols at 280 nm. The TAC values of HPLC-quantified antioxidant constituents were found, and compared for the first time with those found by CUPRAC. The TAC of HPLC-quantified compounds accounted for a relatively high percentage of the observed CUPRAC capacities of plant extracts, namely 81% of nettle, 60-77% of parsley (in different hydrolyzates of extract and solid sample), and 41-57% of celery leaves (in different hydrolyzates). The CUPRAC total capacities of the 70% MeOH extracts of studied plants (in the units of mmol trolox g(-1)plant) were in the order: celery leaves>nettle>parsley. The TAC calculated with the aid of HPLC-spectrophotometry did not compensate for 100% of the CUPRAC total capacities, because all flavonoid glycosides subjected to hydrolysis were either not detectable with HPLC, or not converted to the corresponding aglycons (i.e., easily detectable and quantifiable with HPLC) during the hydrolysis step. PMID:18804638

  2. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  3. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  4. Produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com espécies aromáticas e medicinais Yield of tomato in monocrop and intercropping with aromatics plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro é cultivado, principalmente em monocultivos, com uso intensivo de defensivos químicos, atividade de risco econômico, social e ambiental. O consórcio vem sendo praticado como forma de reduzir os riscos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção do tomateiro solteiro e em consórcio com as espécies medicinais e aromáticas Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum e Ruta graveolens. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos. Avaliou-se altura, área do dossel, produção, produtividade e eficiência do uso da terra. Nos consórcios, verificou-se que, na densidade de plantio adotada, o funcho teve maior altura e área de dossel e causou redução significativa na produção total de tomates: de 12,23 kg, no cultivo solteiro, para 7,88 kg, no consórcio com funcho. No entanto, contribuiu com a menor porcentagem de perda de tomates por broqueamento (24%. As maiores perdas por broqueamento ocorreram no monocultivo e no consórcio com hortelã-pimenta. A arruda favoreceu aumento significativo na produção comercial de tomates, em média 26%. A produtividade relativa do tomateiro foi maior no consórcio com arruda (13,6 t ha-1, seguido pelo consórcio com hortelã-pimenta (9,8 t ha-1 e manjericão (9,1 t ha-1, e menor no consórcio com funcho (6,4 t ha-1, o que indicou que o consórcio com arruda foi mais vantajoso para a produção de tomates. Dentre as aromáticas estudadas, o manjericão teve maior produtividade (96,5 t ha-1. Concluindo, os consórcios permitiram maior aproveitamento no uso da terra, com aumento na produtividade dos tomateiros na presença da arruda e redução na presença do funcho. As demais plantas não reduziram significativamente a produção e portanto podem ser empregadas como fonte alternativa de renda.Tomato is mainly cultivated in monocrops, by intensive use of chemical products. It is an activity with economic, social and

  5. Comparison Of Cd And Zn Accumulation In Tissues Of Different Vascular Plants: A Radiometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dürešová Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the accumulation and translocation of Cd and Zn in plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., celery (Apium graveolens L., maize (Zea mays L., giant reed (Arundo donax L., and alpine pennycress (Noccaea caerulescens L. under conditions of short-term hydroponic experiments using nutrient solutions spiked with radionuclides 109Cd or 65Zn, and direct gamma-spectrometry. It was found that the time-course of metals accumulation in studied plants was not different in terms of target metal, but it was significantly different on the level of plant species. The highest values of Cd accumulation showed plants of giant reed, whereby the accumulation decreased in the order: giant reed > tobacco > alpine pennycress >> maize and celery. On the basis of concentration ratios (CR [Me]shoot / [Me]root calculation for both metals, it was found that Cd and Zn were in prevailing part accumulated in the root tissues and only partially accumulated in the shoots, where the amount of accumulated Cd and Zn increased from the oldest developed leaves to the youngest developed leaves. The CR values corresponding to these facts were calculated in the range 0.06 – 0.27 for Cd and for Zn 0.06 – 0.48. In terms of plant species, the CR values obtained for Cd decreased in the order: maize > celery > tobacco and giant reed > alpine pennycress. The similarity between studied objects – individual plant species on the basis of the obtained variables defining Cd or Zn accumulation at different conditions of the experiments as well as the relationships between obtained variables and conditions of the experiments were subjected to multivariate analysis method – cluster analysis (CA. According to the findings and this analysis, it can be expected that plants of tobacco and giant reed will dispose with similar characteristics as plants of alpine pennycress, which are classified as Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, in terms of Cd or Zn accumulation

  6. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  7. 特定芳香植物组合对降压保健功能的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Combinations of Specific Aromatic Plants for Hypotensive Healthcare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 姚雷

    2011-01-01

    The paper is to evaluate the hypotensive effect of natural incense released from aromatic plants which mainly consist of Lavandula angustifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Origanum majorana, and Ocimum basilicum, and provide experimental data and theoretical evidence for the hypotensive effect of aromatic plants nature incense. Methods: After the project area for aromatic plants with benefits of lowering blood pressure and mental stress were completed during the vigorous plant growth period month of May, an experiment was made where 38 volunteers with mild hypertension participated in an aroma test. Result: Statistical significances (P<0.05) have been observed in comparison of systolic and diastolic pressures. Analysed with SCL90, the decrease of different degrees was confirmed in each index, and total symptom index and body symptoms decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aromatic plants nature incense has functioned actively for blood pressure reduction and subjects mental outlook.%探索以真薰衣草、香叶天竺葵、甜牛至、甜罗勒为主要构成的芳香植物闻乔区内自然香气是否对高血压症状闻香者有缓解作用,并对芳香物降压保健闻香区的构建提供理论参考依据.结果表明:闻香后,收缩压和舒张压的差值显著高于闻香前(P<0.05);SGL90自测量表分析表明,闻香后各项指标得分均有不同程度降低.总症状指数、躯体化在闻香后显著低于闻香前(P<0.05).结论:芳香植物闻香区自然香气对降血压有一定效果,并能改善受试行的精神面貌.

  8. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity: prospects for conservation biological control in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  9. Nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of Astronium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifácio BV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruna Vidal Bonifácio,1 Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos,1 Patrícia Bento da Silva,2 Kamila Maria Silveira Negri,1 Érica de Oliveira Lopes,1 Leonardo Perez de Souza,3 Wagner Vilegas,4 Fernando Rogério Pavan,1 Marlus Chorilli,2 Taís Maria Bauab11Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Organic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Coastal Campus of São Vicente, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, São Vicente, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The genus Astronium (Anacardiaceae includes species, such as Astronium fraxinifolium, Astronium graveolens, and Astronium urundeuva, which possess anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, healing, and antimicrobial properties. Nanostructured lipid systems are able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects and improving antimicrobial activity. This work aims to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system that was developed as a strategy to improve the anti-Candida albicans activity of hydroethanolic extracts of stems and leaves from Astronium sp. The antifungal activity against C. albicans (ATCC 18804 was evaluated in vitro by a microdilution technique. In addition to the in vitro assays, the Astronium sp. that showed the best antifungal activity and selectivity index was submitted to an in vivo assay using a model of vulvovaginal candidiasis infection. In these assays, the extracts were either used alone or were incorporated into the nanostructured lipid system (comprising 10% oil phase, 10% surfactant, and 80% aqueous phase. The results indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration of 125.00 µg/mL before incorporation into the nanostructured system; this activity was even more enhanced when this extract presented a minimal inhibitory concentration of 15.62 µg/mL after its incorporation. In vivo assay dates showed that the

  10. Natural Plant Oils and Terpenes as Protector for the Potato Tubers against Phthorimaea operculella Infestation by Different Application Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For protecting potato tubers from the potato tuber moth (PTM infestation during storage, different concentrations of ten natural plant oils and three commercial monoterpnes were tested, some as fumigants or dusts against adults or dusts against neonate larvae, while others as sprays on the gunny sacks in which potato tubers were stored. Tuber damage indices as well as persistence indices for tested materials were assessed. Vapors of Cymbopogon citratus, Myristica fragrans (nutmag, Mentha citrata and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused a highly significant reductions in the life span of exposed moths as well as in new adult offsprings. Other tested oils as Cinnamonium zeylanicum, Myristica. fragrans (Mace and Pelargonium graveolens caused a insignificant effect. There was no significant effect of the tested vapors on egg hatchability, except in case of oils of C. citratus, M. fragrans (nutmag and M. tragrans(Mace oil which caused high reduction in egg hatchability. According to the values of damage indices, the most effective oil vapors were arranged ascendingly as follows: Myristica (nutmag < Cymbopogon < Mentha < a - Ionone. Dusting potato tubers with 1% conc., (mixed with talcum powder of Myristica, Mentha, Cymbopogons oils and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused high reduction in egg deposition, adult emergence as well as percentage of penetrated larvae of PTM. According to their damage indices, Cymbopogon and ά-Ionone were the most protective oils, followed by Myristica and Mentha. Spraying gunnysacks with 1% conc., of the aforementioned natural oils separately elicited high reduction in PTM progeny; while their combinations did not elicit any significant synergistic effect. According to their tuber damage indices, it was found that Cymbopogon oil alone or mixed with Myristica oil showed the best protective effect, followed by Myristica oil alone and Mentha oil mixed with Cymbopogon oil. Assessment of the persistence index of various tested materials

  11. Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 of celery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gadermaier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery (Apium graveolens represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. METHODOLOGY: 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP and nPru p 3 (peach LTP using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected patients with reactivity to LTP under investigation were evaluated. Specific IgE titers and cross-inhibitions were performed in ELISA and allergen microarray. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified LTPs; IgG titers were determined in ELISA and mediator release was examined using RBL-2H3 cells. Simulated endolysosomal digestion was performed using microsomes obtained from human DCs. RESULTS: IgE testing showed a sensitization prevalence of 25.6% to Api g 2, 18.6% to Art v 3, and 28.6% to Pru p 3 and frequent co-sensitization and correlating IgE-reactivity was observed. 10/32 patients suffering from LTP-related allergy reported symptoms upon consumption of celery stalks which mainly presented as OAS. Considerable IgE cross-reactivity was observed between Api g 2, Art v 3, and Pru p 3 with varying inhibition degrees of individual patients' sera. Simulating LTP mono-sensitization in a mouse model showed development of more congruent antibody specificities between Api g 2 and Art v 3. Notably, biologically relevant murine IgE cross-reactivity was restricted to the latter and diverse from Pru p 3 epitopes. Endolysosomal processing of LTP showed generation of similar clusters, which presumably represent T-cell peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Api g 2 represents a relevant celery stalk allergen in the LTP-sensitized population. The molecule displays common B cell epitopes and endolysosomal peptides that encompass T cell epitopes with pollen and plant-food derived LTP.

  12. Avaliação fototóxica e screening mutagênico de extratos de propolis, Aloe spp. e Hamamelis virginiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F.S. RAMOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A utilização de extratos vegetais em produtos farmacêuticos e cosméticos tem mostrado ser uma tendência mundial e cresceu substancialmente nas duas últimas décadas. No entanto, há ainda poucos relatos na literatura com relação à atividade mutagênica ou fototóxica de extratos vegetais. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a atividade fototóxica e o “screening” mutagênico de extratos fluidos e secos de própolis, Aloe spp. e Hamamelis virginiana. Na investigação de fototoxicidade foram realizados ensaios microbiológicos, utilizando cepas de Candida albicans e Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bem como ensaios biológicos com cobaias albinos. Extratos etanólicos de Ruta graveolens e Citrus spp., além de 8-metoxipsoraleno (fármaco sintético padrão, foram usados como controles positivos em ambos os testes. A atividade mutagênica foi avaliada qualitativamente segundo o “spot test” descrito por Maron & Ames, com cepas de Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 e TA102, empregando como controle positivo o óxido de 4-nitroquinolina. Não foi observada atividade fototóxica, em ambos os ensaios realizados, para qualquer dos extratos. O ensaio microbiológico demonstrou uma atividade fungistática ou fungicida nos extratos secos de hamamélis. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios microbiológicos com a levedura S. cerevisiae indicam que este microrganismo apresentou eficiência no procedimento de “screening” de atividade fototóxica comparável à obtida com C. albicans. Os extratos vegetais não apresentaram atividade mutagênica nos ensaios preliminares realizados. Palavras-chave: Aloe spp., Hamamelis virginiana, própolis, fototoxicidade, mutagenicidade.

  13. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  14. 芹菜素对癌细胞作用机理的研究进展%Research progress in mechanism of apigenin' s anticarcinogenic activity on cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈况况; 章宏慧; 陈健初

    2013-01-01

    Apigenin is an important flavonoid in Apium graveolens.lt has the effect of inhibition and cell apotosis induction on many kinds of cancer cells.But the mechanism of its effect on cancer cells has not yet been explained thoroughly and accurately.ln this paper,apigenin' s anti-cancer effect was summarized and discussed with the reference of relevant literatures of anticarcinogenic activity in recent years. The research of the mechanism was further concentrated on the cellular and molecular levels including the inhibition or activation on gene and protein, regulation of signal factor, intervention of enzyme activity. This research of the mechanism of apigenin' s anticarcinogenic activity v/as an important part of cancer chemoprevention, which provided theory basis for its application as a cancer chemoprevention agent.%芹菜素是芹菜中含有的一种重要的黄酮类物质,对多种癌细胞都有抑制其生长和促使其凋亡的作用,但是它对于癌细胞产生作用的具体机制尚未得到全面准确的阐释.本文参考近年来对芹菜素抗癌作用的研究的相关文献,分别对芹菜素对一些癌细胞的作用机制做了归纳和探讨.芹菜素对癌细胞作用的机理研究已经深入到细胞和分子水平,抑癌机理包括对基因和蛋白的抑制或激活,对信号因子的调节,干预酶发挥作用等.对芹菜素的抗癌作用机理的研究是通过饮食对癌症进行化学预防的一个重要部分,芹菜素作为癌症化学预防制剂具有广阔的应用前景.

  15. An update review on Commiphora molmol and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkal, Abdulkader M D; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    calibrations of Commiphora phylogeny proved that it is sister to Vietnamese Bursera tonkinensis and that its crown group radiation corresponds with the onset of the Miocene. Auffray (2007) in France studied the impact of two types of antioxidant on sebum squalene peroxidation by UV irradiation. The first type was free radical scavenger (Butyl hydroxyl toluene and an olive extract rich in hydroxytyrosol). The second type was the essential oil of C. myrrha, a singlet oxygen quencher. These properties were confirmed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test for anti-radical capacity and 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran test for the capacity to quench singlet oxygen. Also, the author extended an ex vivo method to classify the efficacy of cosmetics to protect squalene by collecting sebum in vivo and irradiating it in a controlled way. The squalene monohydroperoxide formation was monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. This method compared the efficiency of 3 antioxidants at 0.6% in a cosmetic formulation to protect squalene from photo oxidation. The data showed that essential oil of C. myrrha gave the best protection against squalene peroxidation, and that squalene peroxidation during solar exposure was mainly because of singlet oxygen and not due to free radical attack, and that sun care cosmetics should make use not only of free radical scavengers but also of singlet oxygen quenchers. This study aimed to review more than 70 out of hundreds papers (Pub-med-indexed for Medline) on the medical importance and safety of Commiphora molmol and other Commiphora species. PMID:19209761

  16. 3D characterization of crack propagation in building stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Crosta, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    Opening of fractures can strongly modify mechanical characteristics of natural stones and thus significantly decrease stability of historical and modern buildings. It is commonly thought that fractures origin from pre-existing structures of the rocks, such as pores, veins, stylolythes (Meng and Pan, 2007; Yang et al., 2008). The aim of this study is to define relationships between crack formation and textural characteristics in massive carbonate lithologies and to follow the evolution of fractures with loading. Four well known Spanish building limestones and dolostones have been analysed: Amarillo Triana (AT): a yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides or hydroxides; Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble with pore clusters orientated parallel to metamorphic foliation; Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone (mudstone), characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%); Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone (packstone) with white veins, made up exclusively by calcite in crystals up to 300 micron. All lithotypes are characterized by homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and low porosity (<10%). Three cores 20 mm in diameter have been obtained for each lithotype. Uniaxial compressive tests have been carried out in order to induce sample fracturing by a series of successive steps with application of a progressive normal stress. Crack propagation has been checked after each stress level application by microCT-RX following Hg impregnation of the sample (in a Hg porosimeter). Combination of both tests (microCT-RX and Hg porosimeter) guarantees a better characterization of small defects and their progressive propagation inside low-porous rocks than by employing solely microCT-RX (Fusi et al., 2009). Due to the reduced dimensions of sample holder (dilatometers) in porosimeter, cores have been cut with a non standard h/d = 1.5. Several cycles of: a) Hg

  17. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  18. Chlorophyll fluorescence of tropical tree species in a semi-deciduous forest gap Fluorescência da clorofila de espécies arbóreas tropicais em uma clareira de floresta semidecídua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of different ecological groups in a forest formation/succession is unclear. To better define the different successional classes, we have to consider ecophysiological aspects, such as the capacity to use or dissipate the light energy available. The main objective of this work was to assess the chlorophyll fluorescence emission of tropical tree species growing in a gap of a semi-deciduous forest. Three species of different ecological groups were selected: Croton floribundus Spreng. (pioneer, P, Astronium graveolens Jacq. (early secondary, Si, and Esenbeckia febrifuga A. Juss. (late secondary, St. The potential (Fv/Fm and effective (deltaF/Fm' quantum efficiency of photosystem II, apparent electron transport rate (ETR, non-photochemical (qN and photochemical (qP quenching of fluorescence were evaluated, using a modulated fluorometer, between 7:30 and 11:00 h. Values of Fv/Fm remained constant in St, decreasing in P and Si after 9:30 h, indicating the occurrence of photoinhibition. Concerning the measurements taken under light conditions (deltaF/Fm', ETR, qP and qN, P and Si showed better photochemical performance, i.e., values of deltaF/Fm', ETR and qP were higher than St when light intensity was increased. Values of qN indicated that P and Si had an increasing tendency of dissipating the excess of energy absorbed by the leaf, whereas the opposite was found for St. The principal component analysis (PCA, considering all evaluated parameters, showed a clear distinction between St, P and Si, with P and Si being closer. The PCA results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence may be a potential tool to differentiate tree species from distinct successional groups.A caracterização dos diferentes grupos ecológicos envolvidos nos processos de formação/sucessão florestal é ainda pouco precisa. Para melhor distinção das classes sucessionais deve-se levar em consideração aspectos ecofisiológicos, como a capacidade de

  19. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and aqueous plant extracts aiming at the control of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: TephritidaeCompatibilidade de nematóides entomopatogênicos e extratos vegetais aquosos visando o controle da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Rohde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae has been controlled mainly by the chemical method, which is responsible for environmental and public health impacts. It has often been ineffective due to development of resistant insect populations. Thus, it has necessary to research new effective and less impacting control forms. In this sense, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes and plant extracts has been effective for controlling this pest. However, studies are needed to assess the compatibility between these methods, aiming at their use in integrated management programs for this pest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae ALL and Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 with aqueous extracts prepared from dried plant of cinnamon leaf, twig and fruit (Melia azedarach, rue leaf (Ruta graveolens, ginger (Zingiber officinale and garlic (Allium sativum for the control of C. capitata. The bioassay was carried out in completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. Each replication consisted of a glass tube containing 1 mL of plant extract 40% w/v and 1 mL suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes with 1800 JI/mL for S. carpocapsae ALL and 600 JI/mL for Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4. The viability and infectivity of this nematode were evaluated on C. capitata larvae after 48 and 120 hours. It was found that all extracts reduced the viability and infectivity of both nematodes and they were incompatible after 120 hours of exposure. The nematode Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 was more sensitive than the S. carpocapsae ALL as it showed, in the first 48 hours, a reduction in the viability and infectivity of more than 80 and 75%, respectively, when exposed to all the extracts except the ginger.A mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae tem sido controlada, principalmente, pelo método químico, que é o responsável por impactos ambientais e na saúde pública e, muitas

  20. 铁线莲属黄花铁线莲组修订%A revision of Clematis sect. Meclatis (Ranunculaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采

    2006-01-01

    Clematis sect. Meclatis is revised in this paper. Brief taxonomic history and geographical distribution of the section are given, its systematic position and the relationships among the species are discussed, and the evolutionary trends of some characters in the section are evaluated. Clematis akebioides (Maxim.) Veitch and C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. are considered the primitive species in the section, whereas C. caudigera W. T. Wang and C. corniculata W. T. Wang are considered the advanced ones. The western edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau with the Pamirs and the adjacent mountains, the highest land mass in the world, where 10 species of the section are concentrated, is regarded as the distribution center, and the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau, where the two primitive species, C. akebioides and C. tangutica, sympatrically occur, may be the center of origin of the section. The inclusion of C. ispahanica Boiss. and C. graveolens Lindl. in sect. Meclatis by some authors is not accepted, with the former being a member of sect. Clematis, and the latter a member of sect. Brachiatae Snoeijer. A new variety, C. intricata Bunge var. intrapuberula W. T. Wang, is described, and two new combinations, C. tangutica var. mongolica (Grey-Wilson) W. T. Wang and C. tibetana Kuntze var. pamiralaica (Grey-Wilson) W. T. Wang, is proposed. As a result, 13 species and 13 varieties are recognized in sect. Meclatis. They are keyed, described, and illustrated.%对毛茛科铁线莲属Clematis的黄花铁线莲组sect. Meclatis进行了全面修订, 确定此属含13种和13变种(包括1新变种和2新变种等级);写出了此组的分类学简史和地理分布, 并对其在铁线莲属中的系统位置和组内诸种的亲缘关系进行了讨论;还写出了此组的分种、分变种检索表, 以及各种植物的形态描述、地理分布、生长环境等, 并附有各种的插图.此组的花构造与对枝铁线莲组sect. Brachiatae