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Sample records for bursaphelenchus xylophilus nematoda

  1. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Li-hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp. caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  2. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  3. New insights into the phylogeny and worldwide dispersion of two closely related nematode species, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

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    Filipe Pereira

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.

  4. Specific and functional diversity of endophytic bacteria from pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with different virulence.

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    Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yuan, Wei-Min; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Ben; Fang, Xin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Ding, Xiao-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus

  5. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita

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    Gai Liu; Daowan Lai; Qi Zhi Liu; Ligang Zhou; Zhi Long Liu

    2016-01-01

    During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, tw...

  6. Suggestions on management measures of pine forest ecosystems invaded by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO You-qing; XIA Nai-bin; WU Hai-wei; SONG Ji-ying

    2008-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle is an important invasive alien species in forests of China and has become one of the most destructive forest diseases. In order to improve the resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystems against B. xylophilus invasion and make the pine forest ecosystem more timely responsive to PWN invasion,we made some recommendations based on five years of intensive observations. We advocate a set of management measures with the theme "Prevention is priority, but integrated with curative techniques and ecological resilience" on the pine forest ecosystem invaded by B. xylophilus; details of accurate measures are proposed. The aim is to discover the underlying problems of present pine forest ecosystems and to take, correspondingly, administrative measures and strategies, which will encourage the pine forest ecosystem to develop in a benign way.

  7. Specific and Functional Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria from Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus with Different Virulence

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    Xiao-Qin Wu, Wei-Min Yuan, Xiao-Jing Tian, Ben Fan, Xin Fang, Jian-Ren Ye, Xiao-Lei Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO. The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80% from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist

  8. Identification and characterization of a dual-acting antinematodal agent against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Wan-Suk Oh

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a mycophagous and phytophagous pathogen responsible for the current widespread epidemic of the pine wilt disease, which has become a major threat to pine forests throughout the world. Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of PWN currently exists. In the characterization of basic physiological properties of B. xylophilus YB-1 isolates, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS method that identifies potential hits within approximately 7 h. Using this HTS method, we screened 206 compounds with known activities, mostly antifungal, for antinematodal activities and identified HWY-4213 (1-n-undecyl-2-[2-fluorphenyl] methyl-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinolinium chloride, a highly water-soluble protoberberine derivative, as a potent nematicidal and antifungal agent. When tested on 4 year-old pinewood seedlings that were infected with YB-1 isolates, HWY-4213 exhibited a potent therapeutic nematicidal activity. Further tests of screening 39 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in channel proteins and B. xylophilus sensitivity to Ca(2+ channel blockers suggested that HWY-4213 targets the calcium channel proteins. Our study marks a technical breakthrough by developing a novel HTS method that leads to the discovery HWY-4213 as a dual-acting antinematodal and antifungal compound.

  9. Deciphering the Molecular Variations of Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with Different Virulence.

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    Xiaolei Ding

    Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causative agent of pine wilt disease which has caused huge economic losses in many countries. It has been reported that two forms of pine wood nematodes existed in its native region, i.e., with strong virulence and weak virulence. However, little is known about the molecular differences between the two forms. To better understand their molecular variations, transcriptome and genome sequences of three strongly virulent and one weakly virulent strains were analyzed. We found 238 transcripts and 84 exons which showed notable changes between the two virulent forms. Functional analyses of both differentially expressed transcripts and exons indicated that different virulence strains showed dissimilar nematode growth, reproduction, and oxidoreductase activities. In addition, we also detected a small number of exon-skipping events in B. xylophilus. Meanwhile, 117 SNPs were identified as potential genetic markers in distinguishing the two forms. Four of them were further proved to have undergone allele specific expressions and possibly interrupted the target site of evolutionary conserved B. xylophilus miR-47. These particular SNPs were experimentally verified by including eight additional strains to ensure the validity of our sequencing results. These results could help researchers to better diagnose nematode species with different virulence and facilitate the control of pine wilt disease.

  10. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of Three Pathogenesis-Related Cytochrome P450 Genes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoidoidea

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    Xiao-Lu Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, causes huge economic losses in pine forests. The high expression of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus during infection in P. thunbergii indicated that these genes had a certain relationship with the pathogenic process of B. xylophilus. Thus, we attempted to identify the molecular characterization and functions of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus. In this study, full-length cDNA of three cytochrome P450 genes, BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3 were first cloned from B. xylophilus using 3' and 5' RACE PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that all of them contained a highly-conserved cytochrome P450 domain. The characteristics of the three putative proteins were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. RNA interference (RNAi was used to assess the functions of BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3. The results revealed that these cytochrome P450 genes were likely to be associated with the vitality, dispersal ability, reproduction, pathogenicity and pesticide metabolism of B. xylophilus. This discovery confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of three cytochrome P450 genes from B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information in elucidating the molecular interaction mechanism between B. xylophilus and its host plant.

  11. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction with high resolution melting (real-time PCR-HRM) analysis for the detection and discrimination of nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

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    Filipiak, Anna; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The real-time PCR-HRM analysis was developed for the detection and discrimination of the quarantine nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. A set of primers was designed to target the ITS region of rDNA. The results have demonstrated that this analysis is a valuable tool for differentiation of these both species.

  12. Nematicidal activity of natural ester compounds and their analogues against pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-09-17

    In this study, we evaluated the nematicidal activity of natural ester compounds against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to identify candidates for the development of novel, safe nematicides. We also tested the nematicidal activity of synthesized analogues of these ester compounds to determine the structure-activity relationship. Among 28 ester compounds tested, isobutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl tiglate, 3-methyl-2-butenyl 2-methylbutanoate, and pentyl 2-methylbutanoate showed strong nematicidal activity against the pine wood nematode at a 1 mg/mL concentration. The other ester compounds showed weak nematicidal activity. The LC50 values of 3-methylbutyl tiglate, isobutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methyl-2-butenyl 2-methylbutanoate, and pentyl 2-methylbutanoate were 0.0218, 0.0284, 0.0326, 0.0402, and 0.0480 mg/mL, respectively. The ester compounds described herein merit further study as potential nematicides for pine wood nematode control.

  13. Variabilities of two Drechslerella dactyloides isolates in Korea and high predacity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chun-Yan; Gu, Li-Juan; Sun, Bai-Shen; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Liu, Lei; Lee, Mi-Ra; Wang, Chun-Ling; Li, Zheng; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2011-02-01

    Drechslerella dactyloides generates elongate ellipsoid conidia and three-celled rings. Recently, Drechslerella dactyloides CNU 091025 and CNU 091026 were isolated in Korea, which generated elongate ellipsoid, Y-shaped and reaphook-shaped conidia, three-celled rings and fishhook-shaped traps. Therefore, molecular phylogenetic analysis, morphological variability, and nematode capturing ability were tested in this study. CNU 091025 generated two-celled or three-celled Y-shaped conidia, reaphook-shaped conidia, and elongate ellipsoid conidia, 17.2, 40.9, and 41.9%, respectively. Some fishhook-shaped rings connecting together formed two-dimensional web. Both fungi showed high trap-forming and nematode-capturing ability; especially CNU 091026 captured 100% Bursaphelenchus xylophilus within 24 h after inoculation.

  14. Distribution and reproduction of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus populations in wood and bark of western north american conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Forge, T.A.; Sutherland, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    La croissance de population de #Bursaphelenchus xylophilus$ a été étudiée dans le bois et l'écorce d'#Abies grandis$, #Pinus contorta$, #Pseudotsuga menziesii$, #Tsuga heterophylla$ et #Thuja plicata$. Le nématode a été inoculé dans des tronçons de tige (6 cm de diamètre et 25 cm de longueur) de chaque essence, puis mis en incubation dans des sacs de plastique, à la température ambiante (22 plus ou moins 4°C). Les populations de nématodes ont été échantillonnées séparément dans le bois et l'é...

  15. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita

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    Gai Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, two acetylenic compounds, falcarindiol and falcarinol (2.20–12.60 μg/mL and 1.06–4.96 μg/mL, respectively exhibited stronger nematicidal activity than two furanocoumarins, columbianetin, and isoimperatorin (21.83–103.44 μg/mL and 17.21–30.91 μg/mL, respectively against the two species of nematodes, B. xylophilus and M. incognita. The four isolated constituents also displayed phototoxic activity against the nematodes. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of N. incisum and its four isolated constituents have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  16. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita.

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    Liu, Gai; Lai, Daowan; Liu, Qi Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2016-09-23

    During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, two acetylenic compounds, falcarindiol and falcarinol (2.20-12.60 μg/mL and 1.06-4.96 μg/mL, respectively) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity than two furanocoumarins, columbianetin, and isoimperatorin (21.83-103.44 μg/mL and 17.21-30.91 μg/mL, respectively) against the two species of nematodes, B. xylophilus and M. incognita. The four isolated constituents also displayed phototoxic activity against the nematodes. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of N. incisum and its four isolated constituents have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  17. Efficacy of Four Nematicides Against the Reproduction and Development of Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Bi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Yanting; Huang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Hongshi; Bai, Liqun; Hu, Jiafu

    2015-06-01

    To understand the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, avermectin, milbemectin, and thiacloprid on the reproduction and development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, seven parameters, namely population growth, fecundity, egg hatchability, larval lethality, percent larval development, body size, and sexual ratio, were investigated using sublethal (LC20) doses of these compounds in the laboratory. Emamectin benzoate treatment led to a significant suppression in population size, brood size, and percent larval development with 411, 3.50, and 49.63%, respectively, compared to 20850, 24.33, and 61.43% for the negative control. The embryonic and larval lethality increased obviously from 12.47% and 13.70% to 51.37% and 75.30%, respectively. In addition, the body length was also significantly reduced for both males and females in the emamectin benzoate treatment. Avermectin and milbemectin were also effective in suppressing population growth by increasing larval lethality and reducing larval development, although they did not affect either brood size or embryonic lethality. Body length for both male and female worms was increased by avermectin. Thiacloprid caused no adverse reproductive effects, although it suppressed larval development. Sexual ratio was not affected by any of these four nematicides. Our results indicate that emamectin benzoate, milbemectin, and avermectin are effective against the reproduction of B. xylophilus. We think these three nematicides can be useful for the control of pine wilt disease.

  18. Control of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by essential oils and extracts obtained from plants: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Pedro; Vieira, Paulo; Dias, LS; Pedro, LG; Barroso, JG; Figueiredo, AC; Mota, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a serious threat to forest ecosystems at a global scale. The nematode has become a major quarantine problem due to its capability to completely destroy Pinus spp. trees, with great damage to the wood industry. Controlling the nematode inside a living tree is quite difficult, the techniques used being often ineffective and quite expensive. In the coming years, most chemicals used to control nematodes will be banned and ...

  19. Mutual influences in growth and reproduction between pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and bacteria it carries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Boguang; LIU Yutao; LIN Feng

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between pine wood nematode and three bacterium strains isolated from the nematode,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,which are two strong pathogenic bacterium strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens GcMS-1A and Pseudomonas putida ZpB1-2A and a weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,Pantoea sp.ZM2C,were studied.The result showed that the strong-pathogenic GcM5-1A strain and ZpB 1-2A strain significantly increased fecundity,reproduction rate,and the body volume of the adult nematode.Meanwhile,pine wood nematodes significantly promoted reproduction of the two strong-pathogenic bacterium strains.However,the weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,ZM2C,completely inhibited reproduction of pine wood nematodes.Aseptic pine wood nematodes significantly inhibited reproduction of the strain ZM2C.The results indicated that mutualistic symbiosis exists between pine wood nematodes and the two pathogenic bacteria it carries.The phenomenon showed that the pathogenic bacteria carried by the nematode were not accidentally contaminated,but rather had existed as symbionts of the nematode with which it had coevoluted over a long period.The role of mutualistic symbiosis in the process of pine wilt disease was also discussed.

  20. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana transcriptional response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection using suppression subtractive hybridization.

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    Xu, Liang; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Quan; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2013-05-28

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO) and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

  1. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana Transcriptional Response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

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    Xing-Yao Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

  2. Morphometric Variation in Pine Wood Nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus, Isolated from Multiple Locations in South Korea

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    Yil-Sung Moon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation in morphometry of pine wood nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus in relation to geographical locations in South Korea was investigated using morphometric characters (body length, a, b and c ratio, stylet length, and spicule length for a male nematode and V (% value for a female nematode. B. xylophilus was isolated from Pinus thunbergii in Jinju (1998, Ulsan (2000, Yangsan (2000, Mokpo (2001 and Jeju (2004, and from P. densiflora in Gumi (2001. B. mucronatus was isolated from P. thunbergii in Jinju (1991 and from P. densiflora in Milyang (2001. The body length of male and female B. xylophilus had the highest coefficient of variability and showed significant differences among geographical locations. The V (% value for female B. xylophilus showed the lowest coefficient of variability, changing little with geographical area and host plant. All morphometric characters in B. mucronatus except for stylet length and female body length showed no significant differences between locations or hosts, suggesting they may not be affected by geographical area or host plant.

  3. Effects of Endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Pine Wilt Disease

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    Long-Xi He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is responsible for devastating epidemics in pine trees in Asia and Europe. Recent studies showed that bacteria carried by the PWN might be involved in PWD. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between bacteria and the PWN remained unclear. Now that the whole genome of B. xylophilus (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is published, transcriptome analysis is a unique method to study the role played by bacteria in PWN. In this study, the transcriptome of aseptic B. xylophilus, B. xylophilus treated with endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSPmBx03 and fungus B. xylophilus were sequenced. We found that 61 genes were up-regulated and 830 were down-regulated in B. xylophilus after treatment with the endobacterium; 178 genes were up-regulated and 1122 were down-regulated in fungus B. xylophilus compared with aseptic B. xylophilus. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were used to study the significantly changed biological functions and pathways for these differentially expressed genes. Many pathogenesis-related genes, including glutathinone S-transferase, pectate lyase, ATP-binding cassette transporter and cytochrome P450, were up-regulated after B. xylophilus were treated with the endobacterium. In addition, we found that bacteria enhanced the virulence of PWN. These findings indicate that endobacteria might play an important role in the development and virulence of PWN and will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between bacteria and the PWN.

  4. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is killed by homologues of 2-(1-undecyloxy)-1-ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-07-01

    2-(1-Undecyloxy)-1-ethanol, monochamol, is a male-produced aggregation pheromone of the Monochamus species, which are efficient vectors of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which cause devastating damage to pines worldwide. The nematicidal activity of synthetic monochamol and its homologues (ROEtOH: R = C7-C13) were investigated to find potential alternatives to the currently used PWN control agents abamectin and emamectin. Compounds with C7-C13 chain length alkyl groups exhibited 100% nematicidal activity at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. At a concentration of 100 mg/L, 2-(1-nonyloxy)-1-ethanol (C9OEtOH), 2-(1-decyloxy)-1-ethanol (C10OEtOH), 2-(1-undecyloxy)-1-ethanol (C11OEtOH), and 2-(1-dodecyloxy)-1-ethanol (C12OEtOH) showed 100% nematicidal activity, but the others showed weaker activities. C11OEtOH showed similar nematicidal activity to abamectin in terms of LD90 values, which were 13.30 and 12.53 mg/L, respectively. However, C9OEtOH, C10OEtOH, and C12OEtOH (LC90 values: 53.63, 38.18, and 46.68 mg/L, respectively) were less effective than C11OEtOH and abamectin. These results indicate that monochamol could be an effective alternative agent against PWN. The relationship of insecticidal and nematicidal activity to different carbon chain lengths in compounds is discussed.

  5. Searching for resistance genes to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using high throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carla S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pine wilt disease (PWD, caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, damages and kills pine trees and is causing serious economic damage worldwide. Although the ecological mechanism of infestation is well described, the plant’s molecular response to the pathogen is not well known. This is due mainly to the lack of genomic information and the complexity of the disease. High throughput sequencing is now an efficient approach for detecting the expression of genes in non-model organisms, thus providing valuable information in spite of the lack of the genome sequence. In an attempt to unravel genes potentially involved in the pine defense against the pathogen, we hereby report the high throughput comparative sequence analysis of infested and non-infested stems of Pinus pinaster (very susceptible to PWN and Pinus pinea (less susceptible to PWN. Results Four cDNA libraries from infested and non-infested stems of P. pinaster and P. pinea were sequenced in a full 454 GS FLX run, producing a total of 2,083,698 reads. The putative amino acid sequences encoded by the assembled transcripts were annotated according to Gene Ontology, to assign Pinus contigs into Biological Processes, Cellular Components and Molecular Functions categories. Most of the annotated transcripts corresponded to Picea genes-25.4-39.7%, whereas a smaller percentage, matched Pinus genes, 1.8-12.8%, probably a consequence of more public genomic information available for Picea than for Pinus. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed that when P. pinaster was infested with PWN, the genes malate dehydrogenase, ABA, water deficit stress related genes and PAR1 were highly expressed, while in PWN-infested P. pinea, the highly expressed genes were ricin B-related lectin, and genes belonging to the SNARE and high mobility group families. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed the differential gene expression between the two pine species

  6. Epidemiological Characteristics and Control Methods of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%松材线虫病的发病特征及防治方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓国松

    2015-01-01

    介绍了松材线虫病的病原及发病特征,并从清理病死树、病木除害处理、防治传媒松墨天牛等方面提出了松材线虫病防治方法,以期为松材线虫病的有效防治提供参考。%Pathogeny and epidemiological characteristics were introduced.Control methods of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were put forwards,including clear-cutting dead pine trees,disease wood treatment,prevention and control the media of Monochamus alternatus Hope etc,so as to provide reference for the effective prevention and control of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

  7. Influence of Bxpel1 Gene Silencing by dsRNA Interference on the Development and Pathogenicity of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Wen Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes huge economic losses by devastating pine forests worldwide. The pectate lyase gene is essential for successful invasion of their host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. To demonstrate the role of pectate lyase gene in the PWD process, RNA interference (RNAi is used to analyze the function of the pectate lyase 1 gene in B. xylophilus (Bxpel1. The efficiency of RNAi was detected by real-time PCR. The result demonstrated that the quantity of B. xylophilus propagated with control solution treatment was 62 times greater than that soaking in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA after B. xylophilus inoculation in Botrytis cinerea for the first generation (F1. The number of B. xylophilus soaking in control solution was doubled compared to that soaking in Bxpel1 dsRNA four days after inoculation in Pinus thunbergii. The quantity of B. xylophilus was reduced significantly (p < 0.001 after treatment with dsRNAi compared with that using a control solution treatment. Bxpel1 dsRNAi reduced the migration speed and reproduction of B. xylophilus in pine trees. The pathogenicity to P. thunbergii seedling of B. xylophilus was weaker after soaking in dsRNA solution compared with that after soaking in the control solution. Our results suggest that Bxpel1 gene is a significant pathogenic factor in the PWD process and this basic information may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of PWD.

  8. Basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood infected with the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria Reva; Luı´s Fonseca; Jose´ L. Lousada; Isabel Abrantes; Anto´ nio R. Figueiredo; Domingos X. Viegas

    2015-01-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphe-lenchus xylophilus, has become one of the most severe threats to pine forest worldwide. Nematodes, migrating through resin canals and feeding on the living cells, induce rapid metabolic changes in ray parenchyma cells, create cavitation areas, decrease xylem water content and oleo-resin exudation, and cause necrosis of parenchyma and cambial cells. This study focused on the impact of PWN infection on technological parameters of wood and evalu-ated the impact of anatomic and biochemical incidences of tree defense reactions on basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood. Samples of infected and uninfected wood were studied. The presence of nematodes reduced wood basic density by 2% and decreased the total content of extractives in infected wood as compared with uninfected (5.98 and 8.90% of dry wood mass, respectively). Extractives in infected trees had inverse distribution along the trunk as compared with uninfected trees. The adsorption isotherms for infected and uninfected wood had similar positioning. We recorded differences (some statistically significant) in the equilibrium moisture content of infected and uninfected wood under varying environmental conditions. Despite the verified differences in wood basic density, extractive con-tent and moisture sorption properties, the overall conclu-sion is that the PWN had a slight impact on these characteristics of wood.

  9. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-09-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC(50) values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode.

  10. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  11. Newly Discovered Transmission Pathway of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Males of the Beetle Monochamus alternatus to Pinus densiflora Trees via Oviposition Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoh; Togashi, Katsumi

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Monochamus alternatus males to Pinus densiflora trees via oviposition wounds has been determined. Nematode-infested males, with mandibles fixed experimentally to prevent feeding, were placed for 48 hours with pine bolts containing oviposition wounds that had been made by nematode-free females. After removal of the nematode-infested males, the pine bolts were held for 1 month and then examined for the presence of nematodes. Reproducing nematode populations were recovered from pine bolts that were exposed to male beetles carrying a high number of nematodes. No reproducing nematode population could be recovered from pine bolts exposed to beetles with a small number of nematodes. Nematode reproduction in the pine bolts was not related to the number of oviposition wounds per bolt. Fourth-stage dispersal B. xylophilus juveniles, collected from beetle body surfaces, were inoculated on pine bolt bark 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm away from a single artificial, small hole. These dauer juveniles successfully entered some bolts. The probability of successful nematode reproduction decreased with increased distance between inoculation point and artificial hole. The results indicated that B. xylophilus can move a significant distance to oviposition wounds along the bark surface and enter a tree via the wounds. The new transmission pathway is considered important for the nematode to persist in pine forests such as in North America where pine wilt disease does not occur.

  12. Identification and Characterization of a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae Thermotolerance-Related Gene: Bx-HSP90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlei Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures directly influence the distribution and intensity of pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. To date, however, little is known about the causation and mechanism of this influence. The molecular chaperone HSP90 is a key component that contributes to survival in the abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the survival of B. xylophilus and the functionality of the HSP90 gene. Bx-HSP90 was cloned from a suppression subtractive hybridization library. In situ mRNA hybridization showed that Bx-HSP90 was constitutively expressed in response to all of the temperatures tested, and RT-PCR indicated that all of the temperatures could induce Bx-HSP90 transcription, with the highest transcript level detected at 30 °C. The suppression of the Bx-HSP90 transcript by RNA interference led to a 25% reduction in the number of nematodes at 30 °C after 44 h. Sharp declines in the survival of the RNAi-treated nematodes were observed after 8 days at 25 °C, 48 h at 30 °C and 24 h at 35 °C. Both heat shock and the knockdown of Bx-HSP90 hindered the growth of the B. xylophilus populations. The results indicate that Bx-HSP90 is essential for the survival of B. xylophilus, confirming the thermoregulatory function of the gene, and delineate the timeframe and temperature range within which the gene function occurs.

  13. 松材线虫两种实用分子检测技术%Two kinds of appliedmolecular skills to detect Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤毛; 叶建仁; 吴小芹; 谈家金; 黄麟

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the reliability of two methods, SCAR marker and real-time PCR, developed for detecting pine wood nematode, seven pine wood isolates and three identified nematode strains ( Bursaphelenchus xflophilus, B. mucronatus and Aphelenchoicles macronucleatus ) were assayed with the two methods. The traditional method of morphological identification was also used to determine the seven isolates samples. Results showed that 1 ) with the method of SCAR marker, isolates 2, 3, 4 and 7 showed a common specific electrophoretic band of 860 bp, as did by pine wood nematode B. xylophilus, whereas isolates 1, 5 and 6, and B. mucronatus and Aphelenchoides macronucleatus did not produce the specific band. That suggests that isolates 2, 3, 4 and 7 contained B. xylophilus, while isolates 1, 5 and 6 did not. 2) With the method of real-time PCR identification, fluorescent signal was detected from samples prepared from isolate 2, 3, 4, 7 and strain B. xylophilus, on the contrary, the rest isolates showed no signals and cycle threshold ( Ct values). 3) With morphological identification, it was revealed that isolate 2, 4 and 7 contained B. xylophilus while isolate 3 contained B. xylophilus as well as other nematodes. However, isolate 1, 5 and 6 did not contain B. xylophilus. Therefore, the two molecular methods showed a consistent result with morphological identification. Moreover, the two methods are highly specific and time-saving. SCAR marker method costs two hours to perform, while real-time PCR method takes only one hour. Both techniques make it possible to determine rapidly existence of juvenilepine wood nematodes with a simple and easily readable result.%为检验已开发的SCAR标记与实时PCR两种分子检测方法鉴定松材线虫的可靠性,本文选用线虫未知种样品7个以及已知种样品3个为实验材料,采用上述两种分子检测方法进行检测,并且对7个线虫未知种样品进行形态鉴定。结果表明:1

  14. Characteristics of hybridization between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B.mucronatus%松材线虫与拟松材线虫种间杂交特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应晨希; 吴小芹

    2014-01-01

    选取来自中国、日本和美国的松材线虫( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)4个虫株,以及中国的拟松材线虫( B. mucronatus)2个虫株进行生物学杂交和交配对象选择试验。结果表明:松材线虫和拟松材线虫的部分虫株可以发生种间杂交,正交总交配成功率为4�2%,反交总交配成功率为10%,反交成功率是正交的2倍。杂交整体发生率极低,杂交后代较难形成可持续的繁殖种群。采用松材线虫(简称Bx)/拟松材线虫(简称Bm)快速分子检测系统对杂交F1代幼虫进行分子鉴定,结果表明F1代幼虫既含有Bx分子标记也含有Bm分子标记。继代培养30 d后,杂交后代在基因型上表现出了不同趋向的分化,其中BxAN5♀×Bm JNL1♂、BxAN5♂×BmAN5♀和Bx⁃USA♂×Bm JNL1♀的杂交后代趋向于成为松材线虫占主导的种群,BxJNL5♂×BmJNL1♀的杂交后代趋向于成为拟松材线虫占主导的种群。在有种内交配资源存在情况下,无论松材线虫还是拟松材线虫均倾向于优先选择种内交配资源。研究表明松材线虫和拟松材线虫之间存在一定的生殖隔离,自然状态下种间交配可能会产生,但杂交后代较难形成可持续性繁殖的生殖后代。%In this study, the hybridization was conducted between four Bursaphelenchus xylophilus strains selected from China, Japan, the United States and two B. mucronatus strains selected from China. The results showed that, hybridiza⁃tion could occur between some B. xylophilus strains and B. mucronatus strains, the success rate of negative crossing was two times that of positive crossing,but hybridization rate was extremely low, and the hybrid offspring was difficult to form a sustainable breeding population. The F1 hybrids larvae contained both Bx molecular markers and Bm molecular markers by using Bx/Bm quick molecular detection system. Inter⁃specific hybrids showed different gene types

  15. The screening and identification of the bacterium with nematicidal activity to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%松材线虫拮抗细菌的筛选和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽梅; 吴小芹; 徐旭麟

    2008-01-01

    为了筛选对松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)具有较高杀线活性的拮抗细菌,从马尾松林中分离获得了230株细菌,并从中筛选出8株对松材线虫具有较高杀线活性的细菌,其中JK-JS3菌株对松材线虫的杀线活性最高.将该细菌培养滤液分别稀释2倍、4倍、10倍处理松材线虫,72h后线虫的死亡率均达到100%;线虫死亡后虫体消解,消解率分别为100%、97.8%、96.4%.测定了该细菌培养滤液对香蕉穿孔线虫(Radopholus similis)和水稻干尖线虫(Aphelenchoides besseyi)等植物线虫的杀线活性,结果表明对不同种的线虫杀线活性有差异.该菌株培养滤液对松材线虫和小杆线虫(Rhabditis sp.)的杀线活性最高,其余杀线活性从高到低依次为拟松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus mucronatus)、腐生线虫(Panagrellus redivivus)、香蕉穿孔线虫和水稻干尖线虫.形态特征和革兰氏染色观察,该细菌为革兰氏阳性菌、产芽孢、具有周生鞭毛;经Biolog细菌鉴定仪进一步鉴定该细菌为解淀粉芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens).

  16. Sequencing and Analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A Genome: A Pathogen Living in the Surface Coat of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Li, Ronggui; Chen, Yingnan; Zhao, Boguang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5) and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community.

  17. Sequencing and Analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A Genome: A Pathogen Living in the Surface Coat of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Feng

    Full Text Available It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5 and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community.

  18. Hybridization between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus and Reproduction of the Offspring%松材线虫与拟松材线虫杂交及后代繁殖力1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘侃诚; 曹东霞; 田兴一; 李警保; 韩正敏

    2015-01-01

    In our study different isolates of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus were collected from different origins. Interspecific hybridization, successive transfer culture and backcross test were conducted in the laboratory. The combina⁃tions of B. xylophilus from Zhejiang hybridizes and B. mucronatus from France or B. mucronatus from China had high hybrid rate, large number of descendants, and low death rate. In subculture tests, both combinations had a strong reproductive advantage. The hybrid offspring of two combinations could cross with parents, especially the B. mucronatus. Therefore, there is interspecific hybridization between some B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus actually. The hybrids can establish stable population, and there is the hybrid offspring of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus exist in natural conditions.%为了探明松材线虫( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)与拟松材线虫( Bursaphelenchus mucronatus)能否进行种间杂交,收集了不同地理来源的松材线虫和拟松材线虫株系,在实验室内进行了种间杂交、继代培养以及回交。结果显示:中国浙江松材线虫和法国拟松材线虫、中国浙江松材线虫和中国拟松材线虫杂交组合,具有较高的交配率、繁殖量和低死亡率。在继代培养试验中,这2个组合都具有很强的繁殖优势,其杂交后代可以同亲本回交,且更趋于同拟松材线虫回交。总的来说,松材线虫和拟松材线虫有些虫株间是可以杂交并能够顺利繁殖,建立可延续的种群的。推测在自然条件下,松材线虫和拟松材线虫杂交后代是存在的。

  19. 松材线虫雌虫尾部形态和寄主的关系%The Relationship between the Tail Morphology of Adult Female Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Its Host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文霞; 杨宝君

    2005-01-01

    Tenninal mucro of adult female was the distinct character between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) and its allied species Bursaphe/enchus mucronatus (Bb). In general, Bx had no mucro. But it could have mucro in some situations. In the test, Bx without mucro was inoculated on Chineses pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). The results showed that 85% of adult females Bx isolated from Chinese pine had terminal mucro. On Japanese black pine only 4.2% of adult females Bx had terminal mucro. Bx with terminal mucro from Chinese pine was re-inoculated on the fungus, Pestalotia sp. and Japanese black pine. It was found that 100% adult females had no terminal mucro on the fungus and 3.4% with terminal mucro on Japanese black pine.

  20. 基于松材线虫全基因组序列的SSR标记开发%Development of simple sequence repeats base on pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) genome sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峻荣; 吴小芹; 刘云; 叶建仁

    2014-01-01

    为了研究松材线虫在我国的群体遗传关系及传播路径,获得更为稳定的松材线虫分子标记,使用MISA软件对松材线虫全基因组10432条DNA片段进行搜索,共获得95个gSSR位点。其中,二核苷酸重复出现频率最高,占全部SSR位点的66�3%。依据所有gSSR位点共设计出36对引物,以1份松材线虫DNA pooling(包含我国46个不同地理来源的松材线虫虫株DNA)为模板进行PCR,产物由QIAxcel全自动凝胶电泳分析系统检测,获得17对可能具有多态性的gSSR引物。进一步对这17对引物的PCR产物进行单克隆试验并测序,BioEdit软件拼接比对结果表明,其中9对确实具有多态性。%To develop more stable molecular marker, SSR marker base on pine wood nematode ( Bursaphelenchus xylo-philus) whole genome sequences was discussed for researching the relationship of population genetic and travel route ac-curately. Ninety-five SSR loci were searched from a total of 10 432 DNA fragments of B. xylophilus by MISA. In the gSSRs, the dinucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant (66.3%). Thirty-six pairs of primers were designed, and verified with one peace of B.xylophilus DNA pooling sample (46 DNA samples of isolates from different geographic origin contained) for PCR. The products detected by QIAxcellautomatic gel electrophoresis analysis system showed that 17 pairs of primers had potential polymorphism. Further, nine pairs of the primers showed polymorphism, which tested by mono-clonal sequencing and spliced by BioEdit, and which provided foundation for studying population genetic of B.xylophilus.

  1. 抗松材线虫病马尾松无性系种子园营建技术%Technique on the establishment of a clonal seed orchard in Pinus massoniana for resistance to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章健; 徐六一; 高景斌; 陈雪莲; 姜春武; 郝焰平

    2012-01-01

    Pine wood nematode( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) disease is a destructive one for pines. It causes a serious damage and it is difficult to prevent. 324 excellent disease resistance trees have been selected from Masson' s pine ( Pinus mas-soniana) stand in epidemic area and non-epidemic area of Anhui province since 2001. With some provenances from Guangdong and Guangxi, the disease resistance of these clones had been tested by a way of grafting propagation and artificial inoculation of pine wood nematode. In 2011, 89 clones with high resistance were chosen from 68 families. Then they were used to establish 1.6 hm2 clonal seed orchard. Survival rate of each family was 90.9% -100% , and the average survival rate was 93. 6% .%松材线虫病是危害松属树种的毁灭性病害,危害严重、防治困难.安徽省从2001年开始从疫区和非疫区的马尾松林分中选择324株抗病优树以及部分广东、广西种源,通过嫁接繁殖和人工接种松材线虫的方法进行无性系抗病性测定.2011年利用筛选出的68个家系的89个高抗无性系营建了1.6 hm2抗松材线虫病马尾松无性系种子园.各家系成活率90.9%~100%,平均成活率93.6%.

  2. 抗松材线虫病赤松家系的抗性测定及组织病理学观察%Resistance Determination and Histopathological Observation of Induced Pinus densiflora Families from Japan to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺; 吴小芹; 王钰; 叶建仁

    2007-01-01

    对自日本引进的赤松(Pinus densiflora)27个抗病家系进行人工抗病性测定,结果发现抗病各家系对3个不同来源的松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)虫株都表现出不同程度的抗病性,且差异明显.综合3次接种试验结果发现,引进赤松中有13个家系(1、4、5、6、7、8、13、14、15、17、20、23和25 号)抗病表现较好.对5号抗病家系接种松材线虫后,分别按时间进程(4、8、12、24、36、48、72、96、120 h)进行茎段取样,组织病理学观察发现松材线虫在引进的抗病赤松体内的迁移速度较普通赤松慢,且松树茎内木射线细胞和树脂道泌脂细胞周围的薄壁细胞出现病变较普通赤松晚,病变程度也比普通赤松轻.

  3. Rapid Identification of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Determination Epidemic Areas by Comparative Morphology and Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology%应用比较形态学与PCR技术快速鉴定松材线虫及确立疫区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶燕华; 李迅东; 张志荣; 卓侃; 廖金铃; 陈沐荣; 秦长生

    2014-01-01

    Pine wood nematode disease,caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,is a destructive disease to pine.In this paper,The sample of the dead tree of suspected pine wilt disease,collected in different epidemic are-as of Guangdong province from 2004 to 2005 were studied.The results showed that application the technologies of comparative morphology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)could rapid discriminate B.xylophilus,and reliably determinate epidemic areas.%松材线虫病(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)是为害松树的一种毁灭性病害。应用比较形态学,并辅助以PCR分子生物学检测技术,对广东省2004-2005年间松材线虫病监测普查过程中采集的疑似样本进行对比研究,结果表明该技术可以快速、准确鉴定松材线虫并确立疫区。

  4. Toxicity of Thirty-six Chinese Medicinal Herbs against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%36种中草药提取物杀松材线虫活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦宏伟; 张璐; 赵宝华; 刘东

    2014-01-01

    为了从中草药中寻找高效杀线虫活性物质,本文测定了36种中草药提取物对松材线虫及其卵的毒杀活性。结果表明,牡丹皮、黄连和大黄3种中药的乙醇提取物杀线虫活性较强,以提取物浓度为10 g/L处理松材线虫72 h后,校正死亡率均为100%。3种中药提取物处理松材线虫72 h后半致死浓度(LC50)分别为1.81、0.2638和1.07 g/L。杀卵活性结果表明,3种中药提取物处理72 h后,线虫卵的孵化率均低于20%,虫卵的校正死亡率均高于60%。利用乙酸乙酯和水作溶剂对3种中草药进行初步的杀线活性成分分离的结果表明,牡丹皮的杀线活性物质存在于乙酸乙酯萃取物中,黄连和大黄的杀线活性物质存在于水萃取物中。3种中药的不同萃取物处理松材线虫72 h后的LC50分别为0.712、2.370和0.067 g/L。%Toxicity of ethanol extracts of thirty-six traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herbs to adult nematodes and eggs of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were evaluated in this study to find efficient nematicidal compounds. Bioassay results showed that the ethanol extracts of Cortex moutan radicis, Coptis chinensis franch and Radix et rhizomarhei possessed excellent efficacy with 100%mortality of adults, less than 20%egg hatching rate and more than 60%mortality of eggs at the concentration of 10 g/L. The LC50 of ethanol extracts of three TCM herbs were 1.81, 0.2638 and 1.07 g/L respectively against B. xylophilus after treatment of 72 h. Preliminary separation of active ingredients of three TCM herbs using ethyl acetate and water was employed to examine the nematicide activities of the extracts. The active ingredients of C. moutan radicis presented in ethyl acetate extract, while the active ingredients of C. chinensis franch and R. et rhizomarhei presented in water extracts. The LC50 of active ingredients from three TCM herbs were 0.712, 2.370 and 0.067 g/L respectively against B. xylophilus after

  5. The Effects of Integrated Control Techniques of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%松材线虫病综合治理技术及成效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱细俭; 方天松; 林明生; 邱焕秀

    2011-01-01

    采取专业公司3年承包机制对广东省龙眼洞林场松材线虫病进行治理,由监理单位监理,治理公司实施防治.技术措施采用综合防治法,进行检疫封锁、清除病死树、应用引诱剂和诱木剂诱杀天牛成虫、林间喷洒虫线清等,通过6年来的综合治理,发生面积逐年减少,病死树逐年下降,病死树率由2005年的25.79‰下降到2010年的0.86‰,疫情没向外扩散蔓延,防治效果良好.%A 3-year-control-contract-mechanism, specialized corporation implemented the control plans while supervision unit supervised that, was took for the control of pine wilt disease, B. Xylophilus, at Guangdong Longyandong forest farm. Integrated technical measures, including quarantine blockading, cleaning dead trees, applying attractant traps and wood traps for killing the long-horned beetles, Monochamus alternatus, and spraying the chemical, Chongxianqing, in fields were taken. The effects was good by the managements in the past 6 years: the occurrence area reduced every year, the number of dead tree came down yearly, the rate of dead trees dropped from 25. 79%oo in 2005 to 0. S6%oo in 2010, the disease was kept in the original area without any spread.

  6. Effects of Insect Ecdysone and Juvenile Hormone on Reproduction of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%昆虫蜕皮激素和保幼激素对松材线虫繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峰; 袁冬菊; 赵博光; 王华光

    2014-01-01

    研究了外源昆虫蜕皮激素和保幼激素对松材线虫( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)繁殖的影响。用10-6 g/mL到10-9 g/mL的7个连续几何级数浓度的保幼激素或蜕皮激素处理线虫。保幼激素处理6 d及以后的松材线虫繁殖数量显著高于空白对照和仅提供灰葡萄孢为营养的对照( P<0.05)。在观察时间内,保幼激素浓度以5×10-7 g/mL为线虫繁殖量的最高峰值,其线虫繁殖数量显著高于其他浓度( P<0.05)。蜕皮激素对松材线虫的繁殖同样具有明显的促进作用,激素处理6 d及以后的松材线虫繁殖数量显著高于两组对照( P<0.05)。在观察时间内,蜕皮激素浓度以5×10-7 g/mL为线虫繁殖量的最高峰值,且明显高于其他浓度的处理(P<0.05)。此外还发现保幼激素和蜕皮激素在浓度为5×10-9 g/mL处存在线虫繁殖的次高峰。%The effects of the insect 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormoneⅢ on reproduction of pine wood nematode,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,were investigated.The nematodes were treated with 7 continuous geometric concentration series of 20-hydroxyecdysone or juvenile hormone Ⅲ.The numbers of the nematodes treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone or juvenile hormone Ⅲfrom the 6th day to the 9th were significantly higher than those of the blank control and the control treated with only the nematode food ,Botrytis cinerea ( P<0.05) . During the observing period the peak of the reproduction was at 5 ×10-7 g/mL of the ecdysone and the peak value was significantly higher than those in the other concentrations .During the observing period the peak of the number of the nematodes was at 5×10-7 g/mL of the two hormones and it was significantly higher than those in the other concentrations of the hormones .The second peak of the nematode number was also found at 5 ×10-9 g/mL in both the ecdysone and the juvenile hormone .

  7. 葡萄牙松材线虫与其媒介昆虫之间的互作%Interactions of the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)with its vector in Portugal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Miguel Naves; Luís Bonifácio; Edmundo Sousa

    2011-01-01

    The most important aspects of the interactions be-tween the pine wood nematode ( PWN) ( Bursaphelenchus xylo-philus) and its local insect vector,the pine sawyer Monocham-us galloprovirzcialis have been recently studied for the first timein Portugal and Europe.Inside the dead pines the pinewoodnematode was found to associate with the callow adults in thepupal chambers,just before the insects' emergence.The nema-todes are more abundant on the thoracic region of the insects,namely on the meta-thorax segment.After emergence,trans-mission of the PWN into new hosts occurs by the feeding activi-ty of the beetles,being more frequent during the six weeks af-ter emergence.Nematode transmission also occurs by the ovi-position activity of the female beetles,although with less fre-quency and success.%对松材线虫与其在葡萄牙和欧洲的媒介昆虫樟子松墨天牛(Monochamus galloprovincialis)进行了首次研究.在病死木中发现,松材线虫在天牛刚羽化时聚集在蛹室中,线虫主要集中在天牛的后胸部.天牛羽化后6周内,松材线虫主要在天牛成虫补充营养时进入新寄主树,其次在天牛产卵时也会进入寄主树.总的看来,松材线虫在欧洲与其携带天牛之间互作与其在亚洲与松墨天牛及在北美与卡来罗纳墨天牛之间的关系十分相似.经研究,影响线虫与天牛携带关系的因子有内源和外源两类因子,如化学气味和各种信号.但是,其他多数因子尚未了解.研究影响线虫与天牛携带关系的因子将有助于了解两种生物密切关系的内在机制,并有助于研发出新的防控方法.

  8. Pest Risk Assessment for Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Introduced to Yunnan Based on ArcView GIS%基于ArcView GIS的松材线虫传入云南风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 王志英; 喻盛甫

    2007-01-01

    根据国际粮农组织(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,FAO)的国际植物检疫措施标准-检疫性有害生物风险分析(Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests Including Analysis of Environmental Risks and Living Modified Organisms)以及欧洲和地中海地区植物保护组织(European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation,EPPO)的有害生物风险评估方案,应用美国环境系统研究所(ESRI)开发的地理信息系统(Geographic Information System, GIS)软件ArcView 3.2对云南省129个县(市、区)的年平均气温、年平均降雨、日照、寄主分布和媒介昆虫等信息进行分析,对松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)进入可能性、定殖可能性和经济影响等方面进行了风险评估(Pest Risk Assessment,PRA).划定松材线虫病发生低风险区2县、松材线虫病发生中度风险区20县(市、区)、松材线虫病发生较高风险区49县(市、区),其余县58县(市、区)为松材线虫病发生高度风险区.划定云南省北纬26°以南地区为重点防护区.并绘制寄主分布图、年平均气温图、松墨天牛分布图等风险评估地图.

  9. 抗松材线虫病赤松组培苗的抗病性测定1)%Resistance Determination of Wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora Tissue Culture Seedling to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the resistance of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora to Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus from Japan.Six months old tissue culture seedlings of Pinus densiflora were inoculated with middle virulence aseptic pine wood nematode under aseptic conditions.There are obvious differences of resistance in Pinus densiflora families.No.1 and 10 families have better resistant effects, followed by No.2, 13, 19, 22 and 23 families.The resistance difference of clones mainly originates from the families.Meanwhile, the relationship between pine wood nematode breeding rates and disease incidence was discussed.There is a low correlation between the disease incidence of wilt-resistant Pinus densiflora and pine wood nematode propagation coefficient.In addition, the susceptible tissue culture seedlings were isolated.The pine wood nematode remains aseptic.%  为了评价从日本引进的抗性赤松对松材线虫的抗病性,在无菌条件下,用中强毒力无菌松材线虫对6个月生的无菌赤松组培苗进行接种。结果表明:抗性赤松不同家系间抗病性差异明显,1号和10号家系抗病性表现较好,2、13、19、22和23号家系抗病性表现次之,3、14和16号家系未表现出抗病性;抗性赤松不同无性系间的抗病性存在极显著差异,无性系间的抗病性差异主要来源于家系间的抗病性差异。发病率与松材线虫繁殖倍数相关性极低。从发病组培苗上分离的松材线虫仍然无菌。

  10. Changes of reducing sugar and mineral nutrient elements in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus massoniana at different stage naturally infected by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%松材线虫自然侵染后松树还原糖与矿质营养元素的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀凤; 张慧; 徐华潮

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the contents of reducing sugar and mineral nutrient nutrients in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus massoniana at different Pine wilt disease stage naturally infected by the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in P. thunbergii and P. massoniana at different Pine Wilt disease stage naturally infected by the pine wood nematode B. xylophilus conifers. With disease progression, the contents of reducing sugar and nitrogen element decreased in both lodgepole and red pines. The changes in other minerals were inconsistent between the two types of pines. These results indicated that the structural damage caused by nematode infection significantly compromised metabolism, and affected the absorption, movement and utilization of different nutrients in the host plants.%实验测定了马尾松Pinus massoniana、黑松Pinus thunbergii在松材线虫Bursaphelenchus xylophilus自然侵染状态下针叶内还原糖及矿质营养元素的变化趋势.结果表明,两种松树随病程发展针叶内还原糖及N元素含量均逐渐降低;其余矿质元素含量变化不一.表明由于松材线虫的侵入,破坏了植物的组织结构,影响了寄主的新陈代谢和物质循环,继而影响到对各种元素的吸收、转移及利用.

  11. 应用木腐菌处理松材线虫病疫木伐桩的研究%Study on Using Wood-rotting Fungi to Treat Stumps of Dead Wood Caused by PWN (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓习金; 刘晖; 罗惠文; 黄燕洪

    2014-01-01

    Diseased stumps is cure difficulty of pine wood nematode disease, it is an environmental protection, control technology effectively that using wood rotting fungi treated pine wood nematode infected stumps. In th is study, the 13 kinds of wood-rotting fungi were chosen to evaluate the irrelation with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ( PWN ) , the ability to decompose the wood specimens of Pinus massoniana and the stumps of dead pine trees caused by PWN, by screening and propagating good strains of the wood-rotting fungi, and using to field test, the results showed that all the wood-rotting fungi tested had certa in nematicidal effects on PWN except Schizophyllum commune and Coriolus versicolor, and 6 strains could completely inhibit the pine wood nematode, they are Tremellodon gelatinosum, Fomitopsis pinicola, Pleurotus ostreatus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Poria cocos, Ganoderma lucidum. The test results of decomposing pine wood and disease stumps showed that they had played some decomposition effect to the diseased stumps, after treating stumps inoculating above 6 strains for 70 d, especially, Laetiporus sulphureus showed higher ability to decomposing and colonising the stumps,and inhibiting and killing nematodes, it could be used to treat stumps of dead wood caused by PWN in the future.%疫木伐桩是松材线虫病除治中的难点,利用木腐菌处理松材线虫病疫木伐桩是一项环保、有效的伐桩处理技术。本试验研究了13种木腐菌对松材线虫的抑制作用以及对马尾松木块和松材线虫病疫木伐桩的分解能力,通过对木腐菌的筛选、优良菌株的扩繁,将优良木腐菌应用于松材线虫病疫木伐桩野外试验,结果表明,供试菌株除裂褶菌和杂色云芝外,其他菌都能抑制松材线虫的生长与繁殖,其中虎掌菌、松生拟层孔菌、粗皮侧耳、硫磺菌、茯苓和灵芝等6个菌能完全抑制松材线虫的数量。对马尾松木块及疫木伐桩的分解试

  12. 木质包装热处理国际标准对松材线虫有效性的试验研究%Confirmatory test on the validity of heat treatment of ISPM 15 to disinfestation of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in wood packaging material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹国平; 王新; 李丽; 王跃进; 杨赛军; 张瑞峰

    2009-01-01

    使用温度为65~85℃、相对湿度50%~90%的热空气,对不同规格和含水率的携带松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)的马尾松(Pinus massoniana)木板进行热处理验证试验,结果显示,当木材中心温度达到56℃并持续30min以上,10cm×10cm×10cm木块、5cm厚度木板以及高含水率10cm厚度木板中线虫死亡几率值达到9的要求,验证了国际植物检疫措施标准第15号所推荐的热处理技术指标对杀灭松材线虫的有效性.试验中也发现10cm厚度含水率低于30%木板的线虫死亡率达不到几率值9的要求,其原因可能是中心温度或持续时间没有达到该标准要求.%To validate heat treatment requirement of ISPM 15 to disinfestation of Pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in wood packaging material, lumber and block made from Masson Pine with different moisture content (MC), which was naturally infested with Pine wood nematode and sawed to 3 kinds of size, was heat trea-ted under the hot air with the temperature rang of 65 ~ 85℃ and Relative Humidity of 50% ~ 90% to reach the core temperature of 56℃ and more than 30min duration. The results shows that the mortality of the nematodes in all woods except in 10 × 10 × 80cm lumber with MC below 30% meet the requirement of mortality of probit 9 un-der 95% confidence level, the possible reason for the exception was due to the core temperature in wood or dura-tion less than the requirement of ISPM 15.

  13. Screening for Nemaicidal Activity of Some Chinese Plant Extracts against Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Meloidogyne arenaria and Hirschmanniella oryzae%植物抽提物对几种植物病原线虫的杀线活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文艳华; 冯志新; 徐汉虹; 陈立

    2001-01-01

    Extracts of 14 Chinese plants (belong to 10 fami lies in Hubei,Shanxi and Guangdong Provinces, China) were assessed f or nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using a fungal-f eedin g method in vitro. Some of 14 plant extracts were also assessed for nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne arenaria and Hirschmanniella oryzae. Five p lant ext racts(Cephalotaxus fortunei, Cephalotaxus sinensis, Paeonia suffrutccosa, Soph or a viciifolia and Derris elliptica) showed strong nematicidal activity against B ursaphelenchus xylophilus; 3 plant extracts (Cephalotaxus fortunei, Paeonia suf frutccosa, Sophora viciifolia) also showed strong nematicidal activity agains t M. arenaria and H.oryzae. While 4 plant extracts (Sargentodoxus argota enia, Mang lietia patungensis, Liriope spicata, and Liriodendron chinese) demonstrated no nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus and M. arenaria.%测定了中国湖北、陕西及广东省的10科14种植物抽提物对几种植物病原线虫的杀线活性,结果表明:对松材线虫,毛鱼藤(Derris elliptica)根有极强杀线活性,三尖杉( Cephalotaxus fortunei)茎叶、粗榧(Cephalotaxus sinensis)叶、狼牙刺( Sophora vi ciifolia)种子、紫斑牡丹(Paeonia suffrutccosa)茎有强杀线活性,神农香菊( Dendra nthema indicum)全株有中等杀线活性,瓜叶乌头(Aconitum hemsleyanum)全株、香果树(Emmenopterys henryi)叶、东方荚果蕨(Matteuccia orientalis)茎叶、大叶醉鱼草( Buddleja davidii)叶均无杀线活性;对花生根结线虫及水稻潜根线虫,三尖杉茎叶、狼牙刺种子、紫斑牡丹茎有极强杀线活性,神农香菊全株有中等杀线活性;大血藤(Sargento do xus argotaenia)茎、巴东木莲(Manglietia patungensis)叶、土麦冬(Liriop e spicat a)全株及鹅掌揪(Liriodendron chinese)叶对松材线虫、花生根结线虫均无杀线活性。

  14. Species and their dispersal ability of Monochamus as vectors to transmit Bursaphelenchus xylophilus%松材线虫媒介昆虫种类及其扩散能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军; 张润志; 陈京元

    2007-01-01

    松材线虫Bursaphelenchus xylophilus是世界性的外来入侵生物,主要依靠媒介昆虫的携带在自然界中扩散传播.能够携带松材线虫的昆虫有45种,而其中可作为媒介昆虫的有13种,全部为墨天牛属Monochamus种类,它们是:松墨天牛M. alternatus,云杉花墨天牛M. saltuarius,卡罗莱纳墨天牛M. carolinensis,加洛墨天牛M.galloprobincialis,白点墨天牛M. scutellatus,南美墨天牛M. titillator,钝角墨天牛M. botusus,香枞墨天牛M. marmorator,墨点墨天牛M. notatus,松墨斑墨天牛M. mutator,粗点墨天牛M. clamator,巨墨天牛M. grandis和云杉小墨天牛M. sutor.由于松墨天牛、云杉花墨天牛和卡罗莱纳墨天牛等3种昆虫在补充营养及产卵初期2个阶段的飞行能力均较强,通常一次飞行可以达到1 000 m左右,因而成为松材线虫的主要传播媒介.表2参33

  15. A Method for Rapidly Extracting DNA of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from the Infested Pine Wood for PCR and LAMP Detection%一种适于PCR和LAMP检测的松木中松材线虫DNA快速提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟大平; 王曦茁; 汪来发; 田国忠; 朱天辉; 郭民伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective]It is crucial for detection of the pine wood nematode ( PWN) to develop a rapid and economic method of DNA extraction from the infested wood samples by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. This study aims at developing a method for rapidly extracting DNA of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from the infested pine wood.[Method]In this study,a new method was developed to directly extract the nematode DNA from the infested wood chips by using Chelex-100 combined with alkaline guanidine thiocyanate. The extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification ( LAMP) . [Result]The Chelex-100 was used to extract the nematode DNA and the factors, including Chelex-100 concentration, freezing and boiling time, affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. The result showed that the optimum Chelex-100 final concentration was 1. 5% (W/V),the optimum thawing time was 5 min,and the optimum boiling time was 8 min. The DNA concentration extracted by the Chelex-100 method was significantly higher than that extracted by CTAB and Proteinase K method under the same condition. The ratios of OD260 / 280 of the three methods was in a descending order of CTAB method > Proteinase K ≥Chelex-100 method. The OD260 / 280 value of extraction with Chelex-100 method was significantly lower than that with the CTAB method,but slightly lower than,or equal to that with the Proteinase K method,however the low OD260 / 280 value did not affect the extracted DNA used for PCR amplification. The electrophoresis strip of the specific PCR amplification of the 75 × 32 times dilution of the nematode DNA extracted by Chelex-100 method was still clear. The results of PCR and LAMP indicated that the detection of PWN using the Chelex-100-extracted-DNA was sensitive,specific,and stable. With the method the entire infested wood samples by PWN were detected positive,however,the healthy pine samples,including Pinus thunbergii, P. massoniana,P. tabuliformis and

  16. Screening and identifying cellulose degrading bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and cloning corresponding genes%松材线虫伴生菌中产纤维素酶细菌的筛选、鉴定及其相关基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛秋红; 张林; 褚学英; 杜风光; 冯文生; 惠丰立; 柯涛; 樊永欣

    2012-01-01

    To screen, identify bacterial strains with high capability to degrade cellulose from bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and to clone related genes. [Methods] First, we collected B. xylophilus samples from pine wood nematode disease areas in Nanyang, Henan province, China. Then, we obtained the bacterial strains with high cellulase activities by primarily screening according to Congo red plate methods. The bacterial strain was classified by phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. We designed degenerate primes according to the known endoglucanase gene sequences in GenBank to carry out PCR, and analyzed the cloned sequence. [Results] We obtained seven bacterial strains with high cellulase activities. Among them, the bacterial strain numbered C8 showed the highest cellulase activities. The bacterium was classified to be Enterobacter genus. The full length of a cellulase gene cDNA (1104 bp) (GenBank JQ845065) coding region was successfully cloned. The homogeneous analysis demonstrated that the deduced nucleotide and amino acid of the gene separately shared 97% and 92% with the cellulase from E. aerogenes KCTC 2190, and 82% with the endo-1,4-D-glucanase gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 82% with the a cellulase gene from unculturable bacteria. [Conclusion] It was a novel cellulose gene cloned from B. xylophilus associated bacteria.%[目的]从松材线虫伴生菌中筛选出高效降解纤维素的细菌菌株,初步鉴定后,对其相应的纤维素酶基因尝试克隆.[方法]首先从河南南阳松材线虫病疫区采集到的木材样本中,分离获得松材线虫.采用刚果红平板初筛法,从松材线虫伴生菌中获得具有分泌较高活性纤维素酶的细菌菌株.基于该菌株的形态学、生理学及16 s rDNA序列特征等对高活性菌株进行分类鉴定.设计兼并引物,从高活性菌株中克隆该菌株的纤维素酶基因,并进行序列分析.[结果]获得7株具有分泌较高活性纤维素酶的细菌

  17. Screening and Functional Analysis of the Peroxiredoxin Specifically Expressed in Bursaphelenchus xylophilus—The Causative Agent of Pine Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Yu Fu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. Accurately differentiating B. xylophilus from other nematodes species, especially its related species B. mucronatus, is important for pine wood nematode detection. Thus, we attempted to identify a specific protein in the pine wood nematode using proteomics technology. Here, we compared the proteomes of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus using Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization -time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS technologies. In total, 15 highly expressed proteins were identified in B. xylophilus compared with B. mucronatus. Subsequently, the specificity of the proteins identified was confirmed by PCR using the genomic DNA of other nematode species. Finally, a gene encoding a specific protein (Bx-Prx was obtained. This gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The in situ hybridisation pattern of Bx-Prx showed that it was expressed strongly in the tail of B. xylophilus. RNAi was used to assess the function of Bx-Prx, the results indicated that the gene was associated with the reproduction and pathogenicity of B. xylophilus. This discovery provides fundamental information for identifying B. xylophilus via a molecular approach. Moreover, the purified recombinant protein has potential as a candidate diagnostic antigen of pine wilt disease, which may lead to a new immunological detection method for the pine wood nematode.

  18. BME-based spatiotemporal analysis of damage to pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Zijin Mountain%基于贝叶斯最大熵模型的紫金山松材线虫危害程度时空分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明阳; 张晓利; 刘方; 陈溢南

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The objective of spatiotemporal prediction of damage from pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at Zijin Mountain National Forest Park is to provide scientific basis to make plan to protect forest.【Method】 The observation data of 96 fixed points of pine wilt disease at scenic forest in Zijin Mountain National Forest Park from 2004 to 2008 were chosen as the main source of information,together with the related auxiliary information of six ecological environmental factors.Bayesian maximum entropy(BME) method was applied to do spatiotemporal analysis of damage to pine wood nematode.【Result】 From 2004 to 2008,the average number of dead pine trees at observation points of pine wilt disease in Zijin Mountain National Forest Park decreased from 29.96 to 8.17.From 2008 to 2012,the outbreak of pine wood nematode was alleviated in western park and controlled in central park,but still serious in the eastern park,resulting in lower connectivity between points with high number of dead trees.Spatial cluster of dead trees at observation points of pine wilt disease in 2012 indicates that the transportation inconvenient mountain region with large area of old and high volume pine trees will suffer more severely from pine wood nematode and more attention should be paid to prevention and control.【Conclusion】 With GIS-based BME method and a small amount of fixed-point observation data,spatiotemporal analysis can be conducted to predict damage from pine wood nematode,which can provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of invasion from major forest pests.%【目的】对紫金山国家森林公园松材线虫危害程度进行时空预测,旨在为森林病虫害防治规划的制定提供科学依据。【方法】以2004-2008年紫金山国家森林公园风景林96个松材线虫病疫点定点观测数据为主要信息源,与松材线虫危害程度相关的6个生态环境因子作为辅助信息源,采用GIS平台及贝叶斯最

  19. Advances in phylogenetic studies of Nematoda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nematoda is a metazoan group with extremely high diversity only next to Insecta. Caenorhabditis elegans is now a favorable experimental model animal in modern developmental biology, genetics and genomics studies. However, the phylogeny of Nematoda and the phylogenetic position of the phylum within animal kingdom have long been in debate. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies gave great challenges to the traditional nematode classification. The new phylogenies not only placed the Nematoda in the Ecdysozoan and divided the phylum into five clades, but also provided new insights into animal molecular identification and phylogenetic biodiversity studies. The present paper reviews major progress and remaining problems in the current molecular phylogenetic studies of Nematoda, and prospects the developmental tendencies of this field.

  20. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Pseudascarophis Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is...

  1. 两株具有杀松材线虫活性海洋细菌的筛选和鉴定%Screening and Identification of Two Marine Bacterial Strains with Antinematodal Activity Against Barsaphelenchus Xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海营; 于洁; 李荣贵; 郭道森

    2012-01-01

    为对松材线虫病进行生物防治,利用海洋微生物资源,对采自青岛近海域的海水、海泥、海藻和海洋动物样品进行了细菌分离,共得到14株细菌,并采用浸渍法对这些菌株进行杀线活性的测定,从中筛选出对松材线虫具有较强杀线活性的2株海洋细菌PX3-1和PX3-2,用它们的培养滤液处理松材线虫8h,实验结果表明,松材线虫的校正死亡率分别达89.1%和91.6%.通过形态特征观察、生理生化特征测定、16SrDNA序列及其系统发育分析,鉴定菌株PX3 -1和PX3 -1同属于巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus Megaterium).此二菌株对松材线虫具有较强的杀线活性,该研究为海洋微生物资源的利用及对松材线虫病的防治提供了生物材料和理论基础.%In order to probe the feasibility of the resources of marine microorganisms for the biological control of pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, fourteen marine bacterial strains were isolated from the samples of sea water, sea bed mud, seaweed and marine animal collected from the Yellow Sea near Qingdao, Shandong and their cultural filtrates were assayed in vitro for nematicidal activity against B. Xylophilus using immersion test. It was found that the cultural filtrates of strain PX3 - 1 and strain PX3 - 2 displayed stronger nematicidal activity to the tested nematodes and the revised mortalities of B. Xylophilus treated for 8h were 89. 1% and 91. 6 %, respectively. Based on the observation of morphology, the determination of physiological and biochemical characteristics, the analysis of 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree, PX3 - 1 and PX3 - 2 were identified as the strains of Bacillus Megaterium. This study provides biological materials and theoretical basis for the resource utilization of marine microorganisms and the control of pine wilt disease.

  2. 拟松材线虫携带细菌对云南松的致病性%Pathogenicity of bacterium carried by Bursaphelenchus mucronatus on Pinus yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姝江; 朱天辉; 张兴华

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pine wood nematode (PWN) is a destructive disease to pines.For the research on its pathogenic mechanism,the theory which is about the complex infection of PWN and the bacterium carried by it is recognized. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus is considered as a related species of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ,which may be differentiation with the homologous species in different environments.In early studies,B.mucronatus was served as contrast species to B.xylophilus due to the weak or lacking pathogenicity.But recently,many reports have pointed out that it has the strong pathogenicity and can cause the widespread death of pines,which referred to Pinus thunbergii P.yunnanensis P.taiwanensis P.densata ,etc.The large numbers of P.yunnanensis were dead in Sichuan in recent years. However,no systematic study was conducted on the pathogenicity of the bacterium carried by B.mucronatus .This study has the aim of evaluating the effects of the bacterium carried by B.mucronatus on wilting ratio and phenylpropanoid metabolism of pine needles,and further exploring the effect of bacterium in the pathogenic process of B.mucronatus . Two-year-old P.yunnanensis seedlings,B.mucronatus isolated from PWN disease district in Sichuan,the bacterium carried by B.mucronatus and its metabolite as the materials,the wilting ratio was calculated,and the total phenol content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) activities were determined by the inoculation of burette to branch phloem of P.yunnanensis in laboratory,which represented the pathogenicity of the bacterium and its metabolite on P.yunnanensis . The results showed that Pectobacterium cypripedii and its non-protein metabolite had strongest effect on P. yunnanensis in 26 species of bacteria isolated from the surface of nematodes,and the wilting degree and wilting ratio were significantly high in these two treatments.They caused the accumulation of total phenol content and the changes of PAL,PPO and

  3. Endobacteria from different virulence Bursaphelenchus mucronatus%拟松材线虫不同致病力虫株体内细菌的种类差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁为敏; 项杨; 吴小芹

    2015-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus is one of plant parasitic nematodes and similar to the causative agent of pine wilt disease B. xylophilus in morphology. To understand the interaction between B. mucronatus and endobacteria, ten strains of B. mucronatus from seven provinces were inoculated to 2⁃year old Pinus thunbergii to evaluate their virulence. Besides, endobacteria of B. mucronatus were also isolated and analyzed. Pathogenic measurement showed that six strains of B. mucronatus were pathogenic to P. thunbergii, but the other four strains had no pathogenicity. Seventeen strains of endobacteria were isolated from 9 of 10 B. mucronatus strains. Physiological and biochemical characteristics, biolog methods combined with molecular revealed that seventeen strains of endobacteria belonged to Stenotrophomonas malto⁃philia, Ewingella americana, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Agrobacterium tumefaciens,Luteibacter anthropi, Microbacterium oxydans, Agreia pratensis, Leifsonia naganoensis and Achromobacter xylosoxidans ssp. xylosoxidans. Further analysis showed that species and population of endobacteria strains from virulent B. mucronatus strains were more abundant than that from non⁃virulent strains. S. maltophilia were usually isolated from virulent B. mucronatus strains, while endobacteria M. oxydans were mainly isolated from avirulent strains.%拟松材线虫( Bursaphelenchus mucronatus)为伞滑刃属植物寄生线虫,在形态上与引起松树萎蔫病( Pine Wild Disease)的松材线虫( B. xylophilus)极其相似。为探讨拟松材线虫的致病力与其体内细菌的关系,笔者将来自中国7省市不同地区的10个拟松材线虫虫株接种黑松测定其致病力,并对拟松材线虫的体内细菌进行了分离鉴定。结果表明,供试的10个拟松材线虫虫株中有6个虫株对黑松具致病力,4个虫株无致病力。通过分离拟松材线虫的体内细菌,发现有9个虫株体内存在细菌,共分离获得17

  4. EST Table: BP183900 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP183900 P5PG0511 10/09/28 98 %/103 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xylo...philus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/29 98 %/103 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA 1

  5. EST Table: AV398786 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398786 NV060281 10/09/28 96 %/126 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xylo...philus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 96 %/126 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA 1

  6. EST Table: AV401011 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401011 e96h0108 10/09/28 100 %/105 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xyl...ophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 100 %/105 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA

  7. EST Table: BP179900 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP179900 ovS308D02f 10/09/28 100 %/104 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus x...ylophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/29 100 %/104 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-

  8. EST Table: BP117728 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP117728 ce--0843 10/09/28 96 %/119 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xylo...philus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/29 96 %/119 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA 1

  9. EST Table: DC541008 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC541008 E_FL_dpe-_09A18_F_0 10/09/28 100 %/128 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus... xylophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/09/02 100 %/128 aa FBpp0278212|Dps

  10. EST Table: BP122069 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP122069 ceN-5758 10/09/28 100 %/135 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xyl...ophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/29 97 %/135 aa FBpp0190434|DperGL26327-PA

  11. EST Table: AV400057 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400057 br--0482 10/09/28 100 %/104 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xyl...ophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 100 %/104 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA

  12. EST Table: BP179761 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP179761 ovS306F06f 10/09/28 100 %/136 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus x...ylophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/29 100 %/136 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-

  13. EST Table: DC557166 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC557166 E_FL_wd--_15D08_F_0 10/09/28 100 %/109 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus... xylophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/09/02 100 %/109 aa FBpp0278212|Dps

  14. EST Table: DC560925 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC560925 E_FL_wd--_26A20_F_0 10/09/28 94 %/119 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus... xylophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/09/02 94 %/119 aa FBpp0278212|DpseG

  15. EST Table: AV398858 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398858 NV060362 10/09/28 100 %/102 aa gb|ACZ13341.1| actin-4 [Bursaphelenchus xyl...ophilus] dbj|BAI52957.1| actin [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus] 10/08/28 100 %/102 aa FBpp0278212|DpseGA24908-PA

  16. First record of Bursaphelenchus rainulfi on pine trees from eastern China and its phylogenetic relationship with intro-genus species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-qin; LI Xu-qing; ZHENG Jing-wu

    2007-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus rainulfi isolated from dead pine trees in Zhejiang, China, is described and illustrated. It also provided some molecular characters of the Chinese population, including the PCR-RFLP and sequences of ITS region and D2-D3expansion region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Both the morphological characters and ITS-RFLP patterns match with the original description. The phylogenetic trees based on the 13 sequences of D2-D3 expansion region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of Bursaphelenchus species were constructed, respectively, with the results showing the similar clades. The phylogenetic relationship based on the molecular data is similar to that with morphological characters. This is the first report of the species on pine wood in eastern China.

  17. 木腐菌及病死木中的真菌对松材线虫的影响%Influences of Fungi Isolated from Dead Pine Trees and Other Wood Decaying Fungi on the Population Growth of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 赵博光

    2003-01-01

    在松材线虫病的病死木分离出的真菌中,松材线虫可以在无孢菌和待鉴定的3株有孢菌上大量繁殖.在曲霉、青霉、短梗单孢霉、头孢霉的菌落上不能大量繁殖,在木霉、轮枝霉的部分菌株的菌落上也不能大量繁殖.引入了8种木腐菌,毛柄金钱菌(Flammulina velutipes),糙皮侧耳(Pleurotus ostreaus),香菇(Lentinus edodes),黑木耳(Auricularia auricula),拟管革裥菌(Lenzites trabea),粘褶菌(Gloeophyllum trabeum),洁丽香菇(Lentinus lepideus),杂色云芝(Polyporus versicolor),测试了它们对松材线虫种群增长的影响.结果表明,松材线虫可在其菌落上大量繁殖的只有毛柄金钱菌,而其他真菌都对松材线虫具有一定的抑杀作用,其中在粘褶菌和糙皮侧耳菌落上松材线虫完全不能存活.

  18. 快速处理松材线虫病枯死木的液体成膜剂的研究%Study on the Liquid Film to Process the Dead Wood Infected by Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖漫萍; 黄旭宇; 陈晓燕

    2016-01-01

    本实验研究了溶质、溶剂和其他附加物配比,以及分析成膜后的阻水性、吸热性、抗冻性等特征,研制了一种可杀灭松材线虫的成膜剂及其制各方法.该成膜剂在使用前为溶液状态,能以喷雾的形式施用于树干上,干燥后,可在树干形成一层防水高分子材料膜.这层封闭膜可防止松材线虫外逃并杀死松材线虫.

  19. Screening of Wood-rotting Fungi to Treat Stumps of Dead Pine Trees Caused by PWN (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)%处理松材线虫病病死松树伐桩木腐菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶; 汪来发; 朴春根; 朱天辉; 申相澈; 郑荣镇

    2008-01-01

    测试了木腐菌对松材线虫繁殖的影响以及对马尾松木块和松材线虫病病死树伐桩的分解能力,结果表明,供试菌株除裂褶菌菌株外,其他菌株都能抑制松材线虫的繁殖,其中松材线虫在松生拟层孔菌菌株W10、W11,硫磺菌菌株5452、6600,粗皮侧耳菌株6221,虎掌菌菌株6320,茯苓菌株6284,灵芝菌株6501菌落上完全不能存活.对马尾松木块的分解试验结果表明,松生拟层孔菌菌株W10、W11、硫磺菌菌株6600、杂色云芝菌株6923、茯苓菌株6284对马尾松木块具有较强的分解能力.田间接种硫磺菌菌株6600、杂色云芝菌株6923、松生拟层孔菌菌株W11、茯苓菌株6284和粗皮侧耳菌株6221处理松材线虫病病死树伐桩70 d后,硫磺菌菌株6600和杂色云芝菌株6923表现出对松材线虫病病死树伐桩较强的分解能力,这2个菌株可作为今后利用木腐菌处理松材线虫病病死树伐桩的潜力菌株.

  20. 木腐菌对松材线虫病病死树伐桩的作用%Effects of Wood-Rotting Fungi on Stumps of Dead Wood Caused by PWN(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶; 汪来发; 朴春根; 朱天辉; 申相澈; 郑荣镇

    2008-01-01

    采用硫磺菌菌株6600、杂色云芝菌株6923、松生拟层孔菌菌株W11、茯苓菌株6284和粗皮侧耳菌株6221接种处理松材线虫病病死树伐桩,研究5个菌株对伐桩的分解能力以及对伐桩内松材线虫的作用情况.结果表明:硫磺菌菌株6600对伐桩的分解能力以及对伐桩内松材线虫的抑杀作用都最强;对伐桩内松材线虫数量与伐桩样品质量的相关分析表明两者呈极显著的正相关.该研究为今后在实际生产中利用木腐菌处理伐桩奠定了重要的基础.

  1. 基于Maxent生态位模型的松材线虫在中国的适生区预测分析%Prediction of potential distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in China based on Maxent ecological niche model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩阳阳; 王焱; 项杨; 叶建仁

    2015-01-01

    为了进一步掌握松材线虫在中国可能的扩展范围和可能造成的危害程度,利用Maxent生态位模型,结合地理信息系统ArcGIS,对松材线虫在中国的适生区范围进行了预测研究.结果表明:松材线虫在中国的适生区主要集中在华东和华南地区,华北地区南部、东北地区南部和西南地区南部则是松材线虫的中适生区或低适生区,其他地区则是松材线虫的非适生区.在适生区范围内,只要可感染的寄主松树存在,其他气候因子是可能满足松材线虫的侵染和致病的.ROC评价(receiver operating characteristic curve,受试者工作特征曲线,简称ROC曲线)结果表明,Maxent生态位模型预测松材线虫适生分布的训练数据和测试数据的AUC(areas under curve,曲线下面积)值分别为0.987和0.986,达到了极高的精度.各环境变量重要性的刀切法检验表明,温度因素对松材线虫的潜在分布影响最大.

  2. 松墨天牛对雪松精油及其单烯的选择行为反应%Choice Behavior of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus to Cedrus deodara Essential Oil and Monoene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔飞; 陈京元; 夏剑萍; 桂连友

    2011-01-01

    The choice behavior of Monochamus alternatus to Cedrus deodara essential oil and monoene was determined by Y olfactometry to probe the effect of host volatile on host choice of Monochamus alternatus adults and to provide the scientific basis for development and utilization of attractants. The results showed that the attracting action of 1/200 Cedrus deodara essential oil was the highest among all treatments, the essential oil of Chinese red pine, simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil (a-pinene .' βpinene: limonene .' camphene: mycrene=50: 40:10: 1: 3) and odor source A (α-pinene: β-pinene=1: 1) had the obvious attracting action to female Monochamus alternatus adults, the simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil had better attracting action to female Monochamus alternatus adults compared with odor source A, the attracting ability of odor source A was significantly higher than a-pinene and there was no significant difference in attracting action among Chinese red pine essential oil + Cedrus deodara essential oil, Cedrus deodara essential oil + simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil and odor source A+odor source B(α-pinene: β-pinene=10:1).%为探讨寄主挥发物在成虫寄主选择中的作用,为开发和利用引诱剂提供依据,利用Y型嗅觉仪,测试了松墨天牛(Monochamus alternatus Hope)对雪松精油及其单烯的选择行为.结果表明:200倍的雪松精油有明显引诱作用,引诱效果好于50倍和1000倍;马尾松精油、雪松精油模拟物(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯:柠檬烯:莰烯:月桂烯=50:40:10:1:3)、味源物a(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯=1:1)对松墨天牛雌成虫具有明显引诱作用;雪松精油模拟物对松墨天牛雌成虫的引诱能力大于味源物a,味源物a对松墨天牛雌成虫引诱能力显著高于α-蒎烯;3组对比处理,马尾松精油-雪松精油、雪松精油-雪松精油模拟物和味源物a-味源物b(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯=10:1)之间对松墨天牛雌成虫的引诱作用无明显差异.

  3. Species and Toxicity of Predominant Bacteria Carried by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Different Countries%不同国家松材线虫体表携带优势细菌种类及其毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲爱玲; 郑敬荣; 朱若箐; 王殿玺; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria strains on the body surface of Pine Wood Nematode ( PWN ) isolates from America, Japan and China wereseparated and identified, and the toxicity of the bacteria in culture filtrates to aseptic pine seedlings without root was deter-mined. Result showed that the colony of bacteria was single. The identification of bacteria was made by Biolog microbial identi-fication system and 16S RNA gene sequence analysis. Bacterial strain of Pantoea agglomerans was separated from PWN iso-lates from America. strain of Pantoea toletana from Zhejiang Province of China. strain of Pseuclomona.s fluore.scens from Ja-pan, one strain of Enterobacter cloacae from Lishui of China and the other strain from Japan, strain of Comamonas aci-dovorans from nematode of B. mucronatu.s in China. A bioassay of bacteria toxicity to the aseptic pine ( Pinus thunbergiiand P. massoniana ) seedlings without root showed that toxicities of E. cloaeae and P. fluore.scens were strongest, followedby P. toletana. and P. agglomeran.s and C. acidovorans exhihited the weakest toxicities to the pine seedlings.%收集了来源于美国、日本和中国的松材线虫虫株,分离了各虫株体表携带的细菌,确定了优势菌并进行鉴定,并用细菌培养的无细胞滤液对无菌黑松和马尾松切根苗进行了生物测定,以了解各细菌菌株对松苗的毒性.结果表明:所有虫株均携带明显的优势菌.经Biolog细菌自动鉴定系统和16S rDNA 序列分析鉴定表明,美国线虫虫株上分离的优势细菌为成团泛菌(Pantoea agglomerans);中国浙江虫株优势细菌为Pantoea toletana;日本虫株优势菌为荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens);中国溧水虫株分离的菌株与另一个日本菌株为同一种,都为阴沟肠杆菌(Enterobacter cloacae);中国拟松材线虫上分离的菌株为食酸丛毛单胞菌(Comamonas acidovorans).生物毒性测定结果显示:阴沟肠杆菌和荧光假单胞菌菌株产毒能力最强,泛菌属(P.toletana)菌株产毒能力次之,成团泛菌和食酸丛毛单胞菌菌株产毒能力最弱.

  4. Screening of the Bacterium with Nematicidal Activity to Bursaphelenchuh xylophilus%松材线虫拮抗细菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海娟; 詹国辉; 陈云芳; 高渊

    2013-01-01

    [目的]筛选对松材线虫(Bursaphelenchuh xylophilus)具有杀线活性的细菌.[方法]对来自松、杨林分的12株细菌进行了杀松材线虫活性测定.[结果]在植物体上共分离获得12株细菌,其中JK-SD001发酵液稀释4倍对松材线虫处理24h后杀线率仍为100%,且松材线虫虫体出现消解现象,消解率为80.4%.[结论]为开发生物源杀线剂奠定了基础.%[ Objective ] The aim was to screen bacterium with nematicidal activity to pine wood nematode ( Bursaphelenchuh xylophilus). [Method] The nematicidal activities of 12 bacteria strains isolated from pine forest and poplar forest to B. xylophilus were determined. [Result] Twelve bacteria strains were isolated from the plant, and the nematode mortality was 100% after B. xylophilus was treated by four times dilution of JK-SD001 fermentation liquor for 24 h, meanwhile the nematode appeared digestion, with the digestion rate of 80. 4% . [ Conclusion ] The research result lays the foundation for the development of biological nematicides.

  5. Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 (Nematoda: Heterakidae in Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae in Ica, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufino Cabrera Ch.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 is redescribed. It is a parasitic heterakid nematoda living in the caecum of murid rodent, Rattus norvegícus "gray rat" from district of Parcona, province of Ica, Peru.

  6. Helminth parasites (Cestoidea: Nematoda) of select herpetofauna from Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-four amphibians (6 families, 12 species) and 28 reptiles (5 families, 16 species) from Paraguay were examined for helminths. Fifteen (44%) amphibians and 6 (21%) reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 4 (12%) amphibians and 2 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections. Three species of Cestoidea and 17 species of Nematoda were found in the herptiles surveyed. Fourteen new host and 12 new locality records are documented, including the first report of the filaroid nematode, Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954) Chabaud and Frank, 1961, from South America.

  7. Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) infections of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in the Netherlands: epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathobiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980s an eel parasitic nematode, Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea), which infects the swimbladder of European eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) and other freshwater fish species, was introduced into The Netherlands. This thesis describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathobiology

  8. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  9. Phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Nematoda as revealed by ribosomal DNA, and their biological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, M.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nematodes – “eel worms”; members of the phylum Nematoda – can be considered as a success story within the Metazoa (multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes in which cells lack cell walls): they are speciose and – probably - the most numerous group of multicellular animals on our planet. Nematodes are

  10. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe.

  11. Teaching Population Growth Using Cultures of Vinegar Eels, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. Identifying Virulence-Associated Genes Using Transcriptomic and Proteomic Association Analyses of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Chen, Fengmao; Pan, Hongyang; Ye, Jianren; Dong, Xuejiao; Li, Chunyan; Lin, Fengling

    2016-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (B. mucronatus) isolates that originate from different regions may vary in their virulence, but their virulence-associated genes and proteins are poorly understood. Thus, we conducted an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic data of highly and weakly virulent B. mucronatus isolates during the pathogenic processes. Approximately 40,000 annotated unigenes and 5000 proteins were gained from the isolates. When we matched all of the proteins with their detected transcripts, a low correlation coefficient of r = 0.138 was found, indicating probable post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in the pathogenic processes. A functional analysis showed that five differentially expressed proteins which were all highly expressed in the highly virulent isolate were involved in the pathogenic processes of nematodes. Peroxiredoxin, fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase relate to resistance against plant defence responses, while β-1,4-endoglucanase and expansin are associated with the breakdown of plant cell walls. Thus, the pathogenesis of B. mucronatus depends on its successful survival in host plants. Our work adds to the understanding of B. mucronatus’ pathogenesis, and will aid in controlling B. mucronatus and other pinewood nematode species complexes in the future. PMID:27618012

  13. Identifying Virulence-Associated Genes Using Transcriptomic and Proteomic Association Analyses of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (B. mucronatus isolates that originate from different regions may vary in their virulence, but their virulence-associated genes and proteins are poorly understood. Thus, we conducted an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic data of highly and weakly virulent B. mucronatus isolates during the pathogenic processes. Approximately 40,000 annotated unigenes and 5000 proteins were gained from the isolates. When we matched all of the proteins with their detected transcripts, a low correlation coefficient of r = 0.138 was found, indicating probable post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in the pathogenic processes. A functional analysis showed that five differentially expressed proteins which were all highly expressed in the highly virulent isolate were involved in the pathogenic processes of nematodes. Peroxiredoxin, fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase relate to resistance against plant defence responses, while β-1,4-endoglucanase and expansin are associated with the breakdown of plant cell walls. Thus, the pathogenesis of B. mucronatus depends on its successful survival in host plants. Our work adds to the understanding of B. mucronatus’ pathogenesis, and will aid in controlling B. mucronatus and other pinewood nematode species complexes in the future.

  14. Mitochondrial genome diversity in dagger and needle nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, J. E.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C.; Archidona-Yuste, A.; Blok, V. C.; Castillo, P.

    2017-01-01

    Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species. PMID:28150734

  15. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; van Heerden, E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-06-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth's crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or recovered from 0.9-3.6-kilometre-deep fracture water in the deep mines of South Africa but have not been detected in the mining water. These subsurface nematodes, including a new species, Halicephalobus mephisto, tolerate high temperature, reproduce asexually and preferentially feed upon subsurface bacteria. Carbon-14 data indicate that the fracture water in which the nematodes reside is 3,000-12,000-year-old palaeometeoric water. Our data suggest that nematodes should be found in other deep hypoxic settings where temperature permits, and that they may control the microbial population density by grazing on fracture surface biofilm patches. Our results expand the known metazoan biosphere and demonstrate that deep ecosystems are more complex than previously accepted. The discovery of multicellular life in the deep subsurface of the Earth also has important implications for the search for subsurface life on other planets in our Solar System.

  16. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea in wildlife: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Spratt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20 given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna

  17. [The analysis of climatic and biological parameters for the pest spread risk modelling of the wood nematode species Bursaphelenchus spp. and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis (Rhabditida: Aphelenchoidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryss, A Y; Mokrousov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the forest woody species wilt areassurvey in Nizhniy Novgorod region in August 2014, the possible factors of the pest spread risk modelling were analysed on six species of the genus Bursaphelenchus and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis using six parameters: plant host species, beetle vector species, average temperatures in July and January, annual precipitation. It was concluded that these parameters in the evaluated wilt spots correspond to climatic and biological data of the already published woody plants wilt records in Europe and Asia caused by the same nematode pest species. It was speculated that the annual precipitation of 600 mm and average July temperature of 25 degrees C or higher, are the critical combination that may be used to develop the predicative risk modelling in the forests' and parks' wilt monitoring.

  18. A new species of Thelastomathidae (Nematoda) a parasite of Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, Nora B; Maiztegui, Bárbara

    2002-07-01

    Gryllophila cephalobulata n. sp. (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) a parasite of the mole cricket Neocurtilla claraziana (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae) isolated in Buenos Aires Province, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by cuticle annulated all along the length of the body; the first ring has 4 lobules, the second one has 14 lobules, the others rings are simple, the stoma is short and has 4 small teeth, the genital papillae are arranged in 5 pairs, of which 3 pairs are preanal and 2 pairs are postanal. The tail appendage of the male is long and filiform.

  19. A new species of Thelastomathidae (Nematoda a parasite of Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camino Nora B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gryllophila cephalobulata n. sp. (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae a parasite of the mole cricket Neocurtilla claraziana (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae isolated in Buenos Aires Province, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by cuticle annulated all along the length of the body; the first ring has 4 lobules, the second one has 14 lobules, the others rings are simple, the stoma is short and has 4 small teeth, the genital papillae are arranged in 5 pairs, of which 3 pairs are preanal and 2 pairs are postanal. The tail appendage of the male is long and filiform.

  20. First report of parasitism by Ophidascaris robertsi (Nematoda) in a sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps, Marsupialia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Agúndez, Miguel; Villaluenga Rodríguez, Jose Enrique; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Spratt, David M

    2014-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ophidascarsis robertsi (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) were found on necropsy in a female sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps (Marsupialia: Petauridae), two in heart chambers and one free in the peritoneal cavity. The animal was bred in captivity and had previous contact with Australian pythons captured in nature, which could be the source of the infection. The histopathologic diagnosis was intraluminal and perivascular pulmonary hemorrhage possibly due to the parasitosis. It is the first report of parasitism by O. robertsi in a sugar glider.

  1. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  2. Studies on the effects of control dead trees by the method of clear-cutting in the zone of integrated management of Pine Wood Nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Sterner et Buhrer) Nickle, Tianmu Lake%天目湖松材线虫病综合治理示范区清除病死树效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱忠; 刘云鹏; 王正伟; 朱大金

    2007-01-01

    天目湖为我国AAAA级风景区,近年来松材线虫病的发生,使景观效果大受影响.到2004年,病死松树达5万株以上,病害严重林分病死树率达50%以上,危害日趋严重.从2004年11月~2007年11月,对景区松材线虫病病死树采取了彻底清除的措施,对景区的松材线虫病的控制起到了良好的效果.通过调查分析表明,病死树采伐量下降86.82%,新增病死树率从6.0%下降到0.26%,病死树中天牛幼虫量下降了80%.

  3. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  4. Morphological variation of the corona radiata in Oesophagostomum dentatum, O-quadrispinulatum, and O-radiatum (Nematoda: Strongyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, B.; Bresciani, J.; Christensen, C.M.;

    1997-01-01

    The anterior end of 76 adult and of several juvenile Oesaphagostomum dentatum, of 75 adult O. quadrispinulatum, and of 70 adult O. radiatum (Strongylida, Nematoda) was investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Both an external and an internal ring of buccal leaves (corona radiata ex...... radiata externa. Juveniles of O. dentatum do not possess buccal leaves, but a thin cuticular velum in the fourth stage and neither a corona nor a velum in the second and first stage....

  5. Investigation of Terahertz Spectral Signatures of DNA of Pine Wood Nematode

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Jiang; Chun Li; Lin Huang; Zhenwei Zhang; Cunlin Zhang; Yunfei Liu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present the fingerprint characteristic about the identification of harmful Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) nematode and harmless Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Bm) nematode by applying terahertz spectroscopic techniques. We measure the transmission of the Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) of the Bx and the Bm samples and their corresponding Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification segments of the DNA molecules by the Terahertz Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the Fourier Tra...

  6. First record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related.

  7. A new genus and species of Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasitic in Delomys dorsalis (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiani, María Celina; Kinsella, John M

    2014-10-01

    Alippistrongylus bicaudatus gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) is described from the striped Atlantic forest rat, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel) (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), from the province of Misiones in Argentina. The new genus and species is characterised by a synlophe of 21 unequal ridges in both sexes without a gradient in size, with two ridges weakly sclerotised and oriented perpendicularly in the dorsal left quadrant; males with a highly dissymmetrical bursa with a hypertrophied right lobe, and females with a dorsal conical appendage just posterior to the vulva, conferring a two-tailed appearance to the female worms.

  8. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bisaggio Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus (Kyphosidae, off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  9. NEMATODA ENTOMOPATOGEN HETERORHABDITIS ISOLAT LOKAL MADURA SEBAGAI PENGENDALIAN HAYATI HAMA PENTING TANAMAN HORTIKULTURA YANG RAMAH PADA LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sucipto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research to determine the potential of Heterorhabditis spp an Entomopatogen Nematoda biological agents as alternative control of pest crop which is environmentally friendly. which has a simple life cycle and have the stadia development of eggs, juvenile, and adult. In supporting its effectiveness, nematodes bacteria entomopatogen need simbion with bacteria that Photorhabdus. Heterorhabditis advantages are: a broad host range, rapid insect killing (48 hours, can be cultured in artificial media, durable infection stadia, does not cause resistance to the host and really safe for the environment

  10. 一株具有杀松材线虫活性海洋真菌的筛选和初步鉴定%Screening and Preliminary Identification of One Marine Fungal Strain with Nematicidal Activity Against Barsaphelenchus Xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中强; 于洁; 刘超; 刘晓宇; 郭道森

    2013-01-01

    为了从分离得到的海洋真菌中筛选并鉴定具有杀松材线虫活性的菌株,本文采用稀释涂布平板法对采自青岛近海海域样品中的真菌进行分离,使用浸渍法对菌株的培养滤液和菌丝破碎液进行杀松材线虫活性测定,同时根据菌落形态、大小、色泽等特点的不同,经进一步纯化得到6个纯菌株,对这些菌株进行杀线活性测定,经初步筛选得到2株具有较强杀线活性的菌株,菌株HZ 11处理28 h时杀线活性最高,其培养滤液和菌丝破碎滤液的线虫校正死亡率分别达到72.6%和84.1%;菌株HZ 12处理32 h时杀线活性最高,其培养滤液和菌丝破碎滤液处理的线虫校正死亡率分别为46.3%和58.8%。选出活性表现最强的菌株HZ 11进行后续实验。实验结果表明,菌株HZ 11为轮枝孢属(Verticillium)的真菌。本研究对由松材线虫引起的松树萎蔫病的生物防治具有重要的理论意义。%In order to screen and identify the fungal strains with nematicidal activity against the pine wood nematode,Barsaphelenchus xylophilus,from the fungi isolated from the marine environment,in this pa-per,the dilution and streak plate method was used to isolate fungal strains from the samples collected from the Yellow Sea near Qingdao.The culture filtrate and mycelial extract of the fungal strains isolated were assayed invitro for nematicidal activity using immersion test.At the same time,based on the coloni-al morphology,size,color and other characteristics,six pure strains were isolated.After preliminary screening,two strains with strong nematicidal activity were obtained.Strain HZ 1 1 showed the highest activity against B.xylophilus.The revised mortalities of B.xylophilus treated with the culture filtrate and mycelial extract of HZ 1 1 for 28h were 72.6% and 84.1%,respectively.Strain HZ 1 2 reached the highest nematicidal activity against B.xylophilus treated with the culture filtrate and mycelial

  11. 一株具有杀松材线虫活性细菌的筛选和鉴定%Screening and Identification of One Bacterial Strain with Nematicidal Activity Against Barsaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝颖; 岳同卿; 李荣贵

    2013-01-01

    为了筛选对松材线虫(Bursa phelenchus xylophilus)具有较高杀线活性的细菌,作者从腌制芥菜的表面分离出了一株对松材线虫具有较高杀灭活性的细菌,命名LZ-01.经形态学观察、生理生化分析及对该菌16S rDNA序列分析,将该菌鉴定为Bacillus cereus LZ-01.利用该菌培养滤液对松材线虫的杀灭活性进行了检测,结果表明:处理10 h时松材线虫的校正死亡率可达100%.

  12. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids or biting midges (ceratopogonids. Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25, roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6 and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7, all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  13. Biological responses of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.

  14. Scientific Opinion on a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode from the bark of pine trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickl...

  15. A new Cephalobium Cobb (Nematoda, Cephalobiidae, a parasite of Anurogryllus Muticus (De Geer (Orthoptera, Gryllidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora B. Camino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cephalobium from Gorina, La Plata, Argentina, parasiting nymphs of Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer (Orthoptera, Gryllidae is described and illustrated. This nematode can be characterized by having the stoma longer than broad, the glottoid apparatus anisoglottid and anisomorphic, divided into two portions, one with cuticularized walls and the other with three simple dorsal teeth. The male is further characterized by the presence of two long and separated spicules and short gubernaculum without any projection. Genital papillae are arranged in five postanal pairs.Uma espécie nova do gênero Cephalobium (Nematoda, Cephalobiidae, parasita de Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer (Ortoptera, Gryllidae de Gorina, La Plata, Argentina, é descrita e ilustrada. Este nematoda pode ser caracterizado por apresentar estoma mais longo que largo, o aparelho glottoideo anisoglottideo e anisomórfico, dividido em duas porções, uma com paredes quitinizadas e a outra com três dentes dorsais simples. O macho possui espículas longas e separadas e o gubernáculo curto sem qualquer projeção. As papilas genitais estão organizadas em cinco pares pós-anais.

  16. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinemaelongatum and X.pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872Xiphinemaelongatum and KP407873Xiphinemapachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinemapachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinemaelongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms.

  17. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema elongatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Damessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of X. elongatum and X. pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 X. elongatum and KP407873 X. pachtaicum with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of X. pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but X. elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4% which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as X. elongatum and X. pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms.

  18. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema elongatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 Xiphinema elongatum and KP407873 Xiphinema pachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinema pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinema elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms. PMID:25878528

  19. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Great Smoky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R T; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Ye, Weimin; Pedram, Majid

    2009-06-01

    In October 1985 during a survey of fauna of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Ernest Bernard recovered a limited number of specimens of a non-described species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and sent them to the senior author. The species is distinct from other species by its large size and having Z-organs in the genital tract. During July 2006, Dr. Bernard's survey crew took samples in the area where the species was first found and was successful in finding it again. Without Dr. Bernard's efforts, this species could not have been described and thus the new species is named X. bernardi n. sp. in his honor. Several female and juvenile specimens of the new species were recovered in a sample from a mixed forest of maple, hemlock, and silverbell. It is distinct from all others in Xiphinema group 4 species (with Z-organs) by having a longer total stylet length, 259.8 to 284.2 μm vs Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. is distinctive because of its long body length (4.45 to 6.00 mm), tail shape, and c' ratio. Of the group 4 species, it most closely resembles X. phoenicis. Second, third and fourth stage juvenile descriptions and morphometrics are included. The polytomous key code for X. bernardi n. sp. is A4-B1-C6-D56-E56-F(4)5-G4-H2-I34-J5-K?-L1. Molecular approaches using the internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA suggested that X. bakeri and X. diversicaudatum are the most closely related species from the species examined.

  20. Hysterothylacium larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in the freshwater mussel Diplodon suavidicus (Lea, 1856) (Mollusca, Unioniformes, Hyriidae) in Aripuanã River, Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luiza P C; Pimpão, Daniel M; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Malta, José C O; Varella, Angela M B

    2011-03-01

    Larvae of Hysterothylacium use various invertebrates as intermediate hosts. Definite hosts include fish, birds, reptiles or marine mammals. This study describes the occurrence of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda, Anisakidae) larvae parasitizing the pericardic cavity of Diplodon suavidicus (Unioniformes, Hyriidae) specimens collected in the Amazon basin, Brazil. This is the first record of this nematode parasitizing freshwater bivalves in South America. The high prevalence, medium intensity and medium abundance suggest that D. suavidicus acts as intermediate host for Hysterothylacium species in that environment.

  1. Dracunculus mulbus n. sp. (Nematoda: Spirurida) from the water python Liasis fuscus (Serpentes: Boidae) in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hugh I; Mulder, Eridani

    2007-03-01

    A new species of Dracunculus Reichard, 1759 (Nematoda: Spirurida) is described from the tissues surrounding organs in the body-cavity of the water python Liasis fuscus Peters in northern Australia. One to 14 worms were recovered from 22% (27/120) of pythons examined. Males were located principally around the lungs, liver and heart of the hosts, and females were recovered from peritoneal tissue surrounding the intestines and lining the body-cavity. This species differs from previously described species of Dracunculus in the position of the papillae at the posterior end in males, and in the possession of thick, narrow caudal alae. Submedian cephalic papillae are single in both sexes. Dorsal and ventral anterior cephalic papillae are absent in males. This is the first report of a species of Dracunculus from the Australian region.

  2. Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I

    2005-02-01

    Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus.

  3. In vitro larvicidal activity of geraniol and citronellal against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae

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    L.A. Barros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection with fish parasites can result from the ingestion of incompletely cooked or raw fish, giving origin to parasitic diseases such as anisakiasis, caused by parasites of the Anisakidae family. The present study assessed the in vitro larvicidal effect of two monoterpene compounds, geraniol and citronellal, against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae. Four hundred live larvae of Contracaecum sp obtained from "traíra" fish (Hoplias malabaricus, Bloch, 1974 were analyzed on 40 Petri dishes (10 larvae each with the compounds to be tested. The final concentrations tested for each compound were 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.2 µg/mL and the evaluation was carried out at five different times (2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h. The larvicidal action of geraniol and citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005 to the control (1% ethanol at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 µg/mL (geraniol and 250, 125, and 62.5 μg/mL (citronellal. However, no larvicidal activity was observed at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 µg/mL for geraniol and 31.2 µg/mL for citronellal. When the larvicidal action of geraniol was compared to that of citronellal, the former was found to be statistically superior (P < 0.05 to the latter at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 μg/mL. On the other hand, citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005 to geraniol at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 μg/mL. The larval mortality rate in terms of time (hours was higher for geraniol with the passing of time at the 250 μg/mL concentration. At this concentration (in 48 h the best larvicidal effect was observed with 90% lethality. The larvae were considered to be dead using no motility and loss of structural integrity as parameters. The data indicate that natural terpene compounds should be more explored for antihelminthic activity and can be useful for other studies about anisakiasis treatment.

  4. On Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: South American correlated species (Nematoda, Cucullanidae and some other helminths of micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Pisces, Sciaenidae Sobre Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: espécies sul americanas correlatas (Nematoda, Cucullanidae e alguns outros helmintos de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823(Pisces, Sciaenidae

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    J. Júlio Vicente

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tomquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, from Venezuela, of which D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 is proposed as a junior synonym, is redescribed and comments on the present status of the remaining species under the group, namely D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1970 Petter, 1974 and D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974, occuring in South America are made. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acanthocephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium caryophyllum (Diesing, 1850(Cestoidea, Otobothriidae and Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819(Cestoidea, Dasyrhynchidae as well as larval forms of Echinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae are also reported.Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, da Venezuela, da qual D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 é proposta como sinônimo junior, é descrita, e são feitos comentários sobre a atual situação das outras espécies do mesmo grupo, ocorrendo na América do Sul, a saber: D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1971 Petter, 1974 e D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acantochephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium cariophyllum (Diesing, 1850 (Cestoidea, Otobothriidae e Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819 (Cestoidea, Dayrhynchidae bem como formas larvares de Exhinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae e Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae são também assinaladas.

  5. Moving towards a complete molecular framework of the Nematoda: a focus on the Enoplida and early-branching clades

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    Lambshead P John D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subclass Enoplia (Phylum Nematoda is purported to be the earliest branching clade amongst all nematode taxa, yet the deep phylogeny of this important lineage remains elusive. Free-living marine species within the order Enoplida play prominent roles in marine ecosystems, but previous molecular phylogenies have provided only the briefest evolutionary insights; this study aimed to firmly resolve internal relationships within the hyper-diverse but poorly understood Enoplida. In addition, we revisited the molecular framework of the Nematoda using a rigorous phylogenetic approach in order to investigate patterns of early splits amongst the oldest lineages (Dorylaimia and Enoplia. Results Morphological identifications, nuclear gene sequences (18S and 28S rRNA, and mitochondrial gene sequences (cox1 were obtained from marine Enoplid specimens representing 37 genera. The 18S gene was used to resolve deep splits within the Enoplia and evaluate the branching order of major clades in the nematode tree; multiple phylogenetic methods and rigorous empirical tests were carried out to assess tree topologies under different parameters and combinations of taxa. Significantly increased taxon sampling within the Enoplida resulted in a well-supported, robust phylogenetic topology of this group, although the placement of certain clades was not fully resolved. Our analysis could not unequivocally confirm the earliest splits in the nematode tree, and outgroup choice significantly affected the observed branching order of the Dorylaimia and Enoplia. Both 28S and cox1 were too variable to infer deep phylogeny, but provided additional insight at lower taxonomic levels. Conclusions Analysis of internal relationships reveals that the Enoplia is split into two main clades, with groups consisting of terrestrial (Triplonchida and primarily marine fauna (Enoplida. Five independent lineages were recovered within the Enoplida, containing a mixture of marine

  6. α-三噻吩对松材线虫的室内毒力测定%Nemta icidal To xicity Test ofα-Terthienyl against Pine Wood Nematodes (Bu rsaphelenchus xylophilus)i n Labora-tory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志超; 赵博光

    2013-01-01

    研究了黑松( Pinus thunbergii)木屑不同含水量对松材线虫( Bursahpe lenchus xylohp ilus)繁殖的影响,确定了适于线虫繁殖的最佳含水量,并以黑松木屑作为试验介质,模拟松材线虫生活条件,测定了杀线剂α-三噻吩(α-T)对松材线虫的毒力。结果表明:当黑松木屑相对含水量达到50%时最有利于松材线虫繁殖;α-T对松材线虫具有非常强的毒性,毒力回归方程为Y=14.589+18.720x,半致死质量分数为1.892μgg/。%An experiment was conducted to measure nematicidal activity of pine wood nematodes ( Bursaphle enchus xylophilus) with sawdust of black pine ( Pinus thunbergii) , and determine the best relative water content ( RWC) of the sawdustto culture pine wood nematodes and bioassay the nematicidal activity of α-T by the method.50% of RWC is best suitable condition toculture pine wood nematodes, and bythe regression equation of α-T against pine wood nematodes under the light intensity of 10 000 Lux, the toxicity regression equation is Y=14.589+18.720x, and the medial lethal concentration is LC50=1.892μg/g.

  7. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  8. Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Sávio; Silveira, Andrea Kill; Vieira, Flávio Dias; Traversa, Donato

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), along with the reactions caused by parasitism and the migration route of the nematodes inside the flies. Houseflies were reared on faeces of a H. muscae-infected horse, then dissected and processed by histology. The experimental part of the study was performed in 1996 in the Parasitological Experimental Station W.O. Neitz, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Three different larval stages of H. muscae were recovered, measured and described. The encapsulation of larval nematodes was found in the third larval instar (L3) of M. domestica and cryptocephalic pupa. The mature capsules were observed in dipteran L3, pupae and mainly adults. In 1day-old or more M. domestica adults an active rupturing of capsules by H. muscae L3 and the migration to the head through the circulatory system and insect hemocoel were observed. Infective H. muscae L3s remained exclusively in the head of adult 5days-old or more M. domestica.

  9. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  10. Pseudocapillaria (Pseudocapillaria) moraveci sp. n. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the stomach of Gobius paganellus (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Vigo estuary (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Raúl; Centeno, Luisa; García, Nuria; García-Estévez, José M

    2013-05-01

    Pseudocapillaria moraveci sp. n. (Nematoda, Capillariidae) is described from the stomach of Gobius paganellus Linnaeus (Perciformes, Gobiidae) from rocky shores of the Vigo estuary (Northwest Atlantic coast of Spain). Scanning electron microscopy reveals the absence of a dorsal cuticular membrane interconnecting the caudal lobes of male, thus confirming the assignment of this new species to the nominotypical subgenus Pseudocapillaria Freitas, 1959. Pseudocapillaria moraveci can be easily differentiated from other marine congeneric species belonging to subgenera Pseudocapillaria and Ichthyocapillaria Moravec, 1982 by its muscular oesophagus, which is distinctly thickened at the distal third, the terminal or almost terminal anus in female, the presence of a basal internal papilla on each ventrolateral caudal lobe in male, and its exclusive site preference for the stomach. In addition, the spicule, which measures 0.180-0.292 mm in length (4.9-7.9% of body length) and possesses a proximal end expanded and oblique in lateral view, a narrowed middle part, and a distal end almost pointed, also distinguishes this species. Pseudocapillaria moraveci is, together with P. tomentosa (Dujardin, 1843) Moravec, 1987, the only species in the genus Pseudocapillaria that has been reported to infect members of the family Gobiidae.

  11. Redescription of the females of Hystrignathus rigidus Leidy, 1850 (Nematoda: Hystrignathidae), parasites of Odontotaenius disjunctus (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-03-30

    The female of Hystrignathus rigidus Leidy, 1850 (Nematoda: Hystrignathidae) is redescribed on the basis of new material from Odontotaenius disjunctus (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Athens, Georgia, USA; which also constitutes a new locality record. SEM images are provided for the first time for the species. It is also first shown that H. rigidus presents ridged-shelled eggs. A differential diagnosis is provided. H. rigidus can be differentiated from the rest of the species of this genus by having a short, non inflated first cephalic annule; spines that surpass the level of the oesophagus, an absence of lateral alae, ridged-shelled eggs and its length of the body and tail. The material from the present study differs from a previous redescription by Christie (1934) by its shorter body (2.125-2.950 vs. 2.130-4.200), first cephalic annule (0.003-0.005 vs. 0.012) and oesophagus (0.350-0.430 vs. 0.650-0.670).

  12. Spauligodon timbavatiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from Pachydactylus turneri (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in the northern province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering-Hagenbeck, S F; Boomker, J

    1998-09-01

    Spauligodon timbavatiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of Pachydactylus turneri (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in the Northern Province (RSA) is described and illustrated. It is the fifth species in the Ethiopian region, the others being Spauligodon smithi from Pachydactylus bibronii and Spauligodon petersi from Mabuya sulcata, both in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, Spauligodon morgani from Mabuya striata in Malawi, and Spauligodon dimorpha from Chamaeleo pardalis in Madagascar. The males of the new species differ from S. smithi in that the adcloacal papillae are single (bifid in S. smithi), from S. petersi in the presence of a spicule and having narrow lateral alae (wide and triangular in S. petersi) and from S. dimorpha and S. morgani in having a spicule. Furthermore, S. timbavatiensis differs from S. morgani in lacking spines on the tail. The females of the new species have a long tail and truncated egg ends as opposed to the short, spiky tail and pointed eggs of S. morgani, a spiny tail and truncated eggs as opposed to the smooth tail and pointed eggs of S. petersi and a longer oesophagus than S. smithi. Furthermore, the females of S. dimorpha and S. morgani are much larger than those of S. timbavatiensis. In addition, the excretory pore opens behind the posterior end of the oesophageal bulb in the new species, while in S. smithi and S. dimorpha it opens at the level of the end of the oesophageal bulb.

  13. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae en Tumbes, Perú

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    Marina Vargas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide en dos, de las cuales la rama interna sufre una nueva división; por la disposición de las costillas de la bolsa copulatríz donde, entre otros detalles, las antero y postero-ventrales están separadas y las externo-dorsales nacen cerca de la parte media del tronco dorsal y son gruesas.

  14. Effect of mini-sprinkler irrigation system on Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juvenile Efeito do sistema de irrigação por microaspersão em juvenis infectantes de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae

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    Juan Carlos Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are currently being used as successful biological control agents of soil-dwelling insect pests. Previous field and greenhouse studies demonstrated that application techniques and non-biotic factors (temperature and pressure have a significant effect on EPNs efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of an irrigation spray application system on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juveniles (IJ. Two assays were proposed. Their viability was evaluated under the microscope after the IJ passed through the irrigation system. Infectivity on Galleria mellonella larvae, and host search capability, as evidenced by larval mortality, were evaluated in containers (Experiment 1. In the field (Experiment 2, mortality of G. mellonella larvae was evaluated under different nematode concentrations (0, 100,000, 300,000 and 500,000 IJ per tree. No differences were recorded on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of the IJ in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, differences were recorded among the different concentrations used (p Nematóides entomopatogênicos (NEPs vêm sendo usados com sucesso como agentes do controle biológico de pragas de solo. Estudos anteriores mostraram que técnicas de aplicação e fatores abióticos (temperatura e pressão afetam a eficiência dos NEPs em testes de campo e casa-de-vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de condições geradas por um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, na viabilidade, infectividade e na capacidade de busca de hospedeiros nos juvenis infectantes (JI de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae. Dois experimentos foram propostos. A viabilidade dos juvenis infectantes (JI foi avaliada no microscópio imediatamente após sua passagem pelo sistema de irrigação. A infectividade e a capacidade de busca pelo

  15. Catalogue of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda, and Rotifera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of type specimens of the phyla Acanthocephala, Nematoda and Rotifera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to July, 2005. A total of three holotypes and six lots of paratypes of three species of Acanthocephala; nine holotypes and 16 lots of paratypes of nine species of Nematoda; and 12 holotypes, six lectotypes, nine lots of paratypes and five lots of paralectotypes of 23 species and subspecies of Rotifera are listed. Specific and subspecific names are listed alphabetically within family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data (host and site of infection for parasitic species, and remarks where appropriate. A list of references containing the papers in which the taxa were first described is furnished.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo dos filos Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até julho de 2005. É relacionado um total de três holótipos e seis lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Acanthocephala; nove holótipos e 16 lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Nematoda; e 12 holótipos, seis lectótipos, nove lotes de parátipos e cinco lotes de paralectótipos de 23 espécies e subespécies de Rotifera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies e subespécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do gênero, categoria do tipo, número de registro na coleção, dados de localidade (hospedeiro e sítio de infecção no caso de espécies parasitas e comentários quando pertinentes. São relacionados, na lista de referências, os artigos nos quais a descrição original dos táxons foi publicada.

  16. Occurrence of novel verrucomicrobial species, endosymbiotic and associated with parthenogenesis in Xiphinema americanum-group species (Nematoda, Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, T T; Willems, A; Gillis, M; Coomans, A

    2000-11-01

    Numerous micro-organisms have been described as cytoplasmic symbionts of eukaryotes. Many so-called obligate endosymbionts rely exclusively on maternal (vertical or transovarial) transmission to maintain themselves, rendering them dependent on the host sex ratio, which they would tend to manipulate to their own advantage. The latter phenomenon is often associated with the presence of Wolbachia pipientis (alpha-Proteobacteria) in arthropods and nematodes. A potentially similar situation was discovered involving members of a new clade of Verrucomicrobia, another main line of descent in the Bacteria. Nematode species of the Xiphinema americanum group (Nematoda, Longidoridae), viz. Xiphinema americanum, Xiphinema rivesi and Xiphinema brevicollum, each harbour their own specific verrucomicrobial endosymbionts. They are exclusively maternally inherited and their hosts reproduce by thelytokous (mother-to-daughter) parthenogenesis, males being extremely rare. A new genus, 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' gen. nov., along with three new candidate verrucomicrobial species, 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter americani' sp. nov., 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter rivesi' sp. nov. and 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter brevicolli' sp. nov., are described on the basis of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. These are the first endosymbiotic species described among the Verrucomicrobia. They share a mean 16S rDNA similarity of about 93%, whereas similarity to their closest relative, clone WCHD3-88, is less than 87%. Thus, the endosymbionts form a homogeneous clade for which the new candidate genus 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' gen. nov. is proposed. The type species is 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter brevicolli' sp. nov.

  17. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study.

  18. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  19. Deep subsurface mine stalactites trap endemic fissure fluid Archaea, Bacteria and Nematoda possibly originating from ancient (inland seas.

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    Gaetan eBorgonie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface, central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and discovered, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, the DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. . Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3 stalactites show a complex pattern of lamellae carrying bacterially precipitated mineral structures. Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. Salt stalactites exhibit a more uniform internal structure. Surprisingly, several Bacteria showing highest sequence identities to marine Bacteria were identified. This, together with the observation that the nematode M. parvella recovered from Beatrix gold mine stalactite can only survive in a salty environment makes the origin of the deep subsurface colonization enigmatic. The possibility of a Permian origin is discussed. Our results indicate stalactites are suitable for biodiversity recovery and act as natural traps for microorganisms in the fissure water long after the water that formed the stalactite stopped flowing.

  20. Integrated taxonomy: traditional approach and DNA barcoding for the identification of filarioid worms and related parasites (Nematoda

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    Bandi Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditional morphological approach and DNA barcoding to distinguish filarioid nematodes species (Nematoda, Spirurida. A reliable and rapid taxonomic identification of these parasites is the basis for a correct diagnosis of important and widespread parasitic diseases. The performance of DNA barcoding with different parameters was compared measuring the strength of correlation between morphological and molecular identification approaches. Molecular distance estimation was performed with two different mitochondrial markers (coxI and 12S rDNA and different combinations of data handling were compared in order to provide a stronger tool for easy identification of filarioid worms. Results DNA barcoding and morphology based identification of filarioid nematodes revealed high coherence. Despite both coxI and 12S rDNA allow to reach high-quality performances, only coxI revealed to be manageable. Both alignment algorithm, gaps treatment, and the criteria used to define the threshold value were found to affect the performance of DNA barcoding with 12S rDNA marker. Using coxI and a defined level of nucleotide divergence to delimit species boundaries, DNA barcoding can also be used to infer potential new species. Conclusion An integrated approach allows to reach a higher discrimination power. The results clearly show where DNA-based and morphological identifications are consistent, and where they are not. The coherence between DNA-based and morphological identification for almost all the species examined in our work is very strong. We propose DNA barcoding as a reliable, consistent, and democratic tool for species discrimination in routine identification of parasitic nematodes.

  1. Using 454 technology for long-PCR based sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome from single Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda

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    Waeschenbach Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial (mt genomes represent a rich source of molecular markers for a range of applications, including population genetics, systematics, epidemiology and ecology. In the present study, we used 454 technology (or the GS20, massively parallel picolitre reactor platform to determine the complete mt genome of Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae, a parasite of substantial agricultural, veterinary and economic significance. We validate this approach by comparison with mt sequences from publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST and genomic survey sequence (GSS data sets. Results The complete mt genome of Haemonchus contortus was sequenced directly from long-PCR amplified template utilizing genomic DNA (~20–40 ng from a single adult male using 454 technology. A single contig was assembled and compared against mt sequences mined from publicly available EST (NemBLAST and GSS datasets. The comparison demonstrated that the 454 technology platform is reliable for the sequencing of AT-rich mt genomes from nematodes. The mt genome sequenced for Haemonchus contortus was 14,055 bp in length and was highly AT-rich (78.1%. In accordance with other chromadorean nematodes studied to date, the mt genome of H. contortus contained 36 genes (12 protein coding, 22 tRNAs, rrnL and rrnS and was similar in structure, size and gene arrangement to those characterized previously for members of the Strongylida. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the utility of 454 technology for the rapid determination of mt genome sequences from tiny amounts of DNA and reveals a wealth of mt genomic data in current databases available for mining. This approach provides a novel platform for high-throughput sequencing of mt genomes from nematodes and other organisms.

  2. Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Figueiredo; Luis G. Pedro; Barroso, José G.; Maria Teresa Tinoco; Luís Silva Dias; Mendes, Marta D.; Jorge M. S. Faria; Pedro Barbosa; Manuel Mota

    2012-01-01

    Acetone was investigated and found to be an appropriate alternative to Triton X-100 as a solvent of essential oils in bioassays aimed to investigate their effects on pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) mortality. Therefore it was used as dilution agent to screen the effectiveness of fifty two essential oils against this pest. Thirteen essential oils were highly effective, resulting in more than 90% pinewood nematode mortality at 2 mg/mL, with six of them resulting in 100% mortality...

  3. Essential oils as anti-nematode agents and their influence on in vitro nematode

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Jorge Miguel Silva, 1983-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biotecnologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Parasitic nematodes are among the most production-limiting plant pests. In Europe, the recent introduction of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus [the pinewood nematode (PWN)] and some species of Meloidogyne has proved damaging to forest ecosystems and crop production. Due to the very laborious and environment-dependent nature of greenhouse or field assays, in vitro host with parasite co-cultures can...

  4. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  5. Aspects of the life history of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda: Muspiceidae, parasite of the house mouse (Mus domesticus in Australia

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    Spratt D.M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda infection in wild populations of Mus domesticus in forests in southeastern New South Wales and in rural Canberra, Australia was variable, relatively low and the parasite occurred predominantly in male mice. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice occurred only via subcutaneous inoculation but was achieved using i adults containing embryonating eggs, ii adults containing active larvae and iii active larvae dissected from the uterus of female worms. Experimental infection was not established using adults containing unembryonated eggs and was not established via intraperitoneal, percutaneous nor oral routes. Evidence indicates that larvae develop to the infective stage in the uterus of the adult worm, suggests that an obligate developmental phase on the host skin does not occur and that autoinfection is possible. Experimental infection predominated in males; females rarely became infected. When male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with M. borreli, immediately paired with an uninoculated female and permitted to breed for 90 days, infection was found in male and female offspring only of the second and subsequent litters or in the breeding female partner. Transmission to the young occurred within 21 days of birth and fifth-stage M. borreli were found in offspring of the second and subsequent litters only after 35 or more days. However, when a male was inoculated but mating delayed for 23 days, infection was found in progeny of the first and second litters. The life cycle is direct and the prepatent period in BALB/c mice is estimated at 50-60 days. The precise mode of transmission of the parasite in breeding pairs of mice was not determined but larvae remained active for approximately an hour in balanced saline solutions (pH = 7.2 and in human saliva but died under conditions emulating free-living (tap water pH = 7.1 and stomach (pepsin solution pH = 2 environments. Transmission was not effected by

  6. Two species nematodes of the genus Bursa phelenchus in China (Nematoda..Parasitaphelenchidae)%中国2种伞滑刃属线虫记述(线虫门:寄生滑刃科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓侃; 王宏洪; 李迅东; 廖金铃

    2011-01-01

    运用线虫比较形态学和rDNA-ITS-RFLP及rDNA-ITS序列分析技术,对采自广东省的伞滑刃线虫进行鉴定.在广东番禺小叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)的栽培介质中和东莞木包装上分别发现了食菌伞滑刃线虫(Bursaphelenchus fungivorus)和豆伞滑刃线虫(B.doui),其中食菌伞滑刃线虫是中国的新记录种,豆伞滑刃线虫是中国大陆的新记录种.%Nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus collected from Guangdong Province were identified by using morphology, rDNA-ITS-RFLP and rDNA-ITS-PCR-sequencing.B.fungivorus and B.doui were isolated from a growing substrate for Ficus microcarpa in Panyu and wood packaging material in Dongguan respectively.B.fungivorus was a new geographic record species in China, and B.doui was a new geographic record species in Chinese Mainland.

  7. Study on the Sustainable Management of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilis) in Old Epidemic Areas%老疫区松材线虫病持续控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范军祥; 黄焕华; 钱明惠; 黄咏槐; 武海卫

    2011-01-01

    2005~2009年在广州市松材线虫病老疫区系统开展了疑似病死松树的早期诊断、应用引诱剂和林间释放花绒寄甲控制松褐天牛、清理病死木套袋熏蒸和疫区松林植物群落结构改造等持续控制技术研究.结果表明:疫区内松树枯死木松材线虫的检出率为22.1%~55.4%.诱到松褐天牛成虫19 853头,每个诱捕器的诱虫量为14.06~24.80头/年.释放花绒寄甲成虫1 115头,寄生率为9.21%~60.00%.清理枯死木14 769株,熏蒸袋内的松褐天牛死亡率达到99.5%以上.在松林内套种39种阔叶树共112 000株,改善了松林的植物群落结构,提高了松林对松褐天牛及松材线虫病的抗性.%The sustainable control technology research on pine wood nematode ( Bursaphelenchus xylophilis)and pine sawyer beetle ( Monochamus alternatus) have been carried out in Guangzhou old epidemic areas from 2005 to 2009. The main technical measures including ( 1 ) Early diagnosis of pine wilt disease; (2) Control and monitor the adults M. alternatus by attractant; (3) Control pine sawyer beetles by releasing Dastarcus helophoroides; (4)Clean up dead trees and extinguish pests in woodlands; (5) Modification on the plant community structure in pine forest. The results showed that the detection rate of B. xylophilis from dead trees is 22.1% ~55.4%; 19 583 adults of M. alternatus have been trap in the test area, and 14.06 ~24.80 adults per trap set in a year; 1 115 D.helophoroides were released in the pine forest, and the parasitism rate is 9.21% ~ 60.00%; 14 769 dead trees have been clean up, the mortality rate of M. alternatus larva or pupae is up to 99.5%; 112 000 broadleaf trees (39 species) were planted in the pine forests, the plant community gets higher resistance to pine sawyer and pine wood nematode disease.

  8. A new species of Syncuaria Gilbert, 1927 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae) from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Syncuaria mycteriae n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) was collected under the lining of the gizzard of a wood stork, Mycteria americana L., from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species can be distinguished from all known species of Syncuaria by having irregular dotted ornamentations on the caudal alae of males, a complex distal end of the left spicule comprising 3 protuberances, and a spicule ratio of 1:9.3. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of 11 Syncuaria spp. based on 9 morphological characters produced 2 equally parsimonious cladograms with a consistency index of 85%, differing only in the placement of S. hargilae. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is the sister species of S. leptoptili, whose male members have a single protuberance on the left spicule. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that the plesiomorphic host group for the genus is Ciconiiformes, specifically Ciconiidae (host for 5 species), with 2 species occurring in Threskiornithidae (also Ciconiiformes), possibly as a result of cospeciation, and 2 species each occurring in Pelecaniformes and Podicipediformes, resulting from 4 episodes of speciation by host switching.

  9. The integrated use of chemical insecticides and the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae(Nematoda: Steinernematidae), for the control of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson; James J. Mathers; Phil Northing; Anthony J. Prickett; Keith F. A. Waiters

    2008-01-01

    The integration of chemical insecticides and infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Wesier) (Nematoda:Steinernematidae), to control second instars of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was investigated. Using a sand bioassay, the effects of direct exposure of S. carpocapsae for 24 h to field rate dilutions of four insecticides (spiromesifen, thiacloprid, imidaeloprid and pymetrozine) on infectivity to Galleria rnellonella larvae were tested. Although all chemicals tested, except spiromesifen, produced acceptable nematode infectivity rates, they were all significantly less than the water control. The effect of insecticide treatment (dry residues of spiromesifen, thiacloprid and pymetrozine and soil drench of imidacloprid) on the efficacy of the nematode against B. tabaci was also investigated. Nematodes in combination with thiacloprid and spiromesifen gave higher B.tabaci mortality (86.5% and 94.3% respectively) compared to using nematodes alone (75.2%) on tomato plants. There was no significant difference in B. tabaci mortality when using the chemicals imidacloprid, pymetrozine and spiromesifen in conjunction with nematodes compared to using the chemicals alone. However, using thiaeloprid in combination with the nematodes produced significantly higher B. tabaci mortality than using the chemical alone. The integration of S. carpocapsae and these chemical agents into current integrated pest management programmes for the control of B. tabaci is discussed.

  10. Description of two free-living nematode species of Halomonhystera disjuncta complex (Nematoda: Monhysterida) from two peculiar habitats in the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Portnova, Daria A.; van Campenhout, Jelle

    2015-03-01

    Morphological descriptions of two Halomonhystera species (Nematoda, Monhysterida) are presented ( Halomonhystera hermesi and Halomonhystera socialis). Halomonhystera hermesi sp. n. occurs in a dense monospecific and homogeneous population on bacterial mats in the Håkon Mosby mud volcano in the Barents Sea at a depth of 1,280 m. The species is an endemic lineage distinctly separated from other shallow-water cryptotaxa of the Halomonhystera disjucta species complex on the base of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (genetic divergence 19.6-23.8 %) and nuclear genetic markers, and on the base of morphometrics by Van Campenhout et al. (2014). H. socialis (Bütschli 1874) is redescribed on the basis of White Sea specimens. This species dwells in mass on the detached kelp accumulation in the upper sublittoral. H. socialis is differentiated from other species of the Halomonhystera disjuncta complex morphometrically by a larger body size and by genetic divergence in nuclear markers. The genus Halomonhystera Andrássy 2006 is redefined, and its morphospecies list is reviewed. Species H. bathislandica (Riemann 1995) comb. n., H. fisheri (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n., H. islandica (De Coninck 1943) comb. n. and H. vandoverae (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n. are transferred to Halomonhystera from Thalassomonhystera; H. paradisjuncta (de Coninck 1943) comb. n., H. rotundicapitata (Filipjev 1922) comb. n. and H. taurica (Tsalolikhin 2007) comb. n. transferred to Halomonhystera from Geomonhystera. Halomonhystera ambiguoides (Bütschli 1874) is considered as species inquirenda because of incompleteness of its diagnosis.

  11. Spinitectus osorioi n. sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from Chirostoma spp. (Osteichthyes: Atherinidae) in Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2001-06-01

    Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) is described from the freshwater atherinids Chirostoma estor and Chirostoma attenuatum from Lake Pátzcuaro in the Mesa Central, Michoacán State, México. This nematode is characterized by a conspicuous protuberance on the ventral surface of the distal end of the long spicule that distinguishes it from its congeners in North America and in the neotropics. In addition, the species can be readily distinguished from 4 of the 5 nominal species of North American freshwater Spinitectus by the absence of either a terminal barb or heel on the short spicule and from Spinitectus mexicanus by the spination. Previous records of Spinitectus carolini from Chirostoma spp. in México (Lakes Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén) refer to S. osorioi, and the species appears to be specific to Chirostoma spp. The geological history of the Mesa Central drainages and the historical biogeography of freshwater atherinids in this region suggest that the origin of S. osorioi may be associated with either the marine history of their hosts or with host-switching from more distantly related freshwater hosts after colonization of freshwater environments by atherinids.

  12. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine.

  13. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  14. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  15. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae in Olive and a Description of Six New Species.

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    Antonio Archidona-Yuste

    Full Text Available The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov., two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola, and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus. We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov. and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov., while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S. Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these

  16. Larvas de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae do centro oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, parasitadas por microsporídeos (Protozoa e mermitídeos (Nematoda Simulids larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae from middle western, southeastern and southern Brazil, with microsporids (Protozoa and mermithids (Nematoda parasites

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    Carmen Ambrós Ginarte

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of simulid larval parasites was carried out in different localities of the states of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February 1996 to May 1998. Prevalences for the microsporidian Polydispyrenia simulii Lutz & Splendore, 1908 were found in Morungaba and Leme, São Paulo, ranging from around 0.7 to 66.7%, depending mainly on the host simulid species. Microsporidiosis was registered in localities of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Parasitism by Isomermis sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae was found in Simulium larvae from Serra do Japi, ranging from 0.8 to 45.8%, depending on the simulid species and the larval microhabitat in the stream, whether a cemented ramp in a lake outlet or the natural stream bed. Parasitism by mermithids was also found in ten localities. Mycoses caused by Coelomycidium sp. were for the first time recorded for larvae of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832.

  17. 松材线虫体表物质与其携带细菌的关系%The relationship between substance on the pine wood nematode body surface and bacteria carried by the nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲爱玲; 戚建光; 张宏娟; 陈玲; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    Pine wilt disease was complex infection caused by pine wood nematode ( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) , and bacteria. Studying the relationship between B. Xylophilus and bacteria may provide evidence for the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease. To clarify the relationship, the bacterial strains were inoculated to marinade on different aseptic B. Xylophilus surface body surface, and cultured aseptic B. Xylophilus after added the bacteria was to the B. Xylophilus suspension. The results showed that the reproduction of bacteria was stimulated by the marinade of B. Xylophilus body surface, B. Xylophilus numbers increased more rapidly with bacteria present than without bacteria. This revealed that the reproduction and growth of B. Xylophilus was also promoted by the bacteria. In conclusion, B. Xylophilus and the bacteria benefited each other. Experiments were also designed to investigate the tropism test of aseptic B. Xylophilus and bacteria, and test the specificity between the B. Xylophilus and bacteria it carried. The results indicated that the bacterial strain of P. Agglomerans or the bacterial strain mixed with P. Agglomerans had obvious taxis towards all isolates of aseptic B. Xylophilus. Experiments also tested the specificity between the B. Xylophilus and bacteria it carried. The results showed that the aseptic B. Xylophilus has no taxis towards the bacteria it carried, and that there was no obvious specificity taxis to the B. Xylophilus with the bacterial strains it carried.%松萎蔫病是由松材线虫与其所携带的细菌复合侵染所引起.为进一步明确松材线虫与其携带细菌的关系,笔者用无菌线虫体表浸泡物处理细菌,再将无菌线虫各虫株与细菌共培养,结果表明细菌的存在可促进线虫的繁殖,线虫体表浸泡物质可促进细菌繁殖,无菌线虫与细菌共培养后线虫繁殖数量较无菌线虫单独培养有明显增加,说明松材线虫与其体表细菌的关系为一

  18. Redescription of Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae) from a Chinese rodent, Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia: Muridae); with comments on Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) and related species in China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, J; Durette-Desset, M C; Quéré, J P; Audebert, F

    2012-11-01

    Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) is redescribed from Apodemus peninsulae from Rangtang, Sichuan, China. A morphological review of the Heligmosomoides spp. belonging to the "polygyrus line" proposed by Asakawa (1988) is made using new characters. This enabled us to distinguish two subspecies in Mus musculus (Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri from Japan and H. p. polygyrus from China) and two valid species in Apodemus spp. (H. neopolygyrus from Japan (in A. peninsulae) and from China (in A. agrarius) and H. asakawae from China (in A. uralensis)). Three parasite species of A. agrarius and A. peninsulae, previously identified by Asakawa et al. (1993) as H. neopolygyrus, are considered to be Heligmosomoides incertae sedis. This is the first report of H. neopolygyrus in A. peninsulae from China.

  19. Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae, a parasite of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae on the Oregon coast

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    Poinar George O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare to find terrestrial nematode lineages parasitizing arthropods inhabiting the intertidal or littoral zone of the oceans. During an ecological study along the Oregon dunes, an allantonematid nematode (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae was discovered parasitizing the intertidal shore bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae. This shore bug is adapted to an intertidal environment and can survive short periods of submergence during high tides. The present study describes the nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development, ecology and evolution. Methods Adults and last instar nymphs of S. laticollis (Hemiptera: Saldidae were collected from the high intertidal zone among clumps of Juncus L. (Juncaceae plants at Waldport, Oregon on October 3, 2011. The bugs were dissected in 1% saline solution and the nematodes killed in 1% Ringers solution and immediately fixed in 5% formalin (at 20°C. Third stage juveniles removed from infected hosts were maintained in 1% saline solution until they matured to the adult stage, molted and mated. Results Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae is described from last instar nymphs and adults of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis on the Oregon coast. The new genus can be distinguished from other genera in the Allantonematidae by a stylet lacking basal knobs in both sexes, an excretory pore located behind the nerve ring, ribbed spicules, a gubernaculum, the absence of a bursa and the elongate-tubular shape of the ovoviviparous parasitic females. Studies of the organogenesis of Halophilanema showed development to third stage juveniles in the uterus of parasitic females. Maturation to the free-living adults and mating occurred in the environment. The incidence of infection of S. laticollis ranged from 0% to 85% depending on the microhabitat in the intertidal zone. Conclusions Based on the habitat and morphological characters, it is proposed

  20. Influence of parasitism on trace element contents in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and its parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Bejcek, Vladimír; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Sulc, Miloslav; Száková, Jirina; Langrová, Iva

    2010-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in 56 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda) was studied. The levels of heavy metals were determined in the livers and kidneys of the animals depending on parasitism in the following ranges: Pb, 0.029-3.556; Cd, 0.055-9.967; Cr, 0.001-0.304; Cu, 4.15-41.15; Mn, 1.81-19.94; Ni: 0.037-0.831; Zn, 52.0-212.9 microg/g dry weight (dw). Cd in parasites (0.038-3.678 microg/g dw) were comparable with those in the livers of the host and lower than in the kidneys (0.095-6.032 microg/g dw). Contents of Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in cestodes were predominantly higher than those in the kidney and liver of the host. Median lead levels in Mesocestoides spp. (45.6 microg/g dw) were 52-fold higher than in the kidney and liver of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) infected by both parasites and median Pb values in T. leonina (8.98 microg/g dw) were 8-fold higher than in the tissues of the parasitized red fox. Bioaccumulation factors of copper, zinc, nickel, and manganese are lower than those of lead and mostly range from 1.9 to 24 for Mesocestoides spp. and from 1.5 to 6 for nematode T. leonina depending on the tissue of host and element. A significant decrease in the content of Pb was found in the kidney of animals infected by T. leonina (0.260 microg/g dw) as well as those infected by Mesocestoides spp. (0.457 microg/g dw) in comparison with the lead content (0.878 microg/g dw) in the kidneys of the nonparasitized red fox. Regardless of a bioaccumulation of copper and manganese in the parasites, a significant increase of the concentrations of Mn and Cu was observed in the host's livers infected predominantly by Mesocestoides spp.

  1. Remarkable Diversity and Prevalence of Dagger Nematodes of the Genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olives Revealed by Integrative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Xiphinema includes a remarkable group of invertebrates of the phylum Nematoda comprising ectoparasitic animals of many wild and cultivated plants. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells and by vectoring nepoviruses that cause diseases on several crops. Precise identification of Xiphinema species is critical for launching appropriate control measures. We make available the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Xiphinema species infesting wild and cultivated olive in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 211 locations from which 453 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study identified thirty-two Xiphinema spp. in the rhizosphere of olive trees, ten species belonging to Xiphinema americanum-group, whereas twenty-two were attributed to Xiphinema non-americanum-group. These results increase our current knowledge on the biodiversity of Xiphinema species identified in olives and include the description of four new species (Xiphinema andalusiense sp. nov., Xiphinema celtiense sp. nov., Xiphinema iznajarense sp. nov., and Xiphinema mengibarense sp. nov.), and two new records for cultivate olives (X. cadavalense and X. conurum). We also found evidence of remarkable prevalence of Xiphinema spp. in olive trees, viz. 85.0% (385 out of 453 sampling sites), and they were widely distributed in both wild and cultivated olives, with 26 and 17 Xiphinema spp., respectively. Diversity indexes (Richness, Hill´s diversity, Hill´s reciprocal of D and Hill´s evenness) were significantly affected by olive type. We also developed a comparative morphological and morphometrical study together with molecular data from three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses allowed the delimitation and discrimination of four new species of the genus described herein and three known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Xiphinema spp. resulted in a

  2. Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis Lacépède (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-11-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (Lacépède) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05 mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38 mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925 µm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830 µm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10 mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.

  3. Species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from fishes off the Mediterranean coast of Africa, with a description of Philometra rara n. sp. from Hyporthodus haifensis and a molecular analysis of Philometra saltatrix from Pomatomus saltatrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) were recorded for the first time from marine perciform fishes off Tunisia and Libya: Philometra rara n. sp. from the rare, deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis (Serranidae) off Libya and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae) off Tunisia. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. Light and scanning electron microscope studies of Ph. rara n. sp. showed that it is characterized by the length of spicules (216–219 μm) and the gubernaculum (90–93 μm), the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio (1:2.32–2.43), and mainly by the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum (shovel-shaped with a wide median smooth field in dorsal view), appearing as having a dorsal protuberance in lateral view, and by the structure of the male caudal mound (dorsally interrupted); large subgravid females (70–137 mm long) are characterized by the presence of four oval submedian cephalic elevations, each of them bearing a pair of cephalic papillae of the outer circle. The finding of Ph. saltatrix off Tunisia confirms that this species is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. A molecular analysis of our Ph. saltatrix specimens and other available philometrid cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) sequences showed that most species have robust clades. Sequences of Ph. saltatrix from Tunisia diverge from Ph. saltatrix from Brazil and the USA, suggesting that speciation is currently occurring between populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:28287390

  4. Mechanisms of invasive population establishment and spread of pinewood nematodes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE BingYan; CHENG XinYue; SHI Juan; ZHANG QingWen; DAI ShuMing; CHENG Fei Xue; LUO YouQing

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our study of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus). By population genetic analysis, it was determined that there was no genetic bottle caused by the founder effect and genetic drift in the Chinese invasive population. Multiple invasions with large amounts of nematodes from different sources led to rich genetic diversity in the invasive population. Keeping high genetic diversity in the invasive process may be one of the genetic mechanisms in its successful invasion. By testing interspecies competition, it was shown that, with high fecundity and a strong competitive ability, B. Xylophilus outcompeted the native species B. Mucronatus in the natural ecosystem during the invasion process. Competitive displacement may be one of the ecological mechanisms of B. Xylophilus's invasion. In addition, an unequal interspecific hybridization with intro-gress was in favor of the invasive species which also accelerated the replacement of B. Mucronatus by B. Xylophilus. The structures, functions and evolutions of a few important genes that are closely related to the ecological adaptation of pinewood nematodes were studied to explore the molecular mechanism of its ecological adaptations. Further, the resistance and resilience mechanism of the pine ecosystem invaded by pinewood nematodes was also investigated. The results of these studies uncovered a por-tion of the genetic and ecological mechanisms of PWN's successful invasion and laid a foundation for further study to obtain a comprehensive interpretation of the mechanisms of the nematode invasion. The results also provided a scientific basis for effectively controlling the occurrence and spread of pine wilt disease which is caused by nematodes. Various aspects requiring further investigation are considered.

  5. Main forest pests on pines in Anxi County and its integrated control measures%安溪县松树主要有害生物及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长士

    2011-01-01

    总结了近10年安溪县松树6种主要有害生物(松突圆蚧、松墨天牛、马尾松毛虫、松大蚜、松针褐斑病、棕鼯鼠)的发生特点与分布情况,提出了各主要有害生物的综合防治措施。%The distribution,harm and main characteristics of the six main forest pests species on pines in Anxi County,including Hemiberlesia pitysophila,Monochamus alternatus,Dendrolimus punctatus,Cinara pinitabulaeformis,Lecanosticta acicola and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were dealt with by nearly 10 years of field studies.Integrated control measures were introduced according to local climate and forest pests characteristics,and could decrease the suffering rate caused by forest pests to less than 1.5‰.

  6. A staining method for assessing the viability of Esteya vermicola conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbo; Thang, NguyenTrong; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yongan; Li, Jingjie; Xue, Jianjie; Gu, Lijuan; Hong, VuThuy; Mira, Lee; Sung, Changkeun

    2014-07-01

    The viability of conidia of Esteya vermicola, a potentially important biocontrol agent against the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is usually determined by cultivation for 18-48 h in culture medium. As an alternative to this labor-intensive method, we have developed a rapid, simple, and low-cost staining method for assessing E vermicola conidia survival rates. A mixture of neutral red and methylene blue was found to be the most optimal among several stains that also included safranin O and Janus green B. This mixture stained nonviable conidia blue, in contrast to viable conidia, which were stained red in the cytoplasm and blue in the cell wall. This method may be particularly useful for traditional research laboratories, as it provides rapid results using common, relatively inexpensive laboratory equipment.

  7. Mathematical analysis of dynamic spread of Pine Wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, D D; Bacic, J

    2013-01-01

    Since its detection in Portugal in 1999, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer), a causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease, represents a threat to European forestry. Significant amount of money has been spent on its monitoring and eradication. This paper presents mathematical analysis of spread of pine wilt disease using a set of partial differential equations with space (longitude and latitude) and time as parameters of estimated spread of disease. This methodology can be used to evaluate risk of various assumed entry points of disease and make defense plans in advance. In case of an already existing outbreak, it can be used to draw optimal line of defense and plan removal of trees. Optimization constraints are economic loss of removal of susceptible trees as well as budgetary constraints of workforce cost.

  8. Bioactivities of a New Pyrrolidine Alkaloid from the Root Barks of Orixa japonica

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    Xin Chao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new pyrrolidine alkaloid named (Z-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one was isolated from the ethanol extract of the root barks of Orixa japonica. The structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. The compound exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 232.09 μg/mL, Anopheles sinensis (LC50 = 49.91 μg/mL, and Culex pipiens pallens (LC50 = 161.10 μg/mL. The new alkaloid also possessed nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (LC50 = 391.50 μg/mL and Meloidogynein congnita (LC50 = 134.51 μg/mL. The results indicate that the crude ethanol extract of O. japonica root barks and its isolated pyrrolidine alkaloid have potential for development into natural larvicides and nematicides.

  9. 一种新的杀线虫担子菌%A New Nematicidal Basidiomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国红; 张克勤

    2001-01-01

    YLl4是一种首次发现具杀线虫活性的担子菌,12 h内对松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)的致病率达90%以上,是一株有应用前景的线虫生防菌.本试验观察了该菌对线虫的致病过程,证明其杀线虫机制是产生杀线虫毒素.经液体发酵,活性组分存在于发酵液中,不需线虫诱导能稳定生成,为水溶性,对热不敏感.

  10. Predatory behavior of Tetrigus lewisi on Monochamus aiternatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ji-ying; LUO Youqing; CHEN Yi-long

    2008-01-01

    Pine wilt is a serious and fatal disease in pine forests. It is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,transmitted by the Japanese saw beetle Monochamus alternatus. Control of this disease depends on reducing its vector population.The public is demanding environmentally friendly control methods and biological control has become increasingly seen as an important, safe and effective approach. Through our investigations both in the field and by breeding in our laboratory, a new predator of M.alternatus, Tetrigus lewisi (Coleoptera: Elateridae), was found for the first time in China. Given our continuous observations, we are assured that the predatory behavior of the elater can be separated into four parts, i.e., foraging and sensing, killing, eating and excretion. They always took several hours to eat the preys that have been killed momentarily. We finally found that most of the elaters preferably attacked in the stomach and abdomen of the larva of M. alternatus.

  11. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  12. Sustainable Control Techniques of Pine Wilt Disease in Protection Forest%防护林松材线虫病持续控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志佣

    2015-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a destructive disease which harmed pinaceae plants.Tingxi Forest Farm didn’t adopt the method of clearcutting host trees,adopting sustainable management strategies of monitoring epi-demic,clearing dying branches and trees clearance,conducting treatment of fumigation on-the-spot nearby control-ling comprehensively Monochamus alternatus obtain the significant effects.The damaged pine forest area decreased from 1 668.9 hm2 in 2012 to 31 1 hm2 in 2014;the number of died pine trees decreased more than 85%,and infected pine trees decreased every year,which provides an effective model for controlling Bursaphelenchus xylophilus .%松材线虫病是危害松科植物的毁灭性疫病。汀溪林场防护林未采用皆伐寄主树的方法,而是采取疫情监测、清除枯死树(枝)并就地就近熏蒸处理、综合防治松墨天牛等持续控制技术,取得显著成效,发病松林面积由2012年的1668.9 hm2降至2014年的311 hm2,枯死树数量减少了85%以上,病枯死树数量逐年减少,为松材线虫病防控提供了一套行之有效的模式。

  13. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  14. Sobre Dipetalonema spiralis (Molin, 1860 (Nematoda, Filarioidea On Dipetalonema Spiralis (Molin, 1860 (Nematoda, Filarioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Lent

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give a description of Dipetalonema spiralis (Molin, 1860, based on two samples collected by the C. E. E. L. V. A. in the joints of the hands and feet of Choloepus didactylus (L. at Piratuba, State of Pará, Brazil, both containing males and females. A study of the literature is made and original drawings are presented.

  15. Mechanisms of invasive population establishment and spread of pinewood nematodes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our study of the pinewood nematode(Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus).By population genetic analysis,it was determined that there was no genetic bottle caused by the founder effect and genetic drift in the Chinese invasive population.Multiple invasions with large amounts of nematodes from different sources led to rich genetic diversity in the invasive population.Keeping high genetic diversity in the invasive process may be one of the genetic mechanisms in its successful invasion.By testing interspecies competition,it was shown that,with high fecundity and a strong competitive ability,B.xylophilus outcompeted the native species B.mucronatus in the natural ecosystem during the invasion process.Competitive displacement may be one of the ecological mechanisms of B.xylophilus’s invasion.In addition,an unequal interspecific hybridization with intro-gress was in favor of the invasive species which also accelerated the replacement of B.mucronatus by B.xylophilus.The structures,functions and evolutions of a few important genes that are closely related to the ecological adaptation of pinewood nematodes were studied to explore the molecular mechanism of its ecological adaptations.Further,the resistance and resilience mechanism of the pine ecosystem invaded by pinewood nematodes was also investigated.The results of these studies uncovered a portion of the genetic and ecological mechanisms of PWN’s successful invasion and laid a foundation for further study to obtain a comprehensive interpretation of the mechanisms of the nematode invasion.The results also provided a scientific basis for effectively controlling the occurrence and spread of pine wilt disease which is caused by nematodes.Various aspects requiring further investigation are considered.

  16. Diversity of bacteria carried by pinewood nematode in USA and phylogenetic comparison with isolates from other countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD is native to North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. Lately, mutualistic relationship has been suggested between the pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus the causal nematode agent of PWD, and bacteria. In countries where PWN occurs, nematodes from diseased trees were reported to carry bacteria from several genera. However no data exists for the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial community carried by B. xylophilus, isolated from different Pinus spp. with PWD in Nebraska, United States. The bacteria carried by PWN belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (79.9%, Betaproteobacteria (11.7%, Bacilli (5.0%, Alphaproteobacteria (1.7% and Flavobacteriia (1.7%. Strains from the genera Chryseobacterium and Pigmentiphaga were found associated with the nematode for the first time. These results were compared to results from similar studies conducted from other countries of three continents in order to assess the diversity of bacteria with associated with PWN. The isolates from the United States, Portugal and China belonged to 25 different genera and only strains from the genus Pseudomonas were found in nematodes from all countries. The strains from China were closely related to P. fluorescens and the strains isolated from Portugal and USA were phylogenetically related to P. mohnii and P. lutea. Nematodes from the different countries are associated with bacteria of different species, not supporting a relationship between PWN with a particular bacterial species. Moreover, the diversity of the bacteria carried by the pinewood nematode seems to be related to the geographic area and the Pinus species. The roles these bacteria play within the pine trees or when associated with the nematodes, might be independent of the presence of the nematode in the tree and only related on the bacteria's relationship with the tree.

  17. Simple diagnosis of Pine Wilt Disease using loop-mediated isothermal amplification%利用环介导恒温扩增法简易诊断松萎蔫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takuya Aikawa; Natsumi Kanzaki; Taisei Kikuchi

    2011-01-01

    诊断松萎蔫病的传统方法是从木质组织中分离松材线虫,然后用显微镜进行形态学鉴定.基于DNA分子检测的方法尽管很灵敏,不需要固定发育阶段的松材线虫,但是仍然需要用Baermann漏斗法分离线虫,并且需要昂贵的仪器.笔者研发了利用环介导恒温扩增法检测松材线虫的存在,该方法包括:(1)从木块中提取DNA;(2) DNA扩增;(3)通过反应溶液的颜色做出诊断.该方法仅使用培养箱且整个过程只需要90 min,比以往方法更加简便和快速.%Pine wilt disease (PWD) , a serious threat to pine forests in East Asia and Europe, is caused by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Because the nematodes are transmitted by insect vectors from dead to healthy trees, PWD spreads extremely rapid. Accurate and rapid diagnosis and then complete removal of the nematode-infected trees from pine forests are thus very important for control of PWD. To diagnose PWD, B. Xylophilus must be detected in infected trees. Generally, the nematode is extracted from wood tissues by u-sing the Baermann funnel technique and is then identified under stereo and light microscopes. However, this method requires technical knowledge of nematode morphology and expensive equipment such as microscopes. In addition, nematode extraction takes a long time (usually 1 or 2 days) , and identification of the nematode is possible only when adults ( both male and female) are extracted. Several DNA-based protocols for the identification of B. Xylophilus have recently been developed. Although these molecular techniques are sensitive and independent of the life stage of the nematode, they require both the use of a Baermann funnel to collect the nematodes from the wood tissues and expensive equipment such as a thermocycler or real-time PCR apparatus to amplify the DNA. We developed a simple and low-cost method of determining the presence of PWD by using loop-mediated isothermal amplification ( LAMP

  18. Application of an expert knowledge system in the study of forest spatial patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-yan; ZHANG Xiao-li

    2008-01-01

    For the sake of exploring how the pattern of Chinese pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb) community changed after the invasion of the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Niclde) in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, we established a test area in the local Chinese pine community. Landsat5 TM images from 1991 and 2006 were integrated with auxiliary data from field investigation and spectral data as additional sources of information. A method of expert knowledge classifier was applied to establish the expert knowledge dataset of the main vegetation cover types from which we obtained a forest type distribution map. The spatial patterns and stability of the forest, before and after the invasion of the pine wood nematode, were analyzed in terms of community patterns. The results indicated that the predominant coniferous forest type changed to a mixed forest. As a result, the forest structure became complex and the interaction between coniferous forest patches became weakened over the period from 1991 to 2006.Therefore, the resistance of the forest coo-system to plant diseases and insect pests and the stability of forest eco-system enhanced.

  19. Dispersal patterns of exotic forest pests in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won II Choi; Young-Seuk Park

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species have potentially devastating effects on ecological communities and ecosystems.To understand the invasion process of exotic forest pests in South Korea,we reviewed four major species of exotic forest pests:the pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis),pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus),the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) and the black pine bast scale (Matsucoccus thunbergianae).We consider their biology,ecology,invasion history,dispersal patterns and related traits,and management as exotic species.Among these species,the dispersal process of fall webworm was linear,showing a constant range expansion as a function of time,whereas the other three species showed biphasic patterns,rapidly increasing dispersal speed after slow dispersal at the early invasion stage.Moreover,human activities accelerated their expansion,suggesting that prevention of the artificial movement of damaged trees would be useful to slow expansion of exotic species.We believe that this information would be useful to establish management strategies for invasion species.

  20. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  1. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

  2. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Lou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 µg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 µg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 µg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 µg/mL and 74.62 µg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

  3. The Nematicidal Toxicity'of the Fruit Bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus%平菇( Pleurotus ostreatus )子实体对线虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向红琼; 冯志新

    2001-01-01

    平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)子实体各部分均不能杀死线虫(Panagrellus redivivus,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus),但子实体一旦萌发形成菌丝,则能杀死线虫.48h时,子实体萌发部位的线虫死亡率约为32%,并且有的线虫局部解体.生物学测定结果表明:子实体丙酮和水粗提物均不具有毒杀线虫的活性.来自于相同子实体组织分离,于2%CMA培养基25℃培养7;d的菌丝处理线虫,线虫与菌丝接触1~5min被击倒,4~6h成虫死亡,48h线虫死亡率达90%以上.同时,该菌菌丝丙酮和水粗提物均能杀死线虫.实验证明,平菇子实体不含杀线虫毒素.

  4. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  5. Suppression of pine wilt disease by an antibacterial agent oxolinic acid%利用杀菌剂防治松萎蔫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Cheol Kim; Seung Kyu Lee; Hyeok Ran Kwon; Gyung Ja Choi; Yong Ho Choi; Kyoung Soo Jang; Myung Soo Park; Nack-Do Sung; Mun Seong Kang; Yilseong Moon

    2010-01-01

    松萎蔫病是一种非常复杂的病害.据报道,松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)及其携带的细菌诱导了该病,但是对于细菌的的作用尚存争议.笔者筛选出杀细菌剂进行了温室和林间防治松萎蔫病的实验.利用每株3年生赤松(Pinus densiflora)注射3 mg的恶喹酸,松萎蔫病防效达到71 %.利用恶喹酸或阿维菌素及两者混合物对大约20年生赤松的试验表明,3种处理均显示了很高的防效.以上结果证明伴生细菌是诱导松萎蔫病的必要因素,对松萎蔫病可利用杀细菌剂或杀细菌剂与杀线剂混合物进行防控.

  6. A novel high-throughput nematicidal assay using embryo cells and larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiling; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Shuchun; Li, Erwei; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-04-01

    Human health safety and environmental concerns have resulted in the widespread deregistration of several agronomic important nematicides. New and safer nematicides are urgently needed. However, a high-throughput bioassay for screening potential nematicides has not been established. We developed a two-step high-throughput nematicidal screening method to combine a cell-based MTS colorimetric assay with Caenorhabditis elegans embryo cells for preliminary cytotoxicity screening (step 1) followed by in vitro larval assay for nematicidal activity (step 2). Based on three conventional nematicides' test, high correlations were obtained between cell viability and larval viability and "r" values were 0.78 for Avermectin, 0.95 for Fosthiazate, and 0.65 for Formaldehyde solution. Further assays with 60 fungal secondary metabolites (extracts, fractions and pure compounds) also demonstrated the high correlation between cell viability and larval viability (r=0.60) and between the C. elegans cell viability and the juvenile viability of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines (r=0.48) and pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (r=0.56). Six metabolites with high cytotoxicity have performed high larval mortality with a LC50 range of 6.8-500μg/ml. These results indicate that the proposed two-step screening assay represents an efficient and labor-saving method for screening natural nematicidal products.

  7. Host deception: predaceous fungus, Esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of pine tree for nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease.

  8. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using an attenuated total reflection probe to distinguish between Japanese larch, pine and citrus plants in healthy and diseased states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, D. S.; Mortimer, H.; Woodhall, J. W.; Boonham, N.

    2016-06-01

    FTIR spectroscopy coupled with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) sampling probe has been demonstrated as a technique for detecting disease in plants. Spectral differences were detected in Japanese Larch (Larix kaempferi) infected with Phytophthora ramorum at 3403 cm-1 and 1730 cm-1, from pine (Pinus spp.) infected with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at 1070 cm-1, 1425 cm-1, 1621 cm-1 and 3403 cm-1 and from citrus (Citrus spp.) infected with 'Candidatus liberibacter' at 960 cm-1, 1087 cm-1, 1109 cm-1, 1154 cm-1, 1225 cm-1, 1385 cm-1, 1462 cm-1, 1707 cm-1, 2882 cm-1, 2982 cm-1 and 3650 cm-1. A spectral marker in healthy citrus has been identified as Pentanone but is absent from the diseased sample spectra. This agrees with recent work by Aksenov, 2014. Additionally, the spectral signature of Cutin was identified in the spectra of Pinus spp. and Citrus spp. and is consistent with work by Dubis, 1999 and Heredia-Guerrero, 2014.

  9. First report of Xiphinema rivesi (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dagger nematode Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso 1969 transmits several viruses in North America and Europe (2), causing severe yield reduction in crops. During a routine survey of cherry orchards suffering from cherry rasp leaf disease caused by Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV) (genus Cheravirus) in Che...

  10. Xiphinema campinense, nova espécie (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gonzaga E. Lordello

    1951-12-01

    Full Text Available X. campinense n. sp. is described. It is a Xiphinema closely resembling X. pratense Loos, 1949, from which it is distinguished by its measurements, by the absence of any cuticular transverse striatum as well as by the number and location of the caudal papillae.

  11. Morphometrics of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urek, G.; Sirca, S.; Karssen, G.

    2005-01-01

    In early spring 2002 nematodes of the X. americanum group were found in soil samples taken near the roots of peach trees from an orchard at Bilje near Nova Gorica, Slovenia. Re-sampling in different locations in the same area confirmed their presence in high numbers (from 5 LIP to 100 nematodes/100

  12. Dorylaimoidea (Nematoda from rivers in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with nematodes from rivers in the Kruger National Park. Three new species are described, viz. Dorylaimus deaconi n.sp., Laimydorus olifanti n.sp. and Aporcelaimellus glandus n.sp. Lenonchium fimbricaudatum Swart & Heyns, 1991, Aporcelaimellus micropunctatus Botha & Heyns, 1990, Discolaimus monoplanus Heyns, 1963, Discolaimus major Thome, 1939 and Xiphinema italiae Meyl, 1953 have been recorded from the park before. Biometric data of the new populations are tabulated, and where appropriate illustrations are also given.

  13. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; Heerden, van E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth’s crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere1–4. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxy

  14. Calodium (Capillaria hepaticum (Nematoda, Capillariidae in insular small rodent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugmyrin Sergey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the distribution of the nematode Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft 1893 Moravec 1982 (syn.: Capillaria hepatica, Hepaticola hepatica on the islands of Kizhi Archipelago are reported (N 62°00'; E 35°12'. Samples were collected on 18 islands and the mainland part of the Kizhi skerries region in the period from August 2005 till 2014. The method of partial helminthological dissection was applied to 346 specimens of rodents belonging to two species – the bank vole Myodes glareolus Schreber 1780 (301 spm. and the field vole Microtus agrestis Linnaeus 1761 (45 spm.. The prevalence and the abundance index of nematode were 16.6% and 1.1 in M. glareolus and 11.1%; 0.3 in M. agrestis, respectively. The highest prevalence and abundance of C. hepaticum were detected in mature voles. No sex-related differences were found. C. hepaticum was present in 12 of 19 sampling sites. On the islands where the sample number (host individuals was over 15, the highest prevalence and abundance values were 57% and 5.8 spm., respectively. Significant positive coefficients of correlation (Spearman’s and Pearson’s ones between nematode numbers and characteristics of the island were found in the pair «Prevalence – degree of isolation» (0.48 and 0.49. Single-factor analysis of variance showed that the size of the island had some effect on the nematode invasion prevalence and abundance. However, no significant regression relationship between the prevalence and abundance of nematodes and characteristics of an island was revealed by multivariate regression analysis (multiple regression: the coefficient of determination of the regression equation R2 < 0.3, and the regression coefficients were insignificant The reasons for high abundance of C. hepaticum in northern insular ecosystems are discussed. Possible key factors for the stable vitality of the parasite populations are: 1 favourable hydrothermal conditions of the soil in the shore (littoral zone; 2 the possibility of passive transfer between islands; 3 the ability to survive outside the host for a long time (an egg can remain invasive in the external environment for up to three years; and 4 cannibalism as the main pathway of vermination circulation in isolated populations of small mammals.

  15. Ultrastructure of the adults of Bunostomum phlebotomum (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cesar Rios Leite

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the male and female of Bunostomum phlebotomum are described based on scanning electron microscope (SEM observations. The attachment of the worms to the small intestinal mucosa and during the copula were observed. Structures of the bucal capsule and genital organs were also studied.

  16. Procamacolaimus Dorylaimus Sp. Nov. (Nematoda: Leptolaimidae) from the southern atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    Procamacolaimus dorylaimus sp. nov. is described from the Southern Atlantic (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The species is characterised by 3.4-3.5 mm long body; coarsely annulated cuticle without lateral field, epidermal glands and body pores absent, somatic setae present; labial sensilla pap

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 (Nematoda: Ascarididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfredi Reinalda Marisa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 is a parasitic nematode with its biological cycle still unknown, even though it was found in humans, domestic and silvatic animals. Adult worms, collected by surgical drainage from a human patient from the State of Pará, Brazil, were micrographed using a scanning electron microscope. Morphological aspects of males and females such as cephalic structures, caudal papillae and cuticular patterns were analyzed and compared with the previous descriptions adding new data for the identification of this species.

  18. The phylogenetics of Anguillicolidae (Nematoda: Anguillicoloidea, swimbladder parasites of eels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetsch Dominik R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anguillicolidae Yamaguti, 1935 is a family of parasitic nematode infecting fresh-water eels of the genus Anguilla, comprising five species in the genera Anguillicola and Anguillicoloides. Anguillicoloides crassus is of particular importance, as it has recently spread from its endemic range in the Eastern Pacific to Europe and North America, where it poses a significant threat to new, naïve hosts such as the economic important eel species Anguilla anguilla and Anguilla rostrata. The Anguillicolidae are therefore all potentially invasive taxa, but the relationships of the described species remain unclear. Anguillicolidae is part of Spirurina, a diverse clade made up of only animal parasites, but placement of the family within Spirurina is based on limited data. Results We generated an extensive DNA sequence dataset from three loci (the 5' one-third of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA, the D2-D3 region of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA and the 5' half of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene for the five species of Anguillicolidae and used this to investigate specific and generic boundaries within the family, and the relationship of Anguillicolidae to other spirurine nematodes. Neither nuclear nor mitochondrial sequences supported monophyly of Anguillicoloides. Genetic diversity within the African species Anguillicoloides papernai was suggestive of cryptic taxa, as was the finding of distinct lineages of Anguillicoloides novaezelandiae in New Zealand and Tasmania. Phylogenetic analysis of the Spirurina grouped the Anguillicolidae together with members of the Gnathostomatidae and Seuratidae. Conclusions The Anguillicolidae is part of a complex radiation of parasitic nematodes of vertebrates with wide host diversity (chondrichthyes, teleosts, squamates and mammals, most closely related to other marine vertebrate parasites that also have complex life cycles. Molecular analyses do not support the recent division of Anguillicolidae into two genera. The described species may hide cryptic taxa, identified here by DNA taxonomy, and this DNA barcoding approach may assist in tracking species invasions. The propensity for host switching, and thus the potential for invasive behaviour, is found in A. crassus, A. novaezelandiae and A. papernai, and thus may be common to the group.

  19. Mitochondrial coi in phylogenetic relationships of Laimaphelenchus belgradiensis (nematoda: Aphelenchoididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oro Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes of the genus Laimaphelenchus are small and tiny organisms. Some parts of their body are measured in nanometers. The identification and classification of such organisms is a complex task. Previously, the major source of classification was morphology based on anatomical characters and measurements. Nowadays, this approach is supplemented by: “nano-morphology” based on scanning electron microscopy and molecular data and phylogeny, resulting in molecular systematics. Laimaphelenchus belgradiensis was recently described species. Since cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was successful in DNA based species diagnosis, it was chosen as a molecular marker to infer phylogeny of the newly discovered species. Phylogenetic relationships were based on Bayesian inference, the pairwise distances and the content of nitrogenous bases. The great genetic diversity was observed among close and distant species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  20. Genomics and transcriptomics across the diversity of the Nematoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, M; Kumar, S; Kaur, G; Koutsovoulos, G; Elsworth, B

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of biology in nematodes is reflected in the diversity of their genomes. Parasitic species in particular have evolved mechanisms to invade and outwit their hosts, and these offer opportunities for the development of control measures. Genomic analyses can reveal the molecular underpinnings of phenotypes such as parasitism and thus, initiate and support research programmes that explore the manipulation of host and parasite physiologies to achieve favourable outcomes. Wide sampling across nematode diversity allows phylogenetically informed formulation of research hypotheses, identification of core features shared by all species or important evolutionary novelties present in isolated clades. Many nematode species have been investigated through the use of the expressed sequence tag approach, which samples from the transcribed genome. Gene catalogues generated in this way can be explored to reveal the patterns of expression associated with parasitism and candidates for testing as drug targets or vaccine components. Analysis environments, such as NEMBASE facilitate exploitation of these data. The development of new high-throughput DNA-sequencing technologies has facilitated transcriptomic and genomic approaches to parasite biology. Whole genome sequencing offers more complete catalogues of genes and assists a systems approach to phenotype dissection. These efforts are being coordinated through the 959 Nematode Genomes initiative.

  1. Pratylenchus (nematoda: pratylenchidae): diagnosis, biology pathogenicity and management

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo,Pablo; Vovlas, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Root-lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus are recognised worldwide as one of the major constraints of crops of primary economic importance, including banana, cereals, coffee, corn, legumes, peanut, potato and many fruits. Pratylenchus species rank second only to rootknot and cyst nematodes as having greatest economic impact on crops worldwide. This is not only due to their wide host range, but also to their distribution in almost every cool, temperate and tropical environment. The...

  2. Research on microwave processing to log with stem-boring insects%微波杀灭原木蛀干害虫的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冬平; 樊培峰; 巨云为; 刘灏; 朱萍; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    Through the different temperatures of microwave treatment on the infected wood of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,the survival of Monochamus alternatus larvae and the pine wood nematode as well as the wood properties (elastic modulus and static bending strength) were studied. The results showed that when the temperature of microwave treatment was reached to 50℃ for 5 minutes, the larvae of M. alternatus were completely killed in the diseased wood. The temperature of the microwave treatment was reached to 55℃ for 5 minutes, the pine wood nematode was all dead. The temperature of microwave treatment was around 60℃, the crack, elastic modulus and static bending strength the diseased wood were not significantly different from the control and could be used normally. Comprehensively, the microwave treatment of 55℃ was an effective way to treat the woods infected with B. xylophilus.%通过不同的微波温度处理松材线虫病死木原木,观察了微波对松材线虫疫木中松墨天牛幼虫及松材线虫存活的影响,同时初步研究了微波处理后原木在材性上的变化情况.结果表明,当微波处理温度达到50℃时,保持5 min,可完全杀灭病木中的松墨天牛幼虫;当微波处理温度达到55℃时,保持5 min,松材线虫完全死亡;温度在60℃左右时,对木材的开裂、抗弯弹性、抗弯强度等材性影响不显著,经微波处理的疫木可正常利用.因此,55℃的微波处理可作为松材线虫疫木除害的有效方法.

  3. Elementary Properties of the Nematicidal Crude Toxin Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JK-JS3%一株毒杀松材线虫的解淀粉芽孢杆菌活性物质的基本性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽梅; 吴小芹; 陈江天; 徐旭凌

    2009-01-01

    从马尾松林中筛选出的解淀粉芽孢杆菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JK-JS3菌株对松材线虫Bursaphelenchus xylophilus具有较高杀线活性.本试验对JK-JS3菌株分泌的杀线活性物质的基本性质进行了研究.结果表明:该菌株产生的杀线组分是可随水分一同蒸发的非蛋白质类物质;其吸收峰在190nm到200nm之间;常温25℃和冷藏4℃下保存60d仍能保持杀线活性;不同温度和pH条件对其杀线组分的活性有影响,加热会降低其活性,碱性条件下具有较高的杀线活性;石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯等有机溶剂不能将其活性物质从粗提液中提取.%Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JK-JS3, isolated from the leaf of the Pinus massoniana in Mount Zijin, has high nematicidal activity to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In order to isolate and purify the ne-maticidal components, the elementary characteristics of the nematicidal crude toxin have been studied in our experiment. The results indicated that the nematicidal toxin is not a protein which can be evaporated with the water and its maximum optical absorption is from 190 to 220 nm. The nematicidal activity of the toxin can sustain for a long period at 25 ℃ and 4 ℃. High temperature and pH condition can affect its nematicidal activity. It has strong nematicidal activity at the alkalinity condition. The nematicidal components can not be dissolved in the organic solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate.

  4. Cloning and expression of a toxin gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingying; Guo, Daosen; Zhou, Shiyi; Yu, Xinlei; Hou, Guixue; Li, Ronggui; Zhao, Boguang

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A was isolated from the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, obtained from wilted Japanese black pine, Pinus thumbergii, in China. In this paper, a genomic library of the GcM5-1A strain was constructed and a toxin-producing clone was isolated by bioassay. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,290 bp encoding a protein of 429 amino acids with N-terminal putative signal peptide of 36 amino acids, which shared a similarity of 83, 82 and 80% identity with hypothetical protein PFLU2919 from P. fluorescens SBW25, Dyp-type peroxidase family protein from P. fluorescens Pf-5 and Tat-translocated enzyme from P. fluorescens Pf0-1, respectively. The gene encoding a full-length protein or without the putative signal peptide was cloned and expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The recombinant protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by affinity chromatography using a Ni2+ matrix column. Its relative molecular weight was estimated to be 48.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE for full-length protein, and 45.0 kDa for the recombinant protein without putative signal peptide. Bioassay results showed that the recombinant protein with or without the putative signal peptide was toxic to both suspension cells and P. thunbergii seedlings. HPLC analysis demonstrated that components in branch extracts of P. thunbergii were significantly changed after addition of the recombinant full-length protein and hydrogen peroxide, which indicated that it is probably a peroxidase. This study offers information that can be used to determine the mechanism of pine wilt disease caused by the PWN.

  5. Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe.

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    Tarek Soliman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008-2030, assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014-2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300-800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions.

  6. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  7. Extraction and Structure Analysis of the Nematicidal Active Substances Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JK-JS3%解淀粉芽孢杆菌JK-JS3杀线活性物质的分离与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽梅; 吴小芹; 胡飞杰; 徐浩

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JK-JS3, isolated from the leaf of the Pinus massoniana in Dr. Sun Yat-sen' s mausoleum, is a bacterium and has high nematicidal activity to a nematode(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). A water solution with the nematicidal activity was isolated and purified from the bacterium culture medium by acid and alkali sedimentation method, and the components was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrum. The result showed that the nematicidal activity components was composed of three compounds which included Hexahydro-5-methyI-l-phenyl-l ,3,5-triazine-2-thione, 2,2-dimethyl-N-phenylpropanethioamide and Semiarbazide,4-( 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2. 2. 1 Jheptyl-2-ideno)-. The three compounds have not been reported to have the nematicidal activity before based on a search of information and patents of the three chemical compounds in the SciFinder.%利用酸碱沉淀法分离提纯解淀粉芽孢杆菌JK-JS3分泌的杀线活性物质,获得具有杀线活性的水溶液,通过气质联用方法对其化合物的结构进行分析和鉴定,从该杀线组合物中共鉴定出3种化合物,分别为5 -甲基-1 -苯基-6H -1,3,5-三嗪-2-硫酮、2,2-二甲基-N-苯丙硫代酰胺和樟脑醛缩氨脲.对3种化合物在SciFinder数据库中进行专利和文献检索,未检索到上述化合物具有杀松材线虫活性的报道.

  8. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang

    Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  9. 广东地区花绒寄甲替代寄主的研究%Studies on the substitute host of Dastarcus helophoroides inGuangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊琳娜; 钱明惠; 范军祥; 黄焕华; 李奕震; 黄咏槐

    2011-01-01

    Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) is a parasitoid of the pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope, which is the primary vector of the most destructive pest pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer).In this study, we investigated indoor mass - rearing methods for D.helophoroides.The average egg - adult survival rate of D.helophoroides reared on the substitute host mealworm Tenebrio moliter was above 20.0%.This parasitic beetle adults reared on T.moliter suecesfully laid eggs.The D.helophoroides larvae reared on of Buprestidae as host for raising,would kill each other, the average survival rate of adults was only 7.8%.The larvae of Zophobas morio can not raise out the D.helophoroides adults.%将花绒寄甲Dastarcus heloporoides Fairmaire幼虫接于替代寄主黄粉甲Tenebrio molitor、吉丁虫Buprestidaesp和大麦虫Zophobas morio,结果表明,黄粉甲幼虫、蛹和成虫均能繁育出花绒寄甲成虫,平均羽化率能达到20%以上,是较好的替代寄主.用黄粉甲繁育的花绒寄甲成虫存活情况良好,且能正常产卵;用吉丁虫幼虫繁育的花绒寄甲幼虫自相残杀的现象很严重,平均羽化率仅为7.8%;用大麦虫幼虫无法繁育出花绒寄甲成虫.

  10. Nematodes species survey and identification in the pine wood in Vietnam%越南松树枯死病症状及原因初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuan; Le Bao Thanh; 颜学武

    2016-01-01

    xylophilus was not found so far in Vietnam country,while Bursaphelen-chus distributed widely in 3 provinces in Vietnam.Nematodes were isolated from 46 samples in 52 samples of pine trees.Nematode isolated ratio was 88.5%.The isolated ratio of dead,dying and healthy pine samples were 93.5%, 66.7% and 33.3% respectively.The isolated ratio of dead,dying and healthy P.kesiya samples were 96.5%,66.7%and 33.3% respectively.The isolated ratio of P.massoniana samples was 90.9%.The isolated ratio of P.merkusii samples was 83.3%.This is the first report about nematodes on pine wood distribution in Viet Nam.

  11. Cheilospirura hamulosa (Diesing, 1851 (Nematoda, Acuarioidea in turkeys in Brazil: occurrence and pathology Cheilospirura hamulosa (Diesing, 1851 (Nematoda, Acuarioidea em perus no Brasil: ocorrência e patologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Brener

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso de infecção de perus, Meleagris gallopavo, por Cheilospirura hamulosa no Brasil, com base no achado de três espécimes fêmeas de C. hamulosa, inseridos na submucosa da moela de um peru, retirado de um lote de 15 aves, provenientes de criadouros domésticos no estado de Minas Gerais. A ocorrência foi de 6,7%. A ave parasitada não apresentava sinais clínicos. As lesões microscópicas da moela eram severas, caracterizando-se por intensos processos inflamatórios crônicos e difusos, com infiltrados mistos de granulócitos, estendendo-se à mucosa e às camadas musculares. Nessa área, foram observados fragmentos dos parasitos e perfuração da mucosa, com destruição das camadas musculares.

  12. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae in Argentina Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae de Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Adelina Galeano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province, revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.Necropsia de 15 espécimes de mergulhão-de-orelha-branca, Rollandiarolland, coletados nas lagoas Mar Chiquita e Chascomús (Província de Buenos Aires, revelou a presença de Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. Esse nematóide tem uma marcada especificidade pelas aves podicipediformes. Os espécimes foram identificados a partir de características, tais como estruturas morfológicas cefálicas e esofágicas e papilas caudais, utilizando-se microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Esse é o primeiro registro de C. ovale parasito de R. rolland na Argentina.

  13. Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2014-10-01

    Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs.

  14. Systematics of the genus Gnathostoma (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae in the Americas Sistemática del género Gnathostoma (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Bertoni-Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, more than 20 species of the genus Gnathostoma have been described as parasites of mammals, 9 of them in the Americas. However, the taxonomic status of some of these species has been questioned. The main goal of this study is to clarify the validity of the American species included in the genus. In order to complete this objective, we analyze type and/or voucher specimens of all these species deposited in 6 scientific collections, through morphometric and ultrastructural studies. Based on diagnostic traits as host specificity, site of infection, body size, cuticular spines, presence of 1 or 2 bulges in the polar ends of eggs, as well as eggshell and caudal bursa morphology, we re-establish Gnathostoma socialis (Leidy, 1858 and confirm the validity of other 6 species: Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902, Gnathostoma americanum Travassos, 1925, Gnathostoma procyonis Chandler, 1942, Gnathostoma miyazakii Anderson, 1964, Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991, and Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio-Sarabia and León-Règagnon, 2005. Gnathostoma didelphis Chandler, 1932 and Gnathostoma brasiliensis Ruiz, 1952 are considered synonyms of G. turgidum. Finally, based on a wide revision of specimens deposited in 6 American collections, we conclude that records of Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836 in the Americas are invalid.A la fecha, se han descrito más de 20 especies del género Gnathostoma parásitas de mamíferos, 9 de ellas en America. Sin embargo, el estado taxonómico de algunas ha sido cuestionado. El objetivo de este estudio es aclarar la validez de las especies americanas incluidas en el género. Para ello, se analizaron ejemplares tipo o de referencia de todas las especies, depositados en 6 colecciones científicas, mediante estudios morfométricos y ultraestructurales. Con base en rasgos diagnósticos como especificidad hospedatoria, sitio de infección, dimensiones corporales, espinas cuticulares (número de puntas, densidad, forma y distribución, presencia de uno ó dos tapones polares en los huevos, así como morfología de la bursa, patrón papilar y de la cubierta de los huevos, se re-establece a Gnathostoma socialis (Leidy, 1858 y se confirma la validez de otras 6 especies: Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902, Gnathostoma americanum Travassos, 1925, Gnathostoma procyonis Chandler, 1942, Gnathostoma miyazakii Anderson, 1964, Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991 y Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio Sarabia y León-Règagnon, 2005. Gnathostoma didelphis Chandler, 1932 y Gnathostoma brasiliensis Ruiz, 1952 son consideradas sinónimos de G. turgidum. Basados en una amplia revisión de material depositado en 6 colecciones Americanas, se invalidan los registros de Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836 en America.

  15. Screening for haplotypic variability within Oesophagostomum bifurcum (Nematoda) employing a single-strand conformation polymorphism approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijter, J M; Polderman, A M; Zhu, X Q; Gasser, R B

    2002-06-01

    Genetic markers in the mitochondrial genome have proven useful for population genetic studies because of their maternal inheritance and relatively high evolutionary rates. In this study, we exploited the high resolution capacity of PCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to screen for sequence variation in part of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (p cox 1) among individuals of the parasitic nematode, Oesophagostomum bifurcum from human or Mona monkey hosts from Africa. SSCP analysis revealed distinct profiles among some of the individuals, and subsequent sequence analysis of representative samples defined 10 different haplotypes. For comparative purposes, the p cox 1 sequences for representatives of four other species of Oesophagostomum from livestock were included. While there were high levels (11.5-13.7%) of sequence difference among the latter species, there was no fixed nucleotide difference between O. bifurcum individuals from humans and those from monkeys. The data support the proposal that O. bifurcum from the two primate hosts represents a single species and that the haplotypic variability in p cox 1 represents population variation. The results reinforce the usefulness of the SSCP-sequencing approach for studying genetic variation in nematode populations using mitochondrial markers.

  16. New species of Thelonema, Metasphaerolaimus, and Monhystrella (Nematoda, Monhysterida from Kermadec Trench, Southwest Pacific

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    Daniel Leduc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the order Monhysterida are described based on specimens obtained at depths of 8081 and 9177 m in the Kermadec Trench. Thelonema clarki sp. nov. is characterised by a large body size (3230–4461 µm, short cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, and long conico-cylindrical tail. This is the first record of the genus since its original description over two decades ago from the Peru Basin. Metasphaerolaimus constrictus sp. nov. is characterised by a relatively long body (1232–1623 µm, slightly arcuate spicules without gubernaculum, and conico-cylindrical tail with inner cuticle conspicuously thickened immediately anterior to cylindrical portion. Monhystrella kermadecensis sp. nov. is characterised by a circle of papillose outer labial sensillae slightly anterior to the four short cephalic setae, gubernaculum with caudal apophyses, the presence of distinct cuticularised piece along anterior vaginal wall, and a relatively short conical (males or conico-cylindrical tail (females with conical, ventrally-curved spinneret. M. kermadecensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of the genus, and, indeed, the entire family, based on the variable position of the anterior gonad relative to the intestine. The new species is classified within the Monhysteridae, and not the closely-related Xyalidae, based on the small body size, a smooth cuticle, and the presence of six outer labial papillae and only one testis. Further work is required to clarify the placement of M. kermadecensis sp. nov. relative to other monhysterid genera. A tabular key to all ten valid Metasphaerolaimus species is presented.

  17. Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Van As, Liesl L

    2015-07-22

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, eight species (five adult and three larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Enoplida were collected from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, namely Falcaustra similis Moravec et Van As, 2004, Atractidae gen. sp. (only female) (both Cosmocercoidea), Cucullanus sp. (only female) (Seuratoidea), Cithariniella longicaudata sp. n., Synodontisia annulata sp. n. (both Oxyuroidea), Contracaecum sp. third-stage larvae, third-stage larvae of Galeiceps sp. (both Ascaridoidea) and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae (Dioctophymatoidea). The new species Citharinella longicaudata (type host Schilbe intermedius Rüppel) is mainly characterised by the shape and size of cephalic papillae and the spicule 108 µm long, and Synodontisia annulata (type host S. intermedius) by the shape of cephalic papillae, body length of gravid females (4.88-5.33 mm) and a short spicule (66 µm long). The female specimen of Cucullanus sp. from Tilapia sparmanni Smith markedly differs from congeners parasitising inland fishes in Africa by the elongate pseudobuccal capsule and by the excretory pore far posterior to the oesophago-intestinal junction; apparently, it belongs to an undescribed species. Galeiceps larvae parasitising fishes are described for the first time. Cithariniella gonzalezi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 is considered a junior synonym of C. khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972, and the previous records of Cithariniella citharini Khalil, 1964 from Synodontis spp. in Egypt concern, in fact, Cithariniella khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972. The specimens of Cithariniella reported by Koubková et al. (2010) from Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin) in Senegal and misidentified as C. gonzalesi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 are considered to represent a new species, C. koubkovae sp. n.; this is established by reference to the description and drawings provided by Koubková et al. (2010).

  18. Two new species of free-living marine nematodes (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Enchelidiidae) from Maemul Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung-Ho; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-04-04

    Two new species of the family Enchelidiidae Filipjev, 1918 were collected from marine sediments near Maemul Island in South Korea: a new species of Abelbolla Huang & Zhang, 2004 and a new species of Ledovitia Filipjev, 1927. Abelbolla maemulensis sp. nov. is characterized by its small size (1,493 × 38 µm, body length × maximum body diameter); the presence of a circular amphid; the gubernacular apophysis with swollen distal tip; and the complex structure of the gubernaculum. It is close to Abelbolla huanghaiensis Huang & Zhang, 2004, but differs by the structure of gubernacular apophysis and body length (1,493 vs 2,303 µm). Ledovitia brevis sp. nov. can be separated from its congeners by its small size of body, the length of gubernacular apophysis, and the length of the spicules. It is close to Ledovitia pharetrata Wieser, 1953a, but differs by the length of the body (1,699 vs 2,640 µm) and the spicules (40 vs 100 µm).

  19. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  20. First report and morphological, molecular characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Canada

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    Qing Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Xiphinema species, new to Canada was recovered from rhizosphere of oak trees in Ontario, Canada. The identity was confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as X. chambersi Thorne, 1939. Female bodies are 2.1–2.4 mm long; odontostyle lengths are 110–118 µm; tail 110–177 µm long, arcuate, elongate-conoid, with hyline region 22-43 µm long. Vagina directed about 30 degrees posteriorly. Reproductive system is monodelphic with ovary reflexed anteriorly, vulva opening at 23–26% of the body. Males were not found. The 18S and ITS1 sequences of this population had 3–4 bp differences (99% identity and 30 bp differences (97% identity from two Arkansas populations respectively. The nematode population had three juvenile stages. Some variations of the morphometrics were observed comparing with the other populations. This is the first report of X. chambersi in Canada.

  1. First report of Xiphinema brevicolle Lordello et Costa, 1961 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Japan

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    Hiromichi Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed populations of Xiphinema americanum-group species were detected from a root zone soil sample of Japanese holly, Ilex crenata, during a survey for plant-parasitic nematodes of commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. From the result of the morphological study, the species were identified as X. brevicolle and Xiphinema sp. This is the first record of X. brevicolle in Japan. Morphometrics of X. brevicolle generally agree with those of the type specimens and the topotype specimens. Xiphinema sp. morphometrically resembles X. paramonovi except for tail length. The mitochondrial COI region, the nuclear 18S rDNA and the nuclear large subunit rDNA D2/D3 region of the species were sequenced and compared in the molecular study. For the COI region, PCR primers were newly designed to obtain longer sequences, ca. 900 bp, than previously used. Sequence identities of COI, 18S and D2/D3 regions between these two populations were 84.0-84.1%, 99.9% and 98.1-98.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of maximum likelihood trees were carried out to compare genetic relationships among the group and some suggestions were made on the X. brevicolle-subgroup.

  2. First report of Xiphinema brevicolle Lordello et Costa, 1961 (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Takeda, Ai; Mizukubo, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Mixed populations of Xiphinema americanum-group species were detected from a root zone soil sample of Japanese holly, Ilex crenata, during a survey for plant-parasitic nematodes of commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. From the result of the morphological study, the species were identified as Xiphinema brevicolle and Xiphinema sp. This is the first record of Xiphinema brevicolle in Japan. Morphometrics of Xiphinema brevicolle generally agree with those of the type specimens and the topotype specimens. Xiphinema sp. morphometrically resembles Xiphinema paramonovi except for tail length. The mitochondrial COI region, the nuclear 18S rDNA and the nuclear large subunit rDNA D2/D3 region of the species were sequenced and compared in the molecular study. For the COI region, PCR primers were newly designed to obtain longer sequences, ca. 900 bp, than previously used. Sequence identities of COI, 18S and D2/D3 regions between these two populations were 84.0-84.1%, 99.9% and 98.1-98.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of maximum likelihood trees were carried out to compare genetic relationships among the group and some suggestions were made on the Xiphinema brevicolle-subgroup.

  3. Observations of All Postembryonic Stages of Xiphinema coxi coxi (Nematoda: Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Robbins, R T

    1990-01-01

    Initial morphometric data and descriptions of males and the four juvenile stages of Xiphinema coxi coxi Tarjan, 1964 collected from soil about the roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at Gainesville, Florida, and from a greenhouse microplot at Fayetteville, Arkansas, are given. Males were similar morphometrically and in shape to females and had 3-5 preanal supplements. The four juvenile stages were easily separated by differences in body size, odontostyle, and replacement odontostyle lengths. Supplemental morphometric data for females are given along with scanning electron microscope ultrastructural information. Three X. coxi coxi females with abnormal gonad development are reported.

  4. Electron microscopy of the germ cells and the ovarian wall in Xiphinema (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, M C; Coomans, A

    1988-01-01

    The ovary of Xiphinema theresiae is studied ultrastructurally. It consists of two cell types, the ovarian epithelial cells and the germ cells. The ovarian epithelial cells form a thin layer around the germ cells. Their nuclei are located in between the germ cells. At some sites, processes of the ovarian epithelial cells migrate inward and form a central cytoplasmic mass. The germ cells have a large lobated nucleus, with an eccentric nucleolus, and are considered to represent young previtellogenic oocytes. In contact with the central cytoplasmic mass, the germ cells develop two membrane derived features, the villi and the small coated bulges, which most probably play a role in transport.

  5. Xiphinema pirinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Longidoridae), a new species from Bulgaria with a digitate tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincheva, Yordanka; Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada

    2008-07-01

    A description of Xipinema pirinense n. sp. is provided. This is a parthenogenetic nematode found associated with Fragaria sp. and Alchemilla sp. (Rosaceae) close to pine trees in the Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria. The species is characterised by its medium body length (3.2-3.9 mm), rounded head region slightly demarcated by a shallow depression, long odontostyle (116-134.5 microm), tripartite uterus with a Z-differentiation consisting of 4-7 irregular moderately refractive bodies with a clear central part, and a digitate tail with a ventral peg. The new species is most similar to X. index Thorne & Allen, 1950 and X. diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939.

  6. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm) and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 μm, 43–50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed. PMID:22287876

  7. Description of Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. (Nematoda, Cyatholaimidae from Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia

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    Boufahja, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new free–living marine nematode species of Cyatholaimidae, Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. from Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia is morphologically described. Males are characterized by a slightly larger body than females, a cephalic ring followed by ten subcephalic setae, modified cuticular punctuation, caudal lateral differentiation of large dots, and strongly cuticularized gubernaculum with a unique shape and bidenticulated distal half. The cuticle ornamentation of females is similar to the males. However, their caudal lateral differentiation is composed of smaller and more spaced dots. An updated morphological key to species of Marylynnia is given.

  8. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species.

  9. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

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    Rubén Mercado

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  10. Primer registro de Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenidae para el Perú

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    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos por primera vez la presencia del nematodo, Serratospiculum tendo Nitzsch, 1819, parasitando los sacos aéreos de un halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771. Seis nematodos (2 machos y 4 hembras fueron colectados e identificados como S. tendo. El hallazgo de este nematodo constituye el primer registro en el Perú.

  11. Primer registro de Aplectana hylambatis (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae para anfibios de la provincia de San Juan

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    Quiroga, Lorena B.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La presente nota representa los primeros registros de parásitos (nematodos para anfibios de la provincia de San Juan. Además, se discute la variación morfológica de los nematodos encontrados con otras poblaciones de Argentina.

  12. Status of the genus Cyrnea (Nematoda: Spiruroidea) in wild turkeys from the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Hon, L T; Forrester, D J

    1977-04-01

    Two species of Cyrnea are reported from 706 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from 25 localities in 9 southeastern states. Cyrnea (Cyrnea) neeli sp. n. in birds from Alabama and Florida is differentiated primarily by distal processes of the left spicule and spicule lengths. Specimens from wild turkeys previously reported as C. eurycerca are identified as C. coloni. The configuration of caudal papillae of C. colini is redescribed. Neither species occurred in birds from montainous regions, and C. neeli sp. n. was restricted to Florida and southern Alabama. Poults less than 1-month old were not infected. Infections peaked in early fall and then declined rapidly.

  13. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Enoplida in domestic dogs and cats in the extreme south of Brazil

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    Josaine Cristina da Silva Rappeti

    Full Text Available Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic nematode that parasites the kidneys of wild and domestic carnivores, and it has been reported frequently in Brazil. The aim here was to register the number of cases of dogs and cats diagnosed with dioctophymosis by necropsy (1981 to 2014 and ultrasound examination (2010 to 2015 in Pelotas-RS. In this context, a survey was conducted on dioctophymosis cases diagnosed at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV and Veterinary Clinical Hospital (HCV of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, and at a specialist veterinary imaging diagnostics clinic. In total, 95 cases were registered. The high series of the disease in dogs can be related to the presence of a large number of stray and semi-domestic dogs in the city, and also due to the ingestion of intermediate hosts of D. renale parasitized with the infective larvae. Thus, it can be concluded that Pelotas is a city with favorable conditions for the occurrence of dioctophymosis with high rate of disease in recent years.

  14. Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae) en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo,Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Lucía E Claps

    2010-01-01

    Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823). Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.

  15. The first report of Cosmocerca parva (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae from Colostethus fraterdanieli (Anura: Dendrobatidae in Colombia

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    Sandra M. Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We discovered the nematode parasite, Cosmocerca parva, in C. fraterdanieli; this is the first record of this nematode species inColombia and C. fraterdanieli is a novel host of C. parva.

  16. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human.

  17. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

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    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  18. Species-specific PCR for the identification of Cooperia curticei (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante, M R V; Bassetto, C C; Neves, J H; Amarante, A F T

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural ruminants usually harbour mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. A specific diagnosis is important because distinct species can differ significantly in their fecundity and pathogenicity. Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. are the most important gastrointestinal nematodes infecting ruminants in subtropical/tropical environments. In Brazil, C. punctata is more adapted to cattle than sheep. Additionally, C. spatulata appears to be more adapted to cattle, whereas C. curticei is more adapted to sheep. However, infection of sheep with C. punctata is common when cattle and sheep share the same pasture. Although morphological analyses have been widely used to identify nematodes, molecular methods can overcome technical limitations and help improve species-specific diagnoses. Genetic markers in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) have been used successfully to detect helminths. In the present study, the ITS-1 region was analysed and used to design a species-specific oligonucleotide primer pair to identify C. curticei. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was sequenced and showed 97% similarity to C. oncophora partial ITS-1 clones and 99% similarity to the C. curticei sequence JF680982. The specificity of this primer pair was corroborated by the analysis of 17 species of helminths, including C. curticei, C. punctata and C. spatulata. Species-specific diagnosis, which has implications for rapid and reliable identification, can support studies on the biology, ecology and epidemiology of trichostrongylid nematodes in a particular geographical location.

  19. Heth impalutiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Ransomnematoidea: Hethidae) a millipede parasite from Central Mindanao, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, Svetlana V; Mohagan, Alma B; Spiridonov, Sergei E

    2015-03-04

    The nematode Heth impalutiensis n. sp. is described from an unidentified spirostreptid millipede (Harpagophoridae) from the Bukidnon Province of Mindanao, the Philippines. Based on morphological characters, H. impalutiensis n. sp. is closest to Asian-Pacific representatives of the genus. Females of H. impalutiensis n. sp. are close to H. dimorphum and H. vietnamensis in body size and form of the lateral lappets, but can be distinguished by the significantly longer tail. Males of H. impalutiensis n. sp. strongly resemble that of H. xaniophora by the presence of such a rare character combinations as mammiform papillae and a bursa-like cuticular fold, but can be easily differentiated by the numbers of genital papillae (7 vs 6 pairs, respectively). Heth impalutiensis n. sp. can be distinguished from all nominal species by hypertrophy of the anterior anal lip in females which overlaps the anal aperture. Phylogenetic analysis based on the newly obtained set of sequences did not provide an evidence of infraorder Rhigonematomorpha monophyly as two superfamilies Ransomnematoidea and Rhigonematoidea formed independent clades in the frames of ascaridid-spirurid-oxyurid super clade (Clade III of Nadler et al., 2007).

  20. The interaction between Cooperia spp. and Ostertagia spp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Frankena, K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the presence of interaction between Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi, nematodes which parasitize the small intestine and the abomasum of cattle, respectively, has been investigated. Interaction is of epidemiological importance when it leads to a reduced worm burden or a lowered faecal egg output. As there were some indications that interaction between C. oncophora and O.ostertagi is immunologically, mediated experiments were carried out in which calves were given some...

  1. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of two whipworms Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor (Nematoda: Trichuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yan; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Ye, Yong-Gang; Li, Jia-Yuan; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-12-01

    For many years, whipworms (Trichuris spp.) have been described with a relatively narrow range of both morphological and biometrical features. Moreover, there has been insufficient discrimination between congeners (or closely related species). In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two whipworms Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor, compared them and then tested the hypothesis that T. ovis and T. discolor are distinct species by phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the mt protein-coding genes. The complete mt genomes of T. ovis and T. discolor were 13,946 bp and 13,904 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes are circular, and consist of 37 genes, including 13 genes coding for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of human and pig whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis. Taken together, these analyses showed genetic distinctiveness and strongly supported the recent proposal that T. ovis and T. discolor are distinct species using nuclear ribosomal DNA and a portion of the mtDNA sequence dataset. The availability of the complete mtDNA sequences of T. ovis and T. discolor provides novel genetic markers for studying the population genetics, diagnostics and molecular epidemiology of T. ovis and T. discolor.

  2. Rodlet cells and other inflammatory cells of Phoxinus phoxinus infected with Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Simoni, E; Rossi, R; Manera, M

    2000-10-25

    Rodlet cells (RCs), and other inflammatory cells, namely eosinophile granule cells (EGCs), eosinophilic granulocytes and epithelioid cells in the liver, pancreas and peritoneal serosa of uninfected and naturally parasitized minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758), were studied by light and electron microscopy. Forty-eight minnows were examined and in 18 fishes encysted larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) were encountered, mainly in the pancreas. The number of larvae in the latter organ ranged from 2 to 46. Nematode larvae were encapsulated by epithelioid granulomata, and these cells displayed typical epithelial characteristics such as desmosomes and tonofilaments. EGCs and RCs characteristically surrounded the reactive foci and were suggestive of an integrated inflammatory network involving both cell types. In many instances RCs were noticed at the periphery of the pancreas, beneath the peritoneal serosa, partially or entirely surrounded by mesothelial cells. In the latter situation partially damaged RCs were present in the splancnic cavity entirely surrounded but not truly phagocytized (no phagolysosome occurred) by mesothelial cells, which shared the same ultrastructural features of epithelioid cells. This phenomenon has never been described and may represent a peculiar turnover of RCs in the pancreas likely related to the high sensitivity to damage. A significant difference (p < 0.01) in the number of RCs between uninfected and parasitized fish was noticed in the liver and pancreas. The data suggest that RCs represent an inflammatory cell type closely linked to other piscine inflammatory cells, such as EGCs, epithelioid cells and mesothelial cells.

  3. Thynnascaris rhacodes sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in fishes from the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, T L; Overstreet, R M

    1978-01-01

    Thynnascaris rhacodes sp. n. infects Pelates quadrilineatus, Solea vulgaris, Boops boops, Lithognathus mormyrus, Obleida melanura, Diplodus vulgaris, D. sargus, and Sparus auratus from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Unique in that the cuticle on the female tail is wrinkled, the ascaridoid is further characterized by possessing 27 to 35 precloacal papillae, a body length of 11 to 85 mm, similar spicules 3 to 6% of body length, a length-ratio of intestinal cecum to ventricular appendage of 1 : 1 to 5, and lips longer than wide.

  4. Two new species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Yooyen, Thanapon

    2011-09-01

    Two new species ofrhabdochonid nematodes are described from the intestine of freshwater fishes in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) pseudomysti sp. n. from the catfish Pseudomystus siamensis (Regan) (Bagridae, Siluriformes) in the Fang Brook, a tributary of the Kok River (the Mekong River basin), Fang District and Rhabdochona (Globochona) thaiensis sp. n. from the cyprinid Mystacoleucus marginatus (Valenciennes) (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) in the Ping River (the Chao Phraya River basin), Muang District. Rhabdochona pseudomysti is mainly characterized by simple, leaf-like oval deirids (a unique feature among Rhabdochona spp.), a prostom with 14 anterior teeth, the presence of basal prostomal teeth, the length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:2.1-2.6), an unusually long left spicule (1.10-1.22 mm), length ratio of spicules (1:11.5-14.7), arrangement of genital papillae, and conspicuously elevated vulval lips. Rhabdochona thaiensis differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 possessing caudal projections on the tail tip in that it has only 2 claw-shaped projections located ventrally on the tail tip of both males and females; the species is mainly characterized by the presence of distinct pseudolabia, 8 anterior prostomal teeth, absence of basal teeth, bifurcated deirids, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:11.3-11.9), conspicuously short (135-141 microm) left spicule, arrangement of genital papillae, and somewhat elevated vulval lips. Fully developed eggs of R. pseudomysti and R. thaiensis remain unknown. These are the first nominal species of Rhabdochona reported from Thailand.

  5. Macrolaimus richteri spec. nov. (Nematoda: Chambersiellidae from the Richtersveld, South Africa

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    Antoinette Swart

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Macrolaimus richteri spec. nov. were examined with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM and some hitherto undescribed features of Macrolaimus were discovered. The sense organs are arranged in an inner circlet of six huge outer labial setae, a second circlet of four small cephalic setae and two pore-like amphid apertures in the first annule posterior to the head. The stomatal opening is surrounded by six flap-like lips covering the peculiar triangular cheilorhabdions which seem to be protmsible. The prominent anterior lip of the vulval opening is ornamented with about ten horizontal grooves. Distinctive characters ofM. richteri spec. nov. are the strongly annulated cuticle, slightly dorsad curved tail terminus and the length of the cheilorhabdions (1,6-1,8 times prorhabdion length.

  6. Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp., is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of the gray sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae), from the Biosphere Reserve "Sierra de Huautla" in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This is the second species in the genus described from bats in the New World, since most of the rictaluriids reported in these hosts belong to the closely related genus Rictularia Froelich, 1802. However, members of Rictularia possess only a single oesophageal tooth at the base of the buccal capsule, whereas in the current nematodes three conspicuous oesophageal teeth are present. They are therefore included in Pterygodermatites Wedl, 1861. The new species is characterized by the presence of 23 small denticles on the periphery of the buccal capsule and by the presence of 40 and 66 pairs of cuticular processes in males and females, respectively. Additionally, males possess 3-4 ventral precloacal fan-like processes, and the cuticular processes of females are divided into 40 pairs of comb-like and 26 pairs of spine-like processes; the vulva opens on the level of approximately pair 40. The dorsally directed stoma and the 40 prevulvar cuticular processes makes it difficult to place the species in any of the subgenera present in the New World, yet characters correspond with the diagnosis of Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) in the Mediterranean region and North Africa.

  7. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae from vineyard soil in Slovenia

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    Saša Širca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensis is an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3 body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 µm, 43–50 µm in males, odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157 µm; pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 µm, ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997 are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to L. poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, L. macrosoma Hooper, 1961, L. caespiticola Hooper, 1961, L. helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, L. macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, L. pius Barsi et Lamberti, 2001, L. raskii Lamberti et Agostinelli, 1993, L. kheirii Pedram et al, 2008, L. silvae Roca, 1993, L. iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, L. vinearum Bravo et Roca, 1995 and L. major Roca et d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other species of the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of L. carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed.

  8. Redescription of Oncophora melanocephala (Rudolphi, 1819 Baudin-Laurencin, 1971 (Nematoda, Camallanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncophora melanocephala, a camallanid nematode from the small intestine of Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 is redescribed from the Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and this occurrence represents a new host record for the speciesOncophora melanocephala, um nematóide camalanídeo de instestino delgado de Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829, é redescrito da Costa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e esta ocorrência representa um novo hospedeiro para a espécie.

  9. Pharmacological receptors of nematoda as target points for action of antiparasitic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Saša M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic receptors of parasitic nematodes are one of the most important possible sites of action of antiparasitic drugs. This paper presents some of our own results of electrophysiological and pharamcological examinations of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors of nematodes, as well as data from literature on a new class of anthelmintics that act precisely on cholinergic receptors. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR is located on somatic muscle cells of nematodes and it is responsible for the coordination of parasite movement. Cholinomimetic anthelmintics act on this receptor, as well as acetylcholine, an endogenic neurotransmitter, but they are not sensitive to enzyme acetylcholineesterase which dissolves acetylcholine. As opposed to the nicotinic receptor of vertebra, whose structure has been examined thoroughly, the stoichiometry of the nicotinic receptor of nematodes is not completely known. However, on the grounds of knowledge acquired so far, a model has been constructed recently of the potential composition of a type of nematodes nicotinic receptor, as the site of action of anthelmintics. Based on earlier investigations, it is supposed that a conventional muscarinic receptor exists in nematodes as well, so that it can also be a new pharamocological target for the development of antinematode drugs. The latest class of synthesized anthelmintics, named aminoacetonitriles (AAD, act via the nicotinic receptor. Monepantel is the first drug from the AAD group as a most significant candidate for registration in veterinary medicine. Even though several groups of cholinomimetic anthelmintics (imiodazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines, organophosphat anthelmintics have been in use in veterinary practice for many years now, it is evident that cholinergic receptors of nematodes still present an attractive place in the examinations and development of new antinematode drugs. .

  10. Experimental heteroxenous cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 (Nematoda: Ascarididae in white mice and in cats

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    Gregorio S. Volcan

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of natural infections of sylvatic carnivores by adult worms of species similar to Lagochilascaris minor in the Neotropical region led to attempts to estabilish experimental cycles in laboratory mice and in cats. Also, larval development was seen in the skeletal muscle of an agouti (Dasyprocta leporina infected per os with incubated eggs of the parasite obtained from a human case. In cats, adult worms develop and fertile eggs are expelled in the feces: in mice, larval stages of the parasite develop, and are encapsulate in the skeletal muscle, and in the adipose and subcutaneous connective tissue. From our observations, we conclude that the larva infective for the mouse is the early 3rd stage, while for the final host the infective form is the later 3rd stage. A single moult was seen in the mouse, giving rise to a small population of 4th stage larvae, long after the initial infection.

  11. Rhabditid species (Nematoda, Rhabditida recorded in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolafia, Joaquín

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous records of species belonging to the order Rhabditida in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands is presented as compilation. Eighty species of forty genera and twelve families are listed. Information concerning each species contains scientific name, synonymy, distribution and remarks. Distributional data include localities and/or geographical areas where the species have been collected and the corresponding references. A short discussion on current knowledge on rhabditid nematodes in the Iberian geography is also made. Majority of species are defficiently known, being necessary additional taxonomic and/or faunistic studies of this taxon.

    Se presenta una recopilación de citas previas de especies pertenecientes al orden Rhabditida en la España peninsular e Islas Baleares. Se listan ochenta especies de cuarenta géneros y doce familias. La información que concierne a cada especie contiene el nombre científico, sinonimia, distribución y observaciones. Los datos de distribución incluyen las localidades y/o áreas geográficas donde las especies han sido recolectadas, y las referencias correspondientes. También se realiza una breve discusión sobre el conocimiento de los nematodos rhabdítidos en el área ibérica, concluyéndose que la mayor parte de las especies se conocen deficientemente, siendo necesario un estudio taxonómico y/o faunístico adicional del taxon.

  12. Life cycle and mating behavior of Zygotylenchus guevarai (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) on excised Petroselinum crispum roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Mehmet

    2007-11-15

    The life cycle and mating behavior of Zygotylenchus guevarai were observed in vitro on excised roots of Petroselinum crispum in gnotobiotic culture. Eggs hatched into juveniles whose appearance and structure were similar to those of the adults. Juveniles grew in size and each juvenile stage was terminated by a molt. Z. guevarai had four juvenile stages with the first molt occurred outside the egg shortly after hatching. After the final molt the juveniles differentiated into adult males and females. Mating was required for reproduction. After mating, fertilized females began to lay eggs. The life cycle from second stage juvenile to second stage juvenile was completed in 43 days.

  13. A new species of Sciurodendrium (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) in Sciurus aureogaster (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Lamothe-Argumedo, Marcos Rafael

    2006-06-01

    Sciurodendrium bravohollisae n. sp. (Heligmonellidae) is described as an intestinal parasite of 2 squirrels, Sciurus aureogaster Cuvier, 1829, collected from Los Robles, Municipio de Tlalnepantla, Morelos State, Mexico. The new species differs from all other congeners in possessing a very well-developed and sacciform genital cone. This is the seventh species described for the genus and the first one recorded in Mexico.

  14. An index to new genera and species of Nematoda in Zootaxa from 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Zhao, Zeng Qi; Wang, Jian Ming

    2013-01-01

    Of 104 papers on nematodes published in Zootaxa from 2007 to 2012, seventy five, by 136 authors from 27 countries, described eight new genera and 155 new species. A bibliographic analysis of these papers and a list of new genera and species are presented in this paper.

  15. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida with insecticides used in the tomato crop

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    Paulo Henrique de Siqueira Sabino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are agents that can be used for the biological control of pests associated with insecticides in a tank mix. Compatibility studies need to be conducted to analyze which products are compatible with nematodes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the compatibility between EPNs and the insecticides that are most used on the tomato crop, and to correlate the toxicological classification of the chemical products with two species of EPNs that have the potential to control tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta. Among the products tested, Certero (triflumuron, Decis (deltamethrin, Previcur (dimethylamino-propyl, Ampligo (lambdacyhalothrin + chlorantranilprole, Premio (clorantranilprole, Engeo Pleno (thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin were compatible (IOBC class 1 with both nematode species.

  16. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae in Brazil

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    Vicente J Júlio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari.

  17. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea) parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J J; Muniz-Pereira, L C; Noronha, D; Pinto, R M

    2000-01-01

    Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari).

  18. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-12-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement.

  19. Studies on the genus Aphanolaimus de Man, 1880 (Nematoda: Aphanolaimidae) with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Sturhan, D.; Park, B.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Three known and two new species of Aphanolaimus are described, viz. A. louisae, A. seshadrii, A. brasiliensis, A. aberrans sp. n. and A. vietnamicus sp. n. New data on the morphology and distribution of A. louisae, A. seshadrii and A. brasiliensis are given. The male of A. brasiliensis is described

  20. Experimental infection of Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakinae) from Mexico in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Osorio-Sarabia, D; Overstreet, R M

    1994-08-01

    Juveniles of Contracaecum multipapillatum infected the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and adults infected the olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the great egret (Casmerodius albus) in the coastal lagoon at Celestun, State of Yucatan, Mexico. All are new host records, and, even though the geographic locality record of Mexico for the species has not been published, unidentified but presumably conspecific specimens have been reported from there. When juveniles of C. multipapillatum were fed to a kitten, but not rats, ducks, or chickens, they developed into adults. Measurements and morphological data are provided on the specimens from the kitten. Development of an avian ascaridoid in the intestine of a mammal increases the potential of this widespread species to infect other mammals, including humans.

  1. The Distribution of Lectins across the Phylum Nematoda: A Genome-Wide Search

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    Lander Bauters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are a very diverse phylum that has adapted to nearly every ecosystem. They have developed specialized lifestyles, dividing the phylum into free-living, animal, and plant parasitic species. Their sheer abundance in numbers and presence in nearly every ecosystem make them the most prevalent animals on earth. In this research nematode-specific profiles were designed to retrieve predicted lectin-like domains from the sequence data of nematode genomes and transcriptomes. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that play numerous roles inside and outside the cell depending on their sugar specificity and associated protein domains. The sugar-binding properties of the retrieved lectin-like proteins were predicted in silico. Although most research has focused on C-type lectin-like, galectin-like, and calreticulin-like proteins in nematodes, we show that the lectin-like repertoire in nematodes is far more diverse. We focused on C-type lectins, which are abundantly present in all investigated nematode species, but seem to be far more abundant in free-living species. Although C-type lectin-like proteins are omnipresent in nematodes, we have shown that only a small part possesses the residues that are thought to be essential for carbohydrate binding. Curiously, hevein, a typical plant lectin domain not reported in animals before, was found in some nematode species.

  2. Life cycle and morphology of development stages of Physocephalus dromedarii (Nematoda:Spirocercidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf Karl Schuster; Saritha Sivakumar; J ¨org Kinne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the development of Physocephalus dromedarii (P. dromedarii) in the final host. Methods: For this, 5 adult dromedaries were orally infected with third larval stages of P. dromedarii obtained from naturally infected scarab beetles (Scarabaeus cristatus). The camels were necropsied 14, 42, 70, 84 and 280 days after infection and their abomasi were examined for the presence of nematodes. Results: Early 4th stage larva occurred already 2 weeks after infection. They were still in the sheet of the 3rd stage larva. Six weeks after infection, the nematodes became juvenile male and female adults measuring 9 and 10 mm, respectively. Their size doubled at 10 weeks post infection and patency was reached at 12 weeks. P. dromedarii was still present in the camel that was examined 40 weeks after infection. Conclusions: As a result of experimental infection of the natural host, the determined prepatent period of P. dromedarii equalled 12 weeks.

  3. A new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) in Nactus pelagicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tanna Island, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Hamilton, Alison M; Austin, Christopher C

    2010-10-01

    Falcaustra tannaensis n. sp. (Ascaridida: Kathlaniidae) from the large intestine of Nactus pelagicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described and illustrated. Falcaustra tannaensis represents the first species from Oceanica to be assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other species of Falcaustra by the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (8 precloacal, 2 adcloacal, 10 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (2.43-2.68 mm), and presence of a pseudosucker.

  4. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) a new filaria parasitizing Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Luis; Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Merlo-Serna, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    A new nematode species, Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Onchocercidae), is described from specimens found in the body cavity of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus) (Anura, Bufonidae), in the Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, in the Pacific slope of Mexico. The new species differs from the other nine species of Foleyellides by infecting bufonid anurans and by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae. Other distinguishing feature of the new species is the size of the left spicule (0.16-0.23 long), the smallest recorded among the species included in the genus. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. is the second known species of the genus recorded from amphibians of Mexico.

  5. Two atypical new species of the genus Sectonema Thorne, 1930 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae from Vietnam

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    Thi Anh Duong Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Sectonema from natural habitats of northern Vietnam are studied. This paper includes their descriptions, measurements, line illustrations, and light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM pictures. Sectonema tropicum sp. nov. is characterized by a 2.56–3.24 mm long body, 19–21 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 20–21 μm long at its ventral side, 730–834 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 52–59% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 150–242 μm long or 1.2–2.5 times the body diameter, pars refringens vaginae present, V = 48–52, short (31–40 μm, c = 70–91, c’ = 0.5–0.6 and rounded tail, 91–97 μm long spicules, and only one weakly developed ventromedian supplement. Sectonema vietnamense sp. nov. is characterized by its slender (a = 33–49 and 2.71–4.25 mm long body, 14–16 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 8–9 μm long at its ventral side, 716–918 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 63–67% of total neck length, uterus simple and 209–242 μm long or 2.5–2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae absent, V = 54, short (34–39 μm, c = 70–115, c’ = 0.6–0.8 and rounded tail, 59–75 μm long spicules, and three or four irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Both species are also characterized by their nearly continuous lip region, an atypical feature in this genus. Molecular analysis of S. tropicum sp. nov. confirms that Sectonema is a natural (monophyletic taxon, very close to Metaporcelaimus.

  6. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) parasite of Cnemidophorus spp. (Lacertilia: Teiidae) from southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustín; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Campbell, Jonathan A

    2003-04-01

    A new species of Spauligodon collected from Cnemidophorus mexicanus and C. deppii is described in this study. The species is placed in Spauligodon because the caudal alae start at the level of the precloacal papillae and embed the adcloacal papillae. The new species is most similar to S. goldbergi, but diagnostic traits of the former are the presence of 2 ridges in lateral alae, flaplike expansions in the caudal end of lateral alae, and a smooth tail for males. This species is the eighth recorded in the neotropics.

  7. Subulura lacertilia sp.n. (Nematoda, Subuluridae) parasitizing the Brazilian lizard Tropidurus nanuzae Rodrigues (Lacertilia, Tropiduridae)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with the identification of samples of nematodes recovered from Tropidurus nanuzae Rodrigues, 1981, with the description of a new species, and is a part of a major study on helminth parasites of reptiles in Brazil, taking into account previous data on this subject. The main approach is that referring to the first occurrence of subulurid nematodes in a reptilian host, since they have been assigned previously to birds and mammals.

  8. Subulura lacertilia sp.n. (Nematoda, Subuluridae parasitizing the Brazilian lizard Tropidurus nanuzae Rodrigues (Lacertilia, Tropiduridae

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    J. Julio Vicente

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with the identification of samples of nematodes recovered from Tropidurus nanuzae Rodrigues, 1981, with the description of a new species, and is a part of a major study on helminth parasites of reptiles in Brazil, taking into account previous data on this subject. The main approach is that referring to the first occurrence of subulurid nematodes in a reptilian host, since they have been assigned previously to birds and mammals.

  9. Morphology of the excretory system of Hysterothylacium haze (Nematoda: Anisakidae: Raphidascaridinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, T; Ogawa, K; Wakabayashi, H

    1989-10-01

    The morphology of the excretory system of Hysterothylacium haze was examined by serial histological sections. The excretory system was H-shaped and glandular, consisting of lateral filaments and a commissure, with the exretory pore opening posterior to the nerve ring. A large excretory nucleus was present in the left filament. The cuticularized excretory duct was confined to the left side of the commissure. The glandular excretory system is rare among the Raphidascaridinae.

  10. New observations on Mexiconema cichlasomae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) from fishes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Jiménez-García, M I; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    1998-09-01

    The dracunculoid nematode Mexiconema cichlasomae Moravec, Vidal et Salgado Maldonado, 1992, originally described from the abdominal cavity and viscera of Cichlasoma spp. from Mexico, was recorded from the abdominal cavity of the poeciliid Xiphophorus helleri Heckel in Lake Catemaco and its small tributary Arroyo Agrio, Veracruz and from the intestine of the nurse shark Ginglystoma cirratum (Bonnaterre) off the southern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in Campeche; both these findings represent new host records. The nematode specimens from these hosts are briefly described and illustrated. Whereas X. helleri evidently served as the true definitive host of this parasite, G. cirratum probably acquired Mexiconema infection accidentally while feeding on fish definitive hosts in the brackish or salt-water environment. The ability of M. cichlasomae to utilize fishes of different orders (Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes) as definitive hosts is rather exceptional among dracunculoid nematodes.

  11. Molineus torulosus (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea a parasite of Neotropical primates: new morphological and histological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.-C.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Molineus torulosus (Molin, 1861 parasite of Cebus spp. from South America is redescribed in Cebus apella and C. olivecaeus (new host from French Guyana with emphasis on the synlophe. During the maturation process, the larvae dwelt in the cysts carved alongside the external part of the small intestine. The turn-out of the mature worms and the laid eggs depended on the tissular organisation of cyst walls as the inflammatory process waned and fibrosis progressed to seal the cystic lumen. Adult worms entwine themselves in the cysts, live there permanently as their presence has never been evidenced in the intestinal lumen. They copulated, laid eggs, degenerated and died once entrapped by the fibrotic process. Laid eggs released in the intestinal lumen through a narrow channel ensured the continuation of the developmental cycle. However, erratic migration was possible via the vascular channels surrounding the cysts.

  12. Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines baiomydis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae, a parasite of Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae

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    Lynggaard Christina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines baiomydis n. sp., an intestinal parasite of the northern pygmy mouse, Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae, collected in La Yerbabuena, Colima, Mexico, is described herein. Specimens were studied using light and scanning electronic microscopy. This is the 19th species of the subgenus Paucipectines described worldwide and the fourth collected in Mexico. It is differentiated from the remaining species in the subgenus by having 25 perioral denticles, arranged in a triangle (seven on each lateroventral margin, and eleven on the dorsal margin, and 10 pairs of caudal papillae.

  13. Influence of water infusion of medicinal plants on larvae of Strongyloides papillosus (Nematoda, Strongyloididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Boyko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common nematodes of ruminants is Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856. Disease caused by these parasites brings economic losses to livestock operations. Therefore it is necessary to control their numbers. The eggs and three larval stages of S. papillosus live in the environment, while the fourth, fifth and mature individuals live in host organisms. Control of these parasites is necessary at all stages of development, including the free-living stage. An experiment on changes in the number strongiloids under the influence of environmental factors was carried out using aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. In the laboratory experiment we researched the effect on the survival of invasive and noninvasive types of S. papillosus larvae of 24 hours exposure at different doses to Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus, 1753, Artemisia annua Linnaeus, 1753, Echinacea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1753 Moench, 1794, Matricaria chamomilla Linnaeus, 1753, Tanacetum vulgare Linnaeus, 1753, Salvia sclarea Linnaeus, 1753, Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, 1824, Petroselinum crispum (Miller, 1768 Nyman ex A.W. Hill, 1925. The death of 50% of S. papillosus invasive larvae was registered at 464 ± 192 mg/l concentration of aqueous extract of S. sclarea inflorescences. The greatest effect up-on the non-invasive larvae was caused by aqueous extracts of inflorescences of S. sclarea, M. chamomilla and seeds of P. crispum: at concentrations of 327 ± 186, 384 ± 155 and 935 ± 218 mg/l, respectively, 50% of non-invasive larvae died. According to the results of the research, we suggest further study of the nematocidal activity of combinations, contained in the aboveground parts, of clary sage (S. sclarea, camomile (M. chamomilla and seeds of parsley (P. crispum, and also experimental usage of these species in the fodder compound for cattle, sheep, goats and pigs on experimental farms.

  14. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  15. Studies on the genus Paraphanolaimus Micoletzky, 1923 (Nematoda: Aphanolaimidae) with description of P. paraguayensis sp. n.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Sturhan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Two known and one new species of Paraphanolaimus are described, viz. P. behningi from Germany, P. anisitsi from Paraguay and Germany and P. paraguayensis sp. n. from Paraguay. Paraphanolaimus paraguayensis sp. n. is characterised by 0.84-0.94 mm long body, presence of 37-44 lateral epidermal glands,

  16. Molecular and morphological comparison of two different types of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Shayegh, Hossein; Ahmadi, Amin

    2014-12-01

    Habronema muscae is a spirurid nematode that undergoes developmental stages in the stomach of equids, causing chronic catarrhal gastritis. Despite preceding investigations have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for molecular diagnosis, we aimed to assess the applicability of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences to identify the H. muscae infection and to assess the level of intraspecific variations in this parasite obtained from affected horses in Southern Iran. According to the morphological characterizations, two different isolates of H. muscae were identified. Although the majority of the recovered specimens had normal characterizations of H. muscae, a number of parasites showed an abnormal feature as large, asymmetrical, and thick cuticular extensions was observed at their anterior end (head region) in gross and histologic examinations. Unexpectedly, molecular assay disclosed that both morphologically distinct samples were completely identical to each other based on cox1 sequence. Multiple alignment of the cox1 amino acid sequences showed that all polymorphism sites were silent. Also, phylogenetic analysis provided strong support that H. muscae form a sister group to Spirocerca lupi and Thelazia callipaeda.

  17. First report of Lagochilascaris (Nematoda: Ascarididae) eggs in a public park in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Jeske, Sabrina; Gallina, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Villela, Marcos Marreiro

    2012-03-23

    Public parks, especially in developing countries, are places where stray animals run free and may contaminate the environment with different species of parasites. In an evaluation of environmental sanitation of these sites, soil samples were collected monthly from public parks in the Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Eggs of the nematode Lagochilascaris sp. were found in a public playground. This is the first report of identification of this nematode in Southern Brazil.

  18. Four new species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea Parasitizing amphibians and lizards from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreddine Ben Slimane

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of four new species of Oswaldocruzia parasitizing Iguanidae and Leptodactylidae from Ecuador, demonstrate that they are morphologically close to each other. Like most of the other neotropical and holarctic Oswaldocruzia , they are characterized by spicules with three main branches: blade, shoe and fork; the division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length appears to be characteristic of the neotropical species. - Oswaldocruzia bainae n. sp. parasitizing Anolis chrysolepis and Anolis fuscoauratus possesses a synlophe visible only on transversal sections of the body. It is composed of rounded and not pointed ridges. - Oswaldocruzia tcheprakovae n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus altamazonicus is closely related to O. bainae , but the synlophe is present only in the anterior and posterior extremities of the body. - Oswaldocruzia cassonei n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus lanthanites is closely related to O. taranchoni, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1995, a parasite of Bufo marinus from Brazil. It is differentiated by the synlophe and the measurements. - Oswaldocruzia petterae n. sp. parasitizing Leptodactylus pentadactylus is closely related to O. chambrieri, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1993, parasitizing Bufo and Eleutherodactylus in the same region. It is differentiated since, for an equivalent length of the body, the ridges are almost two times fewer and the spicules smaller.

  19. First record of Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda : Anisakidae in fish-eating birds from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoparasites of fish-eating birds, Phalacrocorax africanus, P. carbo, Anhinga melanogaster and Ardea cinerea collected from Lake Chivero near Harare, Zimbabwe, were investigated. Adult Contracaecum spp. were found in the gastrointestinal tract (prevalence 100% in P. africanus, P. carbo and A. melanogaster; 25 % in A. cinerea. Parasite intensity was 11-24 (mean 19 in P. africanus, 4-10 (mean 7 in P. carbo, 4-56 (mean 30 in A. melanogaster and 2 (mean 0.5 in A. cinerea. The cormorants fed mainly on cichlid fishes and carp; the darters and the grey herons on cichlids. All these fishes are intermediate hosts of Contracaecum spp. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Contracaecum rudolphii infected both cormorant species and darters; C. carlislei infected only the cormorants while C. tricuspis and C. microcephalum infected only the darters. Parasites from the grey heron were not identified to species because they were still developing larvae. These parasites are recorded in Zimbabwe for the first time.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the rice white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rice white tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi, a devastating nematode whose genome has not been sequenced, is distributed widely throughout almost all the rice-growing regions of the world. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome of A. besseyi and to identify parasite-related, mortality-related or host resistance-overcoming genes in this nematode. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Solexa/Illumina sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of mixed-stage populations of A. besseyi. A total of 51,270 transcripts without gaps were produced based on high-quality clean reads. Of all the A. besseyi transcripts, 9,132 KEGG Orthology assignments were annotated. Carbohydrate-active enzymes of glycoside hydrolases (GHs, glycosyltransferases (GTs, carbohydrate esterases (CEs and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs were identified. The presence of the A. besseyi GH45 cellulase gene was verified by in situ hybridization. Given that 13 unique A. besseyi potential effector genes were identified from 41 candidate effector homologs, further studies of these homologs are merited. Finally, comparative analyses were conducted between A. besseyi contigs and Caenorhabditis elegans genes to look for orthologs of RNAi phenotypes, neuropeptides and peptidases. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The present results provide comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of A. besseyi. Many of this species' genes are parasite related, nematode mortality-related or necessary to overcome host resistance. The generated transcriptome dataset of A. besseyi reported here lays the foundation for further studies of the molecular mechanisms related to parasitism and facilitates the development of new control strategies for this species.

  1. Experimental infection of reindeer, sheep and goats with Elaphostrongylus spp. (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae from moose and reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarets Stéen

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Six reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, five sheep and six goats (Ovis ovis and Capra hircus were experimentally infected with the nematode Elaphostrongylus alces. Additionally, one sheep was infected with E. rangiferi. Reindeer infected with E. alces showed no neurological signs. Sheep and goats infected with the same parasite also remained clinically healthy; however, the sheep infected with E. rangiferi showed severe neurological signs and became paralysed. Pathological lesions were minimal in reindeer and domestic ruminants infected with E. alces, but were prominent in the lamb infected with E. rangiferi. Our results indicate that keeping and transferring sheep and goats into ateas inhabited by moose, which is a natural host of E. alces may not harm the livestock, while keeping sheep in areas inhabited by reindeer infected with E. rangiferi may result in petiodic outbreaks of cerebrospinal elaphostrongylosis in sheep.

  2. Desiccation tolerance of Muellerius cf. capillaris (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) first-stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A; Ilan, P; Itamar, G

    1998-08-01

    Muellerius cf. capillaris is the most common lung worm of wild Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) in the northern Negev desert, Israel. The capacity of the free-living stages (L1) of the parasite to survive extreme desiccation was tested under 2 different dehydration regimes at 23 C: rapid dehydration through direct exposure to 0% relative humidity (RH), and a slow dehydration regime of preconditioning at 33% RH for 7 days prior to exposure to 0% RH for a further 21 days. In direct exposures to 0% and 33% RH, by day 11 survival rates of L1 were significantly higher than when stored in water and in 97% RH (P 0.1). L1 surviving after 21 days of desiccation at 0% RH were, on the other hand, less infective to T. pisana. The percentage of such postdesiccated L1 reaching infective stage (L3) was, however, the same as that of the control group. The ability of M. cf. capillaris L1 to survive anhydrobiosis and retain infectivity to land snails after extreme desiccation enables their coexistence with the Nubian ibex in desert habitat.

  3. Komunitas Nematoda pada Tanaman Kopi (Coffea Canephora Var. Robusta Muda di Kabupaten Tanggamus Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE SWIBAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Community of Nematode in The Young Coffee ( Coffea Canephora Var. Robusta Crops in Tanggamus District, Lampung. Tanggamus district is one of coffee production center in Lampung province. Since year of 2013, farmers in Tanggamus have been replaced the unproductive old coffee by coffee seed introduced from East Java. Introducing coffe seed from outside area at risk of carrying plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this research was to study community of nematode associated with young coffee crops in Tanggamus. Survey was conducted in coffee robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta fields belonging to farmer on September 2014. Soil samples were collected from three sites: Margo Mulyo, Sumber Rejo and Batu Bedil. Nematodes were extracted by sieving and centrifugation with sugar solution method. The results show that were 20 genera consisted of 9 genera of plant parasitic and 11 genera of free living nematodes associated with young coffee in Tanggamus. The nematode community was dominated by Pratylenchus and Radopholus. The population of Pratylenchus and Radopholus in Sumber Rejo site were 421 and 846 individual per 300 ml of soil respectively. It was needed to indentify up to species taxonomic level for Pratylenchus and Radopholus associated with young coffee in Tanggamus.

  4. Larval spirurida (Nematoda) from the crab Macrophthalmus hirtipes in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Latham, A David M;

    2003-01-01

    Previously undescribed third-stage larvae of two species of Spirurida were found in the haemocoel of the stalk-eyed mud crab Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Heller) (Ocypodidae) in New Zealand. Examinations by light and scanning electron microscopy showed that the larger larvae (about 7 mm long) belonged...... from Papanui Inlet, on Otago Peninsula, South Island, 74 crabs (90.2%) were infected with larval nematodes with an intensity of 1-18 (mean 4.6) nematodes per crab; no distinction between nematode species was made in these estimates, although juvenile Acuariidae greatly outnumbered larval Ascarophis....... Apparently, crabs play a role as intermediate hosts of these nematode species. This is the first record of larval representatives of Cystidicolidae and Acuariidae from invertebrates in the Australasian Region....

  5. Antifilarial activity of Mallotus philippensis Lam. on Setaria cervie (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Singhal, K C; Khan, N U

    1997-10-01

    The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle (n.m.) preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Both the extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and the n.m. preparation of S. Cervi characterized by initial stimulation followed by depression in amplitude. The tone and rate of contractions remained visibly unaffected. Aqueous extract at higher concentration showed immediate reduction in tone. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of n.m. preparation was 1/5th for aqueous and 1/11th for alcoholic extract compared to that for the whole worm, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The stimulatory response of acetylcholine was blocked by aqueous extract on whole worm movements. On the microfilariae the LC50 and LC90 were 18 and 20 ng/ml for aqueous and 12 and 15 ng/ml for alcoholic extracts respectively.

  6. Strongyloides ferreirai sp.n. (Nematoda, Rhabdiasoidea parasito do roedor Kerodon rupestris (Wied. no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de Oliveira Rodrigues

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrita uma nova espécie de nematóide do gênero Strongyloides Grassi, 1879, Strongyloides ferreirai sp.n. parasita do instestino delgado de Kerodon rupestris (Wied. proveniente de Floriano Peixoto, Estado do Piauí. Esta é a primeira referência deste gênero parasitando roedor caviideo no Brasil.Strongyloides ferreirai n.sp. is described and compared to the closely related species S. ratti, S. venezuelensis and S. myopotami, parasites of rodents in Brazil. The description is based on parasitic females, recovered from the small intestine of Kerodon rupestris (Wied. (Caviidae captured in Floriano Peixoto, Piauí State, Brazil.

  7. Comparative study of four species of Trichuris roederer, 1761 (Nematoda, Trichurinae by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinalda Marisa Lanfredti

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative morphological study of Trichuris travassosi, T. vulpis, T. discolor and T. suis was perfomed using scanning electron microscopy. Cuticular inflation associated with the bacillar band, vulva and male external genital appendages were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of these structures were made for each species; they are of taxonomic value.

  8. Phylogeny of Cephalobina (Nematoda): Molecular evidence for recurrent evolution of probolae and incongruence with traditional classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadler, S.A.; Ley, de P.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Smythe, A.B.; Stock, S.P.; Bumbarger, D.; Adams, B.J.; Ley, de I.T.; Holovachov, O.V.; Baldwin, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Nematodes of the suborder Cephalobina include an ecologically and morphologically diverse array of species that range from soil-dwelling microbivores to parasites of vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite a long history of study, certain of these microbivores (Cephaloboidea) present some of the most

  9. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., a New Entomopathogenic Nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Harun; Půža, Vladimír; NermuŤ, JiŘí; Hatting, Justin; Ramakuwela, Tshima; Hazir, Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    A new species of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., was isolated from a maize field in Senekal, Free State Province of South Africa. Morphological and molecular studies indicated the distinctness of S. biddulphi n. sp. from other Steinernema species. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp. is characterized IJs with average body length of 663 μm (606–778 μm), lateral fields with six ridges in mid-body region forming the formula 2,6,2. Excretory pore located anterior to mid-pharynx (D% = 46). Hyaline layer occupies approximately half of tail length. Male spicules slightly to moderately curved, with a sharp tip and golden brown in color. The first generation of males lacking a mucron on the tail tip while the second generation males with a short filamentous mucron. Genital papillae with 11 pairs and one unpaired preanal papilla. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions (D2-D3) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phylogenetic data show that S. biddulphi n. sp. belongs to the “bicornutum” clade within the Steinernematidae family.

  10. Meloidogyne duytsi n. sp. (Nematoda : Heteroderidae), a root- knot nematode from Dutch coastal foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, G.; Van Aelst, A.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne duytsi n. sp., is described and illustrated from Elymus farctus (Viv.) Melderis from Dutch coastal foredunes. This new species is characterized by the following characters: female with styler slightly curved dorsally, 13.3 mu m long, with large transversely ovoid kn

  11. Enhanced growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) in the presence of 4-Nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, Sebastian; Juettner, I.Ingrid; Traunspurger, Walter; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, K.-W.; Steinberg, C.E.W

    2002-12-01

    4-Nonylphenol can enhance growth and reproduction of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed over a whole life-cycle (72 h) to several concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (NP; nominal concentrations: 0-350 {mu}g/l). Growth and reproduction of C. elegans were enhanced at NP concentrations of 66 and 40 {mu}g/l, respectively, with effects showing dose-response relationships. These stimulatory effects might be of ecological relevance in benthic habitats, where organisms can be exposed to high concentrations of NP.

  12. Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp. (Nematoda), a new encapsulated species infecting carnivorous mammals in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokapich, Silvio J; Pozio, Edoardo; Gatti, Graciana M; Prous, Cinthia L Gonzalez; Ribicich, Mabel; Marucci, Gianluca; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Confalonieri, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    Until a few years ago, Trichinella spiralis was the only taxon of the genus Trichinella detected in both domestic and wild animals of South America. Recently, a new genotype, named Trichinella T12, was identified in cougars (Puma concolor) from Argentina, on the basis of molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers. In the present study, cross-breeding experiments indicated that Trichinella T12 is reproductively isolated from all other encapsulated Trichinella spp. and suggested that it is biologically more similar to Trichinella britovi and Trichinella murrelli than to the other encapsulated species/genotypes. Biological assays revealed that the reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 was ~4 and >2000 times lower than those of T. spiralis in mice and rats, respectively. The reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 in domestic pigs ranged from 0.0 to 0.05. Larvae parasitising the muscles of carnivores were infective to mice after freezing at -5°C for 3 months, but they lost infectivity after freezing at -18°C for 1 week. The region within the rDNA, known as the expansion segment V, showed a unique sequence which differs from those of all other known Trichinella spp./genotypes. The biological, geographical and molecular data support the classification of the genotype Trichinella T12 as a new species widespread in the Neotropical region, for which we propose the name Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp.

  13. Species composition and morphology of protostrongylids (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ruminants from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotova-Pencheva, Mariana Stancheva

    2011-10-01

    Lungs of 52 ruminants from different regions of Bulgaria, 16 from goats (Capra aegagrus f. domestica L.), 15 from sheep (Ovis ammon f. domestica L.), 11 from mouflons (Ovis musimon L.), and 10 from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.), were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of small lungworms in these hosts. The obtained results are summarized with those of previous studies, and a picture of the present status of the species composition of protostrongylids in ruminants from Bulgaria is forwarded. Morphometric data about the species Muellerius capillaris, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus brevispiculum, and Protostrongylus rufescens are presented. The data on the morphology of these five species are supplied for the first time both for Bulgaria and the south-east part of the European continent.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and host specificity of the larval Eustrongylides (Nematoda: Dioctophmidae) from freshwater fish in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fan; Li, Wen X; Wu, Shan G; Zou, Hong; Wang, Gui T

    2013-02-01

    The nematodes Eustrongylides spp. collected from different fish species in China were examined for their intra- and interspecific evolutionary variations using the molecular markers mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA regions. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Eustrongylides species are divided into 3 well-supported clades. The ITS divergence between the clades suggested that clades 2 and 3 might represent the same species, whereas clade 1 represent another cryptic species. The host specificity of these nematodes was analyzed according to prevalence data, host range, and phylogenetic information. Clade 1 was found in 4 fish species, i.e., Odontobutis obscurus, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus, and Acanthogobius flavimanus, but was predominant in the 2 perciform species, O. obscurus and A. flavimanus. Clade 2 was found in 3 fish species, Monopterus albus, Channa argus, and Channa asiatica, but was predominant in M. albus, reported to feed primarily on oligochaetes, the first intermediate host of Eustrongylides sp. Clade 3 was found in 9 species, but its low prevalence suggests accidental infection in all species. Although the larval nematode presented low host specificity, it exhibited some host preference.

  15. Efficacy of different treatment regimes against setariosis (Setaria tundra, Nematoda: Filarioidea and associated peritonitis in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieminen Mauri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a severe peritonitis outbreak in semi-domesticated reindeer was noticed in 2003 in Finland, the concerned industry urged immediate preventive actions in order to avoid detrimental effects of S. tundra and further economical losses. A research programme was swiftly initiated to study S. tundra and its impact on the health and wellbeing of reindeer. Methods The ultimate aim of this study was to test the efficacy of different treatment regimes against S. tundra and associated peritonitis in reindeer. The timing of the trials was planned to be compatible with the annual rhythm of the reindeer management; (1 the treatment of calves in midsummer, during routine calf ear marking, with ivermectin injection prophylaxis and deltamethrin pour-on solution as a repellent against insect vectors, (2 the treatment of infected calves in early autumn with ivermectin injection, and (3 ivermectin treatment of breeding reindeer in winter. The results were assessed using the post mortem inspection data and S. tundra detection. Finally, to evaluate on the population level the influence of the annual (late autumn-winter ivermectin treatment of breeding reindeer on the transmission dynamics of S. tundra, a questionnaire survey was conducted. Results In autumn, ivermectin treatment was efficient against peritonitis and in midsummer had a slight negative impact on the degree of peritonitis and positive on the fat layer, but deltamethrin had none. Ivermectin was efficient against adult S. tundra and its smf. All the reindeer herding cooperatives answered the questionnaire and it appeared that antiparasitic treatment of reindeer population was intense during the study period, when 64–90% of the animals were treated. In the southern part of the Finnish reindeer husbandry area, oral administration of ivermectin was commonly used. Conclusion Autumn, and to a lesser degree summer, treatment of reindeer calves with injectable ivermectin resulted in decreased severity of peritonitis and perihepatitis in reindeer calves due to setariosis. In the case of necessity for animal welfare reasons, treatment during early autumn round ups should be considered. On the population level, massive and routinely applied antiparasitic treatments can improve the health of breeding reindeer and decrease the mortality and the number of carriers but during the outbreak could not prevent its movement and expansion to the North.

  16. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensissp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6-8.2 mm) and plump (a=51-72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23-25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42-47 μm, 43-50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136-157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122-145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13-17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d'Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensissp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed.

  17. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Noelia Adelina; Tanzola, Ruben Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province), revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907). This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.

  18. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  19. Mononchoides composticola n. sp. (Nematoda:Diplogastridae) associated with composting processes: morphological, molecular and autecological characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, H.; Moens, T.; Scholaert, A.; Boshoff, M.; Houthoofd, W.; Bert, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mononchoides composticola n. sp. was isolated from compost and is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy, supplemented with SSU rDNA sequence data. It is characterised by the following features: a denticulate ridge in addition to the dorsal claw-like tooth, a small tooth-like swel

  20. One new and three known species of Paratylenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchulidae from Manipur, India

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    M. Pramodini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Three known species of Paratylenchus i.e., P. canchipur, P. lepidus , P. longicaudatus and one new species, Paratylenchus thysanolus, are reported from Manipur, India with descriptions and illustrations.

  1. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  2. Introducing Alphitobius Diaperinus, (Insecta: Tenebrionidae as a New Intermediate Host of Hadjelia Truncata (Nematoda

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    A Rahbar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hadjelia truncata is a nematode that causes lesions in the gizzard lining of pigeons, which may even lead to death. The aim of this study was to introduce Alphitobius diaperinus as a new intermediate host for Hadjelia truncata. Methods: H. truncata infection was identified in a pigeon flock in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Iran by performing fecal examination and autopsy. Adult and larval stages of beetles were collected from the litter of pigeon houses, and identified morphologically. The beetle larvae were cultured in a medium, containing feces of the infected pigeons. Nematode larval stages from naturally and experimentally (culturally infected adult beetles were fed to two groups of pigeons.Results: The collected beetles were identified as Alphitobius diaperinus. Average length and width of the adult beetles were 6.31 mm and 2.88 mm respectively. Infection rates of naturally and experimentally infected beetles with larval stages of the nematode were 66.2% and 45.1% respectively. The adult nematodes collected from gizzards of experimentally infected pigeons were identified as H. truncata. Nematode infection rates in pigeons after feeding the infective larvae collected from naturally and experimentally infected beetles were 44.7% and 32.5 % respectively.Conclusion: A. diaperinus can serve as a natural intermediate host for H. truncata.

  3. Description of Meloidogyne panyuensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), parasitic on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, J.; Yang, W.; Feng, Z.; Karssen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Meloidogyne panyuensis n.sp. is described and illustrated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., in Guangdong, P.R.China. It is characterized by: female stylet of 13 mu m length, DGO of 10 mu m; perineal pattern ovoid to oval shaped, smooth to moderately coarse striae, dorsal arch relatively low, lateral

  4. Redescription of Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes (nematoda, metastrongyloidea from a brazilian strain

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    Silvana C Thiengo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric data on larval and adult specimens of Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes, 1971 recovered from Swiss albino mice experimentally infected is presented. Infective larvae were obtained from parasitized veronicellid Sarasinula margínala (Semper, 1885 maintained in the laboratory. This is the first complete morphometric study regarding specimens of a Brazilian strain of A. (P. costaricensis.

  5. Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 (Nematoda, Camallanoidea in ornamental aquarium fishes: pathology and morphology

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    Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathology induced by the nematode Camallanus cotti in the aquarium fishes Beta splendens (beta fish and Poecilia reticulata (guppy consisted of gross and microscopic lesions, the former characterized by abdominal swelling with reddish parasites protruding from the anus in both fish hosts and the latter, similar in the beta fishes and guppies, by hemorrhage, congestion, edema, a few glandular elements, and extensive erosion areas in the rectum mucosa, with a marked thickening of the wall and absence of inflammatory infiltrate. Lesions were associated with the presence of several worms attached to the wall or free in the rectal lumen. This is the second reference of the parasite in Brazil and the first report of pathological findings related to this nematode species that is also briefly redescribed and illustrated for the first time on the basis of Brazilian samples.

  6. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Pedraza, S N

    2004-08-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were concentrated in the small intestine. Transmammary transmission is assumed because only adult hookworms were found in the pups. The mean intensity of hookworms per pup was 135; the mean intensity in females (92.78) was significantly different (P 0.05) in intensity was found between the 2 breeding areas, although prevalence was higher in the traditional breeding area than in the other area. Location was the only factor affecting hookworm prevalence (P log-linear model: 0.9552; chi2: 1.5629). No apparent trend between body condition and intensity of hookworms was observed.

  7. Two new species in the genus Cucullanus (Nematoda - Cucullanidae from the australian region

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    A. J. Petter

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Cucullanus are described: C. bourdini n. sp. and C. laurotravassosi n. sp. C. bourdini is a parasite of Pristipomoides filamentosus , Aprion virescens and P. flavipinnis (Lutjanidae in New Caledonia. The species is closely related to C. amadai, C. bulbosus and C. hians by the disposition of the post-and ad-cloacal papille but differs by the more posterior position of the deirids. C. laurotravassosi n. sp., a parasite of Arius sp. in Australia, is close to C. bagre but can be distinguished by the more posterior position of post-cloacal papillae.

  8. Two new species in the genus Cucullanus (Nematoda - Cucullanidae) from the australian region

    OpenAIRE

    Petter,A. J.; Le Bel,J.

    1992-01-01

    Two new species of Cucullanus are described: C. bourdini n. sp. and C. laurotravassosi n. sp. C. bourdini is a parasite of Pristipomoides filamentosus , Aprion virescens and P. flavipinnis (Lutjanidae) in New Caledonia. The species is closely related to C. amadai, C. bulbosus and C. hians by the disposition of the post-and ad-cloacal papille but differs by the more posterior position of the deirids. C. laurotravassosi n. sp., a parasite of Arius sp. in Australia, is close to C. bagre but can ...

  9. Two species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from serranid fishes off New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Moravec, F.; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2005-01-01

    Two nematode species of the genus Philometra Costa, 1845, P. ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002 (gravid and nongravid females) and P. lateolabracis (Yamaguti, 1935) (males and nongravid females), were recorded from the ocular cavity and ovaries, respectively, of serranid fishes (Serranidae, Perciformes) off New Caledonia, South Pacific. The gravid female of P. ocularis was found to attain a body length up to 96 mm, (as compared to 59 mm in the original description). The ...

  10. Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris lanfrediae sp. nov. (Nematoda: Anisakidae from the fish Satanoperca jurupari (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

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    Marly de Fátima Carvalho de Melo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris lanfrediae sp. nov. is described from the intestine of the freshwater fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel (Cichlidae from the Guamá River, state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence in fish (n = 59 was 27% with intensity of one-124 (mean 16 nematodes per fish. The new species is characterized mainly by the markedly larger size of ventricular appendix in relation to the oesophagus, presence of short male caudal alae, 14-16 subventral pairs of preanal papillae and six pairs of postanal papillae.

  11. Biological control of cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) with nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2011-01-10

    Horses are hosts to a wide variety of helminthes; the most important are the cyathostomin, or small strongyles. The viability of a fungal formulation (pellets) using the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium was assessed in biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control) consisted of six mares in each group, crossbred (ages of 2.5 and 3.5 years), were placed in pastures of Cynodon sp. naturally infected with horse cyathostomin larvae. In the treated group, each animal received 1g/10 kg body weight (0.2g/10 kg live weight of fungus) of pellets of sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus M. thaumasium orally, twice a week for 6 months. In the control group, animals received (1g/10 kg body weight) of pellets without fungus. The egg count per gram of feces showed difference (pcontrol animals during all months of the experiment. The EPG percentage decrease were 87.5%, 89.7%, 68.3%, 58.7%, 52.5% and 35.2% during June, July, August, September, October and November, respectively. In faecal cultures, there was difference (pcontrol animals during all the experiment month, with percentage reduction of 67.5%, 61.4% and 31.8% in September, October and November, respectively. Difference (pcontrol group with a reduction of 60.9% and between 0-20 and 0-40 cm from the faecal pat reduction (pcontrol group pasture. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the average weight gains in both animal groups. The treatment of horses with pellets containing the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium can be effective in controlling cyathostomin in the tropical region of southeastern Brazil.

  12. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-09-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes.

  13. Poly(T) variation within mitochondrial protein-coding genes in Globodera (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepsamen, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Phillips, Mark; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2008-03-01

    We sequenced a mitochondrial subgenome from the nematode Globodera rostochiensis, in two overlapping pieces. The subgenome was 9210 bp and contained four protein-coding genes (ND4, COIII, ND3, Cytb) and two tRNA genes (tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Gln)). Genome organization was similar to that of Globodera pallida, which is multipartite. Together with the small number of genes on this subgenome, this suggests that the mitochondrial genome of G. rostochiensis is also multipartite. In the initial clones sequenced, COIII and ND3 were full-length, while ND4 and Cytb were interrupted by premature stop codons and contained point indels that disrupted the reading frame. However, sequencing of multiple clones, from DNA extracted both from multiple individuals and from single cysts, revealed a predominant source of variation-in the length of polythymidine tracts. Comparison of our genomic sequences with ESTs similarly revealed variation in the length of polythymidine tracts. We subsequently sequenced both genomic DNA and mRNA from populations of G. pallida. In each case, variation in the length of polythymidine tracts was observed. The levels of expression of mitochondrial genes in G. pallida were representative of the subgenomes present: little evidence of differential expression was observed. These observations are consistent with the operation of posttranscriptional editing in Globodera mitochondria, although this is difficult to show conclusively in the presence of intraindividual gene sequence variation. Further, alternative explanations cannot be discounted; these include the operation of slippage during translation or that genomic copies of most genes are pseudogenes with a small proportion of full-length sequences able to maintain mitochondrial function.

  14. Cerviconema cygneum and Papuadorus amplus, two new genera and species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida from high altitude regions

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    Andrássy, I.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of dorylaimid nematodes each representing a new genus are described and illustrated. Cerviconema gen. n., with C. cygneum sp. n. from Bolivia as type, belongs to the family Paraxonchiidae and is characterized by the strongly tapered neck, small head, simple and medium-long odontostyle, short cylindrus, paired gonads, transverse vulva and conoid tail. Papuadorus gen. n., with P. amplus sp. n. from Papua New Guinea as type, belongs to the family Nordiidae and can be characterized by the long and slender odontostyle, rod-like odontophore, amphidelphic genital organ, longitudinal vulva, great number of contiguous supplements and conoid tail.

  15. Pesticide toxicity and selection for the pine wood nematode%杀灭松材线虫的高效药物筛选与毒性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来燕学; 池树友; 王亚红; 张毅丰; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    为筛选出对松材线虫Bursaphelenchus xylophius具有高效快速杀灭作用的药物,采用线虫悬浮液+农药的直接触杀法,选择了22种药物处理松材线虫1 h,测定了对松材线虫的半致死浓度(LC50).结果表明:不同药物对松材线虫表现出不同的杀灭作用,供试的22种药物中,甲基阿维菌素(甲维盐)杀灭效果最好,1 h半致死浓度仅为03 mg·L-1;杀螟丹效果最差,1 h半致死浓度达21 053 mg·L-1.另外,苦参碱、抑太保、溴氰菊酯和阿维菌素等4种药物对松材线虫具有很强的毒杀作用,其1 h半致死浓度分别为1.2,2.5,4.2和4.5 mg·L-1.甲维盐和阿维菌素能高效快速杀灭松材线虫;这些对松材线虫高效敏感药物的筛选成功,为开发树干注射剂防治松材线虫病提供了基础.%To determine highly toxic and fast-acting pesticides to combat the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), a toxicity test of 22 kinds of pesticide used against the pine wood nematode (PWN) was conducted using a PWN suspension liquid plus pesticide with a processing time of 1 h to determine a median lethal concentration (LC50) for each pesticide.Results showed that the LC50 after a 1 h treatment was best with emamectin (0.3 mg·L-1) and worst with cartap (21.053 g·L-1).In addition, four kinds of pesticide revealed acute activity toward the pine wood nematode with an LC50 after 1 h treatment of: matrin (1.2 mg·L-1), chlorfluazuron (2.5 mg·L-1), deltamethrin (4.2 mg·L-1), and abamectin (4.5 mg·L-1).This meant that emamectin and abamectin could quickly and efficiently kill PWN, and the selected pesticides with acute activity to PWN could be used to develop a trunk injection against pine wilt disease.

  16. The Nematicidal Spectrum of Bio-nematicides from Filamentous Fungus Sr18%Sr18生防制剂的杀线虫谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 田阳; 高丙利; 孙建华

    2012-01-01

    为检测Sr18生防制剂的杀线虫谱,通过室内法测定了Sr18的4种不同调配制剂S01-S04对南方根结线虫、大豆孢囊线虫和松材线虫的作用效果.结果表明:4种生防调配制剂对南方根结线虫的致死效果最强,稀释至8倍的校正死亡率均达到100%;对大豆孢囊线虫,生防制剂S01和S03(原始pH制剂)16倍稀释液的校正死亡率均可达到85%以上;而对松材线虫的致死率高的是S02和S04(中性pH制剂),8倍稀释液仍可达到100%.实验证实Sr18生防制剂是一种有效的广谱生物源杀线剂,在重要植物寄生线虫病害的生物防治方面具有广阔的应用前景.%For finding out the nematicidal spectrum of bio-nematicides from filamentous fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Sr18), in-vitro methods were developed to test the four different preparations of bio-nematicides, S01-S04, affecting nematode mobility of three nematodes including root knot nematode (RKN), soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and pine wood nematode (PWN). A serious of acute toxicity tests exhibited that the bio-nematicides were effective strongly to RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, and all of 8x diluted concentrations had corrected mortality of 100% differing from CK significantly; to SCN, Heterodera glycines, 16xdilution of S01 and S03 (the two nematicides with original pH) had corrected mortality of above 85%; on the contrary with SCN, S02 and S04 (the two neutral samples) had high nematicidal effects on PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, 100% corrected mortality from original concentrations to those at 8 x diluted. Bio-nematicides from Srl8 showed good effects on the three species of nematodes which had effective broad-spectrum biological nematicides, and would had the widespread application of several major plant-parasitic nematodes.

  17. Characterization of resistance to pine wood nematode infection in Pinus thunbergii using suppression subtractive hybridization

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    Hirao Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens pine forests and forest ecosystems worldwide and causes serious economic losses. In the 40 years since the pathogen was identified, the physiological changes occurring as the disease progresses have been characterized using anatomical and biochemical methods, and resistant trees have been selected via breeding programs. However, no studies have assessed the molecular genetics, e.g. transcriptional changes, associated with infection-induced physiological changes in resistant or susceptible trees. Results We constructed seven subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH cDNA libraries using time-course sampling of trees inoculated with pine wood nematode at 1, 3, or 7 days post-inoculation (dpi in susceptible trees and at 1, 3, 7, or 14 dpi in resistant trees. A total of 3,299 sequences was obtained from these cDNA libraries, including from 138 to 315 non-redundant sequences in susceptible SSH libraries and from 351 to 435 in resistant SSH libraries. Using Gene Ontology hierarchy, those non-redundant sequences were classified into 15 subcategories of the biological process Gene Ontology category and 17 subcategories of the molecular function category. The transcriptional components revealed by the Gene Ontology classification clearly differed between resistant and susceptible libraries. Some transcripts were discriminative: expression of antimicrobial peptide and putative pathogenesis-related genes (e.g., PR-1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was much higher in susceptible trees than in resistant trees at every time point, whereas expression of PR-9, PR-10, and cell wall-related genes (e.g., for hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein precursor and extensin was higher in resistant trees than in susceptible trees at 7 and 14 dpi. Conclusions Following inoculation with pine wood nematode, there were marked differences between resistant and susceptible trees

  18. 苍山斜阳峰火烧迹地捕食线虫真菌资源调查%Investigation on Nematode-trapping Fungi in Burned Areas of Xieyang Peak in Cangshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云霞; 杨晓燕; 苏鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the nematode-trapping fungi in burned areas of Xieyang Peak in Cangshan Mountain. [Method] Total 480 soil samples were collected from rhizosphere soil of armand pine and Yunnan pine of 6 burned areas of Xieyang Peak in Cangshan Mountain. Nematode-trapping fungi in soil samples were isolated by the method of baited plates and identified. [ Result] Total 79 strains were i-solated, and they were 6 species belonged to 2 genera. The nematode-trapping fungi were the most widely distributed in burned area of Atoyama of General's cave, and 80 soil samples were totally detected for 17 times. Among 6 burned areas, A. oligospora had the highest detection rate, with 4.79% ; next came A. musifomis and M. ellipasosperum, with detection rales of 3.96% and 3.75% , respectively. [ Conclusion ] The research accumulates strain resources for the biological control of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.%[目的]研究苍山斜阳峰火烧迹地捕食线虫真菌.[方法]从云南大理苍山地区斜阳峰6块火烧迹地的华山松、云南松松树根际土共采集了480份土样,采用诱饵平板法对土样中捕食线虫真菌资源进行分离并对其进行了鉴定.[结果]共分离出79株菌株,经鉴定有2个属6个种.捕食线虫真菌在将军洞后山火烧迹地分布最广,80份土样共计检出17次.6块火烧迹地中,少孢节丛孢(A.oligospora)的检出率最高,为4.79%;其次是弯孢节丛孢(A.musifomis)和椭圆单顶孢(M.ellipososporum),检出率分别为3.96%和3.75%.[结论]为松材线虫的生物防治积累了菌种资源.

  19. Helminth parasites of Caspian kilka (genus Clupeonella) as bioindicators of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayoumi, Razieh

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, intestinal helminth parasite fauna of 398 specimens of three species of kilkas, C. engrauliformis (N= 92), C. grimmi (N= 136) and C. cultriventris (N= 170) from Babolsar harbor were investigated. Five parasite species were found including: Corynosoma strumosum (Acanthocephala), Pronoprymna ventricosa (Trematoda), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Raphidascaris sp. (Nematoda) and Anisakis sp. (Nematoda). The highest prevalence and abundance were observed...

  20. A new species of Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae from the lungs of a nine-banded armadillo in Central Mexico Especie nueva de Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae de los pulmones de un armadillo del centro de México

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    F. Agustín Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four worms were collected from the bronchioles in both lungs of a male nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 captured in Teacalco, Morelos, Mexico. The worms, herein named Metathelazia mexicana n. sp., show a constriction in the esophagus at the level of the nerve ring; males of the species have 7 pairs of papillae, fewer than the other species in the genus. Metathelazia capsulata is the most similar species to Metathelazia mexicana; however, the latter has much shorter spicules. This is the fourth species in the genus known to occur in the New World.Se recolectó un total de 24 nemátodos de las cavidades bronquiales de un armadillo de 9 bandas Dasypus novemcinctus Lineo, 1758 en la localidad de Teacalco, Morelos, México. Los nemátodos, descritos con el nombre Metathelazia mexicana, muestran una constricción en el esófago al nivel del anillo nervioso y 7 pares de papilas caudales en los machos, número que es menor al observado en las otras especies del género. Metathelazia mexicana es semejante a Metathelazia capsulata en varios rasgos morfológicos pero difiere en el tamaño de las espículas, que son más cortas en la especie aquí descrita. Esta es la cuarta especie del género registrada en el continente americano.

  1. Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina

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    Mirna C Oviedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.

  2. Experimental infection in Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida with larvae of Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae Infecção experimental em Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida com larvas de Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae

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    M.L. Martins

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial registered the experimental infection viability with nematode larvae Camallanus sp. in Notodiaptomus sp., a crustacean, which can be an intermediate host. Adult females of nematode were dissected from the intestines of Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, at a fish farm in the State of São Paulo. Females were slightly compressed for larvae release, collected with Pasteur pipette and separated on Petri dishes with 9ml filtered water at 28.1ºC, from zooplankton culture. Treatments consisted of Petri dishes with 60 and 105 copepods, in which 120, 150 and 210 larvae of nematode were added in four replications. Twenty-four and 36h after exposition to the larvae, the copepods were fixed in 70% alcohol to record the amount of fixed larvae. Twenty four hours after exposition, 60 copepods group with 120 larvae showed significantly higher prevalence (46.5% when compared to 105 copepods and 120 larvae (33.2%. Thus, these answers suggested that 120 larvae were enough for a successful infectivity. Experimental infection was available and so, it was used as a pattern to life cycle studies of camallanid nematodes and hosts susceptibility tests.A viabilidade da infecção experimental com larvas do nematóide Camallanus sp. em Notodiaptomus sp., crustáceo com potencial para hospedeiro intermediário foi avaliada. Fêmeas adultas do nematóide foram extraídas de Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, provenientes de piscicultura de peixes ornamentais no estado de São Paulo. As fêmeas foram ligeiramente pressionadas para liberar as larvas, coletadas com pipeta Pasteur e separadas em placas de Petri contendo 9ml de água filtrada a 28,1ºC do próprio cultivo de zooplâncton. Os tratamentos consistiram de placas contendo 60 e 105 copépodes onde se adicionou 120, 150 e 210 larvas de nematóides em quatro repetições. Nos tempos de 24 e 36h após a exposição às larvas, os copépodes foram fixados em álcool 70% para quantificação de larvas. Após 24h de exposição, o grupo com 60 copépodes na presença de 120 larvas apresentou maior prevalência (46,5% do que 105 copépodes com 120 larvas (33,2%. Sugere-se que 120 larvas foram suficientes para o sucesso da infecção. A infecção experimental mostrou-se viável, servindo de modelo para o estudo do ciclo de vida de camalanídeos e testes de susceptibilidade de hospedeiros.

  3. Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parasite of Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parásito de Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE FALCÓN-ORDAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the revision of the type material of Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier & Mehra, 1959, and new specimens collected from Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, in Veracruz, Mexico, we herein to which A. ackerti is transferred as Lamotheoxyuris ackerti This new genus differs from all other genera included in 1 mouth surrounded by six lips; 2 extension of lateral alae describe a new genus (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., (Kruidener & Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Heteroxynematinae by the following main traits: reduced; and 3 lack of caudal alae.Con base en la revisión del material tipo de Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier y Mehra, 1959 y de nuevos ejemplares recolectados en Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, en Veracruz, México, se describe un nuevo género (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., al que A. ackerti es transferido como Lamotheoxyuris ackerti (Kruidener y Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Este nuevo género se distingue de todos los demás géneros incluidos en Heteroxynematinae por las siguientes características: 1 presencia de seis labios rodeando la boca; 2 extensión reducida del ala lateral; y 3 carencia de ala caudal.

  4. Morphological variability and molecular identification of Uncinaria spp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from grizzly and black bears: new species or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; van Paridon, Bradley; Pagan, Christopher A; Wasmuth, James D; Tizzani, Paolo; Duignan, Pádraig J; Nadler, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    The hookworms Uncinaria rauschi Olsen, 1968 and Uncinaria yukonensis ( Wolfgang, 1956 ) were formally described from grizzly ( Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears ( Ursus americanus ) of North America. We analyzed the intestinal tracts of 4 grizzly and 9 black bears from Alberta and British Columbia, Canada and isolated Uncinaria specimens with anatomical traits never previously documented. We applied morphological and molecular techniques to investigate the taxonomy and phylogeny of these Uncinaria parasites. The morphological analysis supported polymorphism at the vulvar region for females of both U. rauschi and U. yukonensis. The hypothesis of morphological plasticity for U. rauschi and U. yukonensis was confirmed by genetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Two distinct genotypes were identified, differing at 5 fixed sites for ITS-1 (432 base pairs [bp]) and 7 for ITS-2 (274 bp). Morphometric data for U. rauschi revealed host-related size differences: adult U. rauschi were significantly larger in black bears than in grizzly bears. Interpretation of these results, considering the historical biogeography of North American bears, suggests a relatively recent host-switching event of U. rauschi from black bears to grizzly bears which likely occurred after the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Phylogenetic maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of the concatenated ITS-1 and ITS-2 datasets strongly supported monophyly of U. rauschi and U. yukonensis and their close relationship with Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884), the latter a parasite primarily of canids and felids. Relationships among species within this group, although resolved by ML, were unsupported by MP and bootstrap resampling. The clade of U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala was recovered as sister to the clade represented by Uncinaria spp. from otariid pinnipeds. These results support the absence of strict host-parasite co-phylogeny for Uncinaria spp. and their carnivore hosts. Phylogenetic relationships among Uncinaria spp. provided a framework to develop the hypothesis of similar transmission patterns for the closely related U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala.

  5. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  6. Species discovery and diversity in Lobocriconema (Criconematidae: Nematoda) and related plant-parasitic nematodes from North American ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Olson, S; Lodema, M; Matczyszyn, J; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2016-03-03

    There are many nematode species that, following formal description, are seldom mentioned again in the scientific literature. Lobocriconema thornei and L. incrassatum are two such species, described from North American forests, respectively 37 and 49 years ago. In the course of a 3-year nematode biodiversity survey of North American ecoregions, specimens resembling Lobocriconema species appeared in soil samples from both grassland and forested sites. Using a combination of molecular and morphological analyses, together with a set of species delimitation approaches, we have expanded the known range of these species, added to the species descriptions, and discovered a related group of species that form a monophyletic group with the two described species. In this study, 148 specimens potentially belonging to the genus Lobocriconema were isolated from soil, individually measured, digitally imaged, and DNA barcoded using a 721 bp region of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI). One-third of the specimens were also analyzed using amplified DNA from the 3' region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18SrDNA) and the adjacent first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Eighteen mitochondrial haplotype groups, falling into four major clades, were identified by well-supported nodes in Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and recognized as distinct lineages by species delimitation metrics. Discriminant function analysis of a set of morphological characters indicated that the major clades in the dataset possessed a strong morphological signal that decreased in comparisons of haplotype groups within clades. Evidence of biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns was apparent in the dataset. COI haplotype diversity was high in the southern Appalachian Mountains and Gulf Coast states and lessened in northern temperate forests. Lobocriconema distribution suggests the existence of phylogeographic patterns associated with recolonization of formerly glaciated regions by eastern deciduous forest, but definitive glacial refugia for this group of plant parasitic nematodes have yet to be identified. Unlike agricultural pest species of plant-parasitic nematodes, there is little evidence of long-distance dispersal in Lobocriconema as revealed by haplotype distribution. Most haplotype groups were characterized by low levels of intragroup genetic variation and large genetic distances between haplotype groups. The localization of nematode haplotypes together with their characteristic plant communities could provide insight into the historical formation of these belowground biotic communities.

  7. Mitochondrial genomes of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. incognita (Nematoda: Tylenchina): comparative analysis, gene order and phylogenetic relationships with other nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys-Pereira, Danny A; Elling, Axel A

    2014-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important plant pathogens. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the root-knot nematodes, M. chitwoodi and M. incognita were sequenced. PCR analyses suggest that both mt genomes are circular, with an estimated size of 19.7 and 18.6-19.1kb, respectively. The mt genomes each contain a large non-coding region with tandem repeats and the control region. The mt gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita is unlike that of other nematodes. Sequence alignments of the two Meloidogyne mt genomes showed three translocations; two in transfer RNAs and one in cox2. Compared with other nematode mt genomes, the gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita was most similar to Pratylenchus vulnus. Phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference) were conducted using 78 complete mt genomes of diverse nematode species. Analyses based on nucleotides and amino acids of the 12 protein-coding mt genes showed strong support for the monophyly of class Chromadorea, but only amino acid-based analyses supported the monophyly of class Enoplea. The suborder Spirurina was not monophyletic in any of the phylogenetic analyses, contradicting the Clade III model, which groups Ascaridomorpha, Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Importantly, comparisons of mt gene arrangement and tree-based methods placed Meloidogyne as sister taxa of Pratylenchus, a migratory plant endoparasitic nematode, and not with the sedentary endoparasitic Heterodera. Thus, comparative analyses of mt genomes suggest that sedentary endoparasitism in Meloidogyne and Heterodera is based on convergent evolution.

  8. Some nematodes of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitising amphibians in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; du Preez, Louis H; Junker, Kerstin

    2015-06-04

    Based on material collected from Rhinella cf. margaritifera (Laurenti) and Rhi. marina (Linnaeus) (Anura: Bufonidae) during a parasite survey of the herpetofauna of French Guiana, updated descriptions of Rhabdias androgyna Kloss, 1971 and R. fuelleborni Travassos, 1926 are presented. In addition to metrical data, which may overlap in closely related species, emphasis is placed on qualitative characters. Rhabdias androgyna is distinguished by the unique presence of an outer and inner cephalic cuticular inflation, a shoulder-like broadening of the body at the anterior end, a wide and shallow buccal capsule (average buccal ratio 0.36) with serrated lumen in apical view, a prominent anterior dilatation of the oesophagus, and the presence of an additional posterior dilatation anterior to the oesophageal bulb. Characters that may help to differentiate R. fuelleborni from closely related species parasitising the Rhi. marina species group are the presence of six relatively uniform lips, and the division of the buccal capsule into an anterior and posterior segment, with differently structured walls. Both the presence of R. androgyna and R. fuelleborni in French Guiana constitute new geographic records. A single specimen of Rhabdias sp. is described from Pristimantis chiastonotus (Lynch et Hoegmood) (Anura: Craugastoridae). This species differs from all its Neotropical congeners by the distinct globular swelling of its head, similar to that seen in only one Palaearctic and one Afrotropical Rhabdias species. A list of species of Rhabdias parasitising amphibians in the Netropical Realm is also provided.

  9. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Comesomatidae (Nematoda: Araeolaimida) from coast of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-24

    Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given.

  10. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  11. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from olive orchards in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Francesca; Lazarova, Stela; Troccoli, Alberto; Vovlas, Nicola; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    A population of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 originating from olive orchards in Brindisi, Italy and containing both adults and all juvenile stages, is described and illustrated. The first juvenile stage is reported for the first time. Molecular characterisation of this species, using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rDNA and ITS region, was carried out. PCR-RFLP analyses of the ribosomal gene regions determined species-specific patterns that clearly differentiate X. macroacanthum. Sequences of the D2-D3 domains and the partial 18S-ITS1 rRNA genes were analysed using several methods for inferring phylogeny to reconstruct the relationships between X. macroacanthum and other Xiphinema species.

  12. Phylogenetic Relationships and Genetic Variation in Longidorus and Xiphinema Species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) Using ITS1 Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Szalanski, Allen L; Robbins, R T

    2004-03-01

    Genetic analyses using DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 were conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation within and among Longidorus and Xiphinema species. DNA sequences were obtained from samples collected from Arkansas, California and Australia as well as 4 Xiphinema DNA sequences from GenBank. The sequences of the ITS1 region including the 3' end of the 18S rDNA gene and the 5' end of the 5.8S rDNA gene ranged from 1020 bp to 1244 bp for the 9 Longidorus species, and from 870 bp to 1354 bp for the 7 Xiphinema species. Nucleotide frequencies were: A = 25.5%, C = 21.0%, G = 26.4%, and T = 27.1%. Genetic variation between the two genera had a maximum divergence of 38.6% between X. chambersi and L. crassus. Genetic variation among Xiphinema species ranged from 3.8% between X. diversicaudatum and X. bakeri to 29.9% between X. chambersi and X. italiae. Within Longidorus, genetic variation ranged from 8.9% between L. crassus and L. grandis to 32.4% between L. fragilis and L. diadecturus. Intraspecific genetic variation in X. americanum sensu lato ranged from 0.3% to 1.9%, while genetic variation in L. diadecturus had 0.8% and L. biformis ranged from 0.6% to 10.9%. Identical sequences were obtained between the two populations of L. grandis, and between the two populations of X. bakeri. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS1 DNA sequence data were conducted on each genus separately using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Among the Longidorus taxa, 4 subgroups are supported: L. grandis, L. crassus, and L. elongatus are in one cluster; L. biformis and L. paralongicaudatus are in a second cluster; L. fragilis and L. breviannulatus are in a third cluster; and L. diadecturus is in a fourth cluster. Among the Xiphinema taxa, 3 subgroups are supported: X. americanum with X. chambersi, X. bakeri with X. diversicaudatum, and X. italiae and X. vuittenezi forming a sister group with X. index. The relationships observed in this study correspond to previous genera and species defined by morphology.

  13. Description of Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Rasbora paviana Tirant in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2012-09-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish (sidestripe rasbora) Rasbora paviana Tirant in the Bangbaimai Subdistrict, Muang District, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. It differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 which possess eggs provided with lateral swellings in having a spinose formation at the tail tip of both sexes and in some other morphological features, such as the body length of gravid female (8.6-23.7 mm), presence of two-three swellings on the egg, eight anterior prostomal teeth, length ratio of spicules (1:5.3-6.7) and arrangement of male genital papillae. This is the third nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 and the second species of the subgenus Globochona reported from fishes in Thailand. The three species of Rhabdochona recently described from fishes in Pakistan, viz. R. annai Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, R. bifurcatum [sic] Kakar et Bilqees, 2012, and R. pakistanica Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, are considered to be species inquirendae.

  14. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2013-04-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. It is mainly characterized by medium-sized, bifurcate deirids, the presence of 14 anterior prostomal teeth and distinct basal teeth, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of esophagus (1:6-9), length of the left spicule (669-774 μm), absence of a dorsal barb on the right spicule, length ratio of spicules (1:4.9-6.0), arrangement of genital papillae, and smooth eggs without filaments or swellings. In addition, specifically unidentified fourth-stage larvae of Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sp., morphologically similar to R. hypsibarbi, were recorded from the red-tailed tinfoil Barbonymus altus (Günther) (Cyprinidae) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. Rhabdochona hypsibarbi is the fourth nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 reported from fishes in Thailand and the second species of the nominotypical subgenus found in this country.

  15. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

  16. Alteraciones histológicas en el intestino delgado en Tupinambis rufescens (Sauria: Teiidae causadas por Diaphanocephalus galestus (Nematoda: Diaphanocephalidae

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    Spinelli, C. Mónica

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological changes in the gut of the lizard T. rufescens due to the parasitic worm D. galeatus are described here. Superficial damage of the mucosae due to mechanical action of bucal capsule, without involving deeper layers; their implication in the metabolism and immunity of the host.

  17. The systematic position of some ethiopian nippostrongylinae (nematoda, trichostrongylina, heligmosomoidea) from the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.-C. Durette-Desset; M.-C. Digiani

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomic status of some nippostrongyline nematodes deposited in the National Collection ofAnimal Helminths, Onderstepoort, is revised. Heligmonina boomkeri n. sp. is described from Aethomys chrysophilus from South Africa. The most closely related species by the body measurementsand the pattern of the caudal bursa is Heligmonina bignonensis Diouf, Bâ & Durette-Desset, 1997, a parasite of Mastomys erythroleucus from Senegal. It differs from the new species mainly in thenumber o...

  18. The systematic position of some Ethiopian Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Heligmosomoidea) from the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Digiani, M C

    2005-03-01

    The taxonomic status of some nippostrongyline nematodes deposited in the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, is revised. Heligmonina boomkeri n. sp. is described from Aethomys chrysophilus from South Africa. The most closely related species by the body measurements and the pattern of the caudal bursa is Heligmonina bignonensis Diouf, Bâ & Durette-Desset, 1997, a parasite of Mastomys erythroleucus from Senegal. It differs from the new species mainly in the number of ventral cuticular ridges at mid-body (four versus five) and the left ala in the male is shorter than the body diameter. The systematic position of Heligmonina spira (Ortlepp, 1939) and Neoheligmonella capensis (Ortlepp, 1939) is confirmed here through their synlophe, which was not previously studied.

  19. The systematic position of some Ethiopian Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Heligmosomoidea from the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, South Africa

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    M.-C. Durette-Desset

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of some nippostrongyline nematodes deposited in the National Collection ofAnimal Helminths, Onderstepoort, is revised. Heligmonina boomkeri n. sp. is described from Aethomys chrysophilus from South Africa. The most closely related species by the body measurementsand the pattern of the caudal bursa is Heligmonina bignonensis Diouf, Bâ & Durette-Desset, 1997, a parasite of Mastomys erythroleucus from Senegal. It differs from the new species mainly in thenumber of ventral cuticular ridges at mid-body (four versus five and the left ala in the male is shorterthan the body diameter. The systematic position of Heligmonina spira (Ortlepp, 1939 and Neoheligmonella capensis (Ortlepp, 1939 is confirmed here through their synlophe, which was not previously studied.

  20. Description of a new species of Paracrobeles Heyns, 1968 (Nematoda, Rhabditida, Cephalobidae from Kelso Dunes, Mojave National Preserve, California, USA

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    Sven Boström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Paracrobeles, P. kelsodunensis sp. nov. is described from the Kelso Dunes area, Mojave National Preserve, southern California. Paracrobeles kelsodunensis sp. nov. is particularly characterised by a body length of 469–626 μm in females and 463–569 μm in males; lateral field with four incisures, extending almost to tail terminus; three pairs of asymmetrical lips, separated by U-shaped primary axils with two long guarding processes, each lip usually with four tines along its margin; three long labial probolae, deeply bifurcated, with slender prongs without tines; metastegostom with a strong anteriorly directed dorsal tooth; pharyngeal corpus anteriorly spindle-shaped, posteriorly elongate bulbous with dilated lumen; spermatheca 24–87 μm long; postvulval uterine sac 60–133 μm long; vulva in a sunken area; spicules 33–38 μm long; and male tail with a 5–8 μm long mucro. The generic diagnosis is emended on the basis of recently described species and a key to the species of Paracrobeles is provided.

  1. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

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    Moravec František

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae, from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm, broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  2. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria maricaensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Capillariidae and remarks on the helminthological fauna of Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Lacertilia, Iguanidae

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    H. de Oliveira Rodrigues

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyicapillaria maricaensis n. sp. is described from the small intestine of the lizard, Liolaemus lutzae Meterns, 1938, collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro Brazil. The author compares the new species with Capillaria crotaliRudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1915, Capillaria freitaslenti Araujo & Gandra, 1941, Pseudocapillaria (Pseudocapillaria amarali (Freitas & Lent, 1934 Moravec, 1952, Pseudocapillaria (Pseudocapillaria cezarpintoi (Freitas & Lent, 1934Moravec, 1952 and Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria murinae (travassos, 1914 Moravec, 1952 previously reported from lizards in Brazil. The nematode Thelandros sceleratus Travassos, 1923 and the trematode paradistomum parvissimum (Travassos, 1918 Travassos, 1919 are for the first time reported from this same host.

  3. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

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    Vlada Peneva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L. from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 µm; lip region wide (21.5–24 µm rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 µm; normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 µm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar with a group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, andsimilar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (codeA45 and short tail (codeH1 are provided.

  4. Parasites of South African wildlife. XVIII. Cooperia pigachei n. sp. (Nematoda : Cooperiidae from the mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815

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    J. Boomker

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cooperia, for which the name Cooperia pigachei n. sp. is proposed, was recovered from a mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, from the Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve, Free State Province, and is described and illustrated. It is close to Cooperia neitzi Mönnig, 1932 and the South African race of Cooperia rotundispiculum in having more than 14 longitudinal cuticular ridges and in that the lateral cervical synlophe is of the closed type. The new species differs from all the other species of the genus in that the lateral branches of the dorsal ray are large and T-shaped. The spicules are robust, over 0.3 mm long and have large, curved shoes on their tips.

  5. Redescription of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri (Travassos, 1916) (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, María del Rosario; Eberhardt, María Ayelen Teresita; Bain, Odile; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2013-08-01

    Twenty-eight Capillariinae species have been recorded in rodents; 1 of these species was reported from a caviomorph rodent, Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris (capybara), and placed in the genus Echinocoleus by Moravec (1982). However, both original description and subsequent contributions of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri are poor and incomplete. In this paper, this species is redescribed, and a new geographical distribution is reported. The redescription is based on morphologic and morphometrical features; intestine ends in a cloaca beside ejaculatory duct, caudal bursa composed of 2 large ventrolateral lobes with a fleshy internal part and a membranous external part (they are not united dorsally with a membrane), 1 pair of caudal papillae, terminal part of cylindrical cirrus ornamented with thin and thick spines (and particular pattern distribution), sclerotized spicule in male, and vulvar appendage in female, and 3 bacillary bands (1 ventral and 2 lateral). Generic and specific analyses were performed to establish new standards for future studies on the systematic position of Capillariinae species. This study presents new morphological information and a new record of a capillariid species from Argentina.

  6. Seven new species and one new species record of Sabatieria (Nematoda: Comesomatidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Sabatieria is the most abundant nematode genus on the upper continental slope of New Zealand but no Sabatieria species have yet been recorded/described from the region's deep-sea habitats. The present study describes seven new and one known species of this genus from the continental margin of New Zealand. S. bitumen Botelho et al. 2007 was originally described from the South Atlantic Ocean, and is recorded from the first time in the Pacific Ocean. Sabatieria challengerensis sp. n. is characterised by a combination of short cephalic setae, large fovea amphidialis with 3 turns, short arcuate spicules without distal hook, and short tail with cylindrical proximal portion and blunt, rounded distal portion. Sabatieria parapraedatrix sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with striations resulting from fusion of every second lateral row of dots,fovea amphidialis with 2.0-2.5 turns, spicules with distal hook, and short conico-cylindrical tail. Sabatieria bubulba sp. n. is characterised by the presence of a large muscular pharyngeal bulb, secretory-excretory system with large ventral gland at level of intestine and with cuticularised pore opening. Sabatieria exculta sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with faint annulations resulting from fusion of every second or third lateral row of dots, short cephalic setae, a large ventral gland, and long, narrow gubernacular apophyses. Sabatieria balbutiens sp. n. is characterised by having a dorsally-directed mouth opening and assymetrical mouth cavity and spicules with small distal hook. Sabatieria pumila sp. n. is characterised by the combination of short body length, short cephalic setae, spicules with distal hook and short distal lamella, and 8-9 precloacal supplements. Sabatieria bathycopia sp. n. is characterised by having a stout body, short cephalic setae, curved gubernaculum, and spicules with swollen, lightly cuticularised distal tip.

  7. Occurrence and histological response of Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in roach from four lakes differing in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, E T; Haaparanta, A; Hoffmann, R W

    1994-04-01

    Seasonality and size-related infection of Raphidascaris acus larvae from the inner organs and intestine of roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied in 4 lakes of differing water quality and pollution level in Central Finland between August 1985 and November 1986. The influence of R. acus larvae on the liver and pancreatic tissues of roach was examined histologically in additional material from 1989 and 1990. The inner organs of roach were most heavily infected with R. acus in the eutrophic, polluted Lake Vatia (63% of fish infected with 4.0 nematodes/fish) and in the two eutrophic lakes, compared to the oligotrophic Lake Peurunka (23%, 0.8). The prevalence of free R. acus larvae in the intestine of roach was almost as high but the intensity only about half of that found in the inner organs. The prevalence of infection had significantly higher values in autumn in most cases, and larvae accumulated in the inner organs and intestine of older roach. In histological studies it was found that larvae occurred more often in the pancreatic tissue than in the liver, but in both organs the majority of the larvae were dead and partly destroyed. The most typical host response against R. acus was a chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction. Granulomas and developing granulomas containing worms at different stages of degeneration are described; they were found in all of the lakes studied throughout the year and also in one and the same fish. On average only 37 and 21% of the worms in the liver and pancreas, respectively, were alive. No obvious difference in the histological response against R. acus was noted between the lakes.

  8. Methods for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi Mitskevich (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea larvae in faeces from reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L.

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    Odd Halvorsen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi larvae in reindeer faeces that have been deep frozen is described. The method involves the use of an inverted microscope with plankton counting chambers. Statistical data on the efficiency and sensitivity of the method are given. With fresh faeces, the results obtained with the method were not significantly different from those obtained with the Baermann technique. With faeces that had been stored in deep freeze, the method detected on average 30 per cent more larvae than the Baermann technique.Metoder for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring fra reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En metode for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring som har vært dypfryst blir beskrevet. Anvendelse av et invertert mikroskop med plankton tellekammer inngår i metoden. Det blir gitt statistiske data for metodens effektivitet og følsomhet. Ved undersøkelse av fersk avføring skilte ikke de resultatene metoden ga seg fra de som ble oppnådd med Baermanns metode. Ved undersøkelse av avføring som hadde vært lagret dypfrosset ga metoden i gjennomsnitt 30 prosent flere larver enn Baermanns metode.

  9. Small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus in Iran: first evidence for the infection with Spirura sp. (Nematoda: Spiruridae

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    10.12980/JCLM.2.2014APJTB-2014-0162

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the infection with gastrointestinal helminthes in small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus and its epidemiologic aspects in Iran. Methods: During June 2012 to July 2013, a total of 13 small Indian mongooses were caught using live trap boxes in an area located near Shiraz, southern of Iran. Captured animals were euthanized, eviscerated and parts of the alimentary tract were inspected. Two mongooses showed a nematode attached to the mucosa of the stomach. Results: According to the main morphological characteristics, the specimens belonged to the genus Spirura (Blanchard 1849. This study represents the first evidences of the infection with Spirura sp. in Herpestes auropunctatus in the world. Conclusions: Because the animal can invade and appear in the habitat of the other animal populations including omnivores or carnivores, it seems that mongooses in this area could have a high potential for the transmission of the infection with the spirurid nematodes to a large range of animals. Thus, besides the necessity of conducting the controlling programs, autochthonous dogs, cats and rodents should be included in more epidemiological studies in this region.

  10. Two species of Acuaria Bremser, 1811 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Two species of Acuaria were collected from passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proenca, 1945, was collected from Myiarchus nuttingi. Specimens from Costa Rica differ from the original description by having a spicule ratio of 1:1.5-1.7 versus 1:1.43-1.47, as well as shorter spicules and female tails. Acuaria wangi n. sp. in Hylophylax naevioides and Gymnopithys leucaspis resembles A. alii, A. crami, A. cyanocitta, A. minuta, A. pattoni, and A. cissae by having cordons extending posteriorly to the anterior portion of the glandular esophagus. The new species differs from A. alii by having 4 pairs of preanal and 6 pairs of postanal papillae rather than 2 pairs of preanal and 7 pairs of postanal papillae, a shorter left spicule, a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.1 and in having spicules with blunt rather than pointed distal ends. Acuaria crami and A. minuta differ from A. wangi by having 7 pairs of postanal papillae and spicule ratios of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.3 in A. crami and 1:1.1 in A. minuta; in addition, A. minuta has spatulate-shaped spicules and a tricupsid-shaped distal end of the right spicule. The new species can be distinguished from A. pattoni by having a longer left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1 and from A. cissae by having a shorter left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:2.5-2.7. Acuaria wangi is similar to A. cyanocitta, which has similarly shaped spicules, including a very pointed distal end of the left spicule, but differs in body length, in having shorter spicules, in the arrangement of postanal papillae, and in having smaller eggs.

  11. Redescrição de Litomosoides brasiliensis Almeida, 1936 (Nematoda: Filariidae Parasito de Anoura caudifera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

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    Mourão Elizabeth D

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.

  12. Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasira, K; Shahina, F; Firoza, K

    2013-06-01

    Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetusChitambar, 1991; D. leptosomaGagarin, 2001; D. ipiniMassey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) caniiBedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialisBedding, 1974; D. nevexiiBedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximusBedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyiBedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicolaBedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoniBedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females.

  13. Rhabdochona kharani sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 from Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatullah, Kakar; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Kakar, Juma Khan

    2006-01-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona kharani sp. nov., has been isolated from the intestine, stomach and swim bladder of the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 (Fam. Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from spring water at Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan. The new species is characterized largely by the presence of eight anterior teeth in the prostom, inconspicuous deirids, by the shape and length of unequal spicules (0.08 - 0.09 and 2.9 - 3.1 mm), and by 17-18 pairs of caudal papillae including 6-7 postanal, one adanal, and 10 -11 preanal. Other characteristics include a pointed tail tip, non filamented eggs, a bulbous, voluminous, vaginal complex that is directed backward, and a vulva that is post-equatorial with a triangular large anterior lip and a smaller posterior lip.

  14. Description of Pratylenchoides batatae n. sp. ( Nematoda: Pratylenchidae )%拟短体线虫属一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍升; 章淑玲

    2003-01-01

    甘薯拟短体线虫新种(Pratylenchoides batatae n.sp.)根据采自河北省卢龙县前双庙的甘薯根部及根际土壤中的一个拟短体线虫种群进行描述和作图.新种的主要鉴别特征是:唇区有5个唇环,侧区4条侧线并有网格纹,尾呈圆柱形、有24~26个体环,尾端圆、具粗纵纹.食道腺末端覆盖于肠背面,2个亚腹食道腺核均在背食道腺核之后,一个亚腹食道腺核位于食道-肠瓣门前的腹面、另一个位于食道-肠瓣门稍后.近似种为齿尾拟短体线虫(P.crenicauda),该种与新种的主要区别是:唇区3~4个唇环,侧区有6条侧线、无网纹,亚腹食道腺核一个在背食道腺核前、另一个在背食道腺核后.新种为两性种.模式标本保存于福建农林大学植物保护学院植物线虫学实验室.

  15. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

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    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  16. Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax): Description and molecular identification of intradermal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uni, Shigehiko; Fukuda, Masako; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Bain, Odile; Otsuka, Yasushi; Nakatani, Jun; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Ramli, Rosli; Hashim, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan. However, except for O. dewittei japonica, adult worms of Onchocerca have not been found in wild boars. In this study, we discovered adult females of a novel Onchocerca species in the skin of a wild boar in Oita, and named it Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. Females of this new species had longer microfilariae and differed from O. dewittei japonica in terms of their morphological characteristics and parasitic location. The molecular characteristics of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S rRNA genes of the new species were identical to those of the longer microfilariae and L3 previously detected, but they differed from those of O. dewittei japonica at the species level. However, both species indicated a close affinity among their congeners and Onchocerca ramachandrini, parasitic in the warthog in Africa, was basal in the Suidae cluster of the 12S rRNA tree.

  17. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida for greenhouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Furtado Moreira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN. Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004, three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa, four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  18. Chapiniella variabilis (Nematoda) parasitizing Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus (Testudinidae) in the state of Piauí.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Simone Mousinho; Leal, Anangela Ravena da Silva; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Mendonça, Ivete Lopes

    2017-03-16

    Chapiniella variabilis (Chapin, 1924), a strongylid nematode, was collected parasitizing the large intestine of the tortoises Chelonoidis carbonarius (Spix, 1824) (Cc) and C. denticulatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Cd) in the Zoobotanical Park of the municipality of Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. The taxonomic identification was based on morphological and morphometric features, using bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. The present study adds new observations on the morphology, mainly relating to the mouth papillae, external and internal leaf-crown elements, excretory pore, deirids and male and female posterior end. The parasitic indices of prevalence (P), mean intensity (MI), mean abundance (MA) and range of infection (RI) of C. variabilis in these two tortoise species were: P = 100%, MI = 833.3, MA = 833.3, RI = 500-1,500 (Cc); P = 100%, MI = 472.2, MA = 472.2, RI = 333-500 (Cd). This record expands occurrences of C. variabilis to a new host, C. carbonarius, and to another state in Brazil, in the Neotropical region of South America. Adjustment to host management with the aim of improving hygiene and health conditions is suggested.

  19. Meloidogyne luci n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitising different crops in Brazil, Chile and Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Correa, V.R.; Almeida, M.R.A.; Gomes, A.C.M.M.; Deimi, A.M.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.; Karssen, G.

    2014-01-01

    A new root-knot nematode parasitising vegetables, flowers and fruits in Brazil, Iran and Chile, is described as Meloidogyne luci n. sp. The female has an oval to squarish perineal pattern with a low to moderately high dorsal arc and without shoulders, similar to M. ethiopica. The female stylet is ro

  20. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida) for greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  1. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  2. Contamination of the environment by strongylid (Nematoda: Strongylidae) infective larvae at horse farms of various types in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of the influence of horse-keeping conditions by contamination of the environment (pastures, paddocks, and stalls) by the strongylid infective larvae (L(3)) was carried out at various types of horse farms, hippodromes, and riding clubs in Ukraine. A total of 1,237 horses from three types of horse-keeping conditions were examined. Epidemiological studies of stall and grazing area (pasture and paddocks) contamination by L(3) were performed at hippodrome (stalled horse-keeping) and horse farms with stall/paddock-keeping and stall/pasture-keeping conditions. Grass and stall litter samples were examined by the Baermann procedure. It was found that horses of stall-keeping conditions had the lowest level of strongylid infection (prevalence 46.4-77.8%, average infection 25.6-92.9 eggs per gram of feces (EPG)) and lowest proportion of large strongyle L(3) in coprocultures (1.6-11.3%). Horses of stall/pasture-keeping conditions were the most infected (prevalence 95.1-100%, average infection 198.2-453.7 EPG), and the proportion of large strongyle L(3) was 17.3-24.7%. Strongyle L(3) were found in litter of all parts of individual stalls; areas at the stall center, "toilet", and entrance were the most contaminated. The highest L(3) number in stall litter was registered in summer. Contamination of permanent pasture grass by L(3) was notably lower than grass in paddocks (86.3-161.4 L(3)/kg compared with 305.9-409.1 L(3)/kg). The highest level of pasture grass contamination was observed in the middle of summer (July)--up 970.7 L(3)/kg. The results obtained confirmed importance of environmental contamination in epidemiology of horse strongylidosis at various types of horse-keeping conditions.

  3. Study of types of some species of "Filaria" (Nematoda) parasites of small mammals described by Von Linstow and Molin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R; Bain, O

    2011-05-01

    Parasitic nematodes from the Berlin (ZMB) and Vienna (NMW) Museum collections referred to the genus Filaria Mueller, 1787 by von Linstow or Molin were studied. Three samples were in good condition and the specimens redescribed. Litomosa hepatica (von Linstow, 1897) n. comb., sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 3368, from the megachiropteran Pteropus neohibernicus, Bismarck Archipelago, resembles L. maki Tibayrenc, Bain & Ramanchandran, 1979, from Pteropus vampyrus, in Malaysia, but the buccal capsule differs. Both species display particular morphological characters which differ from species of Litomosa parasitic in microchiropterans. The remaining material originates from Brazil. The spicule morphology of Litomosoides circularis (von Linstow, 1899) Chandler, 1931, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 1059 from Hesperomys spec. (= Holochilus brasiliensis), Porto Alegre, confirms that it belongs to the sigmodontis group; the microfilaria presents characters of the genus Litomosoides, e.g. body attenuated at both extremities and salient cephalic hook. Taxonomic discussions by others confirm that species of Litomosoides belonging to the sigmodontis group and described subsequently are distinct from L. circularis. Litomosoides serpicula (Molin, 1858) Guerrero, Martin, Gardner & Bain, 2002, is redescribed, sample NMW 6323 from the bat Phyllostoma spiculatum (= Sturnira lilium), Ypanema. It is very close to L. brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, type host Moytis sp., but distinguished by a single ring in the buccal capsule, rather than two, supporting previous conclusions that the taxon L. brasiliensis, as generally regarded, may represent a complex of species. Samples NMW 6322 and NMW 6324, from other bats and also identified by Molin (1858) as Filaria serpicula, contain unidentifiable fragments of Litomosoides incertae sedis. Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3905 from Sorer vulgaris (= Sorex araneus), is incertae sedis because it contains two unidentifiable posterior parts of male, which might be an acuarid, Stammerinema sp. Filaria vesperuginis von Linstow, 1885, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3929, from the bat Vesperugo serotinus (= Eptesicus serotinus), contains encysted nematode larvae and is a nomen dubium.

  4. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar

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    Maia João P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is one of the world’s top twelve “megadiversity” hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899 filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar.

  5. The infective larva of Litomosoides yutajensis Guerrero et al., 2003 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), a Wolbachia-free filaria from bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R; Bain, O; Attout, T; Martin, C

    2006-06-01

    The infective larva of Litomosoides yutajensis Guerrero et al., 2003, a parasite of the bat Pteronotus pamellii, is described; it is distinct from congeneric infective larvae by the absence of caudal lappets. The life cycles of five other species of Litomosoides are known; three are parasites of rodents, one of a marsupial and one of a bat. As with these species, the experimental vector of L. yutoajensis used was the macronyssid mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. In nature, the main vectors are probably other macronyssids but transmission by O. bacoti, with its large host-range, could account for the characteristic host-switchings in the evolution of Litomosoides. Unlike the murine model L. sigmodontis Chandler, 1931, L. yutajensis is devoid of the endosymbiontic bacteria Wolbachia and may be of great interest.

  6. Genome-Wide Analyses of Individual Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea) Provide Insights into Population Structure and Reproductive Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe; Afrin, Tanzila; Nagayasu, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Win, Kyu Kyu; Hirata, Tetsuo; Htike, Wah Win; Fujita, Jiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, which is transmitted through soil, infects 30–100 million people worldwide. S. stercoralis reproduces sexually outside the host as well as asexually within the host, which causes a life-long infection. To understand the population structure and transmission patterns of this parasite, we re-sequenced the genomes of 33 individual S. stercoralis nematodes collected in Myanmar (prevalent region) and Japan (non-prevalent region). We utilised a method combining whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing techniques to detect 298,202 variant positions (0.6% of the genome) compared with the reference genome. Phylogenetic analyses of SNP data revealed an unambiguous geographical separation and sub-populations that correlated with the host geographical origin, particularly for the Myanmar samples. The relatively higher heterozygosity in the genomes of the Japanese samples can possibly be explained by the independent evolution of two haplotypes of diploid genomes through asexual reproduction during the auto-infection cycle, suggesting that analysing heterozygosity is useful and necessary to infer infection history and geographical prevalence. PMID:28033376

  7. A New Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Sea Rocket from Spanish Mediterranean Coastal Dunes: Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares Rius, J E; Vovlas, N; Troccoli, A; Liébanas, G; Landa, B B; Castillo, P

    2007-06-01

    High infection rates of European sea rocket feeder roots by an unknown root-knot nematode were found in a coastal dune soil at Cullera (Valencia) in central eastern Spain. Morphometry, esterase and malate dehydrogenase electrophoretic phenotypes and phylogenetic trees demonstrated that this nematode species differs clearly from other previously described root-knot nematodes. Studies of host-parasite relationships showed a typical susceptible reaction in naturally infected European sea rocket plants and in artificially inoculated tomato (cv. Roma) and chickpea (cv. UC 27) plants. The species is herein described and illustrated and named as Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. The new root-knot nematode can be distinguished from other Meloidogyne spp. by: (i) perineal pattern rounded-oval, formed of numerous fine dorsal and ventral cuticle striae and ridges, lateral fields clearly visible; (ii) female excretory pore at the level of stylet knobs, EP/ST ratio 1.6; (iii) second-stage juveniles with hemizonid located 1 to 2 annuli anteriorly to excretory pore and long, narrow, tapering tail; and (iv) males with lateral fields composed of four incisures anteriorly and posteriorly, while six distinct incisures are observed for large part at mid-body. Phylogenetic trees derived from distance and maximum parsimony analyses based on 18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and D2-D3 of 28S rDNA showed that M. dunensis n. sp. can be differentiated from all described root-knot nematode species, and it is clearly separated from other species with resemblance in morphology, such as M. duytsi, M. maritima, M. mayaguensis and M. minor.

  8. Occurrence of parasites of the genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae in fish caught in Trasimeno lake, Italy

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    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers.

  9. Hamulonema gen. nov. for Teladorsagia hamata and Ostertagia kenyensis in the ostertagiine fauna (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from African ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P; Abrams, Arthur

    2008-08-01

    Hamulonema gen. nov. is proposed for Teladorsagia hamata and Ostertagia kenyensis in the ostertagiine nematode fauna found in artiodactyl hosts from Africa. Monomorphic species representing this genus are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical and parallel synlophe in males and females, a 2-2-1 bursal formula, an accessory bursal membrane that is strongly cuticularized and reduced, a strongly reduced dorsal lobe and ray, and robust spicules with a simple, weakly pointed, ventral process, and curved, hooklike dorsal process. Species referred to Hamulonema nov. gen. are immediately distinguished from those of Camelostrongylus, Longistrongylus, Marshallagia, Orloffia, Ostertagia, and Pseudomarshallagia in which the bursal formula is 2-1-2 in males. Hamulonema nov. gen. is distinguished from those genera having a 2-2-1 bursa, including Africanastrongylus, Cervicaprastrongylus, Hyostrongylus, Mazamastrongylus, Sarwaria, Spiculopteragia, and Teladorsagia by the structure of the synlophe, bursa, genital cone, "0" and "7" papillae, dorsal lobe, and spicules in specific instances. In the global fauna, 4 of 14 ostertagiine genera are endemic to Africa. African genera may represent morphologically divergent and discrete or historically isolated lineages reflecting a pattern of geographic and host colonization as a driver for diversification since the Miocene.

  10. Description of Abursanema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Iran and its phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Ali; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Pedram, Majid; Siddiqi, Mohammad Rafiq; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-06-30

    Abursanema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new genus is characterized by its smooth outer and annulated inner cuticle, having two incisures in lateral field, lacking stylet knobs, having pyriform terminal bulb with stem-like extension projecting into the intestine and lacking of bursa in male. The new genus belongs to the family Paurodontidae. It most closely resembles the genera Paurodontoides and Paurodontus, but has affinities based on male characters with Gymnotylenchus of the family Neotylenchidae too. From Paurodontoides, it differs by the absence of stylet knobs and having six sectors in the head framework. Compared to Paurodontus, the new genus differs by the absence of stylet knobs, structure of the pharynx and absence of a bursa in male. It differs from Gymnotylenchus mainly by lacking of stylet knobs, presence of a basal pharyngeal bulb with an extension into the intestine and in the structure of the spicules. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new genus using 706 bp partial sequences of the 28S rDNA D2/D3 segment revealed it forming a clade with two species of Sphaerularia in both Bayesian Inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses with 1.00 Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) and 0.96 bootstrap support values (BS). Using 942 bp partial sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the new genus formed a clade with a species of Deladenus with 0.86 BPP and 0.62 BS in BI and ML methods, respectively. With both BI and ML methods, this clade forms a larger highly supported clade with two species of Sphaerularia.

  11. The fine structure of the excretory system in adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) and a suggested function for the 'excretory glands'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D L

    1970-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the excretory system, including the subventral glands, of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis has been described. The walls of the lateral excretory canals contain canaliculi which open into the lumen of the canal. It is suggested that these canals play a role in osmoregulation and excretion. The sub-ventral glands contain two types of secretory granule and contain non-specific esterase, cholinesterase and aminopeptidase. It is suggested that these glands are not excretory but play an important role in feeding.

  12. Ultrastructure study of the excretory system and the genital primordium of the infective stage of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda:Filarioidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strote, G; Bonow, I

    1995-01-01

    The electron microscopic investigation of the anterior part of the infective third-stage juvenile of Onchocerca volvulus provides first insights into the structure of the excretory system of this developmental stage of the parasite. The most anterior part of this system consists of a cell process of the syncytial excretory cells. At this height the excretory cells enclose the cuticle-lined excretory channel. The channel is in the process of elongation in the anterior-posterior direction, indicated by cell division in this region. More posteriad an ampulla-like structure is forming in the cytoplasm of the excretory cells. The inner surface of this ampulla is lined with a small number of single microvilli. In this part of the system the cytoplasm of the excretory cells is rich in Golgi bodies and endocytic vesicles. The ampulla has direct access to the exterior by the excretory duct. The excretory duct is a cuticle-lined structure surrounded by supporting fibres of an additional cell. This duct cell connects the excretory duct to the body-wall cuticle at the excretory pore. Adjacent to the region of the excretory system a cell is found that resembles a gland cell. This cell is in close contact to the ventral nerve cord. The genital primordia of the third-stage juvenile consist of several dividing cells. The female genital primordium is seen at the junction of the muscular with the glandular oesophagus and the male primordium can be found at the junction of the glandular oesophagus with the gut.

  13. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria) ophisterni sp. n. (Nematoda : Capillariidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Pisces) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Jiménez-García, I

    2000-04-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria ophisterni sp. n., is described from the intestine and rarely from the stomach of the swamp-eel, Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen et Greenwood, from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico. In having both caudal lobes in the male interconnected by a distinct dorsal membrane, it belongs to the subgenus Ichthyocapillaria. It differs from the three species in this subgenus mainly in possessing either a distinctly longer spicule or a smaller length of oesophagus relative to body length. It also differs in host type and geographical distribution. P. ophisterni is the first capillariid species reported from synbranchiform fishes.

  14. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases.

  15. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. (Draconematidae: Nematoda) from a seagrass bed ( Zostera spp.) in Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, Central Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wongi; Kim, Dongsung; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Rho, Hyun Soo

    2016-09-01

    A new species of free-living marine draconematid nematode, Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov., is described based on the specimens collected from the sediments of a intertidal seagrass bed from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the combination of the following characteristics: the presence of numerous minute spiny ornamented body cuticular annules in both sexes, eight cephalic adhesion tubes inserted on the head capsule in both sexes, the presence of stiff posteriorly directed setae anterior to posterior adhesion tubes in both sexes, the shape (large, elongated, open loop-shaped in male and large, elongated, closed loop-shaped in female) and position (longer ventral arm extending to the first body annule in male) of amphideal fovea, shorter spicule length (34-42 μm), the presence of sexual dimorphism in shape and length of the non-annulated tail terminus, and number of posterior sublateral adhesion tubes (10 in male and 13-15 in female) and posterior subventral adhesion tubes (8-10 in male and 9-11 in female). A comparative table on the biogeographical and ecological characteristics of the species of Dracograllus is presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the genus Dracograllus from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, central western Pacific Ocean.

  16. Report of epibiont Thecacineta calix (Ciliophora: Suctorea) on deep sea Desmodora (Nematoda) from the Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Singh, R.; Sautya, S.; Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.

    in 5% formalin. Nematodes were identified to genus/species level according to Platt & Warwick (1983) and using on-line recent literature (www.nemys.ugent.be). Measurements of ciliates were made using the computer program Scope Photo v. 2... of the United Kingdom, 2010 doi:10.1017/S1755267209990777; Vol. 3; e46; 2010 Published online together made C2441% of the nematode population. Among 17 individuals of D. sphaerica collected, 13 (76%) were infested with suctorians and among 12 individuals of D...

  17. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J

    2007-09-01

    Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus.

  18. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Siler, Cameron D; Brown, Rafe M

    2015-12-01

    Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) collected on Leyte Island, Philippines is described and illustrated. Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. is the 30th species assigned to the genus, the 4th from the Oriental region, and the first from the Philippine Islands. The new species is most similar to those species possessing 4 pairs of plectanes, i.e., C. archeyi, C. australis, C. oroensis, and C sardiniae. Cosmocerca sardiniae lacks lateral alae; C. archeyi, C. australis, C. leytensis sp. nov. and C. oroensis possess lateral alae. Spicule length of C. oroensis is less than 75 μm, while C. archeyi, C. australis, and C. leytensis sp. nov. have spicule lengths greater than 75 μm. Males of C. australis possess 2 pairs of rosette caudal papillae, which are lacking in C. archeyi and C. leytensis sp. nov. Females of C. archeyi posses a conical tail, females of C. leytensis sp. nov. have a rounded posterior end supporting a flexible filament.

  19. Ultrastructural immunogold localization of major sperm protein (MSP) in spermatogenic cells of the nematode Acrobeles complexus (Nematoda, Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushin, Vladimir V; Claeys, Myriam; Bert, Wim

    2016-10-01

    The nematode spermatozoa represent a highly modified (aberrant) type of male gametes that lack a flagellum but for which the process of spermatogenesis culminates in the production of a crawling spermatozoon on the basis of the cytoskeletal component known as "major sperm protein", or MSP. MSP is also known as an important hormone triggering oocyte maturation and ovulation in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where this protein was first identified. However, direct evidence of MSP localization and of its fate in nematode spermatogenic cells is rare. In this study, the spermatogenesis and sperm structure in the rhabditid nematode Acrobeles complexus (Rhabditida: Tylenchina: Cephalobomorpha: Cephaloboidea: Cephalobidae) has been examined with electron microscopy. Morphological observations were followed by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation which allows post-embedding immunogold localization of MSP in all stages of sperm development using antibodies raised for MSP of C. elegans. In spermatocytes, synthetic activity results in the development of specific cellular components, fibrous bodies (FB) and membranous organelles (MO), which appear as FB-MO complexes where the filamentous matter of FB has been MSP-labeled. The spermatids subdivide into a residual body with superfluous cytoplasm, and a main cell body which contains nucleus, mitochondria and FB-MO complexes. These complexes dissociate into individual components, MO and FB, with the MSP being localized in FB. Immature spermatozoa from testes are opaque cells where a centrally located nucleus is surrounded by mitochondria, MO and FB clustered together, the MSP still being localized only in FB. Cytoplasm of mature spermatozoa from spermatheca is segregated into external pseudopods lacking organelles and a central cluster of mitochondria with intact MO surrounding the central nucleus. The FB ultimately disappear, and the MSP labeling becomes concentrated in the filamentous content of pseudopods and cytoplasm of the main cell body. Although the spermatogenesis and sperm structure of A. complexus is similar to that of many other rhabditid nematodes, their intact MO makes the morphology of the mature spermatozoa distinct from the "rhabditid pattern" and may be considered as a synapomorphy. The MSP localization in spermatogenic cells of A. complexus also follows the "rhabditid pattern" described in C. elegans and Ascaris spp. Our results and techniques of MSP labeling of A. complexus spermatogeneous cells reveal new possibilities to elucidate different research questions on MSP localization in nematodes related to C. elegans. Furthermore, the laboratory-cultured A. complexus strains can be used as a new and fascinating model to study MO and MSP functions in nematode reproduction.

  20. A record of Crenosoma vulpis (Rudolphi, 1819) (Nematoda, Crenosomatidae) from the Eurasian badger (Meles meles L.) from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek, Marcin; Jarnecki, Hubert; Łuczyński, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Three specimens of the nematode Crenosoma vulpis (Rudolphi, 1819) were isolated from the lungs of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles L.) found dead on a road in the north-western part of Wrocław (Lower Silesia, SW. Poland) in August 2008. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the badger from Poland, description, biometrical data and figures are given.

  1. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

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    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  2. First report of Litomosa spp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea from malagasy bats; review of the genus and relationships between species

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    Martin C.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the filarial genus Litomosa in Malagasy bats is demonstrated by the finding of L. goodmani n. sp. from Miniopterus gleni and Litomosa sp. (male unknown from M. manavi, both in the Special Reserve of Ankarana. These materials are compared to the 22 Litomosa species, including two Indian species originally placed in the genus Litomosoides, L. fotedari (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb. and L. tewarii (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb., and the new taxon L. seurati n. sp. (= L. beaucournui Bain, 1966 pro parte, type-host Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, Algeria, distinguished by the narrow area rugosa and the female caudal extremity with two conspicuous points, instead of several small ones. The Malagasy material belongs to a group of species close to the type, L. filaria, which have a male area rugosa composed of cuticular bosses and microfilariae folded within the sheath, and which are parasitic in Vespertilionidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae from Africa and Europe. The two Malagasy species resemble L. seurati n. sp., L. beshkovi Jancev, 1971, L. chiropterum Ortlepp, 1932, L. adami Petit, 1980 and L. ottavianii Lagrange et Bettini, 1948, with the enlarged third segment of the buccal capsule. L. goodmani n. sp. is distinct with its small size and female caudal extremity with a single point, which is suppressed in old mature worms; the females of Litomosa sp. have two conical points. Relationships among Litomosa species appear to be dependent upon both the chiropteran host groups and the geographical region.

  3. Occurrence of Terranova larval types (Nematoda: Anisakidae in Australian marine fish with comments on their specific identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoterranovosis is a well-known human disease caused by anisakid larvae belonging to the genus Pseudoterranova. Human infection occurs after consuming infected fish. Hence the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in the flesh of the fish can cause serious losses and problems for the seafood, fishing and fisheries industries. The accurate identification of Pseudoterranova larvae in fish is important, but challenging because the larval stages of a number of different genera, including Pseudoterranova, Terranova and Pulchrascaris, look similar and cannot be differentiated from each other using morphological criteria, hence they are all referred to as Terranova larval type. Given that Terranova larval types in seafood are not necessarily Pseudoterranova and may not be dangerous, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Terranova larval types in Australian marine fish and to determine their specific identity. A total of 137 fish belonging to 45 species were examined. Terranova larval types were found in 13 species, some of which were popular edible fish in Australia. The sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2 respectively of the Terranova larvae in the present study showed a high degree of similarity suggesting that they all belong to the same species. Due to the lack of a comparable sequence data of a well identified adult in the GenBank database the specific identity of Terranova larval type in the present study remains unknown. The sequence of the ITS regions of the Terranova larval type in the present study and those of Pseudoterranova spp. available in GenBank are significantly different, suggesting that larvae found in the present study do not belong to the genus Pseudoterranova, which is zoonotic. This study does not rule out the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in Australian fish as Pseudoterranova decipiens E has been reported in adult form from seals in Antarctica and it is known that they have seasonal presence in Australian southern coasts. The genetic distinction of Terranova larval type in the present study from Pseudoterranova spp. along with the presence of more species of elasmobranchs in Australian waters (definitive hosts of Terranova spp. and Pulchrascaris spp. than seals (definitive hosts of Pseudoterranova spp. suggest that Terranova larval type in the present study belong to either genus Terranova or Pulchrascaris, which are not known to cause disease in humans. The present study provides essential information that could be helpful to identify Australian Terranova larval types in future studies. Examination and characterisation of further specimens, especially adults of Terranova and Pulchrascaris, is necessary to fully elucidate the identity of these larvae.

  4. A novel secretory poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP from Trichinella spiralis (Nematoda.

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    Georgi Radoslavov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis is an unusual parasitic intracellular nematode causing dedifferentiation of the host myofiber. Trichinella proteomic analyses have identified proteins that act at the interface between the parasite and the host and are probably important for the infection and pathogenesis. Many parasitic proteins, including a number of metalloproteins are unique for the nematodes and trichinellids and therefore present good targets for future therapeutic developments. Furthermore, detailed information on such proteins and their function in the nematode organism would provide better understanding of the parasite-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report the identification, biochemical characterization and localization of a novel poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP. The native Ts-PCHTP was purified from T. spiralis muscle larvae that were isolated from infected rats as a model system. The sequence analysis showed no homology with other proteins. Two unique poly-cysteine domains were found in the amino acid sequence of Ts-PCHTP. This protein is also the first reported natural histidine tailed protein. It was suggested that Ts-PCHTP has metal binding properties. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF assay revealed that it binds significant concentrations of iron, nickel and zinc at protein:metal ratio of about 1:2. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Ts-PCHTP is localized in the cuticle and in all tissues of the larvae, but that it is not excreted outside the parasite. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Ts-PCHTP is the first described member of a novel nematode poly-cysteine protein family and its function could be metal storage and/or transport. Since this protein family is unique for parasites from Superfamily Trichinelloidea its potential applications in diagnostics and treatment could be exploited in future.

  5. New host and locality records for Tetrameres (Gynaecophila spirospiculum Pinto & Vicente, 1995 (Nematoda: Tetrameridae, with new morphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digiani María Celina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the finding of Tetrameres spirospiculum Pinto & Vicente, 1995 from Theristicus melanopis melanopis (Threskiornithidae from Patagonia, Argentina. These constitute new host and locality records. We propose the assignation of this species to the subgenus T. (Gynaecophila Gubanov, 1950, based on the presence of labia and the absence of cuticular flanges at the anterior end. Some new morphological data are provided, such as the arrangement of cuticular spines and the presence of a pair of somatic papillae at beginning of posterior third of body length. T. (G. spirospiculum may probably be regarded as specific to birds of the genus Theristicus.

  6. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per Walter;

    2013-01-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules produced by parasitic nematodes, including larval Anisakis simplex, a parasite occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The effects of these substances on host physiology have not been fully described. The present work elucidates the influence of ES...

  7. Litomosoides anguyai n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from Oxymycterus misionalis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rain forest of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Juliana; Bain, Odile; Navone, Graciela

    2002-06-01

    A new species of Litomosoides is described from sigmodontine murids occurring in the rain forests of Misiones, Argentina. Litomosoides anguyai n. sp., a parasite of the abdominal cavity of Oxymycterus misionalis, belongs to the sigmodontis group and is closely related to L. legerae and L. oxymycteri. The new species is differentiated by the salient amphids, an asymmetrical annular thickening of the buccal capsule, by the arrangement of the head and tail papillae, and the shape and size of the microfilaria.

  8. A new species, Litomosoides odilae n. sp (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rainforest of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Juliana; Navone, Graciela

    2002-10-01

    A new species of Litomosoides was collected from the abdominal cavity of Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia: Muridae) in a semideciduous secondary rainforest of Misiones, Argentina. Litomosoides odilae n. sp. belongs to the carinii group and is characterized by the amphids displaced dorsally; buccal capsule with an anterior segment transparent and an annular asymmetrical thickening; esophagus divided, with the posterior glandular portion slightly wider than the muscular; male cloacal aperture strongly protruded; and microfilaria sheathed with an attenuated tail. The morphology of the new species, which is similar to that of L petteri, a parasite of marsupials in Brazil, suggests that host-switching events may have occurred in the diversification of this genus.

  9. Description of Trichuris travassosi n. sp. (Nematoda:Trichurinae from a brasilian rodent, by light and scanning electron microscopy

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    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of a trichurid nematode Trichuris travassosi n. sp., recovered from a wild rodent in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is described and compared to T. myocastoris (Enigk, 1933 and their differentiation was on the basis of detailed morphometrical study. Oryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 is a new host record for the genus. The denomination spicular prepuce is proposed to designate the structure previously named spicular sheath and, conversely, spicular sheath to indicate the cuticle that convers the spicule.

  10. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  11. Synlophe in Ostertagia cf. kasakhstanica (Nematoda: Ostertagiinae), the minor morphotype of O. bisonis from western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P; Abrams, A

    2001-10-01

    Ostertagia cf. kasakhstanica, the putative minor morphotype of the polymorphic ostertagiine O. bisonis, is reported in Bison bison from South Dakota. Descriptions of the synlophe and details of other diagnostic characters useful in identification and differentiation of this minor morphotype from other ostertagiines in wild and domestic ruminants from western North America are presented. Laterally, the cervical synlophe is consistent with Type Ib pattern among ostertagiines and is within the range of variation previously described for O. bisonis. Among recognized minor morphotypes of ostertagiines in wild and domestic ruminants from North America, O. kasakhstanica is distinct from O. kolchida, O. dikmansi, and O. arctica based on a tapering lateral synlophe. It is further distinguished from O. lyrata by the pattern of the cervical synlophe in the lateral field, structure of the genital cone and spicules, and dimensions of the esophageal valve. Although morphologically similar to T. davtiani/T. trifucata and T. boreoarcticus f. minor, it can be readily distinguished by the 2-1-2 bursal pattern, the structure of the spicules and genital cone, and the length of the esophageal valve. Ostertagia hisonis/O. cf. kasakhstanica circulates among pronghorn, mule deer, bison, and cattle in west-central North America.

  12. Description of Skrjabinodon spinosulus sp. n. (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea, Pharyngodonidae from the Brazilian lizard Mabuya dorsivittata Cope, 1862 (Scincidae

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    Joaquim Júlio Vicente

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oxyurid, Skrjabinodon spinosulus, is described, on the basis of samples recovered from Mabuya dorsivittala Cope, 1862 in Brazil. Skrjabinodon spinosulus sp. n. is included in the group in which the males are provided with a spicule. The new species proposed herein, differs from those of the group, by the large number of spines (70-80 on the tail of the females when compared to those (3-48 in the other species. The number of spines is a character of great taxonomic importance in the specific diagnosis of these nematodes. This is the second report of the genus Skrjabinodon Inglis, 1968 in South America.

  13. Free-living nematode species (Nematoda) dwelling in hydrothermal sites of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.

    2015-12-01

    Morphological descriptions of seven free-living nematode species from hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are presented. Four of them are new for science: Paracanthonchus olgae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Cyatholaimidae), Prochromadora helenae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Chromadoridae), Prochaetosoma ventriverruca sp. n. (Desmodorida, Draconematidae) and Leptolaimus hydrothermalis sp. n. (Plectida, Leptolaimidae). Two species have been previously recorded in hydrothermal habitats, and one species is recorded for the first time in such an environment. Oncholaimus scanicus (Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) was formerly known from only the type locality in non-hydrothermal shallow milieu of the Norway Sea. O. scanicus is a very abundant species in Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Lost City hydrothermal sites, and population of the last locality differs from other two in some morphometric characteristics. Desmodora marci (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) was previously known from other remote deep-sea hydrothermal localities in south-western and north-eastern Pacific. Halomonhystera vandoverae (Monhysterida, Monhysteridae) was described and repeatedly found in mass in Snake Pit hydrothermal site. The whole hydrothermal nematode assemblages are featured by low diversity in comparison with either shelf or deep-sea non-hydrothermal communities. The nematode species list of the Atlantic hydrothermal vents consists of representatives of common shallow-water genera; the new species are also related to some shelf species. On the average, the hydrothermal species differ from those of slope and abyssal plains of comparable depths by larger sizes, diversity of buccal structures, presence of food content in the gut and ripe eggs in uteri.

  14. Ecotoxicological assessment of aquatic sediments with Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) -- A method for testing liquid medium and whole-sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traunspurger, W.; Haitzer, M.; Hoess, S.; Beier, S. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.; Ahlf, W. [TU Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Steinberg, C. [Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    The authors present a method using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess toxicity in liquid medium and whole-sediment setups. Test duration is 72 h; endpoints are body length, number of eggs inside worms, percentage of gravid worms, and number of offspring per worm. The effect of CdCl{sub 2} on C. elegans in liquid-phase exposures is described as an example. Results from a field study with cadmium polluted sediments from the River Elbe (Germany) suggest that nematodes may be useful organisms in assessing toxicity of sediments in the whole phase.

  15. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-09-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules produced by parasitic nematodes, including larval Anisakis simplex, a parasite occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The effects of these substances on host physiology have not been fully described. The present work elucidates the influence of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in immunomodulation. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase/lipase, valine and cysteine arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and α-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. In addition, based on the notion that A. simplex ES products may have an immune-depressive effect (by minimizing immune gene expression) it could also be suggested that worm enzymes directly target host immune molecules which would add to a decreased host immune response and increased worm survival.

  16. Description and SEM Observations of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Heterodera goldeni (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) Attacking Panicum coloratum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Zafar A; Ibrahim, I K A

    2002-12-01

    A cyst nematode, Heterodera goldeni n. sp., is photographed and described from Qasabagrass roots (Panicum coloratum L.) in Alexandria, Egypt. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles with body length of 546 microm (450-612), stylet length of 22.6 microm (22-23.5) with anchor-shaped knobs, lateral field with 3 lines, tail 60-75 microm, hyaline tail terminus 38.4 microm (33-43); cysts are lemon-shaped, dark to light brown with an extensive sub-crystalline layer covering the entire cyst, cuticular midbody pattern zig-zag, cysts ambifenestrate, well-developed underbridge with finger-like projections, bullae present, vulva slit measuring 44-48 microm long. Males are absent, and females have heavy punctations on the cuticle. Its relationship to H. graminophila described from Florida and Louisiana and H. leuceilyma described from Florida are discussed. The present known distribution is restricted to Alexandria, Egypt. Its economic importance in rangeland grasses and cultivated crops such as rice is not known.

  17. Description and SEM Observations of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Heterodera goldeni (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) Attacking Panicum coloratum in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Ibrahim, I. K. A.

    2002-01-01

    A cyst nematode, Heterodera goldeni n. sp., is photographed and described from Qasabagrass roots (Panicum coloratum L.) in Alexandria, Egypt. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles with body length of 546 µm (450-612), stylet length of 22.6 µm (22-23.5) with anchor-shaped knobs, lateral field with 3 lines, tail 60-75 µm, hyaline tail terminus 38.4 µm (33-43); cysts are lemon-shaped, dark to light brown with an extensive sub-crystalline layer covering the entire cyst, cuticular m...

  18. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  19. Observation of Early Cleavage in Animal Development: A Simple Technique for Obtaining the Eggs of Rhabditis (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the advantages of using the readily available eggs of the nematode Rhabditis in studying the early cleavage stages of animal development. Discusses the identification and life history of Rhabditis, how to culture and examine the organism, the cleavage stages and cell lineage, and sources of visual aids. (JR)

  20. [VARIABILITY AND DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE BODY SIZE STRUCTURE OF THE INFRAPOPULATION OF COSMOCERCA ORNATA (NEMATODA: COSMOCERCIDAE) IN MARSH FROGS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Variability of the body size in females of the Cosmocerca ornata (Dujardin, 1845), a parasite of marsh frogs, is studied. The influence of both biotic (age, sex and a phenotype of the host, density of the parasite population) and abiotic (a season of the year, water temperature) factors on the formation of the body size structure in the C. ornata hemipopulation (infrapopulation) is demonstrated. The body size structure of the C. ornata hemipopulation is characterized by the low level of individual variability as within certain subpopulation groups of amphibians (sex, age and phenotype), so within the population of marsh frogs as a whole. The more distinct are the differences in biology and ecology of these host subpopulations, the more pronounced is the variability in the body size of C ornata.

  1. Two new species of Parapharyngodon parasites of Sceloporus pyrocephalus, with a key to the species found in Mexico (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Montes de Oca, Edgar Uriel; Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Parapharyngodon collected from the intestine of the Mexican boulder spiny lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus are described. This study increases to 49 the number of valid species assigned to Parapharyngodon worldwide, 11 of them distributed in Mexico. Males of the two new species share the presence of four pairs of caudal papillae, an anterior echinate cloacal lip and the presence of lateral alae; however, both differ from each other in lateral alae extension and echinate cloacal anterior lip morphology. Females of both species have a prebulbar uterus and eggs shell punctuate with pores, characteristics shared with few other species of Parapharyngodon. Both new species differ from other congeneric species in the papillar arrangement, the anterior cloacal lip morphology, the lateral alae extension and total length/spicule ratio. A taxonomic key for the species of Parapharyngodon distributed in Mexico is provided. PMID:27006602

  2. Development of Trichosomoides nasalis (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea in the murid host: evidence for larval growth in striated muscle fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fall E.H.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichosomoides nasalis (Trichinelloidea is a parasite of Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae in Senegal. Female worms that harbour dwarf males in their uteri, occur in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Young laboratory-bred A. niloticus were either fed females containing larvated eggs or intraperitoneally injected with motile first-stage larvae recovered from female uteri. Both resulted in successful infection. Organs examined during rodent necropsy were blood and lymphatic circulatory systems (heart, large vessels, lymphnodes, lungs, liver, kidneys, thoracic and abdominal cavities, thoracic and abdominal muscular walls, diaphragm, tongue, and nasal mucosa. Development to adult nasal stages took three weeks. Recovery of newly hatched larvae from the peritoneal fluid at four-eight hours after oral infection suggests a direct passage from the stomach or intestinal wall to the musculature. However, dissemination through the blood, as observed with Trichinella spiralis, cannot be excluded even though newly hatched larvae of T. nasalis are twice as thick (15 μm. Developing larvae were found in histological sections of the striated muscle of the abdominal and thoracic walls, and larvae in fourth moult were dissected from these sites. Adult females were found in the deep nasal mucosa where mating occurred prior to worms settling in the nasal epithelium. The present study shows a remarkable similarity between T. nasalis and Trichinella species regarding muscle tropism, but the development of T. nasalis is not arrested at the late first-larval stage and does not induce transformation of infected fibres into nurse cells. T. nasalis seems a potential model to study molecular relations between trichinelloid larvae and infected muscle fibres.

  3. Development of Trichosomoides nasalis (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea) in the murid host: evidence for larval growth in striated muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, E H; Diagne, M; Junker, K; Duplantier, J M; Ba, K; Vallée, I; Bain, O

    2012-02-01

    Trichosomoides nasalis (Trichinelloidea) is a parasite of Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae) in Senegal. Female worms that harbour dwarf males in their uteri, occur in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Young laboratory-bred A. niloticus were either fed females containing larvated eggs or intraperitoneally injected with motile first-stage larvae recovered from female uteri. Both resulted in successful infection. Organs examined during rodent necropsy were blood and lymphatic circulatory systems (heart, large vessels, lymphnodes), lungs, liver, kidneys, thoracic and abdominal cavities, thoracic and abdominal muscular walls, diaphragm, tongue, and nasal mucosa. Development to adult nasal stages took three weeks. Recovery of newly hatched larvae from the peritoneal fluid at four-eight hours after oral infection suggests a direct passage from the stomach or intestinal wall to the musculature. However, dissemination through the blood, as observed with Trichinella spiralis, cannot be excluded even though newly hatched larvae of T. nasalis are twice as thick (15 μm). Developing larvae were found in histological sections of the striated muscle of the abdominal and thoracic walls, and larvae in fourth moult were dissected from these sites. Adult females were found in the deep nasal mucosa where mating occurred prior to worms settling in the nasal epithelium. The present study shows a remarkable similarity between T. nasalis and Trichinella species regarding muscle tropism, but the development of T. nasalis is not arrested at the late first-larval stage and does not induce transformation of infected fibres into nurse cells. T. nasalis seems a potential model to study molecular relations between trichinelloid larvae and infected muscle fibres.

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

  5. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence.

  6. Spinitectus mexicanus n. sp. (Nematoda : Cystidicolidae) from the intestine of the freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2000-02-01

    A new nematode, Spinitectus mexicanus n. sp., is described on the basis of the specimens recovered from the intestine of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel) (Poeciliidae, Cyprinodontiformes) from 3 rivers of the Papaloapan River basin (type locality La Basura River), Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz State, Mexico. It differs from its congeners mainly in having the spination of the cuticle separated into 4 longitudinal sectors, each with posteriorly diminishing numbers of larger spines at the anterior part of body. It is the first species of Spinitectus described from a poeciliid fish and the second reported from freshwater fishes in Mexico.

  7. A new species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Robles, María Del Rosario

    2016-09-01

    In Mexico, four species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 have been recorded in wild rodents belonging to the family Heteromyidae. In the present paper, we describe a new species based on specimens collected from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Heteromyidae: Heteromyinae) in the tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Trichuris silviae n. sp. can be differentiated from the congeners described in North and South American rodents by morphological and morphometric features, such as the possession of a wide spicular tube, a thicker proximal cloacal tube, a shorter distal cloacal tube and a cylindrical spicular sheath. This is the first description of a Trichuris spp. from heteromyid rodents in Mexico and the fourth in North America. Despite the broad distribution of Heteromys spp., few cases of Trichuris infection have been reported. Further studies are necessary to verify if the new species is present in other heteromyid rodents in order to increase our knowledge about its geographical and host distribution.

  8. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  9. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Occurrence of Parasites of the Genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) in Fish Caught in Trasimeno Lake, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Valiani, Andrea; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Urbani, Eleonora; Lo Vaglio, Giovanni; Pascucci, Luisa; Franceschini, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri) of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers. PMID:28058245

  11. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the host species representing the more recent host-parasite association. Intraspecific host-induced size differences are inconsistent with the exclusive use of morphometrics to delimit and diagnose species of Uncinaria from pinnipeds.

  12. Post-embryonic development of Camallanus cotti (Nematoda: Camallanidae), with emphasis on growth of some taxonomically important somatic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levsen, Arne; Berland, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the quantitative post-embryonic development of the Asian freshwater fish nematode Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927, is described. Larval and adult morphometrics were obtained by following the parasite's life cycle experimentally using copepods Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine) as intermediate host and guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters), southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther) and paradise fish Macropodus opercularis (L.) as definitive host. Additionally, adult worms were obtained from heavily infected paradise fish imported from Singapore. It is suggested that the gradual change in proportions of the worm's somatic body parts reflects the specific ecological role of each developmental stage. The free-living infective first-stage larva seems to be adapted for transmission, as indicated by its relatively long tail, designed to generate host-attracting movements, and its non-functional intestine. The second- and third-stage larvae from the copepod intermediate host seem mainly to invest in trophic functionality, i.e., the development of the buccal capsule and the oesophagus, which are crucial structures for the worm's successful establishment in the definitive fish host. Once in the fish intestine, the larvae enter a period of considerable growth. After the fourth (i.e., last) moult, a 72% increase in average female body length occurs. This is accompanied by doubling the average vulva-tail tip distance and the average tail length. The length of the female hind body expands in an accelerating allometric fashion, and seems to be closely linked to the posterior-wards expansion of the uterus. In the males however, growth seems to cease after the final moult. We conclude that female post-maturational body size, but especially the length of the hind body and the tail, are closely related to reproductive state, i.e., the developmental stage of the offspring in the uterus, and, probably, the worms' age. Any future taxonomical studies of camallanids in general, and C. cotti in particular, should thus be aware of the reproductive state of the females used.

  13. Cucullanus maldivensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and some other adult nematodes from marine fishes off the Maldive Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Lorber, Julia; Konecný, Robert

    2008-05-01

    Marine fishes were collected from off the Maldive Islands in March, 2005. From amongst the material collected, the nematode Cucullanus maldivensis n. sp. is described from the intestine of a lutjanid fish, the black and white snapper Macolor niger (Forsskål). This species is morphologically and biometrically most similar to C. bourdini Petter & Le Bel, 1992, differing from it principally in the protruding vulval lips, the location of the first pair of pre-anal papillae, the absence of an elevated cloacal region, and having distinctly larger eggs (51-57 x 33-36 microm). Additionally, adult females of the nematodes Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Camallanus sp. from the green jobfish Aprion virescens Valenciennes (Lutjanidae) and the rainbow runner Elegatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard) (Carangidae), respectively, were collected. These camallanids are illustrated and measurements are provided, but they were not identified or described in detail as no males were collected.

  14. Biological control of horse cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) using the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Tavela, Alexandre Oliveira; Campos, Artur Kanadani; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2009-08-26

    The viability of a fungal formulation using the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed for the biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus treatment), consisting of eight crossbred mares (3-18 years of age) were fed on Cynodon sp. pasture naturally infected with equine cyathostome larvae. Each animal of the treated group received oral doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets (1g/(10 kg live weight week)), during 6 months. Significant reduction (pcontrol group. There was difference (pcontrol group, during the experimental period (May-October). Difference of 82.5% (pcontrol group in the sampling distance (20-40 cm) from fecal pats. During the last 3 months of the experimental period (August, September and October), fungus-treated mares had significant weight gain (pcontrol group, an increment of 38 kg. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode-trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced cyathostomin in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in horses.

  15. UJI COBA PENEBARAN JASAD HAYATI NEMATODA ROMANOMERMIS IYENGARI DI PERINDUKAN VEKTOR MALARIA DAN FILARIASIS DI FLORES TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiarti Widiarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of R. iyengari, a parasitic nematod as a biological agent of vector control toward mosquito larvae in the sandpool, an ideal breeding places for malaria and fdariasis vectors, was conducted in East Flores. The aim of the present study was to determine : (1. The adaptability and recycling ability of post parasites stage of the nematode in the sandpool. (2. The ability of pre parasites (infective stage to parasitize Cx. quinquefasciatus (laboratory larvae in centinel cage and An. barbirostris (natural larvae/sandpool. The distribution of R. iyengari post parasites at a dosage of500 nematodes/m2 revealed that the nematodes mature to adults, mated and layed eggs (adapted, however recycling could not be observed yet. The infection rate of Cx. quinquefasciatus sentinel cages after release through dissections was observed in 70.55%, 48.68% and 3.64% respectively after 1 month, 2 months and 3 months. The mean monthly infection level for An. barbirostris was 28.24%, 16.66% and 31.25% for 1 month, 2 months and 3 months post release dissections respectively.

  16. Proteomic analysis of Oesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda during larval transition, and the effects of hydrolase inhibitors on development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ondrovics

    Full Text Available In this study, in vitro drug testing was combined with proteomic and bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterize proteins involved in larval development of Oesophagostomum dentatum, an economically important parasitic nematode. Four hydrolase inhibitors ο-phenanthroline, sodium fluoride, iodoacetamide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(pnitrophenoxy-propane (EPNP significantly inhibited (≥90% larval development. Comparison of the proteomic profiles of the development-inhibited larvae with those of uninhibited control larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified a down-regulation of 12 proteins inferred to be involved in various larval developmental processes, including post-embryonic development and growth. Furthermore, three proteins (i.e. intermediate filament protein B, tropomyosin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase inferred to be involved in the moulting process were down-regulated in moulting- and development-inhibited O. dentatum larvae. This first proteomic map of O. dentatum larvae provides insights in the protein profile of larval development in this parasitic nematode, and significantly improves our understanding of the fundamental biology of its development. The results and the approach used might assist in developing new interventions against parasitic nematodes by blocking or disrupting their key biological pathways.

  17. Radopholus arabocoffeae sp. n. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae), a nematode pathogenic to Coffea arabica in Vietnam, and additional data on R. duriophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, P.Q.; Nguyen, C.N.; Waeyenberge, L.; Subbotin, S.A.; Karssen, G.; Moens, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radopholus arabocoffeae sp. n., a new nematode pathogenic on Coffea arabica cv. Catimor, is described from Vietnam. Females of R. arabocoffeae sp. n. are characterised by the broad amphidial apertures with prominent margins. Males are characterised by the bursa extending to one third, rarely middle,

  18. New record of Pelecitus sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae as a parasite of Athene cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae in southeastern Brazil

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    Tarcísio Macedo Silva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to report the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia as a new host for the filarid nematode Pelecitus sp. in southeastern Brazil for the first time, as well as reporting the occurrence of this nematode species in the body cavity, near the cervical air sac and lung region. This study contributes towards knowledge of parasitism in Brazilian wild birds and an anatomical region of the host as an infection site for Pelecitus sp.

  19. A survey of the Echinoderm Associates of the North-East Atlantic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barel, C.D.N.; Kramers, P.G.N.

    1977-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 3 Systematic list of associate records............. 6 Protozoa................... 7 Coelenterata.................. 31 Platyhelminthes................. 32 Mesozoa................... 41 Nematoda................... 42 Rotatoria................... 43 Entoprocta..

  20. Ecology and Disease Transmission Potential in the Colombian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRAZIL, *DISEASE VECTORS, *PARASITIC DISEASES, COLOMBIA, ECOLOGY, COLOMBIA, COLOMBIA, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DIPTERA, HUMANS, EQUINES, BOVINES, REPTILES, TICKS, ANNELIDA, NEMATODA, PLATYHELMINTHES , FILARIAE.

  1. Impact of the invasion of pinewood nematode and the following different removal disturbance intensities on the plant diversity of Masson pine community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO Youqing; SONG Jiying; YAN Xiaosu; JIANG Ping; WANG Yijiao

    2007-01-01

    Reported in this paper are our findings of the study on changes in species diversity of different Masson pine communities after the invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus(Steiner and Buhren)Nickle and subsequent and different removal disturbance management approaches.Based on the results,the species diversity indices for the arbor layers of the different communities can be arranged in the following order(from high to low):1)broad-leaved stand after the removal of all infected pine trees in the pure pine stand in Fuyang;2)lightly infected Masson pine and Schima superba mixed stand in Fuyang;3)uninfected stand mixture of Masson pine and Castanopsis fargesii as a control;4)lightly infested pure Masson pine stand in Fuyang;5)Quercus variables stand formed following the selective removal of infected pine trees from a mixed Masson pine and Q.variables stand in Zhoushan Islands;6)pure young Masson pine stand formed following the removal of all infected pine trees from a pure Masson pine stand;7)pure Liquidambarformosana stand after the removal of infected pine trees from a pure pine stand in Zhoushan Islands;8)a mixed stand consisting of Pinus thunbergii and the Masson pine in Zhoushan Island;and 9)moderately infected Masson pine stand in Zhoushan Islands.All the three diversity indices(R0=richness,H'=Shan-non-Wiener index,and E=evenness)for the shrub layer did not show any significant differences among the various communities except for the pure pine stand in ZhoushanIsland,which had the lowest diversity.The three indices for the herb layer of the pure young Masson pine,Q.variables stand,and L.formosana stand were higher than that of other stands.The integrated analysis showed that the Masson pine forest in different geographical situations and extent of damage had distinct disparity,just as in different disturbance degrees and restoring manners.We created the"index of disturbing intensity of stump and fallen woods"(IDISFW)to represent thedegree of disturbance of tree

  2. 感染松萎蔫病的葡萄牙海岸松中内生细菌的分离%Endophytic bacteria isolated from pine wilt-affected Pinus pinaster trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vieira dos Santos M C; Proenca D A N; Fonseca L; Abrantes I M de O; Morais P V

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic rapid death of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, after infection by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, suggests the involvement of other organisms in pine wilt disease (PWD) . Endophytic bacteria are ubiquitous in nature and colonize a broad spectrum of plant species. They colonize plants internally without harming them and although they have been reported to promote plant growth and stimulate plant defence mechanisms. Although such bacteria may be involved in improving plant health, they have also been seen as a potential cause of the low regeneration capacity of mature trees. The bacteria carried out by the PWN throughout pine trees may also contribute to the rapid wilting of the maritime pine trees. This study was made to assess the endophytic microbial community structure of pine wilt affected and non-affected P. pinaster, based on culture isolates, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophorosis (DGGE) profiling, and to relate the results to a possible association between the characteristics and bacteria associated with the PWN. The microbial community from trees and PWNs included strains from Beta and Gammaproteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were only found in the endophytic community whereas Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were only found to be associated with the nematode. ARDRA and DGGE profiles showed differences in the diversity of the endophytic microbial community that may be related to the presence of the PWN. Those differences seem to be associated with the number of strains of the genera Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Luteibacter. Isolates belonging to the species Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum, P. lutea and Dyella yeojuensis were isolated from trees and were associated with the PWN. This research documents the presence of bacteria associated with the PWN by molecular methods and the impact of the nematode in the plant endophytic microbial

  3. 产挥发性杀线虫物质韦氏芽孢杆菌MC67菌株培养条件的优化%Optimization of the Culture Condition for Bacillus weihenstephanensis Strain MC67 Producing Nematicidal Volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志芳; 顾英琦; 莫明和; 何月秋

    2009-01-01

    采用液体培养,研究了18种碳源、18种氮源成分对韦氏芽孢杆菌Bacillus weihenstepha-nensis菌株MC67产挥发性物质杀线虫活性的影响.以单因素分析法,确定了MC67菌株杀线虫活性的最佳碳源和氮源分别为麦芽糖和酵母膏.采用Plackett-Burman设计法,对影响菌株MC67杀线虫活性的主要因素进行筛选,确定影响该菌株发酵液挥发物杀线虫活性的4个重要因子依次为麦芽糖、酵母膏、温度和pH值.采用响应曲面法研究4个显著因子的最佳水平,通过对二次多项回归方程求解得知,当麦芽糖10.6g/L、酵母膏0.66g/L、培养温度29.6℃、pH值6.6时,菌株发酵液挥发物杀线虫活性的预期值为99.1%.对模型培养基验证的结果表明,该菌株对松材线虫的杀线虫活性为98.2%,接近预期值.%In liquid culture,18 kinds of carbon and 18 kinds of nitrogen resources were selected for best nutritional agents. The effects of nutrition on the volatiles of Bacillus weihenstephanensis strain MC67 with highest nematicidal activity to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were determined by single factor analysis. The best carbon and nitrogen resources were maltose and yeast extract, respectively. Plackett-Burman design and response surface analysis were used to optimize the medium constituents and fermentation conditions of B. tueihenstephanensis. The important factors were determined as follows: maltose, yeast extract, pH value and temperature. In the second phase of the optimization process, a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the above critical factors, and to find out the optimal concentration levels and fermentation conditions. By solving the quadratic regression model equation using appropriate statistic methods, the optimal level of the variables were determined as: maltose 10.6 g/L, yeast extract 0.66 g/ L, culture temperature 29.6℃ and pH value 6.6. In the most suitable condition, the nematicidal activity of MC67 could

  4. Natural status of the forest biogeocenosis ecosystems in the Carpathians and its bioindication on the base of nematode complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Павлович Козловський

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are soil Nematoda complexes forming in primeval ecosystems. They have the same regularities in energy consumption by the community independently of the territorial location. Additional characteristics of species diversity and structural organization of Nematoda communities exist within the realms of biogeocenosis type. It allows determining the natural status of the forest ecosystems

  5. Occurrence of ascaridoid nematodes in selected edible fish from the Persian Gulf and description of Hysterothylacium larval type XV and Hysterothylacium persicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Ghadam, Masoumeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Hoseinali; Soltani, Mehdi; Mirzargar, Saeed

    2016-11-01

    Despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in the Persian Gulf, there is still no study on the specific identification of these parasites or their genetic characterisation. In the present study, a total of 600 fish belonging to five popular species of fish in the region, including Otolithes ruber, Psettodes erumei, Saurida tumbil, Scomberomorus commerson and Sphyraena jello were examined for infection with nematode parasites. Detailed microscopy of nematodes found in the present study followed by characterisation of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) showed that they belong to five distinct taxa that could be potentially zoonotic. Anisakis type I was found in four species of fish, had identical ITS sequences as Anisakis typica previously reported in Australian waters and was different from those reported in the Nearctic. Hysterothylacium type VI in the present study was morphologically similar to those previously described from Australasian waters and ITS sequences were identical among Australian specimens and those found in the present study. Another Hysterothylacium larval type was also found in the present study which had identical ITS sequences and similar morphology to those previously reported and identified as H. amoyense in China Sea. Since no ITS sequence data from a well identified adult H. amoyense with an identifiable museum voucher number is yet available and due to some other issues discussed in the article we suggest assignment of this larval type from the China Sea and the Persian Gulf to H. amoyense is doubtful until future studies on a well identified male specimen of H. amoyense or other species reveals the specific identity of this larval type. We propose to refer to this larval type as Hysterothylacium larval type XV. In the present study we also describe a new species, Hysterothylacium persicum and discuss how to differentiate it from closely related species. We also found some adult females with distinct morphology and ITS sequence but due to lack of male specimens they have been referred as Hysterothylacium sp. in this paper. They had the same ITS sequence data as Hysterothylacium larval type VI. This study shows the presence of a relatively broad diversity of potentially zoonotic nematodes in edible fish of the Persian Gulf. Therefore educational campaigns for public and local health practitioners are suggested to protect consumers from becoming infected with these parasites.

  6. One new genus and three new species of deep-sea nematodes (Nematoda: Microlaimidae) from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel

    2016-02-11

    New deep-sea nematodes of the family Microlaimidae are described from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea. Microlaimus korari n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, round amphideal aperture slightly smaller than the cryptospiral amphideal fovea, spacious and heavily cuticularised buccal cavity with large dorsal tooth and right subventral tooth situated anteriorly relative to left subventral tooth, slender spicules 4.4 cloacal body diameters long, and gubernaculum 1.2 cloacal body diameters long with laterally curved distal end and swollen proximal end. Bolbolaimus tongaensis n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, oval amphideal aperture and cryptocircular amphideal fovea situated between cephalic setae and only partially surrounded by cuticle annulations, and short spicules cuticularised along dorsal edge and at proximal end and with swollen portion near proximal end. Maragnopsia n. gen. is characterised by a minute, non-cuticularised mouth cavity without teeth, an elongated posterior pharyngeal bulb more than twice as long as it is wide, a single outstretched testis, and a conico-cylindrical tail 13-16 anal body diameters long. A list of all 83 valid Microlaimus species is provided. The present study provides the first microlaimid species records from deep-sea habitats (> 200 m depth) in the Southwest Pacific and Ross Sea. The presence of M. korari n. sp. on both the continental slope of New Zealand and Ross Sea abyssal plain suggests that this species has a wide geographical and depth distribution. However, molecular analyses will be required to confirm the identity of these two geographically disparate populations.

  7. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-11-05

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed features that were not previously mentioned (e.g. presence of unpaired cloacal papilla, detailed morphology of cloacal lips), as well as negligible differences in morphometry and caudal papillae arrangement. Observations on the type material of C. carioca suggested affinities with the genus Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902; however, the poor preservation of these specimens does not allow further conclusions. Cucullanus rougetae is considered to be a species inquirenda.

  8. New deep-sea free-living marine nematodes from the Sea of Japan: the genera Siphonolaimus and Halichoanolaimus (Nematoda: Chromadorea) with keys to species identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zograf, Julia; Trebukhova, Yulia; Pavlyuk, Olga

    2015-01-16

    In deep-sea sediments from the Sea of Japan, two new species, Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp. n. and Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n., were found and described. Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n. is characterized by having short anterior sensillae, body length of 3670-4500 μm, buccal cavity with axial spear, and length of the spicules. Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp.n is characterized by the number of amphideal rings, long spicules, five precloacal supplements and by having a long cylindrical part of the tail. Keys to species level are provided. 

  9. Characterization of Xiphinema americanum group species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) and co-evolution of bacteria from the genus ‘Candidatus Xiphinematobacter’ with these nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Xiphinema americanum group contains over two-dozen different species of nematode. They are economically important because they vector nepoviruses, which cause damage to several crops. Taxonomic differentiation among species of the X. americanum complex is problematic because many of the species ...

  10. Effects of temperature on the life-history traits of Sancassania (Caloglyphus) berlesei (Acari: Astigmatina: Acaridae) feeding on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Osman, Mohamed Ali

    2014-11-01

    Sancassania (Caloglyphus) berlesei (Michael) is a cosmopolitan and free-living mite that inhabits soil as well as laboratory colonies of insects and fungi and may have a role as a biocontrol agent of nematodes. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature on the development, reproduction, and food consumption of S. berlesei fed egg masses of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., an important group of agricultural pests. Mites were reared at 20, 25 or 30 °C in the dark. The mites could feed on the nematode egg masses, and their developmental time decreased at higher temperatures. Time from the egg to adult was similar in females and males reared at the same temperature. Adult females lived longer than males at 25 °C, but not at 20 or 30 °C. Generally, females showed a higher rate of food consumption than males. Females laid the largest number of eggs at 20 and 25 °C (199.7 and 189.8 eggs/female, respectively), but the intrinsic rate of natural increase was highest at 30 °C (r m = 0.29). In comparing our data with previous reports, we noted that S. berlesei that fed on egg masses of root-knot nematodes showed a longer developmental time and a lower reproductive rate than Sancassania mites that fed on other diets. Nonetheless, the relatively high value of r m (e.g., at 25 and 30 °C) suggests that this mite may have certain advantages as a biocontrol agent of root-knot nematodes.

  11. Morphological and molecular characterisation, and phylogenetic position of X. browni sp. n., X. penevi sp. n. and two known species of Xiphinema americanum-group (Nematoda, Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada; Kumari, Shesh

    2016-01-01

    Using ribosomal (18S, ITS1, ITS2, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (partial cox1 and nad4) DNA markers in a study of several populations of Xiphinema americanum-group from Europe and Morocco, two cryptic species Xiphinema browni sp. n. (formerly reported as Xiphinema pachtaicum) and Xiphinema penevi sp. n. were revealed. The species are described, illustrated and their phylogenetic relationships discussed. The first species is most similar to Xiphinema parasimile and is a member of Xiphinema simile species complex. The phylogenetic reconstructions inferred from three molecular markers (18S, D2-D3 28S rDNA and cox1) showed that Xiphinema penevi sp. n. is part of Xiphinema pachtaicum-subgroup and is closely related to Xiphinema incertum, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Xiphinema parapachydermum, Xiphinema plesiopachtaicum, Xiphinema astaregiense and Xiphinema pachydermum. Also, a separate "Xiphinema simile-subgroup", outside the Xiphinema pachtaicum-subgroup and so far consisting only of the parthenogenetic species Xiphinema simile, Xiphinema parasimile, Xiphinema browni sp. n. and probably Xiphinema vallense was formed. New primers for amplification and sequencing of part of the nad4 mitochondrial gene were designed and used.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto (Nematoda: Enoplea): considerable economization in the length and structural features of encoded genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Jones, J; Armstrong, M; Lamberti, F; Moens, M

    2005-12-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the plant parasitic nematode Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto has been determined. At 12626bp it is the smallest metazoan mitochondrial genome reported to date. Genes are transcribed from both strands. Genes coding for 12 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 17 putative tRNAs (with the tRNA-C, I, N, S1, S2 missing) are predicted from the sequence. The arrangement of genes within the X. americanum mitochondrial genome is unique and includes gene overlaps. Comparisons with the mtDNA of other nematodes show that the small size of the X. americanum mtDNA is due to a combination of factors. The two mitochondrial rRNA genes are considerably smaller than those of other nematodes, with most of the protein encoding and tRNA genes also slightly smaller. In addition, five tRNAs genes are absent, lengthy noncoding regions are not present in the mtDNA, and several gene overlaps are present.

  13. The genus Xiphinema in South Africa. XXVI. New information on X. bolandium, with description of the four juvenile stages (Nematoda: Longidoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Heyns

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A population of Xiphinema bolandium from the Baviaanskloof Wilderness Area in the Eastern Cape Province was studied, and the four juvenile stages described and figured for the first time. New distribution records are listed from several localities in the Western Cape Province, mostly from vineyards and peach orchards, as well as from fynbos.

  14. Taxonomic revision of the Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae) parasites of Muridae from the Australasian region. The genus Odilia Durette-Desset, 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Digiani, María Celina

    2015-01-01

    The species of the genus Odilia Durette-Desset, 1973 (Heligmonellidae, Nippostrongylinae) are re-distributed among eight genera of which five are new. This classification is mainly based on certain characters of the synlophe not previously taken into account at the supraspecific level. These characters mainly include the presence or absence of a careen, the relative size of the ridges forming the careen, the development and position of ridge 1’, the development of the left ridge and right ridge, and the distribution of the largest ridges. Eighteen of the 20 known species are rearranged in the following genera: Odilia sensu stricto Durette-Desset, 1973 with Odilia mackerrasae (Mawson, 1961) as type species, Chisholmia n. gen. with Chisholmia bainae (Beveridge & Durette-Desset, 1992) n. comb. as type species, Equilophos n. gen. with Equilophos polyrhabdote (Mawson, 1961) n. comb. as type species, Hasegawanema n. gen. with Hasegawanema mamasaense (Hasegawa, Miyata & Syafruddin, 1999) n. comb. as type species, Hughjonestrongylus Digiani & Durette-Desset, 2014 with Hughjonestrongylus ennisae (Smales & Heinrich, 2010) as type species, Lesleyella n. gen. with Lesleyella wauensis (Smales, 2010) n. comb. as type and sole species, Parasabanema szalayi Smales & Heinrich, 2010, and Sanduanensis n. gen. with Sanduanensis dividua (Smales, 2010) as type and sole species. Odilia uromyos Mawson, 1961 and Odilia carinatae Smales, 2008 are not included in the new classification. A key to the proposed genera is provided. The new generic arrangement follows a distribution more related to the biogeographical areas than to the host groups. PMID:26598025

  15. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Odile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts? near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 μm. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters.

  16. Differences in life-histories refute ecological equivalence of cryptic species and provide clues to the origin of bathyal Halomonhystera (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Derycke, Sofie; Moens, Tom; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of morphologically very similar but genetically distinct species complicates a proper understanding of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cryptic species have been frequently observed to co-occur and are thus expected to be ecological equivalent. The marine nematode Halomonhystera disjuncta contains five cryptic species (GD1-5) that co-occur in the Westerschelde estuary. In this study, we investigated the effect of three abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and sulphide) on life-history traits of three cryptic H. disjuncta species (GD1-3). Our results show that temperature had the most profound influence on all life-cycle parameters compared to a smaller effect of salinity. Life-history traits of closely related cryptic species were differentially affected by temperature, salinity and presence of sulphides which shows that cryptic H. disjuncta species are not ecologically equivalent. Our results further revealed that GD1 had the highest tolerance to a combination of sulphides, high salinities and low temperatures. The close phylogenetic position of GD1 to Halomonhystera hermesi, the dominant species in sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barent Sea, 1280 m depth), indicates that both species share a recent common ancestor. Differential life-history responses to environmental changes among cryptic species may have crucial consequences for our perception on ecosystem functioning and coexistence of cryptic species.

  17. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea in soil and fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Jean-Francois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  18. Primer registro de Kalicephalus costatus (Nematoda, Diaphanocephalidae, parásito de Liophis miliaris semiaureus (Serpientes, Colubridae de la provincia de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramallo, Geraldine

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente nota es dar a conocer el primer registro del género Kalicephalus Molin, 1861 en Argentina y el sexto a nivel sudamericano, ampliándose de este modo su distribución geográfica.

  19. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae Relato de parasitismo por nematódeo Anisakidae em homem

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    Rubén Mercado

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.Un gusano anisákido identificado como larva del cuarto estadio de Pseudoterranova decipiens fue aislado mediante gastroendoscopio en el estómago de una persona de 45 años, residente en el sur de Chile. Se relató que el paciente presentó dolor epigástrico agudo y sensación de estómago vacío, siendo consumidor de pescado ahumado. El gusano fue fijado en etanol de 70% y diafanizado en lactofenol para su estudio morfológico.Um anisakidio, identificado como larva do quarto estágio de Pseudoterranova decipiens, foi isolado por gastroendoscopia do estômago de uma pessoa de 45 anos de idade, residente no Sul do Chile. Relata-se que o paciente apresentou dor epigástrica aguda e sensação de estômago vazio, tendo ingerido peixe defumado. O nematode foi fixado em etanol 70% e diafanizado com lactofenol para estudo morfológico.

  20. A new species of Trichosomoididae (Nematoda) from skin of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), on the Texas-Louisiana shelf, northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Ray, Candis L; Cook, Melissa; Grace, Mark A; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    Eggs and larvae of Huffmanela oleumimica n. sp. infect red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860), were collected from the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (28°16'36.58″N, 93°03'51.08″W) and are herein described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs in skin comprised fields (1-5 × 1-12 mm; 250 eggs/mm(2)) of variously oriented eggs deposited in dense patches or in scribble-like tracks. Eggs had clear (larvae indistinct, principally vitelline material), amber (developing larvae present) or brown (fully developed larvae present; little, or no, vitelline material) shells and measured 46-54 μm (x = 50; SD ± 1.6; n = 213) long, 23-33 (27 ± 1.4; 213) wide, 2-3 (3 ± 0.5; 213) in eggshell thickness, 18-25 (21 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass width, and 36-42 (39 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass length with protruding polar plugs 5-9 (7 ± 0.6; 213) long and 5-8 (6 ± 0.5; 213) wide. Fully developed larvae were 160-201 (176 ± 7.9) long and 7-8 (7 ± 0.5) wide, had transverse cuticular ridges, and were emerging from some eggs within and beneath epidermis. The new species differs from its congeners by having eggs 110 μm long with transverse cuticular ridges. The eggs lack a spindle-shaped envelope, polar filaments, and eggshell ridges. This is the first report of a species of Huffmanela from a snapper (Lutjanidae) or from the Gulf of Mexico. A table of egg and larval characteristics, hosts, and localities for Huffmanela spp. is provided.

  1. Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Pisodonophis boro (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Thailand, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Proleptinae Schulz, 1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Taraschewski, Horst; Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Maipanich, Wanna; Laoprasert, Thitiporn

    2007-01-01

    Physalopterid nematodes identified as Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) were collected from the stomach of rice-paddy eels Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton) (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from two brackish-water localities (mangroves) in Thailand: one in Phan-Nga Province, southwestern Thailand, northeast of Phuket Island, and one in Ranong Province, near the border with Myanmar. Study of the morphology of this hitherto insufficiently known nematode species, including its first SEM examination, enabled a detailed redescription of H. longissimum. Present taxonomic problems in the subfamily Proleptinae Schulz, 1927 are discussed, where a new delimitation of Proleptus Dujardin, 1845, Heliconema Travassos, 1919 and Paraleptus Wu, 1927 is proposed based on the cephalic dentation. H. minnanensis [sic] Damin & Heqing, 2001 is transferred to Paraleptus Wu, 1927 as P. minnanensis (Damin & Heqing, 2001) n. comb. and Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin & Zhang, 1983 transferred by Damin & Heqing (2001) to Heliconema, is retained in Paraleptus. H. ahiri Karve, 1941 is considered a junior synonym of H. longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923). The present finding of H. longissimum in Pisodonophis boro represents the first host record and the first record of this nematode from Thailand.

  2. Toxocara (Nematoda: Ascaridida) and other soil-transmitted helminth eggs contaminating soils in selected urban and rural areas in the Philippines.

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    Paller, Vachel Gay V; de Chavez, Emmanuel Ryan C

    2014-01-01

    The extent of contamination of soils with soil transmitted helminthes (STH) eggs, particularly Toxocara, was determined in selected urban and rural towns of Laguna, Philippines. Soil samples were collected from public schools, house yards, and empty lots. Results revealed that, of the 1480 soil samples collected, 460 (31%) were positive for STH eggs. Toxocara sp. was the most prevalent (77%), followed by Ascaris sp. (11%), hookworms/strongyles/free-living nematodes (7%), and Trichuris sp. (5%). Some soil physicochemical parameters were also determined and associated with Toxocara eggs prevalence and density in soil. Results revealed that Toxocara sp. eggs were most prevalent in less acidic, relatively high temperature and high moisture soil conditions. They were also prevalent in sandy, silty, and loamy soil textures but less prevalent in clayey. No significant differences were found between depth 1 (0-5 cm) and depth 2 (6-10 cm). This study revealed that Toxocara sp. eggs are ubiquitous and the extent of contamination in soils from the selected towns of Laguna is relatively high. Hence, the data generated in this study can be used in promoting public awareness, particularly for pet owners and local health officials, for effective prevention and control of this parasitosis.

  3. Release of Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda:Mermithidae) to control Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera:Culicidae) in Punta del Este, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina Mijares, A; García Avila, I; Rivera Rosales, J; Solís Montero, A

    1996-07-01

    Preparasites of Romanomermis iyengari Welch were applied at the rate of 1,000 preparasites per square meter of surface area in 5 natural breeding sites in carbonate rock depressions to control Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedeman larvae. Larval parasitism averaged 100, 97, 81, and 80% in 1-4 instars, respectively. Three of 5 sites produced parasitism in excess of 90%. The range of salinity and water depth had little influence on the levels of parasitism. Ae. taeniorhynchus density was reduced from 78 to 96% at the 5 sites 8 d posttreatment.

  4. Differences in life-histories refute ecological equivalence of cryptic species and provide clues to the origin of bathyal Halomonhystera (Nematoda.

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    Jelle Van Campenhout

    Full Text Available The discovery of morphologically very similar but genetically distinct species complicates a proper understanding of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cryptic species have been frequently observed to co-occur and are thus expected to be ecological equivalent. The marine nematode Halomonhystera disjuncta contains five cryptic species (GD1-5 that co-occur in the Westerschelde estuary. In this study, we investigated the effect of three abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and sulphide on life-history traits of three cryptic H. disjuncta species (GD1-3. Our results show that temperature had the most profound influence on all life-cycle parameters compared to a smaller effect of salinity. Life-history traits of closely related cryptic species were differentially affected by temperature, salinity and presence of sulphides which shows that cryptic H. disjuncta species are not ecologically equivalent. Our results further revealed that GD1 had the highest tolerance to a combination of sulphides, high salinities and low temperatures. The close phylogenetic position of GD1 to Halomonhystera hermesi, the dominant species in sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barent Sea, 1280 m depth, indicates that both species share a recent common ancestor. Differential life-history responses to environmental changes among cryptic species may have crucial consequences for our perception on ecosystem functioning and coexistence of cryptic species.

  5. Primer registro paleoparasitológico de Trichuris SP (nematoda, capilariidae en muestras asociadas a restos humanos del Holoceno tardío de Patagonia septentrional

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    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de los estudios paleoepidemiológicos que se realizan en restos arqueológicos asignados a poblaciones de cazadores-recolectores de Patagonia, este trabajo presenta información novedosa acerca de la presencia de parásitos en muestras de sedimento de las cavidades pélvicas correspondientes a individuos que habitaron la costa norte de Patagonia durante el Holoceno Tardío. Fueron analizados 3 casos de diferente cronología y en dos de ellos, los de menor antigüedad relativa, los resultados fueron positivos para la presencia de Trichuris trichiura. Es interesante mencionar al respecto que para el período que involucra a los dos casos positivos, la información arqueológica registra un proceso de intensificación en el que se explota una mayor diversidad de fauna y se incrementan los artefactos de molienda en los sitios. Entre las posibles causas propuestas para este proceso se encuentran el aumento demográfico y/o el nucleamiento poblacional en espacios favorables que comienzan a saturarse, hecho consistente con la evidencia cultural obtenida al momento y con la presencia de Trichuris sp.

  6. First Report of the Spiral Nematode Rotylenchus incultus (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Cultivated Olive in Tunisia, with Additional Molecular Data on Rotylenchus eximius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi-Mzoughi, Ilhem; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Regaieg, Hajer; Horrigue-Raouani, Najet; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2Table 1Rotylenchus eximius Siddiqi, 1964 and R. incultus Sher, 1965 sampled in olive cv. Chemlali in Tunisia and sequences used in this study.Table 2Morphometrics of Rotylenchus incultus Sher, 1965 from olive cv. Chemlali in Tunisia.a). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm3 of soil by centrifugal flotation method (Coolen, 1979). Specimens were heat killed by adding hot 4% formaldehyde solution and processed to pure glycerin using the De Grisse’s (1969) method. Measurements were done using a drawing tube attached to a Zeiss III compound microscope. Nematode DNA was extracted from single individuals and PCR assays were conducted as described by Castillo et al. (2003). Moderate-to-low soil populations of these spiral nematodes were detected (5.5–11.5, 1.5–5.0 individuals/500 cm3 of soil, respectively). This prompted us to undertake a detailed morphological and molecular comparative study with previous reported data. Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified these species as Rotylenchus eximius Siddiqi, 1964, and Rotylenchus incultus Sher, 1965. The morphology of R. eximius females (five specimens studied) was characterized by having a hemispherical lip region clearly off set, with four to five annuli, body without longitudinal striations, lateral fields areolated in the pharyngeal region only, stylet 32 to 36 μm long, and broadly rounded tail. The morphology of R. incultus females (51 females and 16 males; Table 2) was characterized by a hemispherical lip region with the basal annulus subdivided by irregular longitudinal striations, with three, rarely four annuli; stylet 21.5 to 27.5 μm long, female tail hemispherical with terminus regularly annulated; phasmids anterior to anus level (3–6 annuli above). The morphology of the isolated nematodes agreed with previous descriptions of R. eximius (Siddiqi, 1964; Castillo and Vovlas, 2005) and R. incultus (Sher, 1965; Castillo and Vovlas, 2005; Vovlas et al., 2008), respectively. A single individual was used for DNA extraction. Primers and PCR conditions used in this research were specified in Cantalapiedra-Navarrete et al. (2013), and a single amplicon of 800, 1,100, and 450 bp was obtained and sequenced for D2 to D3, ITS1, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coxI), respectively. Sequence alignments for D2 to D3 (KX669231–KX669233), ITS1 (KX669238–KX669240), and coxI (KX669244–KX669245) from R. eximius, showed 99% to 97%, 98% to 94%, 93% similarity to other sequences of R. eximius deposited in GenBank (EU280794–DQ328741, EU373663–EU373664, JX015401–JX015402, respectively). Similarly, D2 to D3 (KX669234–KX669237), ITS1 (KX669241–KX669243), and coxI (KX669246–KX669249) sequence alignments from R. incultus, showed 99%, 99% to 95%, 99% to 90% similarity, respectively, to other sequences of R. incultus deposited in GenBank (EU280797, EU373672–EU373673, JX015403, respectively). The best fitted model of DNA evolution was obtained using jModelTest v. 2.1.7 (Darriba et al. 2012) with the Akaike information criterion. BI analyses were performed under the general time reversible (GTR) with invariable sites and a gamma-shaped distribution of substitution rates (GTR + I + G) model for ITS1 and coxI. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1 and coxI using Bayesian inference (BI) placed R. eximius and R. incultus from Tunisia in subclades that included all R. eximius and R. incultus sequences deposited in GenBank (Fig. 1Fig.

  7. Anatomical and surface morphology of Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. (Nematoda: Hedruridae) from the common marinewater fish Lutjanus synagris in Damietta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, M M; Awad, E R; Taha, R G

    2014-08-01

    The description and tegumental ultrastructure of nematode Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. collected from marine Lane Snapper fish Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 collected at Manzala Lake, Damietta, Egypt was studied by light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The new species is mainly characterized by that the buccal capsule is surrounded by four pseudolapia; one small and three larger pseudolapia, each one bears a number of papillae arranged irregularly on its surface and the presence of one pair of precloacal papillae and nine pairs of postcloacal ones in males.

  8. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae.

  9. Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from two deep-sea macrourid fishes in the Western Mediterranean: Morphological and molecular characterisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-i-García, David; Constenla, María; Carrassón, Maite; Montero, Francisco E; Soler-Membrives, Anna; González-Solís, David

    2015-10-01

    A new nematode species, Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. (Anisakidae), is described from male and female specimens found in the intestine, and occasionally in stomach and pyloric caeca, of two deep-water macrourid fishes (Gadiformes) off Barcelona, Mediterranean Sea: Nezumia aequalis (Günther) (type-host) and Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque). Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species shows similar morphological features as the other four valid species of the subgenus Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915, but it differs from Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) acus (Bloch, 1779), Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) lutjani Olsen, 1952 and Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) mediterraneus Lèbre & Petter, 1983 in the high number of precloacal papillae (23-32) and from Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) gigi Fujita, 1928 in the length of the spicules. Moreover, Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. exhibits a high variability on the number and distribution of caudal papillae, which was not recorded in the other four mentioned species. This is the first species of this subgenus reported from the family Macrouridae. Sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region are analysed and compared with closely related nematode species. Molecular analysis confirmed the uniformity of the R. (R.) macrouri n. sp. between hosts.

  10. Descriptions and Comparative Morphology of Cactodera milleri n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) and Cactodera cacti with a Review and Key to the Genus Cactodera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graney, L S; Bird, G W

    1990-10-01

    A new species, Cactodera milleri n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from roots of common lambsquarter, Chenopodium album L., from Mattawan, Michigan. Cactodera milleri can be differentiated from other Cactodera species by the presence of punctated egg shells and a second-stage juvenile (J2) stylet length averaging 21.8 mum as measured from freshly killed specimens in water mounts. Thirty-four plant species, including 11 weed species, 18 agronomic crop species, and 5 cactus species were tested as potential hosts of C. milleri. The new species reproduced only on Chenopodium album, C. amaranticolor Cofte. Reyn., and C. quinoa Willd. Cactodera cacti (Filipjev &Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941) Krall &Krall, 1978, a morphologically similar species, is reexamined. A description of the female and additional morphometric and morphologic data of cysts, males, J2, and eggs are provided for several populations of C. cacti. A review of the morphometrics of all species of Cactodera and a taxonomic key to the seven species are presented.

  11. Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of Eurasian elk (Alces alces), with a report on associated pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varestrongylus alces Demidova & Naumitscheva, 1953 is resurrected for protostrongylid nematodes of Eurasian elk in Europe. Descriptions of males (11.36-16.95 mm) and females (16.25- 21.52 mm) are based on specimens collected from the terminal bronchioles in the lungs of Eurasian elk, Alces alces (L...

  12. Parhadjelia cairinae n. sp. (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in the Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae), from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    A new species of Parahadjelia occurs in the muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species differs from Parhadjelia neglecta Lent and Freitas, 1939, in the body size, in the spicules shape and ratio of spicules, and in having 2 pairs of sessile papillae near the tail tip of the male. The characters exhibited by P. neglecta and the new species validate its generic status distinct from Hadjelia.

  13. Two species of Synhimantus (dispharynx) railliet, Henry and Sisoff, 1912 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae), in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-10-01

    Members of 2 species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) live under the lining of the gizzard in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) occurs in Thraupis episcopus, Turdus grayi, Caryothraustes poliogaster, Platyrinchus cancrominus, Ramphocaenus melanurus, Vermivora peregrina, and Geothlypis poliocephala. A single male, in Turdus grayi, apparently representing a new species, distinguishable from all other species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) by having similar shaped left and right spicules, is described but not named.

  14. Skrjabinura gnedina, 1933 (Nematoda: Seuratoidea: Seuratidae), in birds from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    Two species of Skrjabinura Gnedina, 1933, were collected in the intestines of birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica. Skrjabinura mesoamericana n. sp. inhabits Dendrocincla homochroa, Calocitta formosa, Dendrocolaptes certhia, Basileuterus rufifrons, and Chordeiles acutipennis. The new species differs from all species of the genus by having dissimilar spicules, the right having a distinctive thin and bent handle on the proximal end. The new species can be further distinguished from Skrjabinura pomatostomi and Skrjabinura brevicaudatum by having subequal versus equal spicules. Skrjabinura mesoamericana resembles S. brevicaudatum in the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae but differs in the vulva position and in having smaller eggs. The new species differs from S. potamostomi in having 6 versus 8 pairs of postcloacal papillae. Among those species having subequal spicules, the new species further differs from Skrjabinura spiralis in having 1 pair of paracloacal papillae and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae, versus no paracloacal papillae and 4 pairs of postcloacal papillae, and in the vulva position. The new species is perhaps most similar to Skrjabinura vali, from which it further differs by having 3 pairs of precloacal, 1 pair of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal versus 2 pairs of precloacal, 2 pairs of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae in the vulva position and in the shape of the eggs. Skrjabinura vali (Guerrero, 1971) Chabaud, 1978, originally described in Piaya cayana from Venezuela, occurs in the small intestine of P. cayana, as well as the new hosts, Crotophaga sulcirostris and Myiarchus tyrannulus, in the ACG, a new locality. Our specimens differ from the original description in the body length of the female, the numbers of postanal papillae of male tail, and the size of eggs.

  15. Procyrnea chabaud, 1958 (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, including descriptions of 3 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Four species of Procyrnea were collected in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Procyrnea brevicaudata n. sp. in Crypturellus cinnamomeus resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. ameerae, P. dollfusi, and P. aptera in lacking lateral alae but differs from all these species in having 2 longitudinal ridges on the left side of the body, in having a sinistral rather than ventral vulvar opening, and in having dorsally bent rather than straight female tails. Procyrnea mawsonae n. sp., in Buteo magnirostris, is similar to P. strialata in body size and in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but differs by having longer and differently shaped spicules, and by lacking a single preanal sessile papilla. Procyrnea mclennanae n. sp., in Heliomaster constantii, is similar to P. strialata (Zhang, 1991) and P. mawsonae n. sp. in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but it can be distinguished from P. strialata and P. mawsonae in having 4 rather than 3 small teeth on the interior border of the pseudolabia, in having unequal rather than equal lateral alae, and in having longer spicules. Procyrnea sp., on the basis of a single adult male in Campephilus guatemalensis, resembles P. suraiyae, P. tulostoma, and P. unilateralis in possessing a single and long lateral ala, but can be distinguished from P. suraiyae and P. tulostoma in the length of the left spicule, in the left spicule having a bifid distal end, the right spicule having a rounded distal end rather than both spicules having pointed distal ends, and in having the lateral ala beginning at the lip region instead of posterior to the cervical papillae. It differs from P. uncinipenis in having a spicule ratio of 1:3.5 rather than 1:2.5, in the left spicule having a bifid rather than alate distal end, and in the absence of a single preanal papilla.

  16. Torquatoides trogoni n. sp. and Excisa ramphastina n. sp. (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2004-06-01

    Two new species of habronematid nematodes are described in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Torquatoides trogoni n. sp., in Trogon massena, can be distinguished from T. torquata, T. bengalensis, and T. crotophaga in lacking lateral alae. Among species lacking lateral alae, the new species differs from T. balanocephala in having 14 versus 8-10 cephalic cuticular plaques, 21-22 versus 13-17 pairs of preanal papillae, and a beak-shaped versus U-shaped gubernaculum. The new species differs from T. singhi in body length, in having 21-22 versus 10 pairs of precloacal papillae, longer spicules, and larger eggs. The new species differs from T. crotophaga, the only other species known from Central America, in lacking lateral alae, and having 14 versus 6 cephalic cuticular plaques, 21-22 versus 17 pairs of precloacal and 3 versus 2 pairs of postcloacal papillae, and a gubernaculum. Excisa ramphastina n. sp., in Ramphastos sulfuratus, can be distinguished from E. excisa, E. biloba, E. buckleyi, E. dentifera, and E. khalili in having 1 lateral ala versus none, cervical papillae anterior versus posterior to the nerve ring, and asymmetrical caudal alae. Excisa ramphastina is similar to E. curvata in having cervical papillae anterior to the nerve ring but differs in having 1 lateral ala versus none, asymmetrical caudal alae, an average spicule ratio of 1:4.4 versus 1:3.3, and 4 versus 2 pairs of sessile papillae. The new species differs from E. columbi in having 1 versus 2 lateral alae, in the length of the spicules, in having a different spicule ratio, and in the numbers of sessile papillae.

  17. ULCERATIVE AND NECROTIZING GASTRITIS IN A CAPTIVE SLOTH (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS, XENARTHRA, BRADYPODIDAE) DUE TO SEVERE PARASITISM WITH PARALEIURIS LOCCHII (NEMATODA, SPIROCERCIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ana Flávia Ribeiro Machado; Silva, Fabiana Lessa; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; de Carvalho, Tatiane Furtado; Pinto, Jaqueline Maria Silva; Santos, Renato Lima

    2017-03-01

    This is the first reported case of lethal gastric parasitism by the nematode Paraleiuris locchii in a captive sloth ( Bradypus variegatus ). There were more than 600 parasites in the stomach of the sloth, associated with extensive areas of ulceration and necrosis. The animal developed emaciation, dehydration, and anemia that progressed to death.

  18. Spatial distribution of the nematodes in the subtidal community of the Central West Coast of India with emphasis on Tershellingia longicaudata (Nematoda: Linhomoeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.; Chatterjee, T.

    diverse and numerically dominant metazoans in the marine habitat (Heip et al. 1982; De Ley and Blaxter 2001), with a global species estimate (Lambshead and Boucher 2003) between 10 5 and 10 8 . Despite their remarkable diversity and their potential use..., laboratory and mesocosm studies. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review. 30:191-271. Danovaro R. 1996. Detritus-bacteria-meiofauna interactions in a seagrass bed (Posidonia oceanica) of the NW Mediterranean. Marine Biology. 127:1-13. De Ley P...

  19. Monanema joopi n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) from Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus Peters, 1852 (Muridae) in South Africa, with comments on the filarial genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Medger, K; Lutermann, H; Bain, O

    2012-11-01

    Monanema joopi n. sp. is described from blood drawn from the heart of the murid Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus in South Africa. It is characterised by a non-bulbous cephalic extremity, shared with only one of its five congeners, and a cylindrical tail with caudal alae and a spicular ratio of 2.7 in the male. As is typical for the genus, microfilariae are skin-dwelling. They are 185 to 215 micrometres long and have no refractory granules beneath their sheath. A key to the species of Monanema is presented and an amended generic description, based on the six currently known species, is proposed. Species of Monanema are primarily lymphatic and the low intensity of infection with M. joopi n. sp. in blood from the heart, might suggest that not all adults settle in the heart cavities. One might also consider that other, more susceptible rodents serve as hosts for this parasite as well. To date, the geographic range of Monanema includes North America, Africa and Australia, each with representatives of a different lineage. Given the present hypotheses on the evolutionary origin and subsequent migrations of rodents, we expect the origin of Monanema to be in the Palearctic-Oriental region.

  20. Monanema joopi n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae from Acomys (Acomys spinosissimus Peters, 1852 (Muridae in South Africa, with comments on the filarial genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junker K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Monanema joopi n. sp. is described from blood drawn from the heart of the murid Acomys (Acomys spinosissimus in South Africa. It is characterised by a non-bulbous cephalic extremity, shared with only one of its five congeners, and a cylindrical tail with caudal alae and a spicular ratio of 2.7 in the male. As is typical for the genus, microfilariae are skin-dwelling. They are 185 to 215 micrometres long and have no refractory granules beneath their sheath. A key to the species of Monanema is presented and an amended generic description, based on the six currently known species, is proposed. Species of Monanema are primarily lymphatic and the low intensity of infection with M. joopi n. sp. in blood from the heart, might suggest that not all adults settle in the heart cavities. One might also consider that other, more susceptible rodents serve as hosts for this parasite as well. To date, the geographic range of Monanema includes North America, Africa and Australia, each with representatives of a different lineage. Given the present hypotheses on the evolutionary origin and subsequent migrations of rodents, we expect the origin of Monanema to be in the Palearctic-Oriental region.

  1. Monanema joopi n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) from Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus Peters, 1852 (Muridae) in South Africa, with comments on the filarial genus

    OpenAIRE

    Junker K.; Medger K.; Lutermann H.; Bain O.

    2012-01-01

    Monanema joopi n. sp. is described from blood drawn from the heart of the murid Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus in South Africa. It is characterised by a non-bulbous cephalic extremity, shared with only one of its five congeners, and a cylindrical tail with caudal alae and a spicular ratio of 2.7 in the male. As is typical for the genus, microfilariae are skin-dwelling. They are 185 to 215 micrometres long and have no refractory granules beneath their sheath. A key to the species of Monanema is...

  2. The structure of the shell and polar plugs of the egg of the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the Samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, C C; White, B J

    1989-12-01

    The structure of the shell of the egg of Trichuris trichiura was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results confirmed its three-layered structure and provided evidence that the cores of the polar plugs, which could be seen to be extensions of the shell's middle layer, could be lost en bloc, either mechanically or chemically, and in this way probably provided an exit for the first stage larva at hatching.

  3. Bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and house mice (Mus musculus musculus; M. m. domesticus) in Europe are each parasitized by their own distinct species of Aspiculuris (Nematoda, Oxyurida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J M; Stewart, A; Bajer, A; Grzybek, M; Harris, P D; Lowe, A; Ribas, A; Smales, L; Vandegrift, K J

    2015-10-01

    The molecular phylogeny and morphology of the oxyuroid nematode genus Aspiculuris from voles and house mice has been examined. Worms collected from Myodes glareolus in Poland, Eire and the UK are identified as Aspiculuris tianjinensis, previously known only from China, while worms from Mus musculus from a range of locations in Europe and from laboratory mice, all conformed to the description of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Worms from voles and house mice are not closely related and are not derived from each other, with A. tianjinensis being most closely related to Aspiculuris dinniki from snow voles and to an isolate from Microtus longicaudus in the Nearctic. Both A. tianjinensis and A. tetraptera appear to represent recent radiations within their host groups; in voles, this radiation cannot be more than 2 million years old, while in commensal house mice it is likely to be less than 10,000 years old. The potential of Aspiculuris spp. as markers of host evolution is highlighted.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea by polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluids of patients

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    Praphathip Eamsobhana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable Angiostrongylus canto-nensis-specific antibodies (n = 10, patients with clinically suspected cases that tested negative for A. cantonensis-an-tibodies (n = 5 and patients with cerebral gnathostomiasis (n = 2 and neurocysticercosis (n = 2 were examined by a single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using the AC primers for the 66-kDa native protein gene. The PCR method detected A. cantonensis DNA in CSF samples from four of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases. The PCR results were negative for the remaining CSF samples. The nucleotide sequences of three positive CSF-PCR samples shared 98.8-99.2% similarity with the reference sequence of A. cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis.

  5. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto

    2016-02-15

    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp.

  6. Chromaspirina guanabarensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Desmodoridae) and a new illustrated dichotomous key to Chromaspirina species

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, T.F.; Esteves, A.M.; Smol, N.; Vanreusel, A.; Decraemer, W.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of Chromaspirina is described from Bica Beach, a polluted beach situated at Ilha do Governador, Guanabara Bay on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The new species belongs to the group of species within the genus which bears a poorly developed dorsal tooth. The new species is characterized by large body size, conoid tail shape, small acute dorsal tooth, long slender spicules with sclerotised hooked capitulum, and sexual dimorphism of the nonstriated part of the tail. A new il...

  7. Two new species of Metachromadora ( Nematoda: Desmodoridae) from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and a revised dichotomous key to the genus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, T.F.; Smol, N.; Esteves, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Metachromadora are described from Bananal and Bica beaches in Guanabara Bay on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both new species belong to the subgenus Bradylaimus, which is characterized by the absence of lateral alae. Metachromadora prepapillata sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of 8–9 precloacal papilliform supplements, while Metachromadora verae sp. nov. is characterized by the sexual dimorphism of the amphidial fovea, presence of 8–9 precloacal tubuliform s...

  8. Mudwigglus gen. n. (Nematoda: Diplopeltidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand, with description of three new species and notes on their distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Three new free-living nematode species belonging to the genus Mudwigglus gen. n. are described from the continental slope of New Zealand. The new genus is characterised by four short cephalic setae, fovea amphidialis in the shape of an elongated loop, narrow mouth opening, small, lightly cuticularised buccal cavity, pharynx with oval-shaped basal bulb, and secretory-excretory pore (if present) at level of pharyngeal bulb or slightly anterior. Mudwigglus gen. et sp. n. differs from other genera of the family Diplopeltidae in the combination of the following traits: presence of reflexed ovaries, male reproductive system with both testes directed anteriorly and reflexed posterior testis, and presence of tubular pre-cloacal supplements and pre-cloacal seta. Mudwigglus patumuka gen. et sp. n. is characterised by gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophyses, vagina directed posteriorly, and short conical tail with three terminal setae. M. macramphidum gen. et sp. n. is characterised by long fovea amphidialis, cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, vagina at right angle to body surface, and conico-cylindrical tail without terminal setae. M. plebeius gen. et sp. n. is characterised by cylindrical buccal cavity with cuticularised ring, gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophyses, females with vagina directed posteriorly, and conico-cylindrical tail with two terminal setae. Diplopeluta nellyae Vinex and Gourbault, 1992 is transferred to Mudwigglus gen. n. based on observations of paratypes from New Caledonia, and of specimens from the New Zealand continental slope, which both show the presence of two testes facing anteriorly. M. macramphidum gen. et sp. n. was restricted to a single site on Chatham Rise crest (350 m water depth), whereas M. patumuka gen. et sp. was recorded from six sites on western Chatham Rise (350-2800 m). M. plebeius gen. et sp. n. was recorded from 13 sites on Chatham Rise and two sites on Challenger Plateau (264-2300 m). Mudwigglus nellyae comb. n. was restricted to two Challenger Plateau sites. All Mudwigglus gen. n. species appear to be restricted to subsurface sediments.

  9. New data on two remarkable Antarctic species Amblydorylaimusisokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Petar; Peneva, Vlada K

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic position of two antarctic dorylaimid species Amblydorylaimusisokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. are discussed on the basis of morphological, including SEM study, morphometric, postembryonic and sequence data of 18S rDNA and the D2-D3 expansion fragments of large subunit rDNA. The evolutionary trees inferred from 18S sequences show insufficient resolution to determine the assignment of the two species to particular families, moreover Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus gen. n., comb. n. (=Rhyssocolpusparadoxus) previously regarded as a member of Nordiidae or Qudsianematidae, showed distant relationship both to Rhyssocolpusvinciguerrae and Eudorylaimus spp. The phylogram inferred from 28S sequences revealed that Amblydorylaimusisokaryon is a member of a well-supported group comprised of several Aporcelaimellus spp., while, no close relationships could be revealed for the Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus gen. n., comb. n. to any nematode genus. On the basis of molecular data and morphological characteristics, some taxonomic changes are proposed. Amblydorylaimusisokaryon is transferred from family Qudsianematidae to family Aporcelaimidae, and a new monotypic genus Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. is proposed, attributed to Pararhyssocolpidaefam. n. The diagnosis of the new family is provided together with emended diagnosis of the genera Amblydorylaimus and Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. Data concerning distribution of these endemic genera in the Antarctic region are also given.

  10. Contracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium (Nematoda: Anisakidae infection in Magellanic penguins (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae on the coast of Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina D.E. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of infections and the disease induced by Contracaecum plagiaticium and Contracaecum pelagicum in Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster. 1781 (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae were reported on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Parasites of the genus Contracaecum were present in all of the 11 studied animals. Co-infections by Csontracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium were observed in three hosts (27.27%. Gross lesions included hyperemia of the esophagus and/or stomach in six animals (54.54%. One of these animals (9.09%, parasitized by C. plagiaticium, presented a hemorrhagic area in the gastric mucosa. Histopathological findings demonstrated esophagitis with helminthes segments inserted in the epithelium, showing discrete mixed inflammatory infiltrate of heterophils and mononuclear cells. These parasites may be associated with other diseases, implicating in death of the penguins.

  11. Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956, first record of a representative of the suborder Bathyodontina (Nematoda, Mononchida in the Iberian fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Santiago, R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956 Hopper & Cairns, 1956, collected in sand dunes of SW Iberian peninsula, is studied. Description, measurements and illustrations (LM pictures are provided. Iberian specimens are briefly compared to other known populations of the species. And a compendium of Bathyodontus species, including a key to their identification, is also given. This is the first record of a representative of the nematode suborder Bathyodontina in the Iberian-Balearic range and in the Mediterranean region.Se estudia la especie Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956 Hopper y Cairns, 1956, recolectada en dunas de arena en el suroeste peninsular. Se presentan una descripción, medidas e ilustraciones (fotografías con microscopía óptica. Los ejemplares ibéricos se comparan brevemente con otras poblaciones conocidas de la misma especie. Y se ofrece un compendio de las especies del género Bathyodontus, incluida una clave para su identification. Se trata de la primera cita de un miembro del suborden Bathyodontina en el ámbito Ibero-balear y en la región Mediterránea.

  12. Study of types of some species of “Filaria” (Nematoda parasites of small mammals described by von Linstow and Molin

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    Guerrero R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes from the Berlin (ZMB and Vienna (NMW Museum collections referred to the genus Filaria Mueller, 1787 by von Linstow or Molin were studied. Three samples were in good condition and the specimens redescribed. Litomosa hepatica (von Linstow, 1897 n. comb., sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 3368, from the megachiropteran Pteropus neohibernicus, Bismarck Archipelago, resembles L. maki Tibayrenc, Bain & Ramanchandran, 1979, from Pteropus vampyrus, in Malaysia, but the buccal capsule differs. Both species display particular morphological characters which differ from species of Litomosa parasitic in microchiropterans. The remaining material originates from Brazil. The spicule morphology of Litomosoides circularis (von Linstow, 1899 Chandler, 1931, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 1059 from Hesperomys spec. (= Holochilus brasiliensis, Porto Alegre, confirms that it belongs to the sigmodontis group; the microfilaria presents characters of the genus Litomosoides, e.g. body attenuated at both extremities and salient cephalic hook. Taxonomic discussions by others confirm that species of Litomosoides belonging to the sigmodontis group and described subsequently are distinct from L. circularis. Litomosoides serpicula (Molin, 1858 Guerrero, Martin, Gardner & Bain, 2002, is redescribed, sample NMW 6323 from the bat Phyllostoma spiculatum (= Sturnira lilium, Ypanema. It is very close to L. brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, type host Moytis sp., but distinguished by a single ring in the buccal capsule, rather than two, supporting previous conclusions that the taxon L. brasiliensis, as generally regarded, may represent a complex of species. Samples NMW 6322 and NMW 6324, from other bats and also identified by Molin (1858 as Filaria serpicula, contain unidentifiable fragments of Litomosoides incertae sedis. Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3905 from Sorex vulgaris (= Sorex araneus, is incertae sedis because it contains two unidentifiable posterior parts of male, which might be an acuarid, Stammerinema sp. Filaria vesperuginis von Linstow, 1885, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3929, from the bat Vesperugo serotinus (= Eptesicus serotinus, contains encysted nematode larvae and is a nomen dubium.

  13. Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) from the Egyptian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae), first identification on the basis of light and ultrastructural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Fol, Mona; Yehia, Salma

    2014-12-01

    Haemonchus longistipes is a gastrointestinal abomasal nematode which is one of the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites infesting the stomach of ruminants. On the basis of light and ultrastructural data, the objective of the present study was to introduce a first identification of the cameline haemonchosis caused by H. longistipes. Abomasa of 42 Egyptian camels Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae) were collected monthly from September 2013 to April 2014 from the main slaughter house of Cairo, Egypt. Adult male and female nematode worms were recovered from 26 (62%) specimens of the examined abomasa. The parasites were of yellow color; the body was filiform (slender) tapered towards the anterior end in male and towards both ends in female. Buccal capsules absent, the buccal cavity was small with a conspicuous dorsal lancet extended from dorsal wall. The cervical papillae were prominent and spine-like. The body length of the female worm was 16.6-20.5 (18.5 ± 0.3) mm. The anterior end to the cervical papillae was 3.19-4.30 (4.12 ± 0.5) mm. The vulva of the female had a linguiform process or flap, the tail is without a spine, and the anal pore at the posterior end of the body had a simple dorsal rim. The body of male was 10.4-14.7 (13.9 ± 2.0) mm in length. The male bursa had elongated lobes supported by long, slender rays. The small dorsal lobe was asymmetrical with Y-shaped dorsal rays. The spicules were long with a length of 0.52-0.54 (0.53 ± 0.05) mm, each provided with a small barb and pore near its extremity. Synlophe was bilaterally and dorsoventrally symmetrical; it extended from cephalic expansion over anterior 50% of prebursal or prevulvar body and consisted of a maximum of 42 ridges. The described species herein was compared with the three morphologically similar species Haemonchus mitchelli, Haemonchus okapiae, and H. longistipes with their synlophes consist of 42 ridges distributed over the anterior half of the body. These species can be separated by unique structural characteristics of their synlophes, spicules, and copulatory bursa. The most morphologically similar species to the recovered worm was H. longistipes. Also, some of the parameters with regard to morphology and morphometry of this parasite were described for the first time.

  14. Development of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera and Céspedes 1971 (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) larvae in the intermediate host Sarasinula marginata (Semper 1885) (Mollusca: Soleolifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Cristiane L G F; Carvalho, Omar S; Mota, Ester M; Lenzi, Henrique L

    2008-04-01

    In life cycle of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, veronicellidae mollusks participate as the invertebrate host while rodents as the main vertebrate host. The current work shows a sequential larval development of A. costaricensis in Sarasinula marginata, individually killed and digested from day 1 to 43, post infection. Some larvae, recovered from sedimentation, were submitted to selective staining after paraffin embedded or inclusion in JB-4 to study inner structures. As control, four slugs were used, two killed at the beginning of infection and the others at the end of the experiment. At day 2 post infection, larvae were motionless and thick, presenting initial retention of granules. At day 4, L2 were detected, persisting until 43 days post infection. Larvae L2 displayed a large amount of granules rich in lipids and carbohydrates through its overall body, with more accumulation at the medial third corresponding to the esophagus-intestine transition site. Lipid granules, the main energetic source, were located at the basal and apical regions of intestinal cells. Both L1 and L3 presented bilateral alae, which is also common in other nematodes. Transition forms between L2 to L3 molts were also observed.

  15. Macroscopic lesions of the ventriculus of Rhea americana , Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Rheidae) naturally infected by Sicarius uncinipenis (Molin, 1860) (Nematoda: Habronematidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, N B; de Oliveira, F C R

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. However, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. Four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within the gastrointestinal tract, associated with parasitic infection. Two rheas parasitized by S. uncinipenis had ulcers on the koilin layer or had parasites penetrating this layer, resulting in widespread necrosis and hemorrhagic areas, whereas the 2 nonparasitized birds did not present lesions. The degree of injury was proportional to the parasitic load found in the birds. Thus, high parasitic loads can result in necrosis of the ventriculus, which may contribute to the death of birds, resulting in economic losses in the rural production of these birds.

  16. Checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974 (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Oncholaimidae) of the world: genera, species, distribution, and reference list for taxonomists and ecologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Adoncholaiminae is one of the seven subfamilies in the free-living aquatic nematode family Oncholaimidae. Nematodes in Adoncholaiminae are found from various water environment of the world. However, a checklist of all Adoncholaiminae species including full literature, especially information of experimental (not taxonomic) works, has not been updated for more than 40 years. New information A revised checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae of the world is provided. It contains 31 valid and 13 invalid species names in four genera with synonyms, collection records, and full literature from 1860's to 2015 for each species. A literature survey of total 477 previous papers was conducted in this work, and 362 of them are newly added to checklist. PMID:26929708

  17. Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in rice fields in Guilan province, Iran and the first record of Mylonchulus polonicus (Stefanski, 1915 Cobb, 1917 (Nematoda: Mononchina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabi Soheila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of nematodes was studied in rice fields in Guilan province, Iran, from 2014 to 2016. Nematode biodiversity of 250 soil and root samples was examined. Thirty nematode species were identified morphologically, including plant parasites, microbivores and mycetophagous and predator species. Molecular techniques were also used for further identification of three plant parasitic species. Indicators of population were also estimated. Spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus crenacauda Sher, 1966 and H. digitiformis Ivanova, 1967 and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus agri were the predominant parasitic species identified. Among other species, three mononchid species were identified namely Mononchus aquaticus, Mylonchulus sigmaturus and M. polonicus. The species M. polonicus was found and reported in Iran for the first time. The two plant parasitic species T. agri and Xiphinema index were reported in association with rice in Iran for the first time. To evaluate the distribution and incidence of Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice white-tip nematode in different regions of Guilan province, a total of 255 fresh seed samples were collected/inspected, of which, about 40% of them were infested with A. besseyi. Of the 16 studied counties, the highest percentage of infected seeds came from fields around the city of Astara (69.2% and the second highest infection was observed near the city of Anzali (60%.

  18. Contrasting evolutionary patterns of 28S and ITS rRNA genes reveal high intragenomic variation in Cephalenchus (Nematoda): Implications for species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago José; Baldwin, James Gordon

    2016-05-01

    Concerted evolution is often assumed to be the evolutionary force driving multi-family genes, including those from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat, to complete homogenization within a species, although cases of non-concerted evolution have been also documented. In this study, sequence variation of 28S and ITS ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the genus Cephalenchus is assessed at three different levels, intragenomic, intraspecific, and interspecific. The findings suggest that not all Cephalenchus species undergo concerted evolution. High levels of intraspecific polymorphism, mostly due to intragenomic variation, are found in Cephalenchus sp1 (BRA-01). Secondary structure analyses of both rRNA genes and across different species show a similar substitution pattern, including mostly compensatory (CBC) and semi-compensatory (SBC) base changes, thus suggesting the functionality of these rRNA copies despite the variation found in some species. This view is also supported by low sequence variation in the 5.8S gene in relation to the flanking ITS-1 and ITS-2 as well as by the existence of conserved motifs in the former gene. It is suggested that potential cross-fertilization in some Cephalenchus species, based on inspection of female reproductive system, might contribute to both intragenomic and intraspecific polymorphism of their rRNA genes. These results reinforce the potential implications of intragenomic and intraspecific genetic diversity on species delimitation, especially in biodiversity studies based solely on metagenetic approaches. Knowledge of sequence variation will be crucial for accurate species diversity estimation using molecular methods.

  19. Trichinella zimbabwensis n.sp. (Nematoda), a new non-encapsulated species from crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe also infecting mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Foggin, C M; Marucci, G; La Rosa, G; Sacchi, L; Corona, S; Rossi, P; Mukaratirwa, S

    2002-12-19

    Since 1995, Trichinella larvae have been detected in 39.5% of farmed crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe. Morphological, biological, biochemical and molecular studies carried out on one isolate from a farmed crocodile in 2001 support the conclusion that this parasite belongs to a new species, which has been named Trichinella zimbabwensis n.sp. This species, whose larvae are non-encapsulated in host muscles, infects both reptiles and mammals. The morphology of adults and larvae is similar to that of Trichinella papuae. Adults of T. zimbabwensis cross in both directions with adults of T. papuae (i.e. male of T. zimbabwensis per female of T. papuae and male of T. papuae per female of T. zimbabwensis), producing F1 offspring which produce very few and less viable F2 larvae. Muscle larvae of T. zimbabwensis, like those of T. papuae, do not infect birds. Three allozymes (of a total of 10) are diagnostic between T. zimbabwensis and T. papuae, and five are diagnostic between T. zimbabwensis and Trichinella pseudospiralis, the third non-encapsulated species. The percentage of the pairwise alignment identity between T. zimbabwensis and the other Trichinella species for the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene, the large subunit ribosomal-DNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene and the expansion segment five, shows that T. zimbabwensis is more similar to the two non-encapsulated species T. papuae (91% for cytochrome oxidase I; 96% for mt-lsrDNA; and 88% for expansion segment five) and T. pseudospiralis (88% for cytochrome oxidase I; 90% for mt-lsrDNA; and 66-73% for expansion segment five) than to any of the encapsulated species (85-86% for cytochrome oxidase I; 88-89% for mt-lsrDNA; and 71-79% for expansion segment five). This is the first non-encapsulated species discovered in Africa. The finding of a new Trichinella species that infects both reptiles and mammals suggests that the origin of Trichinella parasites dates back further than previously believed and can contribute to understanding the phylogeny and the epidemiology of the genus Trichinella.

  20. Defining parasite biodiversity at high latitudes of North America: new host and geographic records for Onchocerca cervipedis (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in moose and caribou

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    Verocai Guilherme G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerca cervipedis is a filarioid nematode of cervids reported from Central America to boreal regions of North America. It is found primarily in subcutaneous tissues of the legs, and is more commonly known as ‘legworm’. Blackflies are intermediate hosts and transmit larvae to ungulates when they blood-feed. In this article we report the first records of O. cervipedis from high latitudes of North America and its occurrence in previously unrecognized host subspecies including the Yukon-Alaska moose (Alces americanus gigas and the Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti. Methods We examined the subcutaneous connective tissues of the metacarpi and/or metatarsi of 34 moose and one caribou for parasitic lesions. Samples were collected from animals killed by subsistence hunters or animals found dead in the Northwest Territories (NT, Canada and Alaska (AK, USA from 2005 to 2012. Genomic DNA lysate was prepared from nematode fragments collected from two moose. The nd5 region of the mitochondrial DNA was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Subcutaneous nodules were found in 12 moose from the NT and AK, and one caribou from AK. Nematodes dissected from the lesions were identified as Onchocerca cervipedis based on morphology of female and male specimens. Histopathological findings in moose included cavitating lesions with multifocal granulomatous cellulitis containing intralesional microfilariae and adults, often necrotic and partially mineralized. Lesions in the caribou included periosteitis with chronic cellulitis, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and abundant granulation associated with intralesional adult nematodes and larvae. Sequences of the nd5 region (471bp, the first generated for this species, were deposited with Genbank (JN580791 and JN580792. Representative voucher specimens were deposited in the archives of the United States National Parasite Collection. Conclusions The geographic range of O. cervipedis is broader than previously thought, and extends into subarctic regions of western North America, at least to latitude 66°N. The host range is now recognized to include two additional subspecies: the Yukon-Alaska moose and Grant’s caribou. Accelerated climate change at high latitudes may affect vector dynamics, and consequently the abundance and distribution of O. cervipedis in moose and caribou. Disease outbreaks and mortality events associated with climatic perturbations have been reported for other filarioids, such as Setaria tundra in Fennoscandia, and may become an emerging issue for O. cervipedis in subarctic North America.

  1. Trace element concentrations in Proteocephalus macrocephalus (Cestoda) and Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda) in comparison to their fish host, Anguilla anguilla in Ria de Aveiro, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eira, C; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Vaqueiro, J; Soares, A M V M; Vingada, J

    2009-01-01

    The use of some fish parasites as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the effect of Proteocephalus macrocephalus on the accumulation of trace elements in the edible fish, Anguilla anguilla, in a contaminated area in Portugal (Ria de Aveiro). Also, the model P. macrocephalus/A. anguilla was assessed as a bioindicator system in the presence of the highly prevalent nematode Anguillicola crassus. Samples (kidney, liver, muscle, A. crassus and P. macrocephalus) of 20 eels harbouring A. crassus and another 20 harbouring both A. crassus and P. macrocephalus were selected for element analysis by ICP-MS. The highest concentrations of Cr, Ni and Zn were detected in P. macrocephalus. However, there was a higher liver and muscle Cr concentration in eels not infected by P. macrocephalus. Also, the nematode A. crassus presented higher Cr concentrations in those eels harbouring P. macrocephalus. Results suggest that P. macrocephalus individuals accumulate Cr and Ni while levels of Cr in eel livers and Ni levels in eel kidney are reduced. The system P. macrocephalus/A. anguilla yielded bioaccumulation factors for Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn, whereas bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr and Pb in A. crassus varied according to eel co-infection with P. macrocephalus, thus emphasising the possible role of cestode infection in metal metabolization/storage processes in host tissues. Results suggest that heavy metal pollution in Ria de Aveiro has been decreasing although it is still higher than in other contaminated areas in Europe. Nevertheless, eel consumption in Ria de Aveiro represents no risk for humans although they may represent a real contamination risk for wildlife. The system P. macrocephalus/A. anguilla is proposed as another promising bioindicator system to evaluate environmental Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn exposure in estuarine areas where both species co-occur.

  2. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae.

  3. Species of the genera Oxydirus, Dorylaimellus (Axodorylaimellus, Laimydorus and Rhabdolaimus from rivers in the Kruger National Park (Nematoda: Dorylaimida and Araeolaimida

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    Annelize Botha

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given oi'0.\\'vdirusgangeticusS\\c\\dic\\i, 1966, Laimydorus africanus spec. nov. and Rhaljclolainms terrestris De Man, 1880, recorded for the first time from South Africa. New distribution records are given for Dorylaimellus {Axodorylaimellus caffrae (Kruger, 1965. Additional information is given and morphometric data are tabulated and where appropriate, illustrations are also given.

  4. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per Walter;

    2013-01-01

    -regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in immunomodulation. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase/lipase, valine and cysteine arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and a-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution....... This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. In addition, based on the notion that A. simplex ES products may have an immune-depressive effect (by minimizing immune gene expression) it could also be suggested that worm enzymes directly target host immune...

  5. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 and Bitylenchus Filipjev, 1934 contain 104 and 29 valid species, respectively, of plant-parasitic nematodes collectively known as "stunt nematodes”. Stunt nematodes have a broad geographical distribution in several continents and some species damage agricultur...

  6. Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2003-09-01

    The first tylenchid parasite of ants, Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp., is described from a queen carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr in Western Oregon, USA. The new genus is characterised by the excretory pore anterior to the nerve-ring and rounded tails in the free-living adults, a stylet bearing basal thickenings in the free-living female, a smaller stylet lacking basal thickenings in the male and a short, crenulate leptoderan bursa. The mature parasitic female is light yellow and ovoviviparous. F. oregonensis n. sp. is closely related to members of Metaparasitylenchus Wachek, 1955, with species parasitising beetles living under bark or in rotten wood, a habitat similar to that of carpenter ants. However, males of Metaparasitylenchus are characterised by a fairly long tail with a broad peloderan bursa. It is suggested that this case of tylenchid parasitism in ants is an example of environmental host selection. A review of the described nematode parasites of ants is presented.

  7. In vitro anthelminthic efficacy of Dichrocephala integrifolia (Asteraceae) extracts on the gastro-intestinal nematode parasite of mice:Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda, Heligmosomatidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wabo Pon J; Payne V K; Mbogning Tayo Gertrude; Komtangi Marie Claire; Yondo Jeannette; Ngangout Alidou M; Mpoame Mbida; Bilong Bilong CF

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Dichrocephala integrifolia (D. integrifolia) against the eggs (fresh and embryonnated), the first and second larval stages of Heligmosomoides bakeri. In order to verify if this medicinal plant possesses active compounds capable of inhibiting the embryonation and hatching of eggs or to induce the mortality of larvae (L1 and L2). Methods:Dried extracts were diluted in distilled water to obtain five different concentrations: 625, 1 250, 2 500, 3 750 and 5 000 μg/mL. Fresh eggs obtained from artificially infected mice feces were exposed to these different concentrations for 48 h. Time of contact for embryonated eggs was 6 h while L1 and L2 larvae were exposed for 24 h. Distilled water (placebo) and 1.5% DMSO were used as negative controls. Results: Distilled water, and 1.5%DMSO had no effect on embryonation, hatching and larval survival. Aqueous extracts of D. integrifolia showed a weak activity against all stages of the parasite at all concentrations tested. On the contrary, the ethanolic extract of D. integrifolia inhibited the embryonation of 87.5%of fresh eggs, the hatching of 81.1%of embryonated eggs and induced the mortality of 98.1%and 98%of L1 and L2 larvae respectively at 5 000 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the ethanolic extracts of D. integrifolia contained compounds with ovicidal and larvicidal properties. In spite of these results, in vivo tests, studies on toxicity and mechanism of action of active compounds are also needed to validate the utilisation of this medicinal plant by population of Dschang-Cameroon to treat gastro-intestinal parasites.

  8. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

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    Vera Lucia M. Klein

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.

  9. [Entomology of onchocerciasis in Soconusco, Chiapas, México. VII. Quantitative variations in the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda: Filaroiidea) according to human activity space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Gutiérrez, M; Ramírez, A; Miranda, R

    1991-01-01

    In this research we tried to demonstrate differences in transmission intensities of onchocerciasis by Simulium ochraceum in the community of Golondrinas, Municipality of Acacoyagua in the Soconusco area of the state of Chiapas. Adult females of this species were captured in the center of the villages, the coffee plantation, and the corn bean planted plots, during 7 to 10 consecutive days of the months of June, August, November and December of 1983, and January, March, and May of 1984. Captures were made from 7:00 to 11:00 h, by two persons (a human bait and a collector) in each of the mentioned areas. Variations in densities of S. ochraceum were not statistically significant among the different areas, although there was a predominance in the center of the villages during all the time periods. There was not a statistical significance in the number of oviparous females, although again the center of 50 villages showed the highest percentages (43.5%), as compared to the coffee plantation (37.8%), and the corn-bean plots (33.8%). Regarding the ratio infection: infectivity, only the infective mosquitoes with L3 showed a statistical significance in the three types of areas, being highest in the center of the villages. Transmission potentials were: center of the village 28.5 L3/human/period; coffee plantation, 73 L3/human/period; corn-bean plot, 5.8 L3/human/period. We discuss the possibility that the differences in densities among the various areas might depend on the variations of the breeding sites, mobility or permanence of the individuals during the hours of greater activity of S. ochraceum, and the wind and light local conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Morphological and morphometric differentiation of dorsal-spined first stage larvae of lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae infecting muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus in the central Canadian Arctic

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    Pratap Kafle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis are the two most common protostrongylid nematodes infecting muskoxen in the North American Arctic and Subarctic. First stage larvae (L1 of these lungworms have considerable morphological similarity that makes their differential diagnosis very difficult. Using light microscopy, we studied in detail the L1 of these two species and identified the key differences in morphological and morphometric attributes. Thirty L1 of each species from naturally infected muskox were heat-killed and then assessed for morphological and morphometric features that could be used for species-level differentiation. Key differentiating features include: length and morphology of the tail extension, curvature of the body, ventral post-anal transverse cuticular striations, and total body length. A laboratory guide for differentiation of L1 based on these species-specific characters was prepared and used by an experienced observer to identify an additional 35 L1 extracted from a different set of fecal samples from free-ranging muskoxen with mixed infections. The identities of these L1 were confirmed by sequence analysis of the ITS-2 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Accuracy of morphological identification was 100 percent, reflecting the reliability of the proposed guide for differentiation. Using the guide, three minimally trained lab assistants each fixed and accurately identified 10 of 10 randomly selected L1. Ability to morphologically differentiate these facilitates the monitoring of overlapping range expansion of both parasites in the Canadian Arctic. Studies enabling species-level parasite identification are also critical for defining biodiversity, detecting mixed infections, and understanding host–parasite interactions. Morphological identification is a simple, reliable and cost-effective alternative to labor and equipment intensive molecular methods and can easily be performed in low resource settings.

  11. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Oxyuridomorpha: Coronostomatidae) from the Indigenous Milliped Narceus gordanus (Chamberlain, 1943) (Diplopoda: Spirobolida) in Ocala National Forest, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary; Bernard, Ernest C.; Pivar, Robert J.; Moulton, John K.; Shelley, Rowland M.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four individuals of Narceus gordanus (Diplopoda: Spirobolidae) were collected in Ocala National Forest, FL, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each specimen was dissected to extract the intestine, which was removed and examined for parasitic nematodes. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. was collected from the hindgut and midgut of 10 specimens, and its morphology was examined with brightfield, differential interference contrast, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. This species is separated from other Coronostoma spp. by the following characteristics: body length less than 3 mm; head sense organs pit-like; first annule long, extending past middle of corpus, width similar to that of second annule; basal bulb pyriform; eggs larger than 60 × 50 µm. This species is the first North American record for the genus Coronostoma, which is removed from Thelastomatoidea: Thelastomatidae and reassigned to Coronostomatidae on the basis of presumed apomorphies. A key is provided for known Coronostoma spp. The superfamily Coronostomatoidea is re-established for Coronostomatidae and Traklosiidae.

  12. Vectorial competence studies of mosquitoes populations (Diptera, Culiciade) of Metropolitan Region of Recife, Pernambuco and Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda, Onchocercidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilcia Aparecida de Carvalho SIlva

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Mosquitos pertencentes aos gêneros Culex, Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia, Psorophora e Coquillettidia são susceptíveis à infecção por Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856), podendo transmitir o filarídeo aos cães e gatos. Os vetores de D. immitis no Brasil são conhecidos apenas nos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e do Maranhão, fazendo-se necessária a investigação da susceptibilidade e da competência vetorial de espécies existentes nos demais Estados brasileiros. O presente trabalho teve por finali...

  13. A new species of Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitic in the brown ground snake Atractus major Boulenger (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is described based on specimens discovered in the lung of Atractus major Boulenger from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil. The new species is assigned to Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on morphological characters (comparatively thin body cuticle without prominent inflations, arrangement of circumoral papillae in two lateral groups, pre-equatorial position of vulva, eggs in uteri at early cleavage stages), as well as because of its parasitism in snakes. The new species is most similar to S. vellardi (Pereira, 1928) due to the absence of lips and buccal capsule, similar body dimensions, and the specificity to dipsadid snakes in Brazil. The two species differ in the shape of the tail (bulbous dilatation in the posterior part followed by a thread-like tail tip present in S. atracti n. sp.), the width of the oesophagus, and the size of the excretory glands. Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is the sixth species of this genus found in the Neotropical Region.

  14. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico

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    František Moravec

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo (Atherinopsidae of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported or erroneously reported features of S. osorioi, such as the location of the vulva, the actual number and distribution of postanal papillae and phasmids and the presence of a short median cuticular ridge anterior to the cloacal opening (in addition to two long subventral ridges. The recorded somewhat shorter spicules (420-465 and 105-111 μm and mostly smaller eggs (33-36 × 18-20 μm as compared to the original species description may be due to a different type of host, geographical region or generally smaller body measurements of these specimens. These biometrical differences are considered to be within the limits of the intraspecific variability of S. osorioi. A key to species of Spinitectus parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico is provided.

  15. Morphological and molecular identification of Hysterothylacium longilabrum sp. nov. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and larvae of different stages from marine fishes in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2012-08-01

    A new ascaridoid nematode Hysterothylacium longilabrum sp. nov. collected from the intestine and stomach of the marine fishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus canaliculatus (Park) (Perciformes: Siganidae) in the South China Sea is described and illustrated. The new species differs from its congeners by the unusually long lips, the very short intestinal caecum and relatively long ventricular appendix (ratio of intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix, 1:2.38-5.50), the long spicules (1.96-3.28 mm long, representing 7.42-11.4% of the body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae [38-43 pairs in total, arranged as: 31-34 pairs precloacal, 1 pair of paracloacal and 4-6 pairs postcloacal (the second or fourth pair double)] and the presence of a particular medioventral precloacal papilla in the male. Molecular analyses by sequencing and comparing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA of H. longilabrum sp. nov. with the closely related nematode sequences seem to support the validity of the new species based on the morphological observation. In addition, the third- and fourth-stage larvae of the new species are also exactly identified and described by analysing and comparing the ITS sequence with the adult, and the result is a substantial step toward elucidating its life cycle.

  16. Genetic markers in the study of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860): larval identification and genetic relationships with other species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, S; Paggi, L; Nascetti, G; Portes Santos, C; Costa, G; Di Beneditto, A P; Ramos, R; Argyrou, M; Cianchi, R; Bullini, L

    2002-03-01

    Genetic variation at 21 gene-enzyme systems was studied in a sample of an adult population of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860) recovered in the dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis from the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The characteristic alleles, detected in this population, made it possible to identify as A. typica, Anisakis larvae with a Type I morphology (sensu Berland, 1961) from various fishes: Thunnus thynnus and Auxis thazard from Brazil waters, Trachurus picturatus and Scomber japonicus from Madeiran waters, Scomberomorus commerson, Euthynnus affinis, Sarda orientalis and Coryphaena hippurus from the Somali coast of the Indian Ocean, and Merluccius merluccius from the Eastern Mediterranean. Characteristic allozymes are given for the identification, at any life-stage and in both sexes, of A. typica and the other Anisakis species so far studied genetically. The distribution of A. typica in warmer temperate and tropical waters is confirmed; the definitive hosts so far identified for this species belong to delphinids, phocoenids and pontoporids. The present findings represent the first established records of intermediate/paratenic hosts of A. typica and extend its range to Somali waters of the Indian Ocean and to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable genetic homogeneity was observed in larval and adult samples of A. typica despite their different geographical origin; interpopulation genetic distances were low, ranging from D(Nei)=0.004 (Eastern Mediterranean versus Somali) to D(Nei)=0.010 (Brazilian versus Somali). Accordingly, indirect estimates of gene flow gave a rather high average value of Nm = 6.00. Genetic divergence of A. typica was, on average, D(Nei)=1.12 from the members of the A. simplex complex (A. simplex s.s, A. pegreffii, A. simplex C) and D(Nei)=1.41 from A. ziphidarum, which all share Type I larvae; higher values were found from both A. physeteris (D(Nei)=2.77)

  17. Freshwater nematodes of the genera Thornenema and Mesodorylaimus from the Kruger National Park with a diagnostic species compendium for South African species of the genus Mesodorylaimus (Nematoda: Dorylaimida

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    Annelize Botha

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete descriptions are given of Mesodorylaimus potus Heyns, 1963, a new record for the Kruger National Park and M. aegypticus (Andrassy, 1958 recorded here for the first time from South Africa. Additional information and new distribution records are given for Mesodorylaimus sp. cf paralitoralis (Basson & Heyns, 1974 and Thornenema haldum (Thome, 1939. A compendium is also presented for the 17 recognized Mesodorylaimus species from South Africa.

  18. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Trichuris Species (Nematoda- Trichuridae), and Phylogenetic Relationships of Trichuris Species of Cricetid Rodents from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, María del Rosario; Cutillas, Cristina; Panei, Carlos Javier; Callejón, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Populations of Trichuris spp. isolated from six species of sigmodontine rodents from Argentina were analyzed based on morphological characteristics and ITS2 (rDNA) region sequences. Molecular data provided an opportunity to discuss the phylogenetic relationships among the Trichuris spp. from Noth and South America (mainly from Argentina). Trichuris specimens were identified morphologically as Trichuris pardinasi, T. navonae, Trichuris sp. and Trichuris new species, described in this paper. Sequences analyzed by Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods showed four main clades corresponding with the four different species regardless of geographical origin and host species. These four species from sigmodontine rodents clustered together and separated from Trichuris species isolated from murine and arvicoline rodents (outgroup). Different genetic lineages observed among Trichuris species from sigmodontine rodents which supported the proposal of a new species. Moreover, host distribution showed correspondence with the different tribes within the subfamily Sigmodontinae. PMID:25393618

  19. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. and Strelkovimermis ozawindibi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2002-10-01

    Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.

  20. Trichosomoides nasalis Biocca & Aurizi, 1961 et T. spratti n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea, parasites des fosses nasales de muridés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diagne M.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Le nématode parasite des muqueuses des fosses nasales de rongeurs, Trichosomoides nasalis, se rencontre fréquemment au Sénégal chez le muridé Arvicanthis niloticus. L'analyse morphologique de ce matériel permet de compléter la description originale, faite d'après des spécimens récoltés en Italie chez Rattus norvegicus. Il en ressort qu'un autre matériel parasite de Rattus fuscipes en Australie, qui avait été identifié à cette espèce, représente en fait une espèce distincte (plus petite, avec une moyenne de cinq mâles intra-utérins par femelle, au lieu d'un, que nous nommons T. spratti n. sp.