Carla S. Pimentel; Matthew P. Ayres; Vallery Erich; Chris Young; Douglas Streett
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), the pinewood nematode and the causal agent of the pine wilt disease, is a globally important invasive pathogen of pine forests. It is phoretic in woodborer beetles of the genus Monochamus (Megerle) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and has been able to exploit novel indigenous species of...
Mota, Manuel; Vieira, Paulo
According to the European Plant Protection Organization, the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantine organism at the top of the list of the pathogenic species. PWN may be found in North America (Canada, USA and Mexico) and in East Asia (Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan) and has a highly destructive capability towards conifers, in a relatively short time, causing serious economic damage in Japan, China and Korea. This nematode surveying is extremely imp...
Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ravichandran, Vinothkannan; Lee, Jintae
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantined migratory endoparasite known to cause severe economic losses in pine forest ecosystems. The study presents the nematicidal effects of halogenated indoles on B. xylophilus and their action mechanisms. 5-Iodoindole and abamectin (positive control) at low concentration (10??g/mL) presented similar and high nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus. 5-Iodoindole diminished fecundity, reproductive activities, embryonic and juvenile lethality and locom...
Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.
Vicente, Claudia S. L.; Nascimento, Francisco; Espada, Margarida; Barbosa, Pedro; Mota, Manuel; Glick, Bernard R.; Oliveira, Solange
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a complex disease integrating three major agents: the pathogenic agent, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; the insect-vector Monochamus spp.; and the host pine tree, Pinus sp. Since the early 80's, the notion that another pathogenic agent, namely bacteria, may play a role in PWD has been gaining traction, however the role of bacteria in PWD is still unknown. The present work supports the possibility that some B. xylophilus-associated bacteria may play a significant role in the development of this disease. This is inferred as a consequence of: (i) the phenotypic characterization of a collection of 35 isolates of B. xylophilus-associated bacteria, in different tests broadly used to test plant pathogenic and plant growth promoting bacteria, and (ii) greenhouse experiments that infer the pathogenicity of these bacteria in maritime pine, Pinus pinaster. The results illustrate the presence of a heterogeneous microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and the traits exhibited by at least, some of these bacteria, appear to be related to PWD symptoms. The inoculation of four specific B. xylophilus-associated bacteria isolates in P. pinaster seedlings resulted in the development of some PWD symptoms suggesting that these bacteria likely play an active role with B. xylophilus in PWD. PMID:23091599
Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in
Bonifácio, Luís F; Sousa, Edmundo; Naves, Pedro; Inácio, Maria L; Henriques, Joana; Mota, Manuel; Barbosa, Pedro; Drinkall, Mike J; Buckley, Stanislas
The pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is an important conifer disease worldwide. It is the direct cause of the death of millions of pines in south-east Asia (mainly Japan, China and Korea) and has been established in Portugal since 1999. The phasing out of methyl bromide has created an urgent need for alternative treatment of wood packaging materials. The effect of sulfuryl fluoride (SF), a broad-spectrum fumigant used to control insects, was tested in Pinus pinaster boards naturally infested by PWN. Boards were fumigated for 24 h at three different temperatures (15, 20 and 30 °C) with dosage ranges of 3169-4407, 1901-4051 and 1385-2141 gh m(-3) respectively. Treated wood was sampled for nematode identification and counting, before treatment and after 24 h, 72 h and 21 days. No survival was found in the 15 °C and 30 °C treatments, while at 20 °C the mortality ranged from 94.06 to 100%. Some reasons for the survival at 20 °C are presented. Results confirm SF to be an effective quarantine treatment for PWN at 15 and 30 °C. Further studies are needed to obtain the most effective dosage at 20 °C, and to determine the toxicity of SF fumigation on B. xylophilus at other temperatures, especially at 25 °C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V
Here we report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain M24T3, which is associated with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease. Serratia sp. strain M24T3 has been identified as a bionematocide for B. xylophilus in vitro, and multiple genes potentially involved in virulence and nematotoxity were identified.
Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V.
Here we report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain M24T3, which is associated with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease. Serratia sp. strain M24T3 has been identified as a bionematocide for B. xylophilus in vitro, and multiple genes potentially involved in virulence and nematotoxity were identified.
Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is responsible for devastating epidemics in pine trees in Asia and Europe. Recent studies showed that bacteria carried by the PWN might be involved in PWD. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between bacteria and the PWN remained unclear. Now that the whole genome of B. xylophilus (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is published, transcriptome analysis is a unique method to study the role played by bacteria in PWN. In this study, the transcriptome of aseptic B. xylophilus, B. xylophilus treated with endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSPmBx03 and fungus B. xylophilus were sequenced. We found that 61 genes were up-regulated and 830 were down-regulated in B. xylophilus after treatment with the endobacterium; 178 genes were up-regulated and 1122 were down-regulated in fungus B. xylophilus compared with aseptic B. xylophilus. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were used to study the significantly changed biological functions and pathways for these differentially expressed genes. Many pathogenesis-related genes, including glutathinone S-transferase, pectate lyase, ATP-binding cassette transporter and cytochrome P450, were up-regulated after B. xylophilus were treated with the endobacterium. In addition, we found that bacteria enhanced the virulence of PWN. These findings indicate that endobacteria might play an important role in the development and virulence of PWN and will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between bacteria and the PWN.
He, Long-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Xue, Qi; Qiu, Xiu-Wen
Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is responsible for devastating epidemics in pine trees in Asia and Europe. Recent studies showed that bacteria carried by the PWN might be involved in PWD. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between bacteria and the PWN remained unclear. Now that the whole genome of B. xylophilus (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) is published, transcriptome analysis is a unique method to study the role played by bacteria in PWN. In this study, the transcriptome of aseptic B. xylophilus, B. xylophilus treated with endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSPmBx03) and fungus B. xylophilus were sequenced. We found that 61 genes were up-regulated and 830 were down-regulated in B. xylophilus after treatment with the endobacterium; 178 genes were up-regulated and 1122 were down-regulated in fungus B. xylophilus compared with aseptic B. xylophilus. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were used to study the significantly changed biological functions and pathways for these differentially expressed genes. Many pathogenesis-related genes, including glutathinone S-transferase, pectate lyase, ATP-binding cassette transporter and cytochrome P450, were up-regulated after B. xylophilus were treated with the endobacterium. In addition, we found that bacteria enhanced the virulence of PWN. These findings indicate that endobacteria might play an important role in the development and virulence of PWN and will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between bacteria and the PWN. PMID:27231904
The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction with high resolution melting (real-time PCR-HRM) analysis for the detection and discrimination of nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.
Filipiak, Anna; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata
The real-time PCR-HRM analysis was developed for the detection and discrimination of the quarantine nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. A set of primers was designed to target the ITS region of rDNA. The results have demonstrated that this analysis is a valuable tool for differentiation of these both species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ravichandran, Vinothkannan; Lee, Jintae
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantined migratory endoparasite known to cause severe economic losses in pine forest ecosystems. The study presents the nematicidal effects of halogenated indoles on B. xylophilus and their action mechanisms. 5-Iodoindole and abamectin (positive control) at low concentration (10 µg/mL) presented similar and high nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus. 5-Iodoindole diminished fecundity, reproductive activities, embryonic and juvenile lethality and locomotor behaviors. Molecular interactions of ligands with invertebrate-specific glutamate gated chloride channel receptor reinforced the notion that 5-iodoindole, like abamectin, rigidly binds to the active sites of the receptor. 5-Iodoindole also induced diverse phenotypic deformities in nematodes including abnormal organ disruption/shrinkage and increased vacuolization. These findings suggest the prospective role of vacuoles in nematode death by methuosis. Importantly, 5-iodoindole was nontoxic to two plants, Brassica oleracea and Raphanus raphanistrum. Henceforth, the study warrants the application of iodoindoles in ecological environments to control the devastating pine destruction by B. xylophilus.
Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, causes huge economic losses in pine forests. The high expression of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus during infection in P. thunbergii indicated that these genes had a certain relationship with the pathogenic process of B. xylophilus. Thus, we attempted to identify the molecular characterization and functions of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus. In this study, full-length cDNA of three cytochrome P450 genes, BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3 were first cloned from B. xylophilus using 3' and 5' RACE PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that all of them contained a highly-conserved cytochrome P450 domain. The characteristics of the three putative proteins were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. RNA interference (RNAi was used to assess the functions of BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3. The results revealed that these cytochrome P450 genes were likely to be associated with the vitality, dispersal ability, reproduction, pathogenicity and pesticide metabolism of B. xylophilus. This discovery confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of three cytochrome P450 genes from B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information in elucidating the molecular interaction mechanism between B. xylophilus and its host plant.
Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V
The draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, carried by the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus pinewood nematode, the causative agent of pine wilt disease, is presented. In Pseudomonas sp. strain M47T1, genes that make this a plant growth-promoting bacterium, as well as genes potentially involved in nematotoxicity, were identified.
Espada, Margarida; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Eves van den Akker, Sebastian; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Jones, John T
The migratory endoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, has phytophagous and mycetophagous phases during its life cycle. This highly unusual feature distinguishes it from other plant-parasitic nematodes and requires profound changes in biology between modes. During the phytophagous stage, the nematode migrates within pine trees, feeding on the contents of parenchymal cells. Like other plant pathogens, B. xylophilus secretes effectors from pharyngeal gland cells into the host during infection. We provide the first description of changes in the morphology of these gland cells between juvenile and adult life stages. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach and an effector identification pipeline, we identify numerous novel parasitism genes which may be important for the mediation of interactions of B. xylophilus with its host. In-depth characterization of all parasitism genes using in situ hybridization reveals two major categories of detoxification proteins, those specifically expressed in either the pharyngeal gland cells or the digestive system. These data suggest that B. xylophilus incorporates effectors in a multilayer detoxification strategy in order to protect itself from host defence responses during phytophagy. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Faria, Jorge M S; Sena, Inês; Vieira da Silva, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Barbosa, Pedro; Ascensão, Lia; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina
Co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were established as a biotechnological tool to evaluate the effect of nematotoxics addition in a host/parasite culture system. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), was detected for the first time in Europe in 1999 spreading throughout the pine forests in Portugal and recently in Spain. Plant in vitro cultures may be a useful experimental system to investigate the plant/nematode relationships in loco, thus avoiding the difficulties of field assays. In this study, Pinus pinaster in vitro cultures were established and compared to in vivo 1 year-old plantlets by analyzing shoot structure and volatiles production. In vitro co-cultures were established with the PWN and the effect of the phytoparasite on in vitro shoot structure, water content and volatiles production was evaluated. In vitro shoots showed similar structure and volatiles production to in vivo maritime pine plantlets. The first macroscopic symptoms of PWD were observed about 4 weeks after in vitro co-culture establishment. Nematode population in the culture medium increased and PWNs were detected in gaps of the callus tissue and in cavities developed from the degradation of cambial cells. In terms of volatiles main components, plantlets, P. pinaster cultures, and P. pinaster with B. xylophilus co-cultures were all β- and α-pinene rich. Co-cultures may be an easy-to-handle biotechnological approach to study this pathology, envisioning the understanding of and finding ways to restrain this highly devastating nematode.
Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a mycophagous and phytophagous pathogen responsible for the current widespread epidemic of the pine wilt disease, which has become a major threat to pine forests throughout the world. Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of PWN currently exists. In the characterization of basic physiological properties of B. xylophilus YB-1 isolates, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS method that identifies potential hits within approximately 7 h. Using this HTS method, we screened 206 compounds with known activities, mostly antifungal, for antinematodal activities and identified HWY-4213 (1-n-undecyl-2-[2-fluorphenyl] methyl-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinolinium chloride, a highly water-soluble protoberberine derivative, as a potent nematicidal and antifungal agent. When tested on 4 year-old pinewood seedlings that were infected with YB-1 isolates, HWY-4213 exhibited a potent therapeutic nematicidal activity. Further tests of screening 39 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in channel proteins and B. xylophilus sensitivity to Ca(2+ channel blockers suggested that HWY-4213 targets the calcium channel proteins. Our study marks a technical breakthrough by developing a novel HTS method that leads to the discovery HWY-4213 as a dual-acting antinematodal and antifungal compound.
Oh, Wan-Suk; Jeong, Pan-Young; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Lee, Jeong-Eui; Moon, Yil-Seong; Cheon, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Uk; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Paik, Young-Ki
The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a mycophagous and phytophagous pathogen responsible for the current widespread epidemic of the pine wilt disease, which has become a major threat to pine forests throughout the world. Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of PWN currently exists. In the characterization of basic physiological properties of B. xylophilus YB-1 isolates, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS) method that identifies potential hits within approximately 7 h. Using this HTS method, we screened 206 compounds with known activities, mostly antifungal, for antinematodal activities and identified HWY-4213 (1-n-undecyl-2-[2-fluorphenyl] methyl-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinolinium chloride), a highly water-soluble protoberberine derivative, as a potent nematicidal and antifungal agent. When tested on 4 year-old pinewood seedlings that were infected with YB-1 isolates, HWY-4213 exhibited a potent therapeutic nematicidal activity. Further tests of screening 39 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in channel proteins and B. xylophilus sensitivity to Ca(2+) channel blockers suggested that HWY-4213 targets the calcium channel proteins. Our study marks a technical breakthrough by developing a novel HTS method that leads to the discovery HWY-4213 as a dual-acting antinematodal and antifungal compound.
Suguru E Tanaka
Full Text Available The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. This nematode has two developmental forms in its life cycle; i.e., the propagative and dispersal forms. The former is the form that builds up its population inside the host pine. The latter is specialized for transport by the vector. This form is separated into two dispersal stages (third and fourth; the third-stage dispersal juvenile (JIII is specialized for survival under unfavorable conditions, whereas the fourth-stage juvenile (JIV, which is induced by a chemical signal from the carrier Monochamus beetle, is transported to new host pines and invades them. Because of its importance in the disease cycle, molecular and chemical aspects of the JIV have been investigated, while the mechanism of JIII induction has not been sufficiently investigated. In an effort to clarify the JIII induction process, we established inbred lines of B. xylophilus and compared their biological features. We found that the total number of nematodes (propagation proportion was negatively correlated with the JIII emergence proportion, likely because nematode development was arrested at JIII; i.e., they could not develop to adults via the reproductive stage. In addition, JIII induction seemed to be regulated by a small number of genes because the JIII induction proportion varied among inbred lines despite the high homozygosity of the parental line. We also demonstrated that JIII can be artificially induced by the nematode's secreted substances. This is the first report of artificial induction of JIII in B. xylophilus. The dauer (dispersal juvenile of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans corresponds functionally to JIII of B. xylophilus, and this stage is known to be induced by a chemical signal referred to as daumone, derived from the nematodes' secretion. The artificial induction of JIII suggests the presence of daumone-like material in B. xylophilus.
Full Text Available A novel gene (designated as cen219 encoding endoglucanase was isolated from a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus metagenomic library by functional screening. Sequence analysis revealed that cen219 encoded a protein of 367 amino acids. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified endoglucanase suggested that Cen219 was a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for endoglucanase activity of Cen219 was separately 50 °C and 6.0. It was stable from 30 to 50 °C, and from pH 4.0 to 7.0. The activity was significantly enhanced by Mn(2+ and dramatically reduced by detergent SDS and metals Fe(3+, Cu(2+ or Hg(2+. The enzyme hydrolyzed a wide range of β-1, 3-, and β-1, 4-linked polysaccharides, with varying activities. Activities towards microcrystalline cellulose and filter paper were relatively high, while the highest activity was towards oat gum. The Km and Vmax of Cen219 towards CMC was 17.37 mg/ml and 333.33 U/mg, respectively. The findings have an insight into understanding the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions in B. xylophilus species. The properties also make Cen219 an interesting enzyme for biotechnological application.
Qiu, Xiu-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Lin; Ye, Jian-Ren
As the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes huge economic losses by devastating pine forests worldwide. The pectate lyase gene is essential for successful invasion of their host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. To demonstrate the role of pectate lyase gene in the PWD process, RNA interference (RNAi) is used to analyze the function of the pectate lyase 1 gene in B. xylophilus (Bxpel1). The efficiency of RNAi was detected by real-time PCR. The result demonstrated that the quantity of B. xylophilus propagated with control solution treatment was 62 times greater than that soaking in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) after B. xylophilus inoculation in Botrytis cinerea for the first generation (F1). The number of B. xylophilus soaking in control solution was doubled compared to that soaking in Bxpel1 dsRNA four days after inoculation in Pinus thunbergii. The quantity of B. xylophilus was reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after treatment with dsRNAi compared with that using a control solution treatment. Bxpel1 dsRNAi reduced the migration speed and reproduction of B. xylophilus in pine trees. The pathogenicity to P. thunbergii seedling of B. xylophilus was weaker after soaking in dsRNA solution compared with that after soaking in the control solution. Our results suggest that Bxpel1 gene is a significant pathogenic factor in the PWD process and this basic information may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of PWD. PMID:26797602
Vicente, Cláudia S L; Nascimento, Francisco X; Barbosa, Pedro; Ke, Huei-Mien; Tsai, Isheng J; Hirao, Tomonori; Cock, Peter J A; Kikuchi, Taisei; Hasegawa, Koichi; Mota, Manuel
Pine wilt disease (PWD) results from the interaction of three elements: the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; the insect-vector, Monochamus sp.; and the host tree, mostly Pinus species. Bacteria isolated from B. xylophilus may be a fourth element in this complex disease. However, the precise role of bacteria in this interaction is unclear as both plant-beneficial and as plant-pathogenic bacteria may be associated with PWD. Using whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization, we were able to investigate in more detail the genetic repertoire of Serratia marcescens PWN146, a bacterium associated with B. xylophilus. We show clear evidence that S. marcescens PWN146 is able to withstand and colonize the plant environment, without having any deleterious effects towards a susceptible host (Pinus thunbergii), B. xylophilus nor to the nematode model C. elegans. This bacterium is able to tolerate growth in presence of xenobiotic/organic compounds, and use phenylacetic acid as carbon source. Furthermore, we present a detailed list of S. marcescens PWN146 potentials to interfere with plant metabolism via hormonal pathways and/or nutritional acquisition, and to be competitive against other bacteria and/or fungi in terms of resource acquisition or production of antimicrobial compounds. Further investigation is required to understand the role of bacteria in PWD. We have now reinforced the theory that B. xylophilus-associated bacteria may have a plant origin.
Bi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Yanting; Huang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Hongshi; Bai, Liqun; Hu, Jiafu
To understand the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, avermectin, milbemectin, and thiacloprid on the reproduction and development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, seven parameters, namely population growth, fecundity, egg hatchability, larval lethality, percent larval development, body size, and sexual ratio, were investigated using sublethal (LC20) doses of these compounds in the laboratory. Emamectin benzoate treatment led to a significant suppression in population size, brood size, and percent larval development with 411, 3.50, and 49.63%, respectively, compared to 20850, 24.33, and 61.43% for the negative control. The embryonic and larval lethality increased obviously from 12.47% and 13.70% to 51.37% and 75.30%, respectively. In addition, the body length was also significantly reduced for both males and females in the emamectin benzoate treatment. Avermectin and milbemectin were also effective in suppressing population growth by increasing larval lethality and reducing larval development, although they did not affect either brood size or embryonic lethality. Body length for both male and female worms was increased by avermectin. Thiacloprid caused no adverse reproductive effects, although it suppressed larval development. Sexual ratio was not affected by any of these four nematicides. Our results indicate that emamectin benzoate, milbemectin, and avermectin are effective against the reproduction of B. xylophilus. We think these three nematicides can be useful for the control of pine wilt disease.
Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Clara Vieira; Lopes, André; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V
The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria) belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.
Diogo Neves Proença
Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are considered to be very important in regulating the growth, development, behavior and stress response in animals and plants in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is an important invasive plant parasitic nematode in Asia. To have a comprehensive knowledge about miRNAs of the nematode is necessary for further in-depth study on roles of miRNAs in the ecological adaptation of the invasive species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Five small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced by Illumina/Solexa deep-sequencing technology. A total of 810 miRNA candidates (49 conserved and 761 novel were predicted by a computational pipeline, of which 57 miRNAs (20 conserved and 37 novel encoded by 53 miRNA precursors were identified by experimental methods. Ten novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific miRNAs of B. xylophilus. Comparison of expression profiles of miRNAs in the five small RNA libraries showed that many miRNAs exhibited obviously different expression levels in the third-stage dispersal juvenile and at a cold-stressed status. Most of the miRNAs exhibited obviously down-regulated expression in the dispersal stage. But differences among the three geographic libraries were not prominent. A total of 979 genes were predicted to be targets of these authentic miRNAs. Among them, seven heat shock protein genes were targeted by 14 miRNAs, and six FMRFamide-like neuropeptides genes were targeted by 17 miRNAs. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the mRNA expression levels of target genes. CONCLUSIONS: Basing on the fact that a negative correlation existed between the expression profiles of miRNAs and the mRNA expression profiles of their target genes (hsp, flp by comparing those of the nematodes at a cold stressed status and a normal status, we suggested that miRNAs might participate in ecological adaptation and behavior regulation of the
Development of a water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate and its preventative effect against the wilting of pot-grown pine trees inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.
Takai, K; Soejima, T; Suzuki, T; Kawazu, K
Water-soluble preparations have been investigated to develop a trunk injection agent based on the poorly water-soluble anti-nematode emamectin benzoate. Following tests on the phytotoxicity of some solvents and solubilizers and demonstration of the ability of some solubilizers to dissolve emamectin benzoate in water, acetone + methanol was selected as the solvent and Polysorbate 80 as the solubilizer. This water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate prevented the wilting of pot-grown 4-year-old trees of the Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, artificially inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, at a dose of 20 g emamectin benzoate per cubic metre of pine tree.
Full Text Available The mixture (MX of acetic acid (AA and lactic acid (LA was examined for its effectiveness in the control of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus contaminated in cymbidium culture medium. Nematode mortality in vitro was nearly 100% in AA and MX at the concentrations of 5.0-1.0% (pH 2.6 – 4.2 and in LA only at 5.0% (pH 3.5, but lowered at concentrations of 0.5-0.1% (pH 5.1-6.9 more significantly in LA than AA and MX. MX of most concentrations caused higher nematode mortality than the average response to AA and LA. All treatments of MX (0.5% and 0.25%, fosthiazate (standard and double concentrations and culture dilution of Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1 (107colony-forming units/ml reduced significantly the nematode populations in the cymbidium culture medium, compared to non-treatment control, with no significant difference among the treatments. No phytotoxicity occurred in all treatments. pH of the medium with the time after treatment and growths of 2-year-old cymbidium were not significantly different among treatments. Considering the safety and price of the organic acids, use of MX in the processes for culturing cymbidium may be a practically reliable and eco-friendly way in the control of the quarantine nematode in cymbidium.
Santos Carla S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pine wilt disease (PWD, caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, damages and kills pine trees and is causing serious economic damage worldwide. Although the ecological mechanism of infestation is well described, the plant’s molecular response to the pathogen is not well known. This is due mainly to the lack of genomic information and the complexity of the disease. High throughput sequencing is now an efficient approach for detecting the expression of genes in non-model organisms, thus providing valuable information in spite of the lack of the genome sequence. In an attempt to unravel genes potentially involved in the pine defense against the pathogen, we hereby report the high throughput comparative sequence analysis of infested and non-infested stems of Pinus pinaster (very susceptible to PWN and Pinus pinea (less susceptible to PWN. Results Four cDNA libraries from infested and non-infested stems of P. pinaster and P. pinea were sequenced in a full 454 GS FLX run, producing a total of 2,083,698 reads. The putative amino acid sequences encoded by the assembled transcripts were annotated according to Gene Ontology, to assign Pinus contigs into Biological Processes, Cellular Components and Molecular Functions categories. Most of the annotated transcripts corresponded to Picea genes-25.4-39.7%, whereas a smaller percentage, matched Pinus genes, 1.8-12.8%, probably a consequence of more public genomic information available for Picea than for Pinus. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed that when P. pinaster was infested with PWN, the genes malate dehydrogenase, ABA, water deficit stress related genes and PAR1 were highly expressed, while in PWN-infested P. pinea, the highly expressed genes were ricin B-related lectin, and genes belonging to the SNARE and high mobility group families. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed the differential gene expression between the two pine species
Background Pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), damages and kills pine trees and is causing serious economic damage worldwide. Although the ecological mechanism of infestation is well described, the plant’s molecular response to the pathogen is not well known. This is due mainly to the lack of genomic information and the complexity of the disease. High throughput sequencing is now an efficient approach for detecting the expression of genes in non-model organisms, thus providing valuable information in spite of the lack of the genome sequence. In an attempt to unravel genes potentially involved in the pine defense against the pathogen, we hereby report the high throughput comparative sequence analysis of infested and non-infested stems of Pinus pinaster (very susceptible to PWN) and Pinus pinea (less susceptible to PWN). Results Four cDNA libraries from infested and non-infested stems of P. pinaster and P. pinea were sequenced in a full 454 GS FLX run, producing a total of 2,083,698 reads. The putative amino acid sequences encoded by the assembled transcripts were annotated according to Gene Ontology, to assign Pinus contigs into Biological Processes, Cellular Components and Molecular Functions categories. Most of the annotated transcripts corresponded to Picea genes-25.4-39.7%, whereas a smaller percentage, matched Pinus genes, 1.8-12.8%, probably a consequence of more public genomic information available for Picea than for Pinus. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed that when P. pinaster was infested with PWN, the genes malate dehydrogenase, ABA, water deficit stress related genes and PAR1 were highly expressed, while in PWN-infested P. pinea, the highly expressed genes were ricin B-related lectin, and genes belonging to the SNARE and high mobility group families. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed the differential gene expression between the two pine species. Conclusions Defense-related genes
Full Text Available Widespread concern for the occurrence of resistant strains, along with the avoidance of the use of highly toxic insecticides and their wide environmental dispersal, highlights the need for the development of new and safer pest control agents. Natural products provide inspiration for new chemical entities with biological activities, and their analogues are good lead compounds for the development of new pest control agents. For this purpose, we evaluated the larvicidal and nematicidal activities of 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, organisms of increasing global concern. Among the 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues, four compounds—10, 14d, 14g and 19b—showed >90% larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus at 10 μg/mL concentration, and one (compound 10 showed the strongest larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus, with a LC50 value of 0.22 μg/mL. Only compound 18 showed strong nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Most active compounds possessed similar physicochemical properties; thus, actives typically had ClogP values of around 1.40–1.50 and rel-PSA values of 16–17% and these similar cheminformatic characteristics reflect their similar structure. This study indicates that active 3-acylbarbituric acids analogues have potential as lead compounds for developing novel mosquito control agents.
Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.
Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina
Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.
Full Text Available It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5 and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community.
Vicente, Claudia S L; Nascimento, Francisco X; Ikuyo, Yoriko; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Hasegawa, Koichi
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a worldwide threat to pine forests, and is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Bacteria are known to be associated with PWN and may have an important role in PWD. Serratia sp. LCN16 is a PWN-associated bacterium, highly resistant to oxidative stress in vitro, and which beneficially contributes to the PWN survival under these conditions. Oxidative stress is generated as a part of the basal defense mechanism used by plants to combat pathogenic invasion. Here, we studied the biology of Serratia sp. LCN16 through genome analyses, and further investigated, using reverse genetics, the role of two genes directly involved in the neutralization of H2O2, namely the H2O2 transcriptional factor oxyR; and the H2O2-targeting enzyme, catalase katA. Serratia sp. LCN16 is phylogenetically most closely related to the phytosphere group of Serratia, which includes S. proteamaculans, S. grimessi and S. liquefaciens. Likewise, Serratia sp. LCN16 shares many features with endophytes (plant-associated bacteria), such as genes coding for plant polymer degrading enzymes, iron uptake/transport, siderophore and phytohormone synthesis, aromatic compound degradation and detoxification enzymes. OxyR and KatA are directly involved in the high tolerance to H2O2 of Serratia sp. LCN16. Under oxidative stress, Serratia sp. LCN16 expresses katA independently of OxyR in contrast with katG which is under positive regulation of OxyR. Serratia sp. LCN16 mutants for oxyR (oxyR::int(614)) and katA (katA::int(808)) were sensitive to H2O2 in relation with wild-type, and both failed to protect the PWN from H2O2-stress exposure. Moreover, both mutants showed different phenotypes in terms of biofilm production and swimming/swarming behaviors. This study provides new insights into the biology of PWN-associated bacteria Serratia sp. LCN16 and its extreme resistance to oxidative stress conditions, encouraging further research on the potential role of this
Roriz, Mariana; Santos, Carla; Vasconcelos, Marta W
For a long time it was thought that Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was the only agent of the pine wilt disease. Recently, it was discovered that there are bacteria associated with the nematodes that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease, mainly through the release of toxins that promote the death of the pines. Among the species most commonly found, are bacteria belonging to the Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas genera. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of inoculation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) with four different nematode isolates, in the bacterial population of nematodes and trees, at different stages of disease progression. The monitoring of progression of disease symptoms was also recorded. Also, the identification of bacteria isolated from the xylem of trees and the surface of nematodes was performed by classical identification methods, by the API20E identification system and by sequencing of bacterial DNA. The results showed that for the symptoms progression, the most striking difference was observed for the pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate, C14-5, which led to a slower and less severe aggravation of symptoms than in pines inoculated with the virulent isolates. In general, it was found that bacterial population, inside the tree, increased with disease progression. A superior bacterial quantity was isolated from pines inoculated with the nematode isolates HF and 20, and, comparatively, few bacteria were isolated from pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate. The identification system API20E was insufficient in the identification of bacterial species; Enterobacter cloacae species was identified in 79% of the isolated bacterial colonies and seven of these colonies could not be identified by this method. Molecular identification methods, through bacterial DNA sequencing, allowed a more reliable identification: eleven different bacterial species within the Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia
Da-Ying Fu; Shao-Ji Hu; Hui Ye; Robert A. Haack; Ping-Yang. Zhou
Monochamus alternatus (Hope) specimens were collected from nine geographical populations in China,where the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) was present. There were seven populations in southwestern China in Yunnan Province (Ruili,Wanding, Lianghe, Pu'er, Huaning, Stone Forest and Yongsheng),...
Harmey, Judith H.; Harmey, Matthew A.
We have evaluated the potential of DNA-based methods to identify and differentiate Bursaphelenchus spp. and isolates. The isolation of a DNA probe, designated X14, and development of a DNA fingerprinting method for the identification and differentiation of Bursaphelenchus species and strains is described. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA isolated from Bursaphelenchus species using two primers derived from the sequence of the cloned repetitive DNA fragment X14 resulted in m...
Douma, J.C.; Werf, Van Der W.; Hemerik, L.; Magnusson, C.; Robinet, C.
Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once
Jim Hanson; Michelle Cram
Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The pinewood nematode is native to North America and is not considered a primary pathogen of native pines, but is the cause of pine wilt in some non-native pines. In countries where the pinewood nematode has been introduced, such as Japan and China, pine wilt is an...
Ravizza, C.; Zwick, P.
The first record of Nematoda Mermithidae in adults and larvae of two Protonemura species (Plecoptera Nemouridae) and of Isoperla rivulorum (Pictet) (Plecoptera Perlodidae) from North Italy and Bavaria (Germany) is presented. The malformed genitalia of several parasitically castrated adults are described and illustrated. Primi reperti di Mermithidae (Nematoda) endoparassiti di Plecoptera. Viene segnalata per la prima volta la presenza di Mermithidae (Nematoda) nell’addome di adulti e di ninfe ...
Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle......) insufficient evidence on the sampling methodology is provided to determine the reliability of the testing method provided by the Portuguese document to determine freedom from PWN. Although there is potential for development of a composting method as a heat treatment to eliminate PWN from bark of pine trees...
Mar 31, 1988 ... Cytogenetics and reproduction in. Xiphinema and Longidorus. In: Nematode Vectors of. Plant Viruses, (eds.) Lamberti, F., Taylor, C.E. &. Seinhorst, I.W. Plenum Press, London and New York, pp. 139-151. DALMASSO, A. & YOUNES, T. 1969. Ovogenese et embryogenese chez Xiphinema index (Nematoda:.
Komatsu, Tsutomu; Shinmura, Akinori; Kondo, Norio
Strains of the bacterium Xylophilus ampelinus were collected from Europe and Hokkaido, Japan. Genomic fingerprints generated from 43 strains revealed four DNA types (A-D) using the combined results of Rep-, ERIC-, and Box-PCR. Genetic variation was found among the strains examined; strains collected from Europe belonged to DNA types A or B, and strains collected from Hokkaido belonged to DNA types C or D. However, strains belonging to each DNA type showed the same pathogenicity to grapevines ...
Komatsu, Tsutomu; Kondo, Norio
We investigated the efficacy of a microbial copper agent to protect against bacterial blight of grapevine caused by Xylophilus ampelinus from 2012 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan. A solution of the basic copper wettable powder sulfate was sprayed at 10-day intervals in two processing plots, using two application protocols: seven rounds of application immediately after leaf development and three or four applications at the initial onset of the disease. Due to the low disease incidence for the durat...
Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. are sedentary endoparasitic that attacks various economically important plants. Utilization of nematode’s fungal egg parasite as biocontrol agents of sedentary endoparasitic nematodes have a good possibility of potential success to be applied in the field level, because this fungi is able to colonize in and causes damage to eggs as well as female nematodes inside the root. The purpose of this research are to know the parasitism ability of this parasitic fungi to Meloidogyne incognita eggs, and its effects on second stage larvae hatching rate and the development of galls number in the host. The result shows that the parasitic fungi, those of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium genera were able to parasitize root-knot nematode eggs (25.09 to 89.79%, caused root-knot nematode egg hatching to decrease, suppressed the formation of galls, and reduced the population of second stage nematode larvae in the greenhouse. Nematoda puru-akar Meloidogyne spp. adalah nematoda endoparasitik sedentari, bersifat polifag, dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi tinggi. Pemanfaatan jamur parasit telur sebagai agens hayati pengendali nematoda endoparasitik sedentari mempunyai potensi tingkat keberhasilan tinggi untuk diterapkan pada aras lapangan karena mampu mengoloni dan merusak telur maupun stadium nematoda betina yang terlindungi jaringan tanaman. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan parasitasi isolat-isolat jamur parasit telur terhadap telur nematoda Meloidogyne incognita, dan pengaruhnya terhadap tingkat penetasan telur menjadi L-2, serta pembentukan jumlah puru pada tanaman terserang. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa jamur parasit telur yang termasuk genera Tricoderma, Penicillium, Talaromyces, dan Fusarium mampu memarasit telur M. incognita berkisar antara 25,09–89,79%, mengakibatkan penurunan persentase jumlah L-2 nematoda yang bersangkutan, serta menekan pembentukan puru akar pada aplikasi aras
Dimitrijevic, D D; Bacic, J
Since its detection in Portugal in 1999, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer), a causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease, represents a threat to European forestry. Significant amount of money has been spent on its monitoring and eradication. This paper presents mathematical analysis of spread of pine wilt disease using a set of partial differential equations with space (longitude and latitude) and time as parameters of estimated spread of disease. This methodology can be used to evaluate risk of various assumed entry points of disease and make defense plans in advance. In case of an already existing outbreak, it can be used to draw optimal line of defense and plan removal of trees. Optimization constraints are economic loss of removal of susceptible trees as well as budgetary constraints of workforce cost.
Kajerová, V.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Literák, I.
Roč. 49, č. 7 (2004), s. 237-241 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : ascarids * morphology * Nematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2004 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/49-7-237.pdf
Wallace, Robert L.
A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)
Cox, M. K.; Huffman, D. G.; Moravec, František
Roč. 51, č. 1 (2004), s. 50-54 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Trichosomoididae * Huffmanela Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004
Frantová, Denisa; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Fagerholm, H.-P.; Kihlström, M.
Roč. 95, č. 5 (2005), s. 327-332 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * ultrastructure * cuticule Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2005
Grall, Sophie; Manceau, Charles
The dynamics of Xylophilus ampelinus were studied in Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc using gfp-marked bacterial strains to evaluate the relative importance of epiphytic and endophytic phases of plant colonization in disease development. Currently, bacterial necrosis of grapevine is of economic importance in vineyards in three regions in France: the Cognac, Armagnac, and Die areas. This disease is responsible for progressive destruction of vine shoots, leading to their death. We constructed gfp-...
Full Text Available Pepper (Piper nigrum, known as the “King of Spices” is one of the most important spices. In the international market, Indonesian pepper has high selling value, due to its flavor characteristics. Pepper yellowing disease is one of the most important disease that caused the decrease of pepper production and become the main problem in the cultivation of pepper in West Kalimantan. This research was conducted to determine the major causal agent of leaf yellowing disease of pepper. The Fusarium associated with diseased plant were isolated from the symptomatic plant and nematodes were isolated from the root with leaf yellowing symptom. The Fusarium isolates were cultured on agar medium, and the nematode was cultured on tomato plant. From diseased pepper in West Kalimantan, it was isolated 4 Fusarium isolates and plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne. The result showed that H isolate of Fusarium was the most virulent isolate and identified asFusarium solani. The Meloidogyne was identified by the female perenial patern.The nematode was identified as Meloidogyne incognita. INTISARI Lada (Piper nigrum L. merupakan salah satu jenis rempah penting yang telah dikenal sebagai “King of Spices”. Di pasar internasional, lada Indonesia mempunyai daya jual tinggi karena cita rasanya yang khas. Salah satu kendala dalam budidaya lada adalah adanya penyakit kuning lada dan sampai saat ini menjadi masalah utama pada pertanaman lada di Kalimantan Barat. Informasi tentang patogen utama yang berinteraksi dengan penyakit kuning lada masih sangat terbatas, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi patogen utama yang berasosiasi dengan penyakit kuning lada. Isolasi Fusarium dilakukan dari batang lada dan isolasi nematoda dilakukan dari akar lada yang bergejala penyakit kuning di Kalimantan Barat. Fusarium hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam medium agar, sedangkan nematoda hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam akar tomat. Dari hasil isolasi berhasil didapatkan
Palíková, M.; Baruš, Vlastimil
Roč. 72, č. 2 (2003), s. 289-294 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Nematoda * parasites * Anguilla anguilla Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol72/pdf/72_289.pdf
Roč. 77, č. 2 (2013), s. 103-112 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * species and generic richness * faunal similarity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Baruš, Vlastimil; Jarkovský, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav
Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 929-933 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MZe(CZ) QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * heavy metal accumulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007
Grall, S.; Roulland, C.; Guillaumès, J.; Manceau, C.
The spatial distribution of vine plants contaminated by Xylophilus ampelinus, the agent responsible for bacterial necrosis, was studied over a 5-year period within two vineyards in the Cognac area. Both vineyards were planted with Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc but were different in age and agronomic location. The emission of X. ampelinus in contaminated bleeding sap was observed during vine sprouting. Contaminated bleeding sap is an important source of inoculum for external contamination due ...
Mašová, Š.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Matějusová, I.; Koubek, Petr; Koubková, B.
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 274-283 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nematoda * Senegal gecko * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.748, year: 2008
Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, František
Roč. 94, č. 5 (2004), s. 377-383 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6022305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Cystidicolidae * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004
Xue, Jian Jie; Hou, Jin Gang; Zhang, Yong An; Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yun Bo; Wang, Yu Zhu; Wang, Qing Hua; Sung, Chang Keun
The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola.
Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N
The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi
In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.
In the 1980s an eel parasitic nematode, Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea), which infects the swimbladder of European eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) and other freshwater fish species, was introduced into The Netherlands. This thesis
Koubková, B.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Šimková, A.
Roč. 102, č. 5 (2008), s. 1013-1020 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nematoda * West African fishes * genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008
CAMBRA ALVAREZ, MIGUEL
La necrosis bacteriana de la vid, causada por la bacteria de cuarentena Xylophilus ampelinus, es una enfermedad de difícil control químico y que ha causado en España importantes pérdidas económicas. Actualmente, es endémica en distintas zonas de Aragón y Galicia y se han identificado focos aislados en La Rioja. Ante la carencia de métodos sensibles y específicos de detección de esta bacteria que se puedan utilizar para el análisis rutinario, se ha puesto a punto un método de ex...
Park, J. K.; Moravec, František
Roč. 1729, - (2008), s. 1-7 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others: Korea Research Foundation(KR) KRF-2006-C00544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cucullanus * Cucullanidae * Conger * fish parasite * Korea * Nematoda Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2008
Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.
Bambang Rahayu TP
Full Text Available Soil microbes including actinomycetes are known to produce various hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics that can be used as biological controlling agents nematode. Therefore, surveys conducted in several areas in Yogyakarta, Central Java and East Java, to search for actinomycetes with chitinolytic, proteolytic, and chitino-proteolytic activity. Isolation of Actinomycetes produced 84 isolates, and most was obtained from shrimp head waste (26 isolates. After the selection based on their ability to hydrolyze chitines and protein in the medium, those whith the highest chitin and protein hydrolysis activity, are consecutive PSJ 27, TL 8, and TL 10 isolates. Test results of crude enzyme produced by selected isolates against root-knot nematode eggshell, showed that the isolates that have chitino-proteolytic activity (TL 10, is a highly effective isolate in damage eggshell. There are three types of damage to the nematode eggs. In the young eggs, crude enzyme preparation causing damage on vitelline and chitin layers. In the older eggs, preparation of crude enzyme cause premature hatching. Sebagian mikrobia tanah, termasuk aktinomisetes, diketahui mampu menghasilkan berbagai enzim hidrolitik dan antibiotik yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai agens pengendalian hayati nematoda. Oleh karena itu,survei dilakukan di beberapa daerah di Yogyakarta, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Timur untuk mencari aktinomisetes yang mempunyai aktivitas kitinolitik, proteolitik dan kitino-proteolitik. Isolasi aktinomisetes menghasilkan 84 isolat, dan yang terbanyak diperoleh dari limbah kepala udang (26 isolat. Setelah dilakukan seleksi berdasarkan kemampuannya menghidrolisis kitin dan protein dalam medium, yang mempunyai aktivitas hidrolisis protein, kitin, protein dan kitin tertinggi berturut-turut adalah isolat PSJ 27, TL 8, dan TL 10. Hasil uji enzim kasar yang dihasilkan isolat terpilih terhadap perusakan kulit telur nematoda puru-akar menunjukkan bahwa isolat yang memiliki
Mašová, Š.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.; Koubek, Petr; Koubková, B.
Roč. 22, č. 2 (2009), s. 243-255 ISSN 0394-6975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasite * Nematoda * gecko * Senegal * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2009
Peng, Shuang; Yan, Shuzhen; Chen, Shuanglin
Plant-parasite nematode is one of the most important pathogens in plant. Our objective is to screen endophytic bacteria against plant-parasitic nematodes from plant. Endophytic bacteria were isolated and screened by testing their metabolite against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in vitro. Those strains inhibiting B. xylophilus were selected to culture in liquid medium and fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. The stability of the antinematode substances was evaluated by various. In addition, four strains were identified by 16SrDNA sequence analysis. In total 13 strains of endophytic bacteria secreting antinematode metabolite were isolated from 6 species of plant. The supernatant of the fermentation broth of these endophytic bacteria gave 100% mortality of nematodes after treated as the follows: 1 ml each was mixed with 0.2 ml of the suspension of nematodes (2000 nematodes/ml) then incubated at 250C for 24 h, some of which could led to leakage or dissolution of nematodes. Among them, four strains, BCM2, SZ5, CCM7 and DP1, showed stronger activity than others. The supernatants diluted three times also gave not less than 95% mortality after 24 h treatment, and those from DP1 and SZ5 even gave 100% mortality. The fermentation conditions of the four strains were optimized and the antinematode activity grew up four times after optimization. The antinematode substances of these strains were found stable when treated with protease or heating or stored at 4 degrees C after 100 days, while instable when treated with acid or alkali. DP1 and CCM7 were identified to be Bacillus subtilis, while SZ5 and BCM2 to be Bacillus cereus. Endophytic bacteria secreting antinematode metabolite were found in economic crops. The metabolite of some strains showed strong and stable antinematode activity. Our results indicate the real potential of biocontrol by endophytic bacteria.
Diogo Neves Proença
Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD is native to North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. Lately, mutualistic relationship has been suggested between the pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus the causal nematode agent of PWD, and bacteria. In countries where PWN occurs, nematodes from diseased trees were reported to carry bacteria from several genera. However no data exists for the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial community carried by B. xylophilus, isolated from different Pinus spp. with PWD in Nebraska, United States. The bacteria carried by PWN belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (79.9%, Betaproteobacteria (11.7%, Bacilli (5.0%, Alphaproteobacteria (1.7% and Flavobacteriia (1.7%. Strains from the genera Chryseobacterium and Pigmentiphaga were found associated with the nematode for the first time. These results were compared to results from similar studies conducted from other countries of three continents in order to assess the diversity of bacteria with associated with PWN. The isolates from the United States, Portugal and China belonged to 25 different genera and only strains from the genus Pseudomonas were found in nematodes from all countries. The strains from China were closely related to P. fluorescens and the strains isolated from Portugal and USA were phylogenetically related to P. mohnii and P. lutea. Nematodes from the different countries are associated with bacteria of different species, not supporting a relationship between PWN with a particular bacterial species. Moreover, the diversity of the bacteria carried by the pinewood nematode seems to be related to the geographic area and the Pinus species. The roles these bacteria play within the pine trees or when associated with the nematodes, might be independent of the presence of the nematode in the tree and only related on the bacteria's relationship with the tree.
Literák, I.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hauptmanová, K.; Halouzka, R.
Roč. 40, č. 1 (2003), s. 23-25 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Parus major * Nematoda * respiratory insufficiency Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003
Ramallo, Geraldine; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos
Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestines of Phymaturus punae and Phymaturus williamsi (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from province of San Juan, Argentina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. is the 54th species assigned to the genus and the 8th from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus in that males possess 8 caudal papillae, 6 of which are large and pedunculate, 2 are small, almost inconspicuous; anterior lip echinate, posterior lip bilobate; females possess prominent vulva and short stiff tail spike.
Frantová, Denisa; Moravec, František
Roč. 91, č. 2 (2003), s. 100-108 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6022305 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(CZ) 1262/2002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003
[The analysis of climatic and biological parameters for the pest spread risk modelling of the wood nematode species Bursaphelenchus spp. and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis (Rhabditida: Aphelenchoidea)].
Ryss, A Y; Mokrousov, M V
Based on the forest woody species wilt areassurvey in Nizhniy Novgorod region in August 2014, the possible factors of the pest spread risk modelling were analysed on six species of the genus Bursaphelenchus and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis using six parameters: plant host species, beetle vector species, average temperatures in July and January, annual precipitation. It was concluded that these parameters in the evaluated wilt spots correspond to climatic and biological data of the already published woody plants wilt records in Europe and Asia caused by the same nematode pest species. It was speculated that the annual precipitation of 600 mm and average July temperature of 25 degrees C or higher, are the critical combination that may be used to develop the predicative risk modelling in the forests' and parks' wilt monitoring.
Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 215-234 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/93/0276 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Wijová, Martina; Moravec, František; Horák, Aleš; Lukeš, Julius
Roč. 36, č. 9 (2006), s. 1067-1075 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Spirurina * SSU rRNA gene sequences Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.337, year: 2006
Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (B. mucronatus isolates that originate from different regions may vary in their virulence, but their virulence-associated genes and proteins are poorly understood. Thus, we conducted an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic data of highly and weakly virulent B. mucronatus isolates during the pathogenic processes. Approximately 40,000 annotated unigenes and 5000 proteins were gained from the isolates. When we matched all of the proteins with their detected transcripts, a low correlation coefficient of r = 0.138 was found, indicating probable post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in the pathogenic processes. A functional analysis showed that five differentially expressed proteins which were all highly expressed in the highly virulent isolate were involved in the pathogenic processes of nematodes. Peroxiredoxin, fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase relate to resistance against plant defence responses, while β-1,4-endoglucanase and expansin are associated with the breakdown of plant cell walls. Thus, the pathogenesis of B. mucronatus depends on its successful survival in host plants. Our work adds to the understanding of B. mucronatus’ pathogenesis, and will aid in controlling B. mucronatus and other pinewood nematode species complexes in the future.
Quist, Casper W; Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes
Within the species-rich and trophically diverse phylum Nematoda, at least four independent major lineages of plant parasites have evolved, and in at least one of these major lineages plant parasitism arose independently multiple times. Ribosomal DNA data, sequence information from nematode-produced, plant cell wall-modifying enzymes, and the morphology and origin of the style(t), a protrusible piercing device used to penetrate the plant cell wall, all suggest that facultative and obligate plant parasites originate from fungivorous ancestors. Data on the nature and diversification of plant cell wall-modifying enzymes point at multiple horizontal gene transfer events from soil bacteria to bacterivorous nematodes resulting in several distinct lineages of fungal or oomycete-feeding nematodes. Ribosomal DNA frameworks with sequence data from more than 2,700 nematode taxa combined with detailed morphological information allow for explicit hypotheses on the origin of agronomically important plant parasites, such as root-knot, cyst, and lesion nematodes.
Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 199-213 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * diversity * peatland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Proleptus acutus Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae parasite of rays Zapteryx brevirostris Müller & Henle, 1841 (Rhinobatiformes, Rhinobatidae in Brazil Proleptus acutus Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae parasita de raias Zapteryx brevirostris Müller & Henle, 1841 (Rhinobatiformes, Rhinobatidae no Brasil
Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Proleptus acutus Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae parasitando Zapteryx brevirostris Müller & Henle, 1841 (Rhinobatiformes, Rhinobatidae em Ubatuba, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Vinte raias foram analisadas e P. acutus foi encontrado no estômago e intestinos de 14 (70% animais. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência dessa espécie de nematóide em Z. brevirostris no Brasil.
González-Solís, D.; Moravec, František
Roč. 90, č. 6 (2004), s. 1443-1449 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Atractidae * parasites of fish Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004
Lin, Tong; Liu, Qisi; Chen, Jingxiang
The pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope, a major forest insect pest, is the primary vector of the destructive forest pest pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Azadirachtin, an active compound of neem, is biologically interesting because it represents a group of important, successful botanical pesticides. We provide insight into the molecular effects of azadirachtin on M. alternatus at the transcriptional level to provide clues about possible molecular-level targets and to establish a link between azadirachtin and insect global responses. We found that 920 and 9894 unique genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively. We obtained expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), identifying 4247, 3488 and 7613 sequences that involved cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes, respectively, and showed that the DEGs were distributed among 50 Gene Ontology categories. The Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were enriched in 50 pathways. Detailed gene profile knowledge of the interaction of azadirachtin with M. alternatus should facilitate the development of more effective azadirachtin-based products against M. alternatus and other target Coleoptera. These results further enhance the value of azadirachtin as a potential insecticide of biological origin, as well as for other biological applications.
Full Text Available Monochamus alternatus Hope is the main vector in China of the Pine Wilt Disease caused by the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Although chemical control is traditionally used to prevent pine wilt disease, new strategies based in biological control are promising ways for the management of the disease. However, there is no deep sequence analysis of Monochamus alternatus Hope that describes the transcriptome and no information is available about gene function of this insect vector. We used next generation sequencing technology to sequence the whole fourth instar larva transcriptome of Monochamus alternatus Hope and successfully built a Monochamus alternatus Hope transcriptome database. In total, 105,612 unigenes were assigned for Gene Ontology (GO terms, information for 16,730 classified unigenes was obtained in the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs database, and 13,024 unigenes matched with 224 predicted pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG. In addition, genes related to putative insecticide resistance-related genes, RNAi, the Bt receptor, intestinal digestive enzymes, possible future insect control targets and immune-related molecules are described. This study provides valuable basic information that can be used as a gateway to develop new molecular tools for Monochamus alternatus Hope control strategies.
Full Text Available A high-level of sexual sterility is of importance for the sterile insect technique (SIT. However, the use of high-dose-intensity gamma radiation to induce sterility has negative impacts not only on reproductive cells but also on somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the metabolite differences in somatic tissues between non-irradiated, 20-Gy-irradiated, and 40-Gy-irradiated male Monochamus alternatus, an important vector of the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which kills Asian pines. The results showed that metabolite levels changed moderately in the 20-Gy samples but were markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples compared with the non-irradiated samples. Twenty-six and 53 metabolites were disturbed by 20-Gy and 40-Gy radiation, respectively. Thirty-six metabolites were found to be markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples but were not changed significantly in the 20-Gy samples. The comprehensive metabolomic disorders induced by 40-Gy radiation dysregulated six metabolic pathways involved in the life process. The findings presented in this manuscript will contribute to our knowledge of the characteristic metabolic changes associated with gamma-radiation-induced damage to somatic cells and will allow for better exploration of the SIT for the control of this target pest.
Guo, Qunqun; Du, Guicai; Qi, Hongtao; Zhang, Yanan; Yue, Tongqing; Wang, Jingchao; Li, Ronggui
The ethanol extract of Punica granatum L. rind was tested to show significant nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Three nematicidal compounds were obtained from the ethanol extract by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as punicalagin 1, punicalin 2, and corilagin 3 by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data analysis. Punicalagin 1 was most active against PWN among the purified compounds with the LC 50 value of 307.08μM in 72h. According to the enzyme assays in vitro, punicalagin 1 could inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase, amylase and cellulase from PWN with IC 50 value of 0.60mM, 0.96mM and 1.24mM, respectively. The morphological structures of PWNs treated by punicalagin 1 were greatly changed. These physiological effects of punicalagin 1 on PWN may helpful to elucidate its nematicidal mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the State of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda larvae infestation Distribuição atual de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo com registro de infestação por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda
Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler
Full Text Available The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.É apresentada a distribuição de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. É fornecido o registro de A. fulica naturalmente infestada por larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae no município de Guaratinguetá. Foi encontrada A. fulica portando larvas de Metastrongylidae sem importância médica e veterinária conhecida nos municípios de Carapicuíba, Embu Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo e Taboão da Serra.
Camino, Nora B; Maiztegui, Bárbara
Gryllophila cephalobulata n. sp. (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) a parasite of the mole cricket Neocurtilla claraziana (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae) isolated in Buenos Aires Province, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by cuticle annulated all along the length of the body; the first ring has 4 lobules, the second one has 14 lobules, the others rings are simple, the stoma is short and has 4 small teeth, the genital papillae are arranged in 5 pairs, of which 3 pairs are preanal and 2 pairs are postanal. The tail appendage of the male is long and filiform.
Černotíková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Moravec, František
Roč. 58, č. 2 (2011), s. 135-148 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Spirurina * SSU rRNA * phylogeny * taxonomy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=21981
Roč. 74, - (2010), s. 39-48 ISSN 1211-376X. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. České Budějovice, 21.04.2009-24.04.2009] Grant - others:EEA Financial Mechanism(BE) CZ0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Vargas, Marina; Martínez, Rosa; Tantaleán V, Manuel; Cadenillas, Richard; Pacheco, Víctor
In the present work, Tricholeiperia peruensis. n sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) is described on the basis of 25 collected specimens from 5 bat intestines of the Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis species from Angostura, district of Pampas de Hospital, department of Tumbes, Peru. The new species is characterized by the morphology of the cephalic vesicle in the form of hood with recesses, for the size and form of spikes whose distal end of the external branch is divided in 2 from which the internal...
Stubbins, Francesca L; Agudelo, Paula; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K
Native and invasive stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the closely related invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) are agricultural pests in the southeastern United States. Natural enemies, from various phyla, parasitize these pests and contribute to population regulation. We specifically investigated Nematoda infections in pentatomid and plataspid pests in one soybean field in South Carolina in 2015. Nematodes were identified through molecular and morphological methods and assigned to family Mermithidae, genus Agamermis . This study reports mermithid nematode infection in immature M. cribraria for the first time and provides the first mermithid host record for the stink bugs Chinavia hilaris , Euschistus servus , and another Euschistus species, and a grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in South Carolina. The same Agamermis species infected all hosts. The broad host range and prevalence suggests that Agamermis may be an important contributor to natural mortality of pentatomid and plataspid pests. Previous mermithid host records for the Pentatomidae and Plataspidae worldwide are summarized. Further work is needed to assess the impact of infection on populations over a broader range of agricultural fields and geographic localities.
Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela
A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina.
Vargas, Marina; Martínez, Rosa; Tantaleán, Manuel; Cadenillas, Richard; Pacheco, Víctor
En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide...
Moravec, František; Montoya-Mendoza, J.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.
Roč. 96, č. 6 (2008), s. 1346-1350 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Philometridae * Caranx * Caranginema * Gulf of Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2008
Lephoto, Tiisetso E.; Featherston, Jonathan; Gray, Vincent M.
Here, we report on the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL, associated with Oscheius sp. TEL-2014 (Nematoda: Rhabditidae, KM492926) isolated from a grassland in Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve near Johannesburg in South Africa. Serratia sp. strain TEL has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp with 4,647 genes and a G+C content of 59.1%.
Lephoto, Tiisetso E; Featherston, Jonathan; Gray, Vincent M
Here, we report on the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain TEL, associated with Oscheius sp. TEL-2014 (Nematoda: Rhabditidae, KM492926) isolated from a grassland in Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve near Johannesburg in South Africa. Serratia sp. strain TEL has a genome size of 5,000,541 bp with 4,647 genes and a G+C content of 59.1%. Copyright © 2015 Lephoto et al.
Roč. 77, č. 2 (2013), s. 87-101 ISSN 1211-376X Grant - others:EEA Financial Mechanism(NO) CZ0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * trophic group * Bohemian Switzerland National Park Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Guimarães, Marisa Cristina de Almeida; Takahashi, Fernanda Yoshika; Eduardo, Juliana Manas
The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.
An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish
Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 237-262 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isopoda * Copepoda * Monogenea * Digenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Serranidae * Epinephelinae * parasite biodiversity * coral reef * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010
Philometra thaiensis sp. nov. (Nematoda, Philometridae) from Tetraodon palembangensis and T. fluviatilis (Pisces) from fresh waters in Thailand, with a key to Philometra spp. parasitic in the host's abdominal cavity
Moravec, František; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva
Roč. 49, č. 4 (2004), s. 319-324 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Philometra * parasite Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2004
Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD, a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA. RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34 orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v. The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight. The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL and RosA (1 mg/mL also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina.
Grall, Sophie; Manceau, Charles
The dynamics of Xylophilus ampelinus were studied in Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc using gfp-marked bacterial strains to evaluate the relative importance of epiphytic and endophytic phases of plant colonization in disease development. Currently, bacterial necrosis of grapevine is of economic importance in vineyards in three regions in France: the Cognac, Armagnac, and Die areas. This disease is responsible for progressive destruction of vine shoots, leading to their death. We constructed gfp-marked strains of the CFBP2098 strain of X. ampelinus for histological studies. We studied the colonization of young plants of V. vinifera cv. Ugni blanc by X. ampelinus after three types of artificial contamination in a growth chamber and in a greenhouse. (i) After wounding of the stem and inoculation, the bacteria progressed down to the crown through the xylem vessels, where they organized into biofilms. (ii) When the bacteria were forced into woody cuttings, they rarely colonized the emerging plantlets. Xylem vessels could play a key role in the multiplication and conservation of the bacteria, rather than being a route for plant colonization. (iii) When bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the plants, bacteria progressed in two directions: both in emerging organs and down to the crown, thus displaying the importance of epiphytic colonization in disease development.
Moravec, Frantisek; Little, M D
Dracunculus globocephalus Mackin, 1927 (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) is redescribed from specimens collected from the mesentery of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina (L.), in Louisiana, USA. The use of scanning electron microscopy, applied for the first time in this species, made it possible to study details in the structure of the cephalic end and the arrangement of male caudal papillae that are difficult to observe under the light microscope. This species markedly differs from all other species of Dracunculus in having the spicules greatly unequal in size and shape, in the absence of a gubernaculum, and in the disposition of male caudal papillae. The validity of D. globocephalus is confirmed, but the above mentioned morphological differences are not sufficient for listing it in a separate genus. This is the first record of D. globocephalus in Louisiana.
Palomares-Rius, J E; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C; Archidona-Yuste, A; Blok, V C; Castillo, P
Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species.
New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.
Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee
Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis.
Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae in an ornamental fish Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae cultivated in São Paulo State, Brazil Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae em peixe ornamental Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae cultivado no estado de São Paulo, Brasil
Full Text Available The present study describes Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae from Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poecilidae collected in an ornamental fish farm in São Paulo State, Brazil. Thirty-three out of 40 examined fish were parasitized (82% prevalence with mean intensity of 2.8 (1-20. Male specimens were 3,500µm total length and females 7,100µm total length, provided with orange-brown buccal capsule and two developed tridents. Males showed two unequal spicules, gubernaculum absent and females with vulva situated in the middle of the body. The main characteristics were the sleekly longitudinal ridges in the buccal capsule in both sexes, enlargement at the anterior end of the smaller spicule, the number of genital papillae, longer muscular and glandular portion of esophagus and round tail in female.Descreve-se Camallanus maculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae em Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poecilidae capturado em uma piscicultura ornamental no estado de São Paulo. De 40 peixes examinados, 33 estavam parasitados (prevalência de 82% cuja intensidade média foi de 2,8 (1-20. Os machos apresentaram 3.500µm e as fêmeas com 7,100µm de comprimento total, providos de uma cápsula bucal laranja-castanho e dois tridentes. Observaram-se machos com espículos desiguais, gubernáculo ausente e fêmeas com vulva situada na metade do corpo. As principais características foram as estrias longitudinais lisas em cada valva da cápsula bucal em ambos os sexos, o espículo menor com alargamento na extremidade anterior, o número de papilas genitais, as porções muscular e glandular do esôfago longas e a cauda longa e arredondada na fêmea.
Redescription, systematic status and molecular characterisation of Multicaecum heterotis Petter, Vassiliadès et Marchand, 1979 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), an intestinal parasite of Heterotis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Arapaimidae) in Africa
Mašová, Š.; Moravec, František; Baruš, V.; Seifertová, M.
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 280-288 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD526/09/H025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Brevimulticaecum * Multicaecum * Senegal * Sudan * Africa * Heterotis * barcoding * 18S rDNA sequences * ITS2 sequences Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010
Hasegawa, Hideo; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Fujisaki, Akiko; Moscovice, Liza R; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kaur, Taranjit; Huffman, Michael A
The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius (Enterobius) anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), is redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy of both sexes collected from the feces of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, of an introduced population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania. Enterobius (E.) anthropopitheci is characterized by having a small body (males 1.13-1.83 mm long, females 3.33-4.73 mm long), a rather straight spicule with a ventral membranous formation in males, double-crested lateral alae in females, small eggs (53-58 by 24-28 microm), and a smooth eggshell with 3 longitudinal thickenings. Morphological comparison is made between the present and previous descriptions.
Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the description of the Anisakis simplex (A. simplex parasites of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Atlantic coast of Mehdia (Kenitra, Morocco from December 2014 to November 2015. Methods: A total of 1 012 Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 obtained from commercial fishing were performed autopsy for their parasitic Nematoda. Then 6 695 specimens of A. simplex were collected from their abdominal cavity. These parasites were attached on different organs particularly on ovaries and testes. All parasites were counted, measured and photographed under microscopy. Results: The infection levels of fishes by larval A. simplex are expressed by prevalence (35.28%, mean intensity (18.75 and abundance (6.6. The effect of parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations were found between host length and A. simplex occurrence, and abundance. The variation observed in the infection levels was discussed within the seasons and climatic change.
Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi
Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.
Full Text Available Background: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Roxb., have been traditionally used as herbal remedy against intestinal helminths helminth infections in traditional medicine of India. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda worms in terms of physical motility and mortality of parasites. The in vivo study was performed in H. diminuta-rat model and S. obvelata-mice model, by monitoring the egg per gram (EPG of faeces count and worm count of animals following the treatment with different doses of plant extract. Results: The study recorded significant and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects of extract on both the parasites. In the in vitro study, 30 mg/ml concentration of extract caused mortality of H. diminuta in 2.5±0.2 h and S. obvelata in 3.57± 0.16 h. In the in vivo study, the extract showed a comparatively better efficacy on S. obvelata, where its 800 mg/kg dose revealed 93% reduction of worm load in mice, as compared to 85% reduction of H. diminuta worms in load. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leaf extract of C. bonducella possesses significant anthelmintic effects, and supports its use as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine. This appears to be the first report of in vivo anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella against these parasites [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 427-433
Andrade-Porto, S M; Cárdenas, M Q; Martins, M L; Oliveira, J K Q; Pereira, J N; Araújo, C S O; Malta, J C O
Third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98) out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75) ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76). The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.
Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Prieto, Pilar; Castillo, Pablo
Bacterial endosymbionts have been detected in some groups of plant-parasitic nematodes, but few cases have been reported compared to other groups in the phylum Nematoda, such as animal-parasitic or free-living nematodes. This study was performed on a wide variety of plant-parasitic nematode families and species from different host plants and nematode populations. A total of 124 nematode populations (previously identified morphologically and molecularly) were screened for the presence of potential bacterial endosymbionts using the partial 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. Potential bacterial endosymbionts were only detected in nematode species belonging to the genus Xiphinema and specifically in the X. americanum group. Fifty-seven partial 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from bacterial endosymbionts in this study. One group of sequences was closely related to the genus 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' (19 bacterial endosymbiont sequences were associated with seven nematode host species, including two that have already been described and three unknown bacterial endosymbionts). The second bacterial endosymbiont group (38 bacterial endosymbiont sequences associated with six nematode species) was related to the family Burkholderiaceae, which includes fungal and soil-plant bacterial endosymbionts. These endosymbionts were reported for the first time in the phylum Nematoda. Our findings suggest that there is a highly specific symbiotic relationship between nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts. Overall, these results were corroborated by a phylogeny of nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts that suggested that there was a high degree of phylogenetic congruence and long-term evolutionary persistence between hosts and endosymbionts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
David M. Spratt
Full Text Available Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20 given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna
S. M. Andrade-Porto
Full Text Available Abstract Third-stage larvae (L3 of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected by the first time in juveniles of pirarucu Arapaima gigas farmed in the Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state. Ninety-eight (98 out of 100 examined fish showed to be parasitized. Five hundred and ninety larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. were collected from the intestines, stomach and pyloric caeca. The mean intensity of parasite indexes was 6.02 (±5.75 ranging from 1 to 40 larvae per host and the mean abundance was 5.9 (±5.76. The A. gigas is the new host record for larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. in Brazil, and this is the first record of larvae of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae with zoonotic potential in the pirarucu from South America.
Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Japanese pine sawyer (Monochamus alternatus. This study attempted to detect damaged pine trees at different levels using a combination of airborne laser scanning (ALS data and high-resolution space-borne images. A canopy height model with a resolution of 50 cm derived from the ALS data was used for the delineation of tree crowns using the Individual Tree Detection method. Two pan-sharpened images were established using the ortho-rectified images. Next, we analyzed two kinds of intensity-hue-saturation (IHS images and 18 remote sensing indices (RSI derived from the pan-sharpened images. The mean and standard deviation of the 2 IHS images, 18 RSI, and 8 bands of the WV-2 and WV-3 images were extracted for each tree crown and were used to classify tree crowns using a support vector machine classifier. Individual tree crowns were assigned to one of nine classes: bare ground, Larix kaempferi, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, broadleaved trees, healthy pines, and damaged pines at slight, moderate, and heavy levels. The accuracy of the classifications using the WV-2 images ranged from 76.5 to 99.6 %, with an overall accuracy of 98.5 %. However, the accuracy of the classifications using the WV-3 images ranged from 40.4 to 95.4 %, with an overall accuracy of 72 %, which suggests poorer accuracy compared to those classes derived from the WV-2 images. This is because the WV-3 images were acquired in October 2016 from an area with low sun, at a low altitude.
Ja Yeong Jang
Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide en dos, de las cuales la rama interna sufre una nueva división; por la disposición de las costillas de la bolsa copulatríz donde, entre otros detalles, las antero y postero-ventrales están separadas y las externo-dorsales nacen cerca de la parte media del tronco dorsal y son gruesas.
Full Text Available Hysterothylacium geschei n. sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae is described from the intestine of Cauque mauleanum (Steindachner (Pisces: Atherinidae from Lake Panguipulli (39º43'S; 72º13'W, Chile. Eleven (78.6% out of 14 fish were infected, with a mean intensity (range of 14.4 (1-55 worms. The new species can be differentiated from the two previously described species of freshwater fishes from South America by the presence of lateral alae, the number of caudal papillae, and the length of the spicules, oesophagus, intestinal caecum, distance vulva-anterior extremity and the length ratio intestinal caecum: ventricular appendix. From the fishes examined in Lake Panguipulli, including the introduced salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum and the authochthonous species Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinidae and Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes (Percichthyidae, only one specimen of P. trucha was found parasitized by a third-stage larva of this species.
О. О. Boyko
Full Text Available In Dnipropetrovsk sity (Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk region in carnivorous animals 10 species of parasites (helminths and coccidia were found: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata, Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata, Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata, Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata, Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata, Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata, Cystoisospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia. In soil S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp. weredominanted. In most carnivorous animals registered in L. Globa park and T. Shevchenko park the S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp., Cystoisosporasp. and T. gondii were found.
A multilocus approach to assessing co-evolutionary relationships between Steinernema spp. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae).
Lee, Ming-Min; Stock, S Patricia
Nematodes of the genus Steinernema Travassos, 1927 (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their associated bacteria, Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria), are an emergent model of terrestrial animal-microbe symbiosis. Interest in this association initially arose out of their potential as biocontrol agents against insect pests, but, despite advances in their field application and the growing popularity of this model system, relatively little has been published to uncover the evolutionary facets of this beneficial partnership. This study adds to the body of knowledge regarding nematode-bacteria symbiosis by proposing a possible scenario for their historical association in the form of a cophylogenetic hypothesis. Topological and likelihood based testing methods were employed to reconstruct a history of association between 30 host-symbiont pairs and to gauge the level of similarity between their inferred phylogenetic patterns.
Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N
Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .
Shin, Jihun; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jeong, Hak-Sub; Kim, Byung-Su; Choi, Eunsang; Shin, Sung-Shik
Ocular setariases of cattle were reported but those of equine hosts have never been reported in the Republic of Korea (Korea). We found motile worms in the aqueous humor of 15 horses (Equus spp.) from 12 localities in southern parts of Korea between January 2004 and November 2017. After the affected animals were properly restrained under sedation and local anesthesia, 10 ml disposable syringe with a 16-gauge needle was inserted into the anterior chamber of the affected eye to successfully remove the parasites. The male worm that was found in 7 of the cases showed a pair of lateral appendages near the posterior terminal end of the body. The papillar arrangement was 3 pairs of precloacal, a pair of adcloacal, and 3 pairs of postcloacal papillae, plus a central papilla just in front of the cloaca. The female worms found in the eyes of 8 horses were characterized by the tapering posterior terminal end of the body with a smooth knob. Worms were all identified as Setaria digitata (von Linstow, 1906) by the morphologic characteristics using light and electron microscopic observations. This is the first blindness cases of 15 horses infected with S. digitata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Korea.
Golabi, Mostafa; Naem, Soraya; Imani, Mehdi; Dalirezh, Nowruz
Toxocara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae) is an intestinal nematode parasite of dogs, which can also cause disease in humans. Transmission to humans usually occurs because of direct contact with T. canis eggs present in soil contaminated with the feces of infected dogs. This nematode has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in different tissues of vertebrates, and develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive host. Survival of parasitic nematodes within a host requires immune evasion using complicated pathways. Morphine-like substance, as well as opioids, which are known as down regulating agents, can modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, and let the parasite survives in their hosts. In the present study, we aimed to find evidences of morphine-like substance and µ-opiate receptor expression in T. canis , using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that T. canis produced morphine-like substances at the level of 2.31± 0.26 ng g -1 wet weight, and expressed µ-opiate receptor as in expected size of 441 bp. According to our findings, it was concluded that T. canis , benefits using morphine-like substance to modulate host immunity.
Effect of mini-sprinkler irrigation system on Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juvenile Efeito do sistema de irrigação por microaspersão em juvenis infectantes de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae
Juan Carlos Lara
Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are currently being used as successful biological control agents of soil-dwelling insect pests. Previous field and greenhouse studies demonstrated that application techniques and non-biotic factors (temperature and pressure have a significant effect on EPNs efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of an irrigation spray application system on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juveniles (IJ. Two assays were proposed. Their viability was evaluated under the microscope after the IJ passed through the irrigation system. Infectivity on Galleria mellonella larvae, and host search capability, as evidenced by larval mortality, were evaluated in containers (Experiment 1. In the field (Experiment 2, mortality of G. mellonella larvae was evaluated under different nematode concentrations (0, 100,000, 300,000 and 500,000 IJ per tree. No differences were recorded on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of the IJ in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, differences were recorded among the different concentrations used (p Nematóides entomopatogênicos (NEPs vêm sendo usados com sucesso como agentes do controle biológico de pragas de solo. Estudos anteriores mostraram que técnicas de aplicação e fatores abióticos (temperatura e pressão afetam a eficiência dos NEPs em testes de campo e casa-de-vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de condições geradas por um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, na viabilidade, infectividade e na capacidade de busca de hospedeiros nos juvenis infectantes (JI de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae. Dois experimentos foram propostos. A viabilidade dos juvenis infectantes (JI foi avaliada no microscópio imediatamente após sua passagem pelo sistema de irrigação. A infectividade e a capacidade de busca pelo
Grall, S; Roulland, C; Guillaumès, J; Manceau, C
The spatial distribution of vine plants contaminated by Xylophilus ampelinus, the agent responsible for bacterial necrosis, was studied over a 5-year period within two vineyards in the Cognac area. Both vineyards were planted with Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc but were different in age and agronomic location. The emission of X. ampelinus in contaminated bleeding sap was observed during vine sprouting. Contaminated bleeding sap is an important source of inoculum for external contamination due to the high susceptibility of young merging shoots to the pathogen. X. ampelinus emission by bleeding sap was not affected by the age of the plants or the location of the vineyards. However, its emission was irregular with time, and it varied between two fruit canes from individual plants and between plants as well as between years. Moreover, the two vineyards appeared to be entirely contaminated. Consequently, the behavior of the pathogen is not predictable. The distribution of the pathogen inside vine plant organs was analyzed through the four growing seasons. The old wood was contaminated throughout the year and constituted a stock inoculum for endophytic contamination of crude sap during the winter and the spring. Despite the fact that most of the young green shoots were contaminated in May, X.ampelinus was not found in green shoots in June and September, refuting the hypothesis of an epiphytic life of the pathogen under natural conditions. Although all plants were entirely contaminated in both vineyards, symptoms were rare and were observed on different plants each year.
Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, vectored primarily by the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, is an important invasive pest and causal agent of pine wilt disease of Chinese Masson pine, Pinus massoniana. Previous work demonstrated that the ratios and concentrations of α-pinene:β-pinene differed between healthy trees and those trees containing blue-stain fungus (and M. alternatus pupae. However, the potential influence of the altered monoterpene ratios and concentrations on PWN and associated fungi remained unknown. Our current results show that low concentrations of the monoterpenes within petri dishes reduced PWN propagation, whereas the highest concentration of the monoterpenes increased PWN propagation. The propagation rate of PWN treated with the monoterpene ratio representative of blue-stain infected pine (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8, 137.6 mg/ml was significantly higher than that (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.1, 137.6 mg/ml representative of healthy pines or those damaged by M. alternatus feeding, but without blue stain. Furthermore, inhibition of mycelial growth of associated fungi increased with the concentration of the monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene. Additionally, higher levels of β-pinene (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8 resulted in greater inhibition of the growth of the associated fungi Sporothrix sp.2 and Ophiostoma ips strains, but had no significant effects on the growth of Sporothrix sp.1, which is the best food resource for PWN. These results suggest that host monoterpenes generally reduce the reproduction of PWN. However, PWN utilizes high monoterpene concentrations and native blue-stain fungus Sporothrix sp.1 to improve its own propagation and overcome host resistance, which may provide clues to understanding the ecological mechanisms of PWN's successful invasion.
Full Text Available The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer, in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were
Martins, M L; Yoshitoshi, E R; Umekita, H
The present work studied helminth parasites of "pacu-manteiga", Myleus tiete (Osteichthyes: Characidae) from Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil. Fishes with 142.6 +/- 24.7 g weight and 17.3 +/- 1.0 cm total length were collected. Five out six analysed fish (prevalence 83.3%) were parasitized in the intestine with an average of 535.6 +/- 334.6 oxyurid nematodes per fish. The helminth was identified as Ichthyouris voltagrandensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae). It differs from I. brasiliensis (Moravec et al., 1992a) by the absence of lateral alae, higher measures of tail and caudal alae of males, esophageal isthmus length, distance of excretory pore from anterior end and spicule length. In addition, eggs were provided by two long filaments in just one pole and by the first time the authors observed flagellate spermatozoa from dissected males. The authors exposes comparative table of measures of the five described species of the genus Ichthyouris.
Zhao, J H; Tu, G J; Wu, X B; Li, C P
Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridida) is a dominant intestinal nematode of the captive Chinese alligator. However, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite remain largely unexplored. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of O. sinensis was first determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based primer-walking strategy, and this is also the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of a member of the genus Ortleppascaris. The circular mitochondrial genome (13,828 bp) of O. sinensis contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, but lacked the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs indicated that the genus Ortleppascaris should be attributed to the family Heterocheilidae. It is necessary to sequence more mtNDAs of Ortleppascaris nematodes in the future to test and confirm our conclusion. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of O. sinensis reported here should contribute to molecular diagnosis, epidemiological investigations and ecological studies of O. sinensis and other related Ascaridida nematodes.
Larvas de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae do centro oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, parasitadas por microsporídeos (Protozoa e mermitídeos (Nematoda Simulids larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae from middle western, southeastern and southern Brazil, with microsporids (Protozoa and mermithids (Nematoda parasites
Carmen Ambrós Ginarte
Full Text Available A survey of simulid larval parasites was carried out in different localities of the states of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February 1996 to May 1998. Prevalences for the microsporidian Polydispyrenia simulii Lutz & Splendore, 1908 were found in Morungaba and Leme, São Paulo, ranging from around 0.7 to 66.7%, depending mainly on the host simulid species. Microsporidiosis was registered in localities of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Parasitism by Isomermis sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae was found in Simulium larvae from Serra do Japi, ranging from 0.8 to 45.8%, depending on the simulid species and the larval microhabitat in the stream, whether a cemented ramp in a lake outlet or the natural stream bed. Parasitism by mermithids was also found in ten localities. Mycoses caused by Coelomycidium sp. were for the first time recorded for larvae of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832.
Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Slapeta, Jan; Gray, Rachael
This study investigates the identity of hookworms parasitising the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Péron), from three colonies in South Australia, Australia. The Australian sea lion is at risk of extinction because its population is small and genetically fragmented. Using morphological and molecular techniques, we describe a single novel species, Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae). The new species is most similar to hookworms also parasitic in otariid hosts, Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 and Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Comparative morphometrics offered limited utility for distinguishing between species within this genus whilst morphological features and differences in nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences delineated U. sanguinis sp. n. from named congeners. Male specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. differ from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni by relatively shorter anterolateral and externodorsal rays, respectively, and from other congeners by the relative lengths and angulations of bursal rays, and in the shape of the spicules. Female specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. are differentiated from Uncinaria spp. parasitic in terrestrial mammals by differences in vulval anatomy and the larger size of their eggs, although are morphologically indistinguishable from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni. Molecular techniques clearly delimited U. sanguinis sp. n. as a distinct novel species. Obtaining baseline data on the parasites of wildlife hosts is important for the investigation of disease and the effective implementation and monitoring of conservation management.
Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W
Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.
Svitin R. S.
Шестнадцать экземпляров Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda, Molineidae) были обнаружены в материале от Zootoca vivipara Lichtenshtein, 1823 собранном на территории Украины. Нематоды были определены как O. skrjabini Travassos, 1917 на основании наличия развитых латеральных крыльев и вида хозяина. Представлено дополненное описание вида с новыми морфологическими признаками, морфометрией и распространением в Украине. Oswaldocruzia skrjabini отличается от других видов рода наличием дополнительных отростков н...
Pavanelli, G. C.
Full Text Available The present paper represents the first study on the endoparasitic fauna of Potamotrygon falkneri and P.motoro in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Fishes were collected by fishing rod and gillnetting in different stations ofthe floodplain, from March, 2005 to September, 2006. Parasites were sampled, fixed and preserved according tospecialized literature. About half of the analyzed fish were parasitized by at least one of the following species ofendoparasites: Clinostomum complanatum, Genarchella sp. and Tylodelphys sp. (metacercaria (Digenea;Acanthobothrium regoi, Rhinebothrium paratrygoni, Paroncomegas araya and Potamotrygonocestus travassosi(Cestoidea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (larva, Cucullanus sp., Echinocephalus sp. and Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda; andQuadrigyrus machadoi (Acanthocephala. Some species were already registered in Chondrichthyes and others werepreviously recorded in Osteichthyes from the study area. The study listed ten new records of parasites in the host P.falkneri, one new record in the host P. motoro and five new records in the locality upper Paraná River.
Full Text Available Mountain ranges may delimit the distribution of native species as well as constitute potential barriers to the spread of invasive species. The invasive pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a severe forest pest inducing pine wilt disease. It is vectored in Europe by a native long-horned beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis. This study explored the potential of the Pyrenean chain to slow or prevent the natural spread of nematode-infested beetles from the Iberian Peninsula, where the nematode is established and is expanding its range, towards France and the rest of Europe. An analysis of the genetic structure and migration patterns of the beetle populations throughout the Pyrenean mountain range was combined with a spread model simulating the potential movements of nematode-infested beetles across it. The central part of the Pyrenees, which corresponds to the highest elevation zone, was shown to prevent gene flow between the French and Spanish populations of M. galloprovincialis on each side of the mountains. Conversely, strong admixture was detected between populations located on both sides of low elevation hills, and especially at the east and west extremities of the mountain range. Simulations of the spread of nematode-infested beetles under various thresholds of beetle survival and pine wilt disease expression gave results consistent with the variation in genetic make-up, suggesting that western and eastern hillsides may represent corridors favoring natural spread of the nematode from the Iberian Peninsula to France. Simulations also showed that temperature rise due to climate change may significantly reduce the extent of the barrier formed by highest elevations. Our results support the hypothesis that the Pyrenean chain represents a partial barrier to the natural spread of nematode-infested beetles. These results, which have to be considered together with potential human-assisted long-distance spread of the nematode, highlight
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008-2030, assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014-2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300-800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions.
Svitin R. S.
Full Text Available Шестнадцать экземпляров Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda, Molineidae были обнаружены в материале от Zootoca vivipara Lichtenshtein, 1823 собранном на территории Украины. Нематоды были определены как O. skrjabini Travassos, 1917 на основании наличия развитых латеральных крыльев и вида хозяина. Представлено дополненное описание вида с новыми морфологическими признаками, морфометрией и распространением в Украине. Oswaldocruzia skrjabini отличается от других видов рода наличием дополнительных отростков на ветках fork и shoe спикул.
Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016
Daniela A. Lopes
Full Text Available The third part of the catalogue of type material in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, comprising types deposited between 1979 and 2016, is presented to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part encompasses Acanthocephala, Nematoda and the other non-helminth phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes was covered in the first (Monogenoidea and second (Rhabditophora Trematoda and Cestoda parts of the catalogue published in September 2016 and March 2017, respectively. The present catalogue comprises type material for 116 species distributed across five phyla, nine classes, 50 families, and 80 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, and specimens with their collection numbers and references. Species classification and nomenclature are updated.
Metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil Metazoários endoparasitos de Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Brasil
Full Text Available In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea, Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.Com o objetivo de inventariar os metazoários endoparasitos em Serrasalmus marginatus, no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram examinados 91 espécimes capturados no período de outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Foram registrados seis táxons parasitos: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercária do tipo Diplostomulum (Digenea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda; e Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 e Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. As últimas cinco espécies citadas são registradas pela primeira vez em S. marginatus.
Tomar, V V S; Somvanshi, Vishal S; Bajaj, Harish K
Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b' = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c' = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b' = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c' = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism.
Rarely reported, widely distributed, and unexpectedly diverse: molecular characterization of mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithidae) infecting bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) in the USA.
Tripodi, Amber D; Strange, James P
Mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithida: Mermithidae) parasitize a wide range of both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate hosts, yet are recorded in bumble bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) only six times historically. Little is known about the specific identity of these parasites. In a single-season nationwide survey of internal parasites of 3646 bumble bees, we encountered six additional instances of mermithid parasitism in four bumble bee species and genetically characterized them using two regions of 18S to identify the specific host-parasite relationships. Three samples from the northeastern USA are morphologically and genetically identified as Mermis nigrescens, whereas three specimens collected from a single agricultural locality in the southeast USA fell into a clade with currently undescribed species. Nucleotide sequences of the V2-V6 region of 18S from the southeastern specimens were 2.6-3.0% divergent from one another, and 2.2-4.0% dissimilar to the nearest matches to available data. The dearth of available data prohibits positive identification of this parasite and its affinity for specific bumble bee hosts. By doubling the records of mermithid parasitism of bumble bee hosts and providing genetic data, this work will inform future investigations of this rare phenomenon.
Grucmanová, Š.; Holuša, J.; Čermák, J.; Nermuť, Jiří
Roč. 140, č. 5 (2016), s. 395-403 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bursaphelenchus * Contortylenchus * Cryptaphelenchus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12269/abstract
Douma, J C; van der Werf, W; Hemerik, L; Magnusson, C; Robinet, C
Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once established, eradication is not practically feasible. Therefore, preventing entry of PWN into new areas is crucial. Entry risk analysis can assist in targeting management to reduce the probability of entry. Assessing the entry of PWN is challenging due to the complexity of the wood trade and the wood processing chain. In this paper, we develop a pathway model that describes the wood trade and wood processing chain to determine the structure of the entry process. We consider entry of PWN through imported coniferous wood from China, a possible origin of Portuguese populations, to Europe. We show that exposure increased over years due to an increase in imports of sawn wood. From 2000 to 2012, Europe received an estimated 84 PWN propagules from China, 88% of which arose from imported sawn wood and 12% from round wood. The region in Portugal where the PWN was first reported is among those with the highest PWN transfer per unit of imported wood due to a high host cover and vector activity. An estimated 62% of PWN is expected to enter in countries where PWN is not expected to cause the wilt of pine trees because of low summer temperatures (e.g., Belgium, Sweden, Norway). In these countries, PWN is not easily detected, and such countries can thus serve as potential reservoirs of PWN. The model identifies ports and regions with high exposure, which helps targeting monitoring and surveillance, even in areas where wilt disease is not expected to occur. In addition, we show that exposure is most efficiently reduced by additional treatments in the country of origin, and/or import wood from PWN-free zones. Pathway modelling assists plant health managers in analyzing risks along the
Verocai, Guilherme G; Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P
Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) include 10 nominal species that parasitize wild and domesticated artiodactyles. Eight species are endemic to the western Palearctic and Eurasia, whereas two are limited in distribution to the Nearctic. Complex host associations, primarily among Cervidae and Bovidae (Caprinae), and biogeography were explored based on direct comparisons of parasite and host phylogenies to reveal the historical development of this fauna. Diversification among Varestrongylus species has an intricate history extending over the Pliocene and Quaternary involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization: (1) Varestrongylus has origins in Eurasia with independent expansion events into bordering ecozones; (2) cervids are ancestral hosts; (3) the caprine-associated V. pneumonicus is basal and a result of an independent host colonization event; (4) secondary diversification, linked to sequential and independent host colonization events, occurred within cervids (V. sagittatus + V. tuvae; V. alpenae; and V. capreoli, V. alces + V. eleguneniensis); (5) at least two additional host colonization events into caprines occurred, followed or not by diversification (V. qinghaiensis + V. longispiculatus; V. capricola, respectively); (6) two independent events of geographic expansion into North America from Eurasia with cervids in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene are postulated (V. alpenae, V. eleguneniensis). Comparisons based on phylogenetic hypotheses derived from comparative morphology and molecular inference for these nematodes are consistent with the postulated history for coevolutionary and biogeographic history. Episodes of geographic and host colonization, often in relation to rapid shifts in climate and habitat perturbation, have dominated the history of diversification of Varestrongylus.
Moravec, Frantisek; Barton, Diane P
The following six species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) were recorded from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia in 2015 and 2016: Philometra arafurensis sp. n. and Philometra papillicaudata sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the emperor red snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier); Philometra mawsonae sp. n. and Dentiphilometra malabarici sp. n. from the ovary and the tissue behind the gills, respectively, of the Malabar blood snapper Lutjanus malabaricus (Bloch et Schneider); Philometra sp. from the ovary of the goldbanded jobfish Pristipomoides multidens (Day) (Perciformes: all Lutjanidae); and Digitiphilometroides marinus (Moravec et de Buron, 2009) comb. n. from the body cavity of the cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Rachycentridae). Digitiphilometroides gen. n. is established based on the presence of unique digital cuticular ornamentations on the female body. New gonad-infecting species, P. arafurensis and P. mawsonae, are characterised mainly by the length of spicules (252-264 µm and 351-435 µm, respectively) and the structure of the gubernaculum, whereas P. papillicaudata is characterised mainly by the body length (70 mm) of gravid female, extent of the oesophageal gland, size of caudal projections and the location in the host. Dentiphilometra malabarici differs from congeners mainly in the arrangement of circumoral teeth (in a single row), extent of the oesophageal gland and the absence of sclerotised teeth or protuberances on the oesophageal lobes in the mouth. Digitiphilometroides marinus has not previously been reported from fishes in Australian waters.
Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri
The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of
Campbell, Lahcen I; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J; Telford, Maximilian J; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J; Pisani, Davide
Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations--comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning--we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods.
Luís C. Muniz-Pereira
Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.
Full Text Available We studied the habitat structure (macrofaunal assemblages and bottom types and zonation patterns of 29 unvegetated shoreline strands along the 900-km coast of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean Sea. Organisms were sampled with grabs, pitfall traps, sticky traps, clam nets and spades to ensure capture of the different proportions of macrofaunal assemblages from the supra-, medio- and infralittoral levels. We collected 211 taxa: 194 animals and 17 algae. The most abundant and dominant organisms collected with van Veen grabs were Nematoda, Oligochaeta and Collembola at the supralittoral level; the polychaetes Saccocirrus spp. and Pisione remota, the amphipod Corophium orientale, Nematoda, and Turbellaria at the mediolittoral level; and Nematoda at the upper infralittoral level. SIMPER analysis revealed great dissimilarity between the organisms inhabiting the supralittoral and the other littoral levels. Regarding the epifauna, the sticky traps used at the supralittoral level mainly collected Collembola, which were nearly absent in pitfall traps. The qualitative study performed with a clam net and a small spade revealed that Nematoda, Saccocirrus spp., Turbellaria, Nemertea and the polychaete P. remota were the most abundant animals at both the medio- and the infralittoral levels and no differences were found between these levels. Different qualitative sampling methodologies showed that in fine sediments the bivalves Donax trunculus and D. semistriatus determined more than 97% of dissimilarity from coarse-sand sites. Richness increased in protected sandy and cobble shores. Littoral level and bottom-type features were only to a certain extent valid indicators of specific biotic components for a specific habitat.
Elaine Christine Costa Eloy
Full Text Available Pentastomida is a group of parasites that infects the respiratory tracts of vertebrates. They have a mixture of annelid and arthropod characteristics. For that reason, the phylogenetic relationships of the pentastomids have been controversial in proposals of metazoan phylogeny. Forty-seven characters were selected for the analyses of the taxa Annelida, Arthropoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Onychophora, Pentastomida, Priapulida and Tardigrada. The analyses with PAUP resulted in a single shortest cladogram (length 89, ci 0.78, ri 0.86. Our results indicate that Pentastomida is a transitional group between the Arthropoda and some of the Nemathelminth groups such as Nematoda and Nematomorpha.
Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo
The genus Xiphinema includes a remarkable group of invertebrates of the phylum Nematoda comprising ectoparasitic animals of many wild and cultivated plants. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells and by vectoring nepoviruses that cause diseases on several crops. Precise identification of Xiphinema species is critical for launching appropriate control measures. We make available the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Xiphinema species infesting wild and cultivated olive in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 211 locations from which 453 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study identified thirty-two Xiphinema spp. in the rhizosphere of olive trees, ten species belonging to Xiphinema americanum-group, whereas twenty-two were attributed to Xiphinema non-americanum-group. These results increase our current knowledge on the biodiversity of Xiphinema species identified in olives and include the description of four new species (Xiphinema andalusiense sp. nov., Xiphinema celtiense sp. nov., Xiphinema iznajarense sp. nov., and Xiphinema mengibarense sp. nov.), and two new records for cultivate olives (X. cadavalense and X. conurum). We also found evidence of remarkable prevalence of Xiphinema spp. in olive trees, viz. 85.0% (385 out of 453 sampling sites), and they were widely distributed in both wild and cultivated olives, with 26 and 17 Xiphinema spp., respectively. Diversity indexes (Richness, Hill´s diversity, Hill´s reciprocal of D and Hill´s evenness) were significantly affected by olive type. We also developed a comparative morphological and morphometrical study together with molecular data from three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses allowed the delimitation and discrimination of four new species of the genus described herein and three known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Xiphinema spp. resulted in a
Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.
The genus Xiphinema includes a remarkable group of invertebrates of the phylum Nematoda comprising ectoparasitic animals of many wild and cultivated plants. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells and by vectoring nepoviruses that cause diseases on several crops. Precise identification of Xiphinema species is critical for launching appropriate control measures. We make available the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Xiphinema species infesting wild and cultivated olive in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 211 locations from which 453 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study identified thirty-two Xiphinema spp. in the rhizosphere of olive trees, ten species belonging to Xiphinema americanum-group, whereas twenty-two were attributed to Xiphinema non-americanum-group. These results increase our current knowledge on the biodiversity of Xiphinema species identified in olives and include the description of four new species (Xiphinema andalusiense sp. nov., Xiphinema celtiense sp. nov., Xiphinema iznajarense sp. nov., and Xiphinema mengibarense sp. nov.), and two new records for cultivate olives (X. cadavalense and X. conurum). We also found evidence of remarkable prevalence of Xiphinema spp. in olive trees, viz. 85.0% (385 out of 453 sampling sites), and they were widely distributed in both wild and cultivated olives, with 26 and 17 Xiphinema spp., respectively. Diversity indexes (Richness, Hill´s diversity, Hill´s reciprocal of D and Hill´s evenness) were significantly affected by olive type. We also developed a comparative morphological and morphometrical study together with molecular data from three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses allowed the delimitation and discrimination of four new species of the genus described herein and three known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Xiphinema spp. resulted in a
Full Text Available Prevalence of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda infection in wild populations of Mus domesticus in forests in southeastern New South Wales and in rural Canberra, Australia was variable, relatively low and the parasite occurred predominantly in male mice. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice occurred only via subcutaneous inoculation but was achieved using i adults containing embryonating eggs, ii adults containing active larvae and iii active larvae dissected from the uterus of female worms. Experimental infection was not established using adults containing unembryonated eggs and was not established via intraperitoneal, percutaneous nor oral routes. Evidence indicates that larvae develop to the infective stage in the uterus of the adult worm, suggests that an obligate developmental phase on the host skin does not occur and that autoinfection is possible. Experimental infection predominated in males; females rarely became infected. When male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with M. borreli, immediately paired with an uninoculated female and permitted to breed for 90 days, infection was found in male and female offspring only of the second and subsequent litters or in the breeding female partner. Transmission to the young occurred within 21 days of birth and fifth-stage M. borreli were found in offspring of the second and subsequent litters only after 35 or more days. However, when a male was inoculated but mating delayed for 23 days, infection was found in progeny of the first and second litters. The life cycle is direct and the prepatent period in BALB/c mice is estimated at 50-60 days. The precise mode of transmission of the parasite in breeding pairs of mice was not determined but larvae remained active for approximately an hour in balanced saline solutions (pH = 7.2 and in human saliva but died under conditions emulating free-living (tap water pH = 7.1 and stomach (pepsin solution pH = 2 environments. Transmission was not effected by
Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis Lacépède (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917.
Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (Lacépède) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05 mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38 mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925 µm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830 µm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10 mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.
Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.
Full Text Available Bagi Anda yang termasuk pelahap sayuran mentah (lalapan, harus cukup berhati-hati dengan agen penyakit berikut ini. Nama latinnya adalah Angiostrongylus cantonensis, salah satu jenis cacing Nematoda yang juga sering dikenal dengan nama rat lungworm, penyebab utama dari penyakit eosinophilic meningitis. Sebagaimana Nematoda lainnya, cacing ini juga memiliki bentuk filiform (seperti benang. Cacing jantanya berukuran ±7,7 mm dengan diameter 0,30 mm, sedangkan cacing betina ± 12,8 mm dan diameter 0,36 mm. Organ genitalia pada cacing jantan berupa bursa kopularis sedangkan cacing betina berupa vulva yang terletak di ujung posterior. Pada bagian kepala terdapat 3 buah labia, 2 diantaranya terletak di bagian dorsal, sedang yang 1 buah terletak di bagian lateraf.
Borner, Janus; Rehm, Peter; Schill, Ralph O; Ebersberger, Ingo; Burmester, Thorsten
The monophyly of Ecdysozoa, which comprise molting phyla, has received strong support from several lines of evidence. However, the internal relationships of Ecdysozoa are still contended. We generated expressed sequence tags from a priapulid (penis worm), a kinorhynch (mud dragon), a tardigrade (water bear) and five chelicerate taxa by 454 transcriptome sequencing. A multigene alignment was assembled from 63 taxa, which comprised after matrix optimization 24,249 amino acid positions with high data density (2.6% gaps, 19.1% missing data). Phylogenetic analyses employing various models support the monophyly of Ecdysozoa. A clade combining Priapulida and Kinorhyncha (i.e. Scalidophora) was recovered as the earliest branch among Ecdysozoa. We conclude that Cycloneuralia, a taxon erected to combine Priapulida, Kinorhyncha and Nematoda (and others), are paraphyletic. Rather Arthropoda (including Onychophora) are allied with Nematoda and Tardigrada. Within Arthropoda, we found strong support for most clades, including monophyletic Mandibulata and Pancrustacea. The phylogeny within the Euchelicerata remained largely unresolved. There is conflicting evidence on the position of tardigrades: While Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of only slowly evolving genes recovered Tardigrada as a sister group to Arthropoda, analyses of the full data set, and of subsets containing genes evolving at fast and intermediate rates identified a clade of Tardigrada and Nematoda. Notably, the latter topology is also supported by the analyses of indel patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo
The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species
The systematic status of Piscinema barakensis [sic] Gambhir et Ng, 2014 and Rhabdochona carpiae Nimbalkar, Deolalikar et Kamtikar, 2013, two nematodes recently described from freshwater fishes in India
Roč. 61, č. 3 (2014), s. 266-266 ISSN 0015-5683 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Nematoda * Philometridae * Rhabdochonidae * fish * Oriental Region Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014
Two new nematodes from the Iriomote cat, Prionailurus iriomotensis, from Okinawa: Uncinaria (Uncinaria) maya n. sp. (Ancylostomatoidea) and Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (Trichostrongyloidea).
Uncinaria (Uncinaria) maya n. sp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) and Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (Nematoda: Molineidae) are described from the Iriomote cat, Prionailurus iriomotensis, on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Uncinaria (U.) maya resembles Uncinaria (Uncinaria) felidis Maplestone, 1939, from Prionailurus bengalensis of India but is distinguished in that the body is much smaller, the ventral rays are set closely with the lateral rays, and the externolateral ray is much shorter than other laterals. Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus differs from Molineus springsmithi springsmithi Inglis and Ogden, 1965, from Prionailurus bengalensis horsfieldi of East Nepal in that the body is much longer, whereas the esophagus is somewhat shorter and the spicules are divided more distally. Presence of the closely related nematodes in both the Iriomote cat and P. bengalensis suggests a close evolutionary relationship of the 2 hosts.
Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.
-, č. 2 (2014), e1060 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.
Meiofauna population of Candolim beach mainly composed of nematoda (40.15), harpacticoida (30.75 per cent), turbellaria (23.35 per cent) and other groups which included polychaeta, bivalvia and mystacocardia. The maximum total meiofauna population...
Čermák, V.; Gaar, V.; Háněl, Ladislav; Široká, K.
Roč. 48, č. 2 (2011), s. 124-136 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Nematoda * diversity * vertical distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.773, year: 2011
Roč. 48, č. 4 (2004), s. 373-381 ISSN 0031-4056 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108 Keywords : nematoda * dumps * primary succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2004
Martinez-Aquino, A.; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Aguilar-Aguilar, R.; Pérez-Ponce de León, G.
Roč. 3856, č. 2 (2014), s. 151-191 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * Digenea * Monogenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Acanthocephala * Mexico Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014
Roč. 58, č. 2 (2003), s. 205-216 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : Nematoda * community structure * abundance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.183, year: 2003
Poinar George O
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare to find terrestrial nematode lineages parasitizing arthropods inhabiting the intertidal or littoral zone of the oceans. During an ecological study along the Oregon dunes, an allantonematid nematode (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae was discovered parasitizing the intertidal shore bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae. This shore bug is adapted to an intertidal environment and can survive short periods of submergence during high tides. The present study describes the nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development, ecology and evolution. Methods Adults and last instar nymphs of S. laticollis (Hemiptera: Saldidae were collected from the high intertidal zone among clumps of Juncus L. (Juncaceae plants at Waldport, Oregon on October 3, 2011. The bugs were dissected in 1% saline solution and the nematodes killed in 1% Ringers solution and immediately fixed in 5% formalin (at 20°C. Third stage juveniles removed from infected hosts were maintained in 1% saline solution until they matured to the adult stage, molted and mated. Results Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae is described from last instar nymphs and adults of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis on the Oregon coast. The new genus can be distinguished from other genera in the Allantonematidae by a stylet lacking basal knobs in both sexes, an excretory pore located behind the nerve ring, ribbed spicules, a gubernaculum, the absence of a bursa and the elongate-tubular shape of the ovoviviparous parasitic females. Studies of the organogenesis of Halophilanema showed development to third stage juveniles in the uterus of parasitic females. Maturation to the free-living adults and mating occurred in the environment. The incidence of infection of S. laticollis ranged from 0% to 85% depending on the microhabitat in the intertidal zone. Conclusions Based on the habitat and morphological characters, it is proposed
Fagerholm, H.-P.; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Roepstorff, A.; Eriksen, L.
Roč. 90, č. 3 (2004), s. 499-506 ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Nematoda * Ascaridoidea * phasmid Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004
Marcelo E Oliva
Full Text Available Three species of protistan and 22 species of metazoan parasites were obtained from a sample of 179 flatfish, (Paralichthys adspersus taken-off Antofagasta, northern Chile. Prevalence of infection of seven parasites (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 1, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2 was significantly and positively correlated with host size. Host's sex do not seem to affect prevalence of infection, except for Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (prevalence of infection significantly greater in males than females and Philometra sp. (prevalence higher in females. Mean abundance is correlated with size in nine species (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 3, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2. Host's sex do not affect mean abundance, except for Cainocreadium sp. and Philometra sp.(mean abundance higher in females and Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (mean abundance higher in males.
Rodrigues, C.L.; Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.
Of the 11 taxonomic groups represented, Nematoda followed by foraminifera and harpacticoida were dominant Meiofaunal abundance was more related to the texture of the sediment than variation in depth Population density varied from nil to 534.65 x 10...
van Beurden, Steven J; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Cremers, Herman J W M; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Hélène; Begeman, Lineke
Cetaceans are well known definitive hosts of parasitic nematodes of the genus Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakid nematodes are also a health hazard for humans, potentially causing gastrointestinal infections or allergic reactions following the consumption of infected fish. In marine mammals,
Pereira, F.B.; Tavares, L.E.R.; Paiva, F.; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, J.L.
Roč. 101, č. 4 (2015), s. 468-475 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Nematoda * fishes * Brazil Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.394, year: 2015
Species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae from fishes off the Mediterranean coast of Africa, with a description of Philometra rara n. sp. from Hyporthodus haifensis and a molecular analysis of Philometra saltatrix from Pomatomus saltatrix
Full Text Available Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae were recorded for the first time from marine perciform fishes off Tunisia and Libya: Philometra rara n. sp. from the rare, deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis (Serranidae off Libya and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae off Tunisia. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. Light and scanning electron microscope studies of Ph. rara n. sp. showed that it is characterized by the length of spicules (216–219 μm and the gubernaculum (90–93 μm, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio (1:2.32–2.43, and mainly by the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum (shovel-shaped with a wide median smooth field in dorsal view, appearing as having a dorsal protuberance in lateral view, and by the structure of the male caudal mound (dorsally interrupted; large subgravid females (70–137 mm long are characterized by the presence of four oval submedian cephalic elevations, each of them bearing a pair of cephalic papillae of the outer circle. The finding of Ph. saltatrix off Tunisia confirms that this species is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. A molecular analysis of our Ph. saltatrix specimens and other available philometrid cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI sequences showed that most species have robust clades. Sequences of Ph. saltatrix from Tunisia diverge from Ph. saltatrix from Brazil and the USA, suggesting that speciation is currently occurring between populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
sedimenta- tion method (Loubser 1985), killed by gentle heat, fixed in. FAA, processed into glycerine by Thome's slow method and mounted on permanent slides. Measurements and draw- ings were made with the aid of a Zeiss ...
Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006. A.J. Meyer. Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600. Received 5 December 1994; accepted 15 May 1995. Calcaridorylaimus sirgeli n.sp. is described from Cape Fynbos in mountains in the south~western Cape Prov- ince. It differs from all ...
Feb 5, 1996 ... 149-175 body annules intersected by 14 longitudinal lines (incisures), protruding lateral fields marked by four incisures, and an ... line, while the two outer lines are mere continuations of lon- gitudinal lines from further ..... Andrassy (1982), is possibly a printer's error, since no other. Neotliada (1o(1ulation ...
Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and Ochotona cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) from western North America and Central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography.
Durette-Desset, M-C; Galbreath, K E; Hoberg, E P
Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp. and Ohbayashinema aspeira n. sp., are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiated from the 5 known species of the genus parasitic in Ochotonidae from the Old World by very long spicules and an oblique axis of orientation for the ridges composing the synlophe. Ohbayashinema aspeira, described only from females, is similar to Oh. nearctica based on the number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body. It is mainly differentiated by an uncoiled anterior extremity and by near equal dimensions of the vestibule and the uterus. The third species, Ohbayashinema patriciae n. sp., is parasitic in Gansu pika, Ochotona cansus , from China. It is similar to Ohbayashinema erbaevae parasitic in Ochotona dauurica from Buriatia and Ohbayashinema ochotoni in Ochotona macrotis from Nepal, based on the length of the spicules and the ratio of spicule length to body length. It differs from the former species by possessing a smaller number of cuticular ridges and in the comparative length of the vestibule and infundibulum. Related to Oh. ochotoni by an identical number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body, it differs from this species in having smaller ridges in the dorsal rather than ventral field and in the dimensions of the dorsal ray where rays 9 are less than rays 10. Species of Ohbayashinema appear to be host-specific among the Ochotonidae but had not been previously reported in pikas from the Nearctic. Although much remains to be demonstrated about the diversity for helminths in pikas, it is apparent that factors associated with the assembly and structure of parasite faunas have been complex, involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization along with coevolutionary mechanisms. Understanding the historical factors, particularly climate
Baruš, Vlastimil; Foitová, I.; Koubková, B.; Hodová, I.; Šimková, A.; Nurcahyo, W.
Roč. 44, č. 4 (2007), s. 162-169 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Pongobius hugoti * Nematoda * Pongo abelii * orangutan * Sumatra * morphometric and molecular analyses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.373, year: 2007
Roč. 38, - (2002), s. 167-171 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Nematoda * succession * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2002
Full Text Available Abstract A total of 97 southern silvery grebes (Podiceps occipitalis, which died as the result of an oil spill on the coast of central Chile, were examined for ecto- and endoparasites. Two lice species including Aquanirmus rollandii (Philopteridae and Pseudomenopon dolium (Menoponidae were found from 6.2% (6/97 of birds. In 91.7% (89/97 of cases, grebes were infected with some kind of helminths. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths were detected: Eucoleus contortus (Nematoda, Profilicollis bullocki (Acanthocephala, and Confluaria sp. (Cestoda. In addition, Pelecitus fulicaeatrae (Nematoda was removed from the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal articulation in 13.4% (13/97 of the specimens examined. To our knowledge, these are the first records of A. rollandii, E. contortus, and Confluaria sp. as parasites of P. occipitalis. In addition, these findings expand the distributional range of A. rollandii, E. contortus, P. fulicaeatrae, and Confluaria sp. to Chile.
Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Rathod, V.; Rodrigues, N.
32 0 0 0 0 5.3? 13.1 2?5 Polychaeta 0 0 0 0 32 32 10.7? 16.5 Harpacticoida 32 0 0 0 0 16 8.0? 13.4 Tanaidacea 0 0 0 0 16 0 2.7? 6.5 Nematoda 0 32 0 48 0 0 13.3? 21.3 5-10 Polychaeta 48 0 0 16 32 16 18.7? 18.7 Harpacticoida 0 0 0... 0 48 32 13.3? 21.3 Tanaidacea 0 0 0 16 32 0 8.0? 13.3 Nematoda 32 0 0 32 16 0 13.3? 15.7 10-20 Polychaeta 0 0 0 0 32 0 5.3? 13.0 Harpacticoida 0 16 0 0 0 0 2.7? 6.5 Tanaidacea 0 64 0 32 16 0 18.7? 25.6 Cumacea 0 0 0 16 0 0 2.7? 6...
Genoveva TREJO-MACÍAS, Alejandro ESTRADA
Full Text Available In this study we document the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites (helminths and protozoans found in fecal samples of populations of Alouatta palliata mexicana and of A. pigra in Los Tuxtlas and in Palenque, southeast Mexico, and its relation to habitat condition, sex/age and season. Nineteen parasite morphotypes were detected in the fecal samples from populations of the two howler monkeys, of which 58% were shared by both species. When considering all parasite species, populations of the two howler species were more likely to be parasitized in fragmented habitat compared to continuous habitat. Individuals of both howler monkey species that lived in fragmented habitat had a higher prevalence of Controrchis biliophilus. A. p. mexicana individuals had a higher prevalence of Trypanoxyuris minutus than A. pigra, probably the result of the larger group sizes found in the former species, and T. minutus was more likely to be found in A. palliata individuals that lived in fragmented habitat. Adult A. p. mexicana males had a higher risk of being parasitized compared to adult females, but these differences were not detected in A. pigra. Parasite species such as Entamoeba sp., Nematoda sp. 28, Nematoda sp. B and Parabronema sp. where only found during the wet season in both howler monkey species. Populations of both howler monkey species had a higher prevalence of Nematoda sp. A in the wet season and Ascaridae eggs were only detected during the wet season in A. pigra. Other parasites detected displayed no clear seasonal pattern [Current Zoology 58 (3: 375-383, 2012].
Roč. 40, č. 1 (2008), s. 86-99 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS600660505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nematoda * diversity * maturity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2008
Roč. 202, - (2004), s. 209-225 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : nematoda * Picea abies * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2004
Neothada hades n.sp. from South Africa, with notes on the genus and a key to the species (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Heyns, Esther van den Berg, 165-169 ...
Moravec, František; de Buron, I.
Roč. 60, č. 2 (2013), s. 81-101 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Nematoda * Philometridae * parasites * fish * taxonomy * morphology * biology * pathology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2013
Hernández-Orts, J.S.; Viola, M.N.P.; García, N.A.; Crespo, E.A.; González, R.; García-Varela, M.; Kuchta, Roman
Roč. 3936, č. 3 (2015), s. 301-334 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Nematoda * Cestoda * Trematoda * Carnivora * Cetacea * South West Atlantic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015
Roč. 40, č. 4 (2003), s. 237-243 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Nematoda * diversity * trophic groups Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003
Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n3p81 Suporte morfológico para o posicionamento filogenético dos Pentastomida e fósseis relacionados. Pentastomida compreende um táxon de animais parasitas que infestam o trato respiratório de vertebrados. Esses endoparasitas possuem uma mistura de características de anelídeos e artrópodes. Por esse motivo, as relações filogenéticas dos pentastomídeos têm sido controversas nas propostas de filogenia dos Metazoa. Foram selecionados 47 caracteres para a análise dos táxons Annelida, Arthropoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Onychophora, Pentastomida, Priapulida e Tardigrada. As análises com o PAUP resultaram num único cladograma mais curto (comprimento 89, ci 0,78, ri 0,86. Segundo nossa análise, Pentastomida deve constituir um grupo de transição entre os Arthropoda e grupos de Nemathelminthes como Nematoda e Nematomorpha.
Koubková, B.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Hodová, I.
Roč. 47, č. 2 (2010), s. 105-114 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nematoda * fishes * West Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.847, year: 2010
Wijová, Martina; Moravec, František; Horák, Aleš; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius
Roč. 96, č. 2 (2005), s. 133-135 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Dracunculus * Nematoda * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2005
Bohorquez, Julio; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Yufera, M
The effect of macroalgal blooms on the abundance and community structure of intertidal sediment meiofauna was studied using an in situ enclosure experiments (Bay of Cádiz, Spain). Meiofaunal abundance (3500–41,000 ind 10 cm−2) was three to sevenfold higher in the presence of macroalgae. Nematoda...
This book describes the life and work of Dr. Johannes Govertus de Man (1850-1930), a remarkable Dutch invertebrate zoologist. J.G. de Man worked on the systematics of both the Crustacea, in particular on Decapoda (i.e. crabs, crayfish, lobsters and shrimps), and the microscopically Nematoda or
Wasimuddin, Wasimuddin; Čížková, Dagmar; Ribas, Alexis; Piálek, Jaroslav; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Bryja, Josef
Roč. 185, č. 2 (2012), s. 154-156 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Microsatellites * Next-generation sequencing * Nematoda * Population genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.734, year: 2012
Avaliação dos métodos de amostragem para fauna perifítica em macrófitas na Reserva da Biosfera, Serra do Espinhaço, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.377 Evaluation of sampling methods for periphytic fauna in macrophytes at the Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve, Minas Gerais State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.377
Cristiane Machado López
Full Text Available Os métodos “Jarra”, “Remocao Manual” e “Draga de Eckman modificada” foram avaliados para amostrar a fauna perifitica associada a macrofitas aquaticas. Foram coletadas 63 amostras em cinco ambientes lenticos e tres loticos na reserva da biosfera da Serra do Espinhaco (Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os testes estatisticos Anova e Tukey foram feitos para riqueza de Protista, Rotifera e Crustacea, enquanto para a abundancia de Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada e Nematoda foram avaliados os percentuais. Os protozoarios e rotiferos representaram 80% da abundancia e riqueza da comunidade. Nos ecossistemas avaliados todos os metodos foram relevantes para Protista, por outro lado, o metodo da Jarra foi o mais adequado para a analise de Crustacea. Entre os metodos, a Draga foi menos indicada para os grupos de microinvertebrados nos ecossistemas aquaticos. Os metodos Remocao Manual e Draga foram apropriados para analisar Rotifera. A abundancia de Gastrotricha e Tardigrada demonstrou melhores resultados pelo metodo da Jarra e Nematoda pelo metodo da Draga. Os tres metodos sao apropriados para amostragem da fauna perifitica em ambos os sistemas aquaticos. Entretanto, e importante estar ciente de que para cada tipo de ecossistema a amostragem da comunidade faunistica requer um metodo especifico para obter a melhor performance.The methods “Jar”, “Manual Removal” and “modified Ekman`s Dredge” were evaluated for sampling periphyton fauna associated to aquatic macrophytes. Sixty three samples were collected from five lentic and three lotic water bodies at Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve (Minas Gerais, Brazil. ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests were performed for Protista, Rotifera and Crustacea richness, whilst Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada and Nematoda, abundance were evaluate by percentage. Amongst the three methods, Dregde is less indicated for different water bodies systems
Moravec, František; Diggles, B.K.
Roč. 61, č. 1 (2014), s. 37-54 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * diversity * endoparasites * fish host * fish parasites * Nematoda * Philometra * Philometroides * Spirophilometra Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014
Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Anandham, Rangasamy; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Soon-Wo
A novel aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated 5516S-2(T) was isolated from an air sample taken in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Colonies were yellow-pigmented and circular with entire margins. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5516S-2(T) was closely related to Xylophilus ampelinus DSM 7250(T) (97.6 % sequence similarity), Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) (97.5 %) and Xenophilus azovorans DSM 13620(T) (97.1 %). However, the phylogenetic tree indicated that strain 5516S-2(T) formed a separate clade from Xenophilus azovorans. Strain 5516S-2(T) displayed 42, 31 and 30 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of Xenophilus azovorans, Xylophilus ampelinus and V. soli, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0) (33.3 %), C(17 : 0) cyclo (18.8 %), C(18 : 1)omega7c (17.5 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH; 13.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 69 mol%. The major quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown aminophospholipids. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics clearly distinguished strain 5516S-2(T) from closely related species and indicated that it represents a novel species within the genus Xenophilus, for which the name Xenophilus aerolatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5516S-2(T) (=KACC 12602(T)=DSM 19424(T)).
Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia
Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.
Roč. 64, 5 April (2017), č. článku 011. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Nematoda * helminth parasite * Seuratoidea * Camallanoidea * Epinephelus * Pomadasys * South Pacific Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016
Ondračková, Markéta; Dávidová, M.; Pečínková, M.; Blažek, R.; Gelnar, M.; Valová, Zdenka; Černý, J.; Jurajda, Pavel
Roč. 21, č. 4 (2005), s. 345-349 ISSN 0175-8659. [European Congress of Ichthyology /11./. Tallinn, 06.09.2004-10.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP524/05/P291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nematoda * River Danube Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2005
Mueller, KE; Eisenhauer, N; Reich, PB; Hobbie, SE; Chadwick, OA; Chorover, J; Dobies, T; Hale, CM; Jagodziński, AM; Kałucka, I; Kasprowicz, M; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B; Modrzyński, J; Roz en, A; Skorupski, M
© 2015. Management of biodiversity and ecosystem services requires a better understanding of the factors that influence soil biodiversity. We characterized the species (or genera) richness of 10 taxonomic groups of invertebrate soil animals in replicated monocultures of 14 temperate tree species. The focal invertebrate groups ranged from microfauna to macrofauna: Lumbricidae, Nematoda, Oribatida, Gamasida, Opilionida, Araneida, Collembola, Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae. Measurement...
Fugassa, Martin H
Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies.
Full Text Available 11761 ) Cm_mx0_73c09_SP6 Green Shore Crab Multiple Tissue... 44 3.8 1 ( DT748983 ) EST1182832 Aquilegia cDNA library....5 2 ( DT740690 ) EST1174539 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 32 6.6 2 ( AC179512 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratu..... 46 0.95 1 ( DT735794 ) EST1169643 Aquilegia cDNA library Aquilegia formo... 46 0.95 1 ( AU060865 ) Dictyo...ne ... 46 0.95 1 ( CN914822 ) 030115ABNB002055HT (ABNB) Braeburn cultured fruit... 46 0.95 1 ( CJ977926 ) Bursaphelenchus mucronatu... Grape Berry pSPORT1 Library Vitis ... 44 3.8 1 ( CF118211 ) fs326.z1 fs 103-105d fetal sheep skin library
Wu, Wenjie; LoVerde, Philip T
Nuclear receptors (NRs) belong to a large protein superfamily that are important transcriptional modulators in metazoans. Parasitic helminths include parasitic worms from the Lophotrochozoa (Platyhelminths) and Ecdysozoa (Nematoda). NRs in parasitic helminths diverged into two different evolutionary lineages. NRs in parasitic Platyhelminths have orthologues in Deuterostomes, in arthropods or both with a feature of extensive gene loss and gene duplication within different gene groups. NRs in p...
Zolda, P.; Háněl, Ladislav
Roč. 44, č. 3 (2007), s. 112-117 ISSN 0440-6605 Grant - others:National Park Seewinkel(AT) NP-26; MŠMT(CZ) 2004-13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : diversity * grassland restoration * Nematoda Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.373, year: 2007
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi
Background Loricifera is an enigmatic metazoan phylum; its morphology appeared to place it with Priapulida and Kinorhyncha in the group Scalidophora which, along with Nematoida (Nematoda and Nematomorpha), comprised the group Cycloneuralia. Scarce molecular data have suggested an alternative phylogenetic hypothesis, that the phylum Loricifera is a sister taxon to Nematomorpha, although the actual phylogenetic position of the phylum remains unclear. Methods Ecdysozoan phylogeny was reconstruct...
Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239
Evaluation of sampling methods for periphytic fauna in macrophytes at the Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve, Minas Gerais State, Brazil = Avaliação dos métodos de amostragem para fauna perifítica em macrófitas na Reserva da Biosfera, Serra do Espinhaço, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil
Helena Lúcia Menezes Ferreira
Full Text Available The methods “Jar”, “Manual Removal” and “modified Ekman Dredge” wereevaluated for sampling periphyton fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes. Sixty-three samples were collected from five lentic and three lotic water bodies at the Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Anova and Tukey statistical tests were performed for Protista, Rotifera and Crustacea richness, whereas the abundance of Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada and Nematoda was evaluated by percentage. Of the three methods, the Dredge is less indicated for different water bodies systems in which there is interest in analyzing various microinvertebrate groups. The Protista and Rotifera represent 80% of the total abundance and richness in the invertebrate community. In the ecosystems evaluated, all methods are relevant for Protistaanalysis; on the other hand, Crustacea analysis required the Jar method. Manual Removal and Dredge methods are appropriate for Rotifera analysis. Gastrotricha and Tardigrada abundance presented better results with the Jar method; Nematoda with the Dredgemethod. The three methods are appropriate for periphyton fauna sampling in both water body systems; nevertheless, it is important to be aware that for each fauna community in a specified ecosystem, there is a specific method for best performance.Os métodos “Jarra”, “Remoção Manual” e “Draga de Eckman modificada” foram avaliados para amostrar a fauna perifítica associada à macrófitas aquáticas. Foram coletadas 63 amostras em cinco ambienteslênticos e três lóticos na reserva da biosfera da Serra do Espinhaço (Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os testes estatísticos Anova e Tukey foram feitos para riqueza de Protista, Rotifera eCrustacea, enquanto para a abundância de Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada e Nematoda foram avaliados os percentuais. Os protozoários e rotíferos representaram 80% daabund
Sep 13, 1991 ... The Alexandria dune field lies between the Sundays River ... field may have originated in an area where the channel of an ... A: Anterior region of holotype male; B: Anterior region of female; C: External morphology of.
Pafčo, B.; Čížková, Dagmar; Kreisinger, Jakub; Hasegawa, H.; Vallo, Peter; Shutt, K.; Todd, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.
Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 5933. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : western lowland gorillas * oesophagostomum-bifurcum nematoda * internal transcribed spacer * necator-americanus * gut microbiome * gastrointestinal parasites * epidemiologic implications * ancylostoma-duodenale * nonhuman-primates * small ruminants Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Gordon, Kacy L.; Arthur, Robert K.; Ruvinsky, Ilya
Gene regulatory information guides development and shapes the course of evolution. To test conservation of gene regulation within the phylum Nematoda, we compared the functions of putative cis-regulatory sequences of four sets of orthologs (unc-47, unc-25, mec-3 and elt-2) from distantly-related nematode species. These species, Caenorhabditis elegans, its congeneric C. briggsae, and three parasitic species Meloidogyne hapla, Brugia malayi, and Trichinella spiralis, represent four of the five major clades in the phylum Nematoda. Despite the great phylogenetic distances sampled and the extensive sequence divergence of nematode genomes, all but one of the regulatory elements we tested are able to drive at least a subset of the expected gene expression patterns. We show that functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements have no more extended sequence similarity to their C. elegans orthologs than would be expected by chance, but they do harbor motifs that are important for proper expression of the C. elegans genes. These motifs are too short to be distinguished from the background level of sequence similarity, and while identical in sequence they are not conserved in orientation or position. Functional tests reveal that some of these motifs contribute to proper expression. Our results suggest that conserved regulatory circuitry can persist despite considerable turnover within cis elements. PMID:26020930
Kacy L Gordon
Full Text Available Gene regulatory information guides development and shapes the course of evolution. To test conservation of gene regulation within the phylum Nematoda, we compared the functions of putative cis-regulatory sequences of four sets of orthologs (unc-47, unc-25, mec-3 and elt-2 from distantly-related nematode species. These species, Caenorhabditis elegans, its congeneric C. briggsae, and three parasitic species Meloidogyne hapla, Brugia malayi, and Trichinella spiralis, represent four of the five major clades in the phylum Nematoda. Despite the great phylogenetic distances sampled and the extensive sequence divergence of nematode genomes, all but one of the regulatory elements we tested are able to drive at least a subset of the expected gene expression patterns. We show that functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements have no more extended sequence similarity to their C. elegans orthologs than would be expected by chance, but they do harbor motifs that are important for proper expression of the C. elegans genes. These motifs are too short to be distinguished from the background level of sequence similarity, and while identical in sequence they are not conserved in orientation or position. Functional tests reveal that some of these motifs contribute to proper expression. Our results suggest that conserved regulatory circuitry can persist despite considerable turnover within cis elements.
Campbell, Lahcen I.
A major turning point in the study of metazoan evolution was the recognition of the existence of the Ecdysozoa in 1997. This is a group of eight animal phyla (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Loricifera, Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, Tardigrada, Onychophora and Arthropoda). Ecdysozoa is the most specious clade of animals to ever exist and the relationships among its eight phyla are still heatedly debated. Similarly also the relationships among the three sub-phyla (Chelicerata, Pancrustacea a...
Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)
VI Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológicas. Resúmenes: -Spinelli, C. M.; L. E. Fiorito; C. Stiebel. 1989. Alteraciones histológicas a nivel del intestino delgado en Tupinambis rufescens (Sauria: Teiidae) causadas por Diaphanocephalus galeatus (Nematoda: Diaphanocephalidae). -Grisolia, C. S.; F. O. Peluso; F. Francini; N. O. Stanchi. 1989. Estado actual de la colección herpetológica (Ofidios) del laboratorio y museo de animales venenosos de la Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Argentin...
Jex, Aaron R.; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.
Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provid...
Kuchta, Roman; Čech, Martin; Scholz, Tomáš; Soldánová, Miroslava; Levron, Céline; Škoríková, Blanka
Roč. 86, č. 1 (2009), s. 87-91 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA AV ČR KJB600960902; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Cestoda * Nematoda Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2009
Full Text Available Fifty-four Pelophylax bedriagae (Levantine Frog from Turkey (İzmir and Manisa Provinces were examined for helminth parasites. The frogs were collected between 2012 and 2014 years. Eight species of helminth parasites were recorded: 3 species of Nematoda (Rhabdias bufonis, Cosmocerca ornata, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Haematoloechus bre-viansa, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, 1 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus ranae and 1 species of Hirudinea (Hirudo medicinalis. Pelophylax bedriagae is a new host record for these parasite species.
Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; Mackey, L Y; Brooks, J M; De Wachter, R; Kumar, S; Garey, J R
The Aschelminthes is a collection of at least eight animal phyla, historically grouped together because the absence of a true body cavity was perceived as a pseudocoelom. Analyses of 18S rRNA sequences from six Aschelminth phyla (including four previously unpublished sequences) support polyphyly for the Aschelminthes. At least three distinct groups of Aschelminthes were detected: the Priapulida among the protostomes, the Rotifera-Acanthocephala as a sister group to the protostomes, and the Nematoda as a basal group to the triploblastic Eumetazoa.
Composição e variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna de uma praia arenosa na região amazônica (Ajuruteua, Pará Composition and spatio-temporal variability of meiofauna community on a sandy beach in the Amazon region (Ajuruteua, Pará, Brazil
Tatianne P. Gomes
Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a variabilidade espaço-temporal da meiofauna do médiolitoral na praia de Ajuruteua, Estado do Pará. As coletas foram realizadas a cada dois meses, entre abril de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004 durante as marés de sizígia, em diferentes zonas da praia. As amostras foram retiradas com um amostrador cilíndrico de 3,14 cm² e fixadas em formalina salina a 5%. Em laboratório, as amostras foram passadas em malha de 0,063 mm de abertura e os organismos retidos identificados em nível de grandes grupos taxonômicos, contados e fixados em álcool etílico a 70%. A meiofauna esteve representada por oito grupos: Turbellaria, Nematoda, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Acari, adultos de Copepoda Harpacticoida e juvenis de Copepoda Harpacticoida. Nematoda foi o grupo dominante, representando 74% do total de indivíduos, seguido de Copepoda (19%. Pôde-se observar clara zonação horizontal da fauna, que se distribuiu em três faixas paralelas à linha de praia, com características significativamente distintas quanto à abundância, riqueza e densidade dos principais grupos taxonômicos. No médiolitoral médio foram observados valores significativamente mais elevados de riqueza e abundância, enquanto os valores mais baixos foram registrados no médiolitoral superior e inferior. A comunidade de meiofauna, ainda que não tenha variado significativamente entre períodos climáticos, foi mais rica e abundante nos meses secos. Os principais fatores responsáveis pelas variações espaço-temporais da meiofauna foram a ação das ondas e das marés e as variações na salinidade da água.The present study investigates the spatio-temporal changes in the meiofauna community along the intertidal zone of Ajuruteua Beach, State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected during spring tides at different levels of the beach face every two months from April 2003 to February 2004. The material was sampled using a cylindrical corer (3.14 cm² and
Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia
This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.
Helmintos parasitos do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae, no rio Araguaia, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Sonia M. C. dos Santos
Full Text Available Foram examinados 65 exemplares de pirarucu em agosto de 2004, provenientes do rio Araguaia, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil para o estudo dos seus helmintos parasitos. Cinco espécies foram registradas parasitando Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea nas brânquias, Nilonema senticosum e Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda na vesícula gasosa e no estômago respectivamente; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea e Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala no intestino. Os valores mais altos de prevalência foram observados para D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96,9%. Os maiores valores de intensidade e abundância média foram calculados para C. brasiliense e N. senticosum (61 e 46,9, respectivamente. Todas estas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez na Bacia do Rio Araguaia.Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%. Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively. All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.
Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de 44 especies correspondiente al material tipo de 511 especímenes (34 holotipos, 9 alotipos, 418 paratipos y 50 sintipos de helmintos (Trematoda, Monogenea, Cestoidea, Nematoda y Acanthocephala , parásitos en vertebrados e invertebrados de Perú, Chile y Estados Unidos de Norte América, que se encuentran depositados en la Colección Helmintológica del Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (MUSM, Lima, Perú. Se incluye también algunos comentarios nomenclaturales.
Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is an important parasitic nematode which significantly decreases quality and quantity of patchouli oil. One potential measure for controlling the nematode is by using endophytic bacteria. These bacteria also induce plant growth. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endo-phytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus. The experiments were carried out in the Bacteriological Laboratory of the Plant Protection Department, Bogor Agricultural University, and the Laboratory and Greenhouse of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute from April to December 2007. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the roots of patchouli plants sampled from various locations in West Java. Antagonistic activity of the isolates were selected against P. brachyurus and their abilities to induce plant growth of patch-ouli plants. Isolates having ability to control P. brachyurus and promote plant growth were identified by molecular techniques using 16S rRNA universal primers. The results showed that a total of 257 isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained from patchouli roots and their population density varied from 2.3 x 102 to 6.0 x 105 cfu g-1 fresh root. As many as 60 isolates (23.34% were antagonistic against P. brachyurus causing 70-100% mortality of the namatode, 72 isolates (28.01% stimu-lated plant growth, 32 isolates (12.47% inhibited plant growth, and 93 isolates (36.18% were neutral. Based on their antago-nistic and plant growth enhancer characters, five isolates of the bacteria, namely Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK, and Bacillus subtilis NJ57 suppressed 74.0-81.6% nema-tode population and increased 46.97-86.79% plant growth. The study implies that the endophytic bacteria isolated from patchouly roots are good candidates for controlling P. brachyurus on patchouly plants. Bahasa IndonesiaPratylenchus brachyurus adalah nematoda parasit pada
Oct 1, 1992 ... 1940). The species herein described does not fit into any of the existing genera, and we accordingly propose a new genus for its reception. Material and Methods. Descriptions, measurements and drawings were made from specimens killed and fixed in hot FAA (70°C) and mounted in anhydrous glycerine.
... et d'hybridation effectuées utilisant les stades développementaux des nématodes ont révélé un isolat d'H. indica, deux d'H. sonorensis. Pour les autres isolats, des informations complémentaires sont nécessaires pour une identification complète. Le séquençage et l'analyse phylogénétique de la région interspécifique de ...
Le séquençage et l'analyse phylogénétique de la région interspécifique de l'ADN ribosomal ont groupé nos isolats avec H. sonorensis et H. Taysearae dans les arbres de parcimonie maximale et de Neighbour Joining avec les supports respectifs 94 et 99 %. Les caractères morphologiques des juvéniles infectieux et des ...
Ollivier, Quinn R; Hammill, Edward; Booth, David J; Madin, Elizabeth M P; Hinchliffe, Charles; Harborne, Alastair R; Lovelock, Catherine E; Macreadie, Peter I; Atwood, Trisha B
Benthic fauna play a crucial role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water boundary in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial systems, grazing herbivores have been shown to influence below-ground communities through alterations to plant distribution and composition, however whether similar cascading effects occur in aquatic systems is unknown. Here, we assess the relationship between benthic invertebrates and above-ground fish grazing across the 'grazing halos' of Heron Island lagoon, Australia. Grazing halos, which occur around patch reefs globally, are caused by removal of seagrass or benthic macroalgae by herbivorous fish that results in distinct bands of unvegetated sediments surrounding patch reefs. We found that benthic algal canopy height significantly increased with distance from patch reef, and that algal canopy height was positively correlated with the abundances of only one invertebrate taxon (Nematoda). Both sediment carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N) and mean sediment particle size (μm) demonstrated a positive correlation with Nematoda and Arthropoda (predominantly copepod) abundances, respectively. These positive correlations indicate that environmental conditions are a major contributor to benthic invertebrate community distribution, acting on benthic communities in conjunction with the cascading effects of above-ground algal grazing. These results suggest that benthic communities, and the ecosystem functions they perform in this system, may be less responsive to changes in above-ground herbivorous processes than those previously studied in terrestrial systems. Understanding how above-ground organisms, and processes, affect their benthic invertebrate counterparts can shed light on how changes in aquatic communities may affect ecosystem function in previously unknown ways.
Martín Horacio Fugassa
Full Text Available Feline coprolites were examined for parasites with the aim of studying ancient infections that occurred in the Patagonian region during the Holocene period. Eggs compatible to Trichuris sp., Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Nematodirus sp., Oesophagostomum sp. (Nematoda, Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda and Eimeria macusaniensis (Coccidia were recovered from faecal samples. The results obtained from the analysis provide evidence of consumption by felids of the viscera of both rodents and camelids. This knowledge allows for improved explanations as to the distribution of parasitism and its significance to the health of humans and animals inhabiting the area under study during the Middle Holocene.
Full Text Available In this study the following parasites were selected as biological tags for the identification of blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo stocks in the northeast Atlantic: Diphterostomum vividum (Digenea: Zoogonidae, Anisakis simplex s.l., A. physeteris, Anisakis sp. PB-2010 (Nematoda: Anisakidae, and Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae. These parasite species point to the existence of three blackspot seabream stocks in the northeast Atlantic: one in the Azores region (ICES Area X, one in continental Portuguese shelf/slope waters (ICES Area IXa, and one in the waters around Madeira (sub-area 1.2 of FAO 34, central-eastern Atlantic.
Full Text Available In the period of October 2007 to August 2008, 152 specimens ofPygocentrus nattereri were caught in the Negro River in the Nhecolândia region, central Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The specimens were necropsied and a total of 4,212 metazoan endoparasites were recovered, belonging to 10 taxons:Procamallanus (Spirocamallanusinopinatus, Philometridae gen. sp.,Eustrongylides sp., Brevimulticaecum sp.,Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Echinorhynchus paranensis (Acanthocephala, Leiperia gracile,Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 andSubtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. This is the first record of two parasite species from P. nattereri: E. paranensis and L. gracile.
Więcaszek, Beata; Sobecka, Ewa; Keszka, Sławomir; Stepanowska, Katarzyna; Dudko, Stanisław; Biernaczyk, Marcin; Wrzecionkowski, Konrad
This paper presents the results of studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species ( Spinachia spinachia, Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, Agonus cataphractus, Pholis gunnellus, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Cyclopterus lumpus) and one lamprey species ( Lampetra fluviatilis), recorded as bycatch during monitoring surveys in 2010-2013 in the Pomeranian Bay. Two species were observed for the first time in the Pomeranian Bay: A. cataphractus and E. cimbrius. Descriptions of parasite fauna are provided for C. lumpus and E. cimbrius, which were infected with four pathogenic species from Neomonada, Digenea, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Almost all parasite species were new in the hosts examined.
Quentin, J C; Verdier, J M
The life cycle of Maupasina weissi Seurat, 1913, the parasite of the elephant shrew, has been experimentally obtained from the intermediate host Locusta migratoria. The biology of this Nematoda is considered as being more primitive than the Subuluridae: -- egg maturation in external environment is in fact necessary to the Maupasina larvae to penetrate into the insect, -- The different localizations of the infective larvae, such as mesenteron regeneration crypta, fat body, demonstrate that the parasite is not completely adaptated to its intermediate host, -- the ontogenesis of cephalic structures is characterized by an hypertrophy of the archaic structures mainly from cuticular origin.
Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mráček, Zdeněk
Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 201-206 ISSN 1049-9644 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : chemoattraciton * entomopathogenic nematode * gastropod parasitic nematode Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.917, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1049964412000436
Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro
We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ
Performans Produksi, Jumlah Nematoda Usus, dan Profil Metabolik Darah Kambing yang Diberi Pakan Hijauan Rawa Kalimantan (PRODUCTION PERFORMANS, INTESTINE NEMATODE NUMBER AND METABOLIC BLOOD PROFILE OF GOAT FEED WITH BORNEO SWAMP FORAGE
Full Text Available This study aims were to determine the effect of the use of swamp forage on the performances, the number of nematodes and the blood metabolic profile in goats. In this study, as many as 24 male goats were used; consisted of 12 local male goats (kacang goat with the average weight ranged from 12.65±1.65kg (diversity coefficient 11.34% and 12 PE goats with the average weight of 18.05±0.62 kg (diversity coefficient 7.54%. This research used a completely randomized factorial design (CRD 2x4 with 2 main treatments x 4 factorials and three replications. The first factor was based on the goat breed being used (Kacang and Peranakan Etawah. The second factor was based on four differents feed percentages that used, i.e.: (PR0 40% grass forage and 60% concentrate, (PR1 60% grass forage and 40% concentrate, (PR2, 40% of swamp forage and concentrates 60%, (PR3 60% swamp forage and 40% concentrate. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance, then continued with Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consumption of nutrients, daily weight gain and feed efficiency in treatment provision of swamp forage up to 60% (PR3 gave best result based on the metabolic profile of blood (total protein, glucose, cholesterol, Ca and P. The number of worm eggs in the goat feces were still in normal range. It was concluded that swamp forage is a potential forage that can be used as an alternative towards grass forage for the goats. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan hijauan rawa terhadap performans, jumlah nematoda, dan profil metabolik darah kambing. Pada penelitian ini digunakan ternak kambing jantan sebanyak 24 ekor. Kambing yang digunakan terdiri dari 12 ekor kambing kacang jantan dengan rataan bobot badan berkisar antara 12,65 ± 1,65 kg (koefisien keragaman 11,34% dan 12 ekor kambing peranakan etawah (PE dengan rataan bobot badan 18,05 ± 0,62 kg (koefisien keragaman 7,54%. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan rancangan
Background Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences in recent years challenge the current working hypothesis of Nematoda phylogeny proposed from morphology, ecology and nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences, and raise the need to sequence additional mt genomes for a broad range of nematode lineages. Results We sequenced the complete mt genomes of three Ascaridia species (family Ascaridiidae) that infest chickens, pigeons and parrots, respectively. These three Ascaridia species have an identical arrangement of mt genes to each other but differ substantially from other nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the mt genome sequences of the Ascaridia species, together with 62 other nematode species, support the monophylies of seven high-level taxa of the phylum Nematoda: 1) the subclass Dorylaimia; 2) the orders Rhabditida, Trichinellida and Mermithida; 3) the suborder Rhabditina; and 4) the infraorders Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha. Analyses of mt genome sequences, however, reject the monophylies of the suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. Monophyly of the infraorder Ascaridomorpha varies depending on the methods of phylogenetic analysis. The Ascaridomorpha was more closely related to the infraorders Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha (suborder Rhabditina) than they were to the other two infraorders of the Spirurina: Oxyuridorpha and Spiruromorpha. The closer relationship among Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha was also supported by a shared common pattern of mitochondrial gene arrangement. Conclusions Analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences and gene arrangement has provided novel insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of nematodes. Many lineages of nematodes, however, are underrepresented or not represented in these analyses. Expanding taxon sampling is necessary for future phylogenetic studies of nematodes with mt genome
A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....
Panti-May, JesÚs Alonso; Digiani, MarÍa Celina; Palomo-Arjona, Eduardo Emir; Gurubel-gonzÁlez, Yessica Margely; Navone, Graciela T; Williams, Carlos Machain-; HernÁndez-Betancourt, Silvia F; Robles, MarÍa Del Rosario
In this survey, 19 species of helminths including Cestoda (Davaineidae, Hymenolepididae, and Taeniidae), Acanthocephala (Oligacanthorhynchidae), and Nematoda (Trichuridae, Ornithostrongylidae, Heligmonellidae, Oxyuridae, and Gongylonematidae) from Rattus rattus, Mus musculus, Sigmodon toltecus, Heteromys gaumeri, and Peromyscus yucatanicus in two Mayan villages in Yucatán, México, were recorded. Ten species of helminths were collected in both localities. The highest species richness was recorded in R. rattus from Xkalakdzonot (6 taxa). Twelve species are new records for Yucatán and two are registered for the first time in México. This survey constitutes the first checklist of helminth parasites in small rodents in the south-southeast of México.
Dos Santos, Sonia M C; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Luque, José L
Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea) in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda) in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea) and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala) in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100%) and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%). Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively). All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.
Chaerani, Y. Suryadi, T.P. Priyatno, D. Koswanudin1, U. Rahmat , Sujatmo, Yusuf, dan C.T. Griffin.
Full Text Available Isolation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema and Heterorhabditis. Entomopathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae are promising biological control agent of insect pests. Indigenous nematodes have been isolated and collected for the use in local biological control program of important insect pests. The nematodes were isolated using soil baiting method with insect larvae. Laboratory tests have shown that the mealworm larvae Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae served as a good alternative to the standard insect bait, the greater wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae for isolation and maintenance of nematodes. Both nematodes were successfully isolated using T. molitor larvae from 13% soil samples (26 out of a total of 207 collected from 14 locations in West and Central Java and Lampung provinces in the period of 1993 until 2006. Heterorhabditis (9% was more prevalent than Steinernema (4%. Both nematodes were successfully propagated on mealworm larvae.
Santos, Henrique F.; Cury, Juliano C.; Carmo, Flavia L.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Peixoto, Raquel S.
Background Microeukaryotes are an effective indicator of the presence of environmental contaminants. However, the characterisation of these organisms by conventional tools is often inefficient, and recent molecular studies have revealed a great diversity of microeukaryotes. The full extent of this diversity is unknown, and therefore, the distribution, ecological role and responses to anthropogenic effects of microeukaryotes are rather obscure. The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills (e.g., the May 2010 accident in the Gulf of Mexico) converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance, highlighting the need for efficient tools to indicate the presence of oil in these environments. However, no studies have used molecular methods to assess the effects of oil contamination in mangrove sediment on microeukaryotes as a group. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the population dynamics and the prevailing 18S rDNA phylotypes of microeukaryotes in mangrove sediment microcosms with and without oil contamination, using PCR/DGGE and clone libraries. We found that microeukaryotes are useful for monitoring oil contamination in mangroves. Our clone library analysis revealed a decrease in both diversity and species richness after contamination. The phylogenetic group that showed the greatest sensitivity to oil was the Nematoda. After contamination, a large increase in the abundance of the groups Bacillariophyta (diatoms) and Biosoecida was detected. The oil-contaminated samples were almost entirely dominated by organisms related to Bacillariophyta sp. and Cafeteria minima, which indicates that these groups are possible targets for biomonitoring oil in mangroves. The DGGE fingerprints also indicated shifts in microeukaryote profiles; specific band sequencing indicated the appearance of Bacillariophyta sp. only in contaminated samples and Nematoda only in non-contaminated sediment. Conclusions/Significance We believe that
El-Dakhly, Kh M; El-Nahass, E; Uni, S; Tuji, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T
A high prevalence (86.7%) of various species of nematodes was observed in the stomach of great cormorants living in Lake Biwa, Japan. There were varying numbers of adults belonging to two common genera, Eustrongylides Jagerskiold 1909 (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) and Contracaecum Railliet & Henry 1912 (Nematoda: Anisakidae). The first included common adenophorean nematodes comprising a single species, Eustrongylides tubifex and the second comprised ascaroid nematodes that contained four named species: Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Contracaecum microcephalum Yamaguti, 1961, Contracaecum multipapillatum Drasche, 1882 and Contracaecum chubutensis Garbin, 2008. After the prevalence and intensity of the infection had been noted, both types of nematodes were frequently observed to penetrate the mucosa and intrude into the wall of the glandular stomach, where they caused gross haemorrhage and ulceration. The Eustrongylides sp. was predominantly found in a nodular lesion of the proventricular wall, while Contracaecum spp. were observed either free in the lumen of the proventriculus or, on occasion, deeply penetrating its wall. Of the Contracaecum spp., C. rudolphii was the most prevalent. Grossly, large numbers of nematodes were present in infected stomachs (for C. rudolphii intensity was 1-34 and 3-57 nematodes in male birds and 1-21 and 1-32 in females; for C. microcephalum 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-2 in females; for C. multipapillatum 2 in male cormorants and no infection in females; for C. chubutensis 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-5 and 1 in females and for E. tubifex 1-5 nematodes in male birds and 2-8 in females). Ulcerative inflammation and hyperaemia were the most common pathological presentations, especially in areas that had been invaded by parasites. Microscopically, varying degrees of granulomatous inflammatory reactions were seen, in addition to degenerated nematodes which appeared to have deeply penetrated mucosal surfaces and were surrounded by
Rinaldi, L; Coles, G C; Maurelli, M P; Musella, V; Cringoli, G
The present study was aimed at carrying out a calibration and a comparison of diagnostic accuracy of three faecal egg counts (FEC) techniques, simple flotation, McMaster and FLOTAC, in order to find the best flotation solution (FS) for Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Moniezia expansa and gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle eggs, and to evaluate the influence of faecal preservation methods combined with FS on egg counts. Simple flotation failed to give satisfactory results with any samples. Overall, FLOTAC resulted in similar or higher eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and lower coefficient of variation (CV) than McMaster. The "gold standard" for D. dendriticum was obtained with FLOTAC when using FS7 (EPG=219, CV=3.9%) and FS8 (EPG=226, CV=5.2%) on fresh faeces. The "gold standard" for M. expansa was obtained with FLOTAC, using FS3 (EPG=122, CV=4.1%) on fresh faeces. The "gold standard" for GI strongyles was obtained with FLOTAC when using FS5 (EPG=320, CV=4%) and FS2 (EPG=298, CV=5%). As regard to faecal preservation methods, formalin 5% and 10% or freezing showed performance similar to fresh faeces for eggs of D. dendriticum and M. expansa. However, these methods of preservation were not as successful with GI strongyle eggs. Vacuum packing with storage at +4°C permitted storage of GI strongyle eggs for up to 21 days prior to counting. Where accurate egg counts are required in ovine samples the optimum method of counting is the use of FLOTAC. In addition, we suggest the use of two solutions that are easy and cheap to purchase and prepare, saturated sodium chloride (FS2) for nematoda and cestoda eggs and saturated zinc sulphate (FS7) for trematoda eggs and nematoda larvae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.
Susete do Rocio Chiarello Penteado
Full Text Available The woodwasp Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae was introduced in Brazil in 1988 and became the main pest in pine plantations. It has spread to about 1.000.000 ha, at different population levels, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Control is done mainly by using a nematode, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Nematoda: Neothylenchidae. The evaluation of the efficiency of natural enemies has been difficult because there are no appropriate sampling systems. This study tested a hierarchical sampling system to define the sample size to monitor the S. noctilio population and the efficiency of their natural enemies, which was found to be perfectly adequate.
Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A
The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population.
Werneck M. R.
Full Text Available This paper presents a list of parasites described in sea turtles from the Neotropical region. Through the review of literature the occurrence of 79 taxa of helminthes parasites were observed, mostly consisting of the Phylum Platyhelminthes with 76 species distributed in 14 families and 2 families of the Phylum Nematoda within 3 species. Regarding the parasite records, the most studied host was the green turtle (Chelonia mydas followed by the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea, loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea. Overall helminths were reported in 12 countries and in the Caribbean Sea region. This checklist is the largest compilation of data on helminths found in sea turtles in the Neotropical region.
Targovnik, H.S.; Locher, S.E.; Hariharan, P.V.
Excision repair capacity was measured in young and old Turbatrix aceti (phylum Nematoda) following exposure to ionizing radiation. Both repair synthesis and removal of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type (glycol) base damage were quantitated. At least two-fold higher glycol levels were produced in the DNA of young than of old nematodes for the same radiation dose. Young worms also excised glycol damage more rapidly and completely than old worms. Both peak repair synthesis activity and completion of repair synthesis occurred at earlier times during post-irradiation incubation in young nematodes. The data indicate there is a significant age-associated difference in both the incidence and removal of ionizing radiation damage in T. aceti which is used as a model of the ageing process. (author)
J. Heyns. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg. Oncholaimus ... Body usually slightly ventrally curved to C-shaped, rarely almost straight upon fIxation. ..... Type locality. Various sites in the upper Blyde River system.
Jul 22, 1993 ... nuwere Qegewens omtrent die morfologie van die Monhysteridae . • Adapted from a D.Se. thesis submitted to the State University of Ghent. Belgium. by the senior author. •• To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box. 524, Auckland Park ...
The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...
posterior of the pharyngeal region, in the former species, in the male amphids which are a closed loop in P. waweri and an open-loop in P. ovisetosum. The female of the species protects the developing eggs by attaching them to the ventral mid body anterior and posterior of the vulval region, while in P. ovisetosum eggs are ...
Абалихин, Борис; Егоров, Сергей; Соколов, Евгений; Баландина, Валентина; Егоров, Дмитрий; Крючкова, Елена
В работе определен видовой состав эктои эндопаразитозов квартирных, бродячих и тех домашних плотоядных, которые никогда не покидали пределов квартиры в городах Ивановской области. В результате исследований установлена зараженность собак и кошек паразитами классов Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Piroplasmea, Conoidasida, Insecta. Квартирные собаки заражены 13-ю видами паразитов: из Trematoda обнаружили Alaria alata; из Cestoda Dipylidium caninum и Diphyllobothrium latum; Nematoda представлены To...
Li, Tao; Liu, Yuan-Qiug; Guo, Sheng-Mao; Ke, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Xu-Bao; Liu, Wu
This paper studied the variations of the community composition and individuals' number of soil fauna in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province after six years of converting cultivated lands into forestlands. Three converted forestlands, including the lands of mixed multiple-species forest, bamboo-broadleaved forest, and tree-seedling integration, were selected as test objects, with cultivated lands as the comparison. A total of 34 orders, 17 classes, and 6 phyla of soil fauna were observed in the converted forestlands. The dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 86.7% of the total, whereas Acarina, Enchytraeidae, and Collembola were the common groups. In the cultivated lands, soil fauna had 21 orders, 10 classes, and 5 phyla. The dominant group was also Nematoda, accounting 86.7% of the total, and Acarina and Enchytraeidae were the common groups. In the converted forestlands, the group number of rare species was greater than that in the cultivated lands (30 vs. 18), and, except in winter, the group number and average density were significantly higher than those in the cultivated lands (P soil fauna in the soil profiles showed an obvious surface accumulation, which was more apparent in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and the individuals' number had significant differences between the surface (0-5 cm) layer and the 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layers (P soil fauna in the converted forestlands had a seasonal variation ranked in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and there was a significant difference between summer-autumn and spring-winter. The average density of the soil fauna also had a seasonal variation but ranked as autumn > summer > spring > winter, and the differences among the seasons were significant (P soil fauna was significantly higher in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and was the highest in mixed multiple-species forestland and the least in tree-seedling integration land.
Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative differences in species composition of meiobenthic communities illustrate the differences among various taxonomic assemblages in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean analysed by means of multivariate analysis. Average densities ranged between 1000 and 4000 ind?10cm-2, and are in the same range as previously reported from other shallow Mediterranean areas. The dominant meiofaunal taxa were Nematoda (range 40 to 75%, Turbellaria (5-47% and Copepoda (2-14%, while other meiofaunal groups (Tardigrada and Rotifera were only represented by approximately 5% of the total abundance. The dominant nematode families were Desmodoridae, Chromadoridae and Xyalidae. The meiofaunal communities showed little variation among locations. Moreover, small-scale heterogeneity does not seem to affect nematode distribution as shown by the high similarity between replicates in the multivariate analysis.
Diaz, Julia Inés; Fusaro, Bruno; Longarzo, Lucrecia; Coria, Néstor Rubén; Vidal, Virginia; Jerez, Silvia; Ortiz, Juana; Barbosa, Andrés
The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Antarctica). Gastrointestinal tracts of 37 fresh dead individuals (21 chicks, 10 juveniles, and 6 adults) were collected from December 2006 to February 2012 and examined for macroparasites. Four adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda species (Parorchites zederi), two Nematoda species (Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres wetzeli), and one Acanthocephalan (Corynosoma shackletoni). Two species of immature acanthocephalans, Corynosoma hamanni and Corynosoma bullosum, were found in a single host. This is the first record of Tetrameres wetzeli in Gentoo penguins. The low parasite richness observed could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species which feeds almost exclusively on krill.
Hodgetts, Jennifer; Ostojá-Starzewski, Jozef C; Prior, Thomas; Lawson, Rebecca; Hall, Jayne; Boonham, Neil
Since its conception, DNA barcoding has seen a rapid uptake within the research community. Nevertheless, as with many new scientific tools, progression towards the point of routine deployment within diagnostic laboratories has been slow. In this paper, we discuss the application of DNA barcoding in the Defra plant health diagnostic laboratories, where DNA barcoding is used primarily for the identification of invertebrate pests. We present a series of case studies that demonstrate the successful application of DNA barcoding but also reveal some potential limitations to expanded use. The regulated plant pest, Bursephalenchus xylophilus, and one of its vectors, Monochamus alternatus, were found in dining chairs. Some traded wood products are potentially high risk, allowing the movement of longhorn beetles; Trichoferus campestris, Leptura quadrifasciata, and Trichoferus holosericeus were found in a wooden cutlery tray, a railway sleeper, and a dining chair, respectively. An outbreak of Meloidogyne fallax was identified in Allium ampeloprasum and in three weed species. Reference sequences for UK native psyllids were generated to enable the development of rapid diagnostics to be used for monitoring following the release of Aphalara itadori as a biological control agent for Fallopia japonica.
Mohan, Sharad; Mauchline, Tim H; Rowe, Janet; Hirsch, Penny R; Davies, Keith G
The Pasteuria group of Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria are parasites of invertebrates and exhibit differences in host specificity. We describe a cross-infection study between an isolate of Pasteuria from pigeon pea cyst nematode, Heterodera cajani, which also infects the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, from the United Kingdom. A proportion of the attached endospores, 13% on H. cajani and 22% on G. pallida adhere to the cuticle in an inverted orientation. Inverted and conventionally attached endospores germinated and produced bacillus-like rods that completed their life cycle in Pasteuria population was systematically followed in two different nematode genera. A 1430-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the Pasteuria isolate from H. cajani revealed 98.6% similarity to the orthologous gene in Pasteuria nishizawae. Additionally, their respective endospore sizes were not significantly different, in contrast their host ranges are. Potential reasons for this remain unclear and are discussed. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Taeho; Kern, Elizabeth; Park, Chungoo; Nadler, Steven A; Bae, Yeon Jae; Park, Joong-Ki
Mitochondrial genes and whole mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers in studying population genetics and resolving both deep and shallow nodes in phylogenetics. In animals the mitochondrial genome is generally composed of a single chromosome, but mystifying exceptions sometimes occur. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the millipede-parasitic nematode Ruizia karukerae and found its mitochondrial genome consists of two circular chromosomes, which is highly unusual in bilateral animals. Chromosome I is 7,659 bp and includes six protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and nine tRNA genes. Chromosome II comprises 7,647 bp, with seven protein-coding genes and 16 tRNA genes. Interestingly, both chromosomes share a 1,010 bp sequence containing duplicate copies of cox2 and three tRNA genes (trnD, trnG and trnH), and the nucleotide sequences between the duplicated homologous gene copies are nearly identical, suggesting a possible recent genesis for this bipartite mitochondrial genome. Given that little is known about the formation, maintenance or evolution of abnormal mitochondrial genome structures, R. karukerae mtDNA may provide an important early glimpse into this process.
Ryss, A Iu
The amended diagnosis of the genus Pratylenchoides and list of its valid species with synonyms are given. All the efficient diagnostic characters are listed. Modern taxonomic standard for the description of Pratylenchoides species is proposed; it may be used also in taxonomic databases. Tabular and text keys for all species of the genus are given. Five following groups are considered within the genus Pratylenchoides. The group arenicola differs from other groups in the primitive adanal bursa type; the groups magnicauda, crenicauda, ritteri, and megalobatus differ from each other in the position of cardium along the body axis in relation to the pharyngeal gland nuclei, pharynx types are named according to the stages of its evolution from the primitive tylenchoid pharynx (cardium situated posteriorly) to the advanced hoplolaimoid one (cardium situated anteriorly). Diagnoses and species compositions of the groups are given. Basing on the matrix of species characters, the dendrogram has been generated for all species of Pratylenchoides and for all characters (UPGMA, distance, mean character difference, random, characters ordered). Taking in view that the PAUP software gives equal weights to all characters, including the most important ones which define the prognostic species groups, the separate dendrograms for each prognostic species group were generated using the same above mentioned tree parameters. On the base of the records of Pratylenchoides species the matrices of plant host ranges, geographic distribution, and preferred soil-climatic conditions were developed. The dendrograms of the faunal similarities were generated using these matrices, with conclusions on a possible origin and evolution of the genus. The genus evolved from the flood lands with swampy soils and prevalence of dicotyledons (herbaceous Lamiaceae and woody Salicaceae families) to the forest mainland communities with balanced humidity and predominance of herbaceous Poaceae and Fabaceae with woody Fagaceae, Betulaceae, and Oleaceae. The leading factor of the evolutional adaptation to soil-climatic conditions was the factor of humidity, but its significance gradually decreased with the host change to more advanced plant taxa adapted to the communities with more dry balanced humidity. The genus took its origin on the south shores of Laurasia in the Cainozoe. Later, when Hindistant and Arabian Peninsula joined with Laurasia creating the Himalayas barrier, the Pratylenchoides spp. distributed by two branches: the northern one moved into Central Asia, East Europe and North America, and the south branch came into Indo-Malaya, West Asia and the north of Africa. The remnants of the ancient species groups remain in West Europe and East Asia. In the North America the genus gave an origin to its sister genus Apratylenchoides, which spread to the south up to Antarctica; another advanced branch spread in the North America reaching Alaska.
Golden, A. Morgan; Maqbool, M. A.; Shahina, F.
Heterodera fici is redescribed and illustrated with comparative details and revised measurements and diagnostic characters of the females, males, cysts, and juveniles from Maryland and Pakistan. This species is in the "schachtii group" (cysts lemon shaped, with bullae, and ambifenestrate) but the fenestrae in some cysts, presumab!y young ones, are small and widely spaced, appearing bifenestrate. It is most closely related to H. schachtii, H. glycines, and H. cajani but differs from these spec...
Rickard, L G; Hoberg, E P
The monospecific Lamanema historically has been assigned to the Nematodirinae within the Molineidae. Inconsistencies in morphological characters, within a phylogenetic context for Nematodirinae, led to a re-evaluation of the putative relationships and taxonomic placement of Lamanema. Among 7 putative synapomorphies for Nematodirinae, Lamanema possesses only 1, large eggs. Large eggs, sporadically present in phylogenetically disparate taxa of trichostrongyles, are equivocal with respect to placement of Lamanema; it is considered that possession of this single homoplasious character alone is insufficient justification to retain the genus in Nematodirinae. Affinities with the Trichostrongylidae (Cooperiinae or Haemonchinae) have also been proposed; however, Lamanema possess neither of 2 synapomorphies that diagnose monophyly of the family. Lamanema is retained in the Molineidae and transferred to the Molineinae as it possesses all characters of the family as currently defined. The origin of Lamanema represents a secondary colonization of ruminants by molineids and provides no context for elucidating the history of the Nematodirinae and Nematodirus.
Durette-Desset, M C
Study of eight species of Nematodirinae with special emphasis on their synlophe: Nematodirus filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802), N. spathiger (Railliet, 1896). N. helvetianus May, 1920, N. battus Crofton & Thomas, 1951, N. tortuosus Tucker, 1942, Nematodirella dromedarii (May, 1920), Nematodiroides zembrae (Bernard, 1965) and Rauschia triangularis, type species of the new genus Rauschia. Furthermore, bibliographical data permit to know the structure of the synlophe in four other species. In each of these species the synlophe retains the primitive bilateral symmetry observed in the Molineidae; in species parasitic in Ruminants and Rodents, the synlophe shows non pronounced size gradient, nor a pronounced peculiar orientation of the tip of the crests. These last specialized characters are observed, on the contrary, in species parasitic in Lagomorpha. These latter show, starting from synlophes of the "Anoplostrongylinae"-type, various evolutionary essays; the most remarkable is an hypertrophy of the dorsal crests which leads at the end of the evolution, to a dextral coiling, the back of the animal being inside the spire: such a position appears unique in the superfamily. Rauschia gen. nov. (type species: R. triangularis) is created for species previously pertaining to Nematodirus parasite of Lagomorpha, and in which the synlophe, very complex, differs from the synlophe of the parasite of Ruminants. A dichotomic key of the six genera of Nematodirinae is proposed.
Jan 25, 1988 ... Gub. length 110m. Sperm cells. 1Lffi0. Pre-anal suppl. Vaginal region. Epidermal cells. (j'. 9. C. granu- losus. 1105-1228. 1125-1196. 35-40. 30. 5. 14-17. 'consttic- tor cells' granular dense. C. longi- spiculosa. 2265-2470. 2-2510. 69-70. +. 25-30. 21-27 porids. C. na- mibiensis. 1734-1818. 1514-1788.
Antônio Cesar Rios Leite
Full Text Available The morphology of the male and female of Bunostomum phlebotomum are described based on scanning electron microscope (SEM observations. The attachment of the worms to the small intestinal mucosa and during the copula were observed. Structures of the bucal capsule and genital organs were also studied.
Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; Heerden, van E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T.C.
Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth’s crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere1–4. The constraints of temperature, energy,
Červená, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Vallo, Peter; Pafčo, B.; Fenyková, T.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Tagg, N.; Wangue, N.; Lux Hoppe, E. G.; Duarte Moraes, M. F.; Lapera, I. M.; Souza Pollo, A.; Albuquerque, A. C. A.; Modrý, D.
Roč. 117, č. 4 (2018), s. 1013-1024 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : gorilla-gorilla-gorilla * du-petit-loango * mitochondrial DNA * genetic diversity * host-specificity * forest * populations * sequence * endoparasites * strongylida * Mammomonogamus * Gorilla * African forest elephant * African forest buffalo * Parasite sharing * Host specificity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016
Julia Inés Diaz
Full Text Available Knowledge about parasitic organisms in Antarctica is scarce and fragmentary. The study reported here adds to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae (Sphenisciformes, from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Bahia Esperanza (Hope Bay and Avian Island (Antarctica. Thirty-five freshly dead specimens (20 chicks and 15 adults were collected from December 2007 to December 2014 and examined for internal macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda, Parorchites zederi, and two Nematoda, Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres sp. Immature Tetrabothrius sp. were found in hosts from Avian Island. Helminth communities are known to be related to host feeding behaviours. Low parasite richness observed in Adélie penguins could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species, which feeds almost exclusively on krill.
Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R
Oswaldocruzia costaricensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines and Rhabdias savagei n. sp. (Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae) from the lungs of Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) are described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia costaricensis represents the 77th species assigned to the genus and differs from the other Neotropical species in the genus by possessing a Type II bursa and long cervical alae. Rhabdias savagei represents the 47th species assigned to the genus and differs from other Neotropical species in the genus by possession of 4 lips and a postequatorial vulva. Rana cf. forreri was also found to harbor the trematodes, Haematoloechus parcivitellarius and Megalodiscus temperatus, the nematodes, Aplectana incerta, Aplectana itzocanensis, Cosmocerca podicipinus, Foleyellides striatus, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, and a larva of the nematode Brevimulticaecum sp. Cosmocerca panamaensis is considered to be a synonym of Cosmocerca podicipinus.
Full Text Available To date, more than 20 species of the genus Gnathostoma have been described as parasites of mammals, 9 of them in the Americas. However, the taxonomic status of some of these species has been questioned. The main goal of this study is to clarify the validity of the American species included in the genus. In order to complete this objective, we analyze type and/or voucher specimens of all these species deposited in 6 scientific collections, through morphometric and ultrastructural studies. Based on diagnostic traits as host specificity, site of infection, body size, cuticular spines, presence of 1 or 2 bulges in the polar ends of eggs, as well as eggshell and caudal bursa morphology, we re-establish Gnathostoma socialis (Leidy, 1858 and confirm the validity of other 6 species: Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902, Gnathostoma americanum Travassos, 1925, Gnathostoma procyonis Chandler, 1942, Gnathostoma miyazakii Anderson, 1964, Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991, and Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio-Sarabia and León-Règagnon, 2005. Gnathostoma didelphis Chandler, 1932 and Gnathostoma brasiliensis Ruiz, 1952 are considered synonyms of G. turgidum. Finally, based on a wide revision of specimens deposited in 6 American collections, we conclude that records of Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836 in the Americas are invalid.A la fecha, se han descrito más de 20 especies del género Gnathostoma parásitas de mamíferos, 9 de ellas en America. Sin embargo, el estado taxonómico de algunas ha sido cuestionado. El objetivo de este estudio es aclarar la validez de las especies americanas incluidas en el género. Para ello, se analizaron ejemplares tipo o de referencia de todas las especies, depositados en 6 colecciones científicas, mediante estudios morfométricos y ultraestructurales. Con base en rasgos diagnósticos como especificidad hospedatoria, sitio de infección, dimensiones corporales, espinas cuticulares (número de puntas, densidad, forma y distribución, presencia de uno ó dos tapones polares en los huevos, así como morfología de la bursa, patrón papilar y de la cubierta de los huevos, se re-establece a Gnathostoma socialis (Leidy, 1858 y se confirma la validez de otras 6 especies: Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902, Gnathostoma americanum Travassos, 1925, Gnathostoma procyonis Chandler, 1942, Gnathostoma miyazakii Anderson, 1964, Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991 y Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio Sarabia y León-Règagnon, 2005. Gnathostoma didelphis Chandler, 1932 y Gnathostoma brasiliensis Ruiz, 1952 son consideradas sinónimos de G. turgidum. Basados en una amplia revisión de material depositado en 6 colecciones Americanas, se invalidan los registros de Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836 en America.
Full Text Available Potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis [Wollenweber] Behrens is a nematode species of worldwide regulatory concern. This nematode caused serious economic of potato losses in Indonesia. This research studied by factorial designed to evaluated the effect of temperature (10, 20, and 30ºC, potato varieties (`Granola´, `Margahayu´, and `Cipanas´, and origin of cyst (West, Central, and East Java on reproductive biology of G. rostochiensis in the growth chamber. The research was conducted by observed of produced the new cyst number, reproduction fitness, survival, fecundity, and multiplication of G. rostochiensis. The result showed that all of the potato varieties were infected by G. rostochiensis when they were grown at the temperature ranging of 20 and 30ºC but not at 10ºC. The optimum temperature for maximum number of cysts with the highest reproduction factor, survival, fecundity and multiplication rate for all populations was 20ºC. The origin of cyst did not have any effect on the reproductive rate. The temperature of 20ºC provided is best environment for the life of G. rostochiensis on Granola. INTISARI Nematoda sista kentang (Globodera rostochiensis [Wollenweber] Behrens adalah spesies nematoda yang mendapatkan perhatian khusus di seluruh dunia. G. rostochiensis menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi yang serius pada pertanaman kentang di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh perbedaan suhu (10, 20, dan 30ºC, varietas kentang (Granola, Cipanas, dan Margahayu, dan asal sista (Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Timur terhadap biologi reproduksi G. rostochiensis di growth chamber menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap jumlah sista baru, kemampuan reproduksi, daya tahan hidup, keperidian dan multiplikasi G. rostochiensis. Seluruh varietas kentang yang diuji terserang G. rostochiensis pada suhu 20 dan 30ºC kecuali pada suhu 10ºC. Kisaran suhu optimum untuk memperoleh jumlah sista baru yang maksimum
Full Text Available Nematodes and protists can be transmitted to humans in many ways and little concern has been given to the mechanical transmission by ants. This study aimed at analysing how the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and cysts of Entamoeba coli could be mechanically transmitted to the man by Formicidae. Through the experiments using nests of Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile and Monomorium pharaonis reared in the laboratory allied to observations of some 17 ant species in an urban park area in Mogi das Cruzes (SP, it was found that L. humile was capable of carrying eggs of A. lumbricoides both in the field and laboratory conditions (1 worker, as well as was Camponotus rufipes (2, Solenopsis saevissima (1 and Acromyrmex niger (1. The cysts of Escherichia coli were found over three workers of C. rufipes. Although the frequency of the workers found transporting pathogens was low, the capacity of common household species in carrying pathogens like nematodes and protists was demonstrated.Os Nematoda e Protista podem ser transmitidos ao homem de diversas maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão mecânica por intermédio de formigas. Assim, esse trabalho procurou investigar a transmissão mecânica de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e cistos de Entamoeba coli pelos Formicidae. Através de experimentos com espécies mantidas em ninhos no laboratório (Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile e Monomorium pharaonis e com 17 espécies de formigas de uma área antropizada na região de Mogi as Cruzes (SP, foi possível constar que os ovos A. lumbricoides foram transportados por L. humile, tanto no campo (1 operária como no laboratório (1 operária, por Camponotus rufipes (2, por Solenopsis saevissima (1 e por Acromyrmrex niger (1. Em três operárias de C. rufipes foram encontrados cistos de E. coli. Apesar da baixa incidência de transporte, as três primeiras espécies pelo fato de viverem muito próximas ao ser humano, podem levar para
Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin
The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (Turbellaria, Nematoda and Harpacticoida also were observed in pressure ridges (0-200 ind l -1, median 40 ind l -1), although values were highly variable and only medians of Turbellaria were significantly higher in ridge ice than in level ice. Median abundances of under-ice amphipods at all ice types (level ice, various ice ridge structures) ranged from 8 to 114 ind m -2 per station and mainly consisted of Apherusa glacialis (87%), Onisimus spp. (7%) and Gammarus wilkitzkii (6%). Highest amphipod abundances were observed in pressure ridges at depths >3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of
Full Text Available ABSTRAK Infeksi cacing merupakan permasalahan yang banyak ditemukan di negara berkembang dan belum tuntas diselesaikan. Sayur lalapan dapat menjadi media penularan telur cacing ke manusia. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengidentifikasi jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran dan upaya pencegahan menurut siklus hidup cacing tersebut. Tulisan ini mengkaji 4 jurnal penelitian Indonesia, 22 jurnal penelitian internasional, website WHO, dan buku teks yang relevan dengan topik kajian. Hasil kajian menunjukkan jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran tidak hanya Nematoda Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH seperti Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, dan Strongyloides stercoralis, tetapi juga Nematoda lainnya (Trichostrongylus, Toxocara, Trichocephal, dan Enterobius vermicularis, kelompok cacing Cestoda (Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana, dan H. diminuta, kelompok Trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes, Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola, dan Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Setiap spesies cacing memiliki siklus hidup dan hospes perantara yang berbeda. Upaya pencegahan untuk menghindari risiko infeksi memerlukan kerja sama lintas program, lintas sektor, dan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan siklus hidup cacing. Kata kunci: sayur, telur cacing, pencegahan, kerjasama ABSTRACTHelminth infections are the most common infections in developing countries and still need to be eradicated. Fresh vegetables can be the source for transmission of helminth egg to humans. The aims of this paper are to identify the types of helminth egg which found in vegetables and prevention efforts according to the helminth life cycle. A literature review was arranged by review of 4 articles Indonesian research journal, 22 articles non Indonesia research journal, WHO website, and textbooks relevant to the study topic. The paper describes list of helminth eggs in vegetables, environmental, behaviors, and host-related helminth analyzes in vegetables
Raccurt, C P
Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a little studied filarial nematode. This human parasite, transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and blackflies (genus Simulium), is endemic to the Neotropical regions of the New World. With a patchy geographical distribution from southern Mexico to north-western Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina. Studies conducted in Haiti between 1974 and 1984 allowed the first complete description of the adult worm and permitted clarification of the taxonomic position of this filarial species. This paper reports the known geographical distribution of M. ozzardi in Neotropical regions of the Americas, and focuses on the current situation in Haiti where this filariasis remains a completely neglected public health problem.
Full Text Available This study investigated the parasitic fauna of Cichlasoma bimaculatum of a tributary from the Amazon River system, northern Brazil. The prevalence of infection was 94.6 % and, in total, 428,267 parasites, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Protozoa, Gussevia arilla (Monogenoidea, Posthodiplostomum sp. (Digenea and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus (Nematoda were collected. However, the dominance was mainly of I. multifiliis, while P. (S. inopinatus was the parasite species with the lower levels of prevalence and abundance of infection. These parasite species showed an aggregated dispersion pattern. The parasitic fauna was characterized by the presence of few species of parasites with high prevalence and abundance, specifically ectoparasites, and a low number of endoparasites. The observed pattern is explained by the mode of life of the host and it is suggested that C. bimaculatum occupies a low trophic level at the food web.
Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drainage areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.
Handoo, Zafar A; Carta, Lynn K; Skantar, Andrea M; Chitwood, David J
A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtonae, is described from soil collected from a field in Oregon. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of the species are characterized by body length of 365-515 μm, stylet length of 19-22.5 μm, basal knobs rounded posteriorly and pointed anteriorly, tail 39-55 μm, hyaline tail terminus 20-32.5 μm, and tail tapering uniformly but abruptly narrowing and constricted near the posterior third of the hyaline portion, ending with a peg-like, finely rounded to pointed terminus. Cysts are spherical to sub-spherical, dark to light brown and circumfenestrate and cyst wall pattern is ridge-like with heavy punctations. Males have a stylet length of 21-25 μm and spicule length of 30-37 μm with a pointed thorn-like tip. Females have a stylet length of 20-22.5 μm, one head annule and labial disc, heavy punctations on the cuticle, and short vulval slit 7.5-8 μm long. Morphologically this new, round-cyst species differs from the related species G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum complex and G. mexicana by its distinctive J2 tail, and by one or another of the following: shorter mean stylet length in J2, females and males; number of refractive bodies in the hyaline tail terminus of J2; cyst morphology including Granek's ratio; number of cuticular ridges between the anus and vulva; and in the shape and length of spicules in males. Its relationship to these closely related species are discussed. Based upon analysis of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, G. ellingtonae n. sp. is distinct from G. pallida, G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum and G. mexicana. Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analysis of cloned ITS rRNA gene sequences indicated three clades, with intraspecific variability as high as 2.8%. In silico analysis revealed ITS restriction fragment length polymorphisms for enzymes Bsh 1236I, Hinf I, and Rsa I that overlap patterns for other Globodera species.
Isaza, R; Schiller, C A; Stover, J; Smith, P J; Greiner, E C
A 6-yr-old female Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) with a disseminated rhabditiform nematode infection is described. Antemortem clinical signs were limited to blindness and abnormal behavior believed to be caused by a recurrent nematode-induced uveitis. Histologic examination of the kidneys, heart, eyes, uterus, and lymph nodes revealed granulomas containing multiple sections of rhabditiform nematodes. Most of the recovered nematodes were larval stages with only a few adult females noted. The adults measured 243-297 microm x 11-16 microm (x = 269 x 14 microm). The distinctive rhabditiform esophagi had corpus:isthmus:bulb proportions of 19:11:5. On the basis of adult morphology, the nematode was identified as Halicephalobus gingivalis. This is the first report of this parasite in a zebra and indicates that this parasitic granulomatous disease should be considered in zebras with neurologic disease.
Lisnawita, Meity S. Sinaga Supramana & Gede Suastika .
Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the development of Indonesian potato cyst nematode. Potato cyst nematode (PCN is a serious pathogen of potato and is found in most potato producing areas of the world. In Indonesia, PCN was recently discovered and recognized as major constraint on potato. The growth and behaviour of nematodes are affected by the environment. Therefore, determination of the biology of PCN Indonesian populations is urgently needed to manage this pathogens effectively. The effect of temperature on biology factors of four PCN Indonesian populations (North Java 1, North Java 2, West Java, and Central Java was studied at different temperatures levels (12, 15, 18, 21 and 24ºC in the growth chamber. The aim of this research was to study the effect of temperature on development of PCN. Observation was conducted on cyst number, reproduction factor (Rf, survival, fecundity and multiplication of PCN. The optimum temperature range for maximum cysts production with the highest reproduction factor, survival, fecundity and multiplication rate for all populations was 15 - 21ºC. The hatching and development of all PCN populations reduced at temperature below 15ºC or above 21ºC.
Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.
Roč. 54, č. 4 (2009), s. 341-349 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cystidicolid nematode * marine fish * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.070, year: 2009
I Gede Swibawa dan Titik Nur Aeny .
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Characteristic of Nematodes Community at PGS Golf Course Bandar Lampung. Golf course is a unique ecosystem where plant parasitic nematodes inhabit and become important pest because they reduce the quality of the grass. The pest problems on golf course can be indicated by its characteristics of nematode community. Survey on nematodes community at PGS Golf Course Bandar Lampung was conducted from March to December 2004. The objective was to study the characteristics of nematode community in the part of golf courses hole (green, collar, apron, and fairway. Soil samples were taken from five holes each of it consists of green, collar, apron, and fairway, respectiveley. Nematodes extraction was done in Laboratory of Arthropod Pest, Department of Plant Protection University of Lampung. The result showed that at least 50 nematodes genera of 28 families inhabit PGS. The number of plant parasitic nematode genera was higher than the free-living one. The characteristic of nematodes community on green and collar was different than on faiway. Nematode abundance and diversity on green and collar were higher than on fairway. Based on abundance of nematode feeding group, maturity index of free-living nematodes (MI and that of plant parasitic nematodes (PPI, green and collar part seemed to be more favorable to plant parasitic nematodes than free-living nematodes. The contrary happened for fairway. Four most dominant genera of plant parasitic nematodes on PGS golf course were Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Criconemella, and Xiphinema.
Santos, Cláudia Portes; Moravec, Frantisek
Camallanus tridentatus is redescribed on the basis of the examination of specimens obtained from the stomach, caeca and intestine of the naturally infected arapaima Arapaima gigas (Schinz) from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River Delta, Brazil. Data on the surface morphology of adults inferred from confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopical observations are also provided. The study revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features in this species, such as the presence of the poorly sclerotized left spicule and deirids. C. tridentatus distinctly differs from other congeneric species parasitizing freshwater fishes in South America mainly in the structure of the buccal capsule and the female caudal end. C. maculatus Martins, Garcia, Piazza and Ghiraldelli is considered a junior synonymm of Camallanus cotti Fujita.
Cláudia Portes Santos
Full Text Available Camallanus tridentatus is redescribed on the basis of the examination of specimens obtained from the stomach, caeca and intestine of the naturally infected arapaima Arapaima gigas (Schinz from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River Delta, Brazil. Data on the surface morphology of adults inferred from confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopical observations are also provided. The study revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features in this species, such as the presence of the poorly sclerotized left spicule and deirids. C. tridentatus distinctly differs from other congeneric species parasitizing freshwater fishes in South America mainly in the structure of the buccal capsule and the female caudal end. C. maculatus Martins, Garcia, Piazza and Ghiraldelli is considered a junior synonymm of Camallanus cotti Fujita.
Santos, C. P.; Moravec, František
Roč. 104, č. 1 (2009), s. 93-99 ISSN 1678-8060 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Camallanus * Arapaima * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine
Moravec, František; Cruz-Lacierda, E. R.; Nagasawa, K.
Roč. 49, č. 4 (2004), s. 309-318 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Procamallanus * Spirocamallanus Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2004
Full Text Available The data on the distribution of the nematode Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft 1893 Moravec 1982 (syn.: Capillaria hepatica, Hepaticola hepatica on the islands of Kizhi Archipelago are reported (N 62°00'; E 35°12'. Samples were collected on 18 islands and the mainland part of the Kizhi skerries region in the period from August 2005 till 2014. The method of partial helminthological dissection was applied to 346 specimens of rodents belonging to two species – the bank vole Myodes glareolus Schreber 1780 (301 spm. and the field vole Microtus agrestis Linnaeus 1761 (45 spm.. The prevalence and the abundance index of nematode were 16.6% and 1.1 in M. glareolus and 11.1%; 0.3 in M. agrestis, respectively. The highest prevalence and abundance of C. hepaticum were detected in mature voles. No sex-related differences were found. C. hepaticum was present in 12 of 19 sampling sites. On the islands where the sample number (host individuals was over 15, the highest prevalence and abundance values were 57% and 5.8 spm., respectively. Significant positive coefficients of correlation (Spearman’s and Pearson’s ones between nematode numbers and characteristics of the island were found in the pair «Prevalence – degree of isolation» (0.48 and 0.49. Single-factor analysis of variance showed that the size of the island had some effect on the nematode invasion prevalence and abundance. However, no significant regression relationship between the prevalence and abundance of nematodes and characteristics of an island was revealed by multivariate regression analysis (multiple regression: the coefficient of determination of the regression equation R2 < 0.3, and the regression coefficients were insignificant The reasons for high abundance of C. hepaticum in northern insular ecosystems are discussed. Possible key factors for the stable vitality of the parasite populations are: 1 favourable hydrothermal conditions of the soil in the shore (littoral zone; 2 the possibility of passive transfer between islands; 3 the ability to survive outside the host for a long time (an egg can remain invasive in the external environment for up to three years; and 4 cannibalism as the main pathway of vermination circulation in isolated populations of small mammals.
Rodrigo Caldas Menezes
Full Text Available Five specimens of Arapaima gigas caught in the Araguaia River (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil were investigated for helminths in 2004. Numerous adult specimens of the rhapidascarid nematode Goezia spinulosa were found in stomach ulcers in all the specimens of A. gigas and were surrounded by thickening of the mucosa. The gastric glands of all the fish were necrotic and there was a severe and diffuse inflammatory reaction composed of eosinophils (which were predominant, lymphocytes and rare macrophages in the mucosa, submucosa and muscle layer. This is the first report of tissue lesion occurrences in this host, in the presence of G. spinulosa, and it confirms the high pathogenicity of this parasite species.Cinco espécimens de Arapaima gigas capturados no Rio Araguaia (Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil foram investigados para diagnóstico de infecção por helmintos em 2004. Numerosos espécimes adultos do nematóide rafidascarídeo Goezia spinulosa foram encontrados em úlceras do estômago circundadas por um espessamento da mucosa em todos os exemplares de A. gigas. As glândulas gástricas de todos encontravam-se necróticas e havia um acentuado e difuso infiltrado inflamatório composto por eosinófilos, que eram predominantes, linfócitos e raros macrófagos na mucosa, submucosa e camada muscular. As lesões teciduais na presença de nematóide G. spinulosa são relatadas pela primeira vez nesse hospedeiro e confirmam a alta patogenicidade dessa esp��cie de parasito.
Full Text Available Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system has been identified. The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large family of genes encoding FMRFamide-related peptides. These genes, the flp genes, have been used as a starting point to identifying flp genes throughout Nematoda. Nematodes have the largest family of FMRFamide-related peptides described thus far. The challenges in the future are the elucidation of their functions and the identification of the receptors and signaling pathways through which they function.
Bergmann, Gaddy T; Motta, Philip J
Larval nematodes that parasitize the Mayan cichlid fish 'Cichlasoma (Nandopsis)' urophthalmus (Günther 1862) in southern Florida were identified as Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae, Anisakinae). The objective of this study was to determine whether infection intensity and prevalence of these parasites differ between a brackish water and freshwater habitat or through ontogeny in the freshwater habitat only. The nematodes were removed from the abdominal cavity of the fishes and counted. Infection intensity was compared between habitats using analysis of covariance and evaluated through ontogeny using Spearman rank order correlation. Prevalence was compared between habitats and between adults and juveniles from the freshwater habitat using a z-test. Although infection intensity did not differ between habitats, infection prevalence was greater at the freshwater site (FWS). Both the prevalence and intensity of nematode infection increased through ontogeny at the FWS, and no nematode was found in fishes that were smaller than 93 mm standard length. Thus, the parasites appear to accumulate during the lifetime of the fishes.
Elías-Gutiérrez, M; León-Regagnon, V
DNA barcoding has become an important current scientific trend to the understanding of the world biodiversity. In the case of mega-diverse hot spots like Mexico, this technique represents an important tool for taxonomists, allowing them to concentrate in highlighted species by the barcodes instead of analyzing entire sets of specimens. This tendency resulted in the creation of a national network named Mexican Barcode of Life (MEXBOL) which main goals are to train students, and to promote the interaction and collective work among researchers interested in this topic. As a result, the number of records in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) for some groups, such as the Mammalia, Actinopterygii, Polychaeta, Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, Maxillopoda, Nematoda, Pinophyta, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota place Mexico among the top ten countries in the generation of these data. This special number presents only few of the many interesting findings in this region of the world, after the use of this technique and its integration with other methodologies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mesquita, R L B; Azevedo, R K; Abdallah, V D; Luque, J L
Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.
Petrov, N B; Vladychenskaia, N S
Reliability of reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within a group of protostome moulting animals was evaluated by means of comparison of 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences sets both taken separately and combined. Reliability of reconstructions was evaluated by values of the bootstrap support of major phylogenetic tree nodes and by degree of congruence of phylogenetic trees inferred by various methods. By both criteria, phylogenetic trees reconstructed from the combined 18 and 28S rRNA gene sequences were better than those inferred from 18 and 28S sequences taken separately. Results obtained are consistent with phylogenetic hypothesis separating protostome animals into two major clades, moulting Ecdysozoa (Priapulida + Kinorhyncha, Nematoda + Nematomorpha, Onychophora + Tardigrada, Myriapoda + Chelicerata, Crustacea + Hexapoda) and unmoulting Lophotrochozoa (Plathelminthes, Nemertini, Annelida, Mollusca, Echiura, Sipuncula). Clade Cephalorhyncha does not include nematomorphs (Nematomorpha). Conclusion was taken that it is necessary to use combined 18 and 28S data in phylogenetic studies.
Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T
Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.
Oliva Marcelo E
Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.
Ñacari, Luis A.; Oliva, Marcelo E.
We studied the parasite fauna of five deep-sea fish species (>1000 m depth), Three members of Macrouridae (Macrourus holotrachys, Coryphaenoides ariommus and Coelorhynchus sp.), the Morid Antimora rostrata and the Synaphobranchidae Diaptobranchus capensis caught as by-catch of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) from central and northern Chile at depths between 1000 and 2000 m. The parasite fauna of M. holotrachys was the most diverse, with 32 species (The higher reported for Macrourus spp.) and the lower occur in the basketwork eel D. capensis (one species). Trophically transmitted parasites, mainly Digenea and Nematoda explain 59.1% of the total number of species obtained (44 species) and the 81.1% of the 1020 specimens collected. Similarity analysis based on prevalence as well as a Correspondence analysis shows that higher similitude in parasite fauna occurs in members of Macrouridae. The importance of diet and phylogeny is discussed as forces behind the characteristics of the endoparasite and ectoparasite communities found in the studied fish species.
Full Text Available En este trabajo, informamos los resultados del análisis parasitológico realizado a 40 individuos marsupiales de las especies Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops noctivagus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa (Micoureus regina, Monodelphis adusta, Philander andersoni y Philander opossum procedentes del departamento de Loreto, Perú. Se determinaron en total 11 especies de helmintos parásitos: Nematoda: Aspidodera sp., Cruzia tentaculata, Physaloptera mirandai, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites sp., Trichuris sp., Turgida turgida, y Viannaia sp.; Trematoda: Podospathalium pedatum; Acanthocephala: Giganthorhynchus ortizi; y Pentastomida: ninfa. Los parásitos Trichuris sp., Pterygodematities sp., Turgida turgida, Viannaia sp. y Podospathalium pedatum son nuevos registros para el Perú. De igual manera, se registran por primera vez las siguientes asociaciones parásitos-huéspedes: Pterygodermatites sp.-Marmosa regina, Viannaia sp.- Marmosops noctivagus, Trichuris sp.-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, Podospathalium pedatum-Monodelphis adusta, Giganthorhynchus ortizi-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, y ninfas de pentastómidos-Marmosa regina y Metachirus nudicaudatus.
Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae in Argentina Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae de Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae na Argentina
Noelia Adelina Galeano
Full Text Available Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province, revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.Necropsia de 15 espécimes de mergulhão-de-orelha-branca, Rollandiarolland, coletados nas lagoas Mar Chiquita e Chascomús (Província de Buenos Aires, revelou a presença de Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. Esse nematóide tem uma marcada especificidade pelas aves podicipediformes. Os espécimes foram identificados a partir de características, tais como estruturas morfológicas cefálicas e esofágicas e papilas caudais, utilizando-se microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Esse é o primeiro registro de C. ovale parasito de R. rolland na Argentina.
Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866 Nematoda: Prostostrongylidae, em cães de Minas Gerais, Brasil Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866 Nematoda: Prostostrongylidae, in dogs of Minas Gerais, Brasil
Walter dos Santos Lima
Full Text Available Foi identificado Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866 colhido da artéria pulmonar de dois cães (Canis familiaris procedentes do município de Caratinga, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. É apresentada a descrição morfológicas do parasita. Esta é a primeira referência desse parasita no Estado de Minas Gerais.For the first time Angiostrongylus vasorum in Canis familiaris in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is described. The description and measurements of three males and ten females are presented together with a diagram of the parasite.
Full Text Available The aims of this experiment are to find the varieties of soybean which are resistant against root-knot nematode (M. incognita and to determine its attractancy toward the roots of resistant and susceptible soybean varieties. The experiment was divided into two parts, both parts using Completely Randomized Design. The first part was designed to determine the resistance and the second one to determine attractancy. The experiments were conducted in a green house and Plant Pest and Disease Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University for 5 months. Of the 23 varieties of soybean tested against M. incognita showed that two varieties (Petek and Rinjani were moderately resistant, 11 varieties were moderately susceptible and 10 varieties were found to be susceptible. However, none of variety was resistant. While on attractancy of root test of moderately resistant and susceptible variety it was found that M. incognita was more attracted to root of susceptible variety (Ringgit than to moderately resistant variety (Petek. Key words: soybean, resistance, root-knot nematode
Luis A. Gomez-Puerta
Full Text Available Reportamos por primera vez la presencia del nematodo, Serratospiculum tendo Nitzsch, 1819, parasitando los sacos aéreos de un halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771. Seis nematodos (2 machos y 4 hembras fueron colectados e identificados como S. tendo. El hallazgo de este nematodo constituye el primer registro en el Perú.
Dewi Fitriyanti, Mulyadi, dan Christanti Sumardiyono .
Full Text Available Resistance mechanism of potato (Solanum tuberosum to golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis. The research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2006 in Kepuhharjo, Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The aims of the research were to find the resistance status of 20 potato varieties, role of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the resistance mechanism and histopathological differences between resistant and susceptible potato varieties to G. rostochiensis. The results showed that two varieties were resistant to G. rostochiensis, i.e, Hertha and Manohara. Thirteen varieties were moderately resistant, i.e; No.30, No.44, No. 5, No.19, Batang Hitam, Agria, Desiree, Berolina, Atlantik, No.095, Cipanas, FLS and Colombus, and five varieties were susceptible, i.e; Kikondo, Granola, Erika, LBR, and Fries. The presence of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Hertha (resistant variety and in Granola (susceptible variety were analized by TLC. In Hertha chlorogenic acid was detected at 4, 5, and 6 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas in Granola it was detected at 1 and 6 DAI. It was assumed that the presence of chlorogenic acid for 3 successively week in Hertha, caused it more resistant than Granola. Cell lignification inhibited G. rostochiensis grow well inside the root tissue of Hertha, whereas in Granola only a few cell was lignified as indicated by less absorption of red colour (safranin in infected areas. Caffeic acid was not detected either in uninoculated or inoculated of both potato varieties. It indicated that caffeic acid might not be naturally present in Hertha and Granola and nematode infection could not stimulate the production of this compound.
Kuzmin, Yuriy; Junker, Kerstin; Bain, Odile
The morphology of infective third-stage larvae of Rhabdias bufonis, R. rubrovenosa, R. sphaerocephala, R. fuscovenosa, R. elaphe, Entomelas entomelas and E. dujardini is described. The sheath structure in the studied larvae appeared to be similar to that described in other species of the family Rhabdiasidae, its chequered aspect being caused by a combination of outer longitudinal striations and inner longitudinal as well as transverse ridges. The larvae were similar in general morphology but differed in the presence/absence of anterior apical protuberances (pseudolabia), the shape and ornamentation of the tail tip, and the structure of lateral alae in the caudal region of the body. No relationship between the morphological characters of the larvae of the studied species and their taxonomic position or specificity of adult parasites to a particular host group was observed. Regardless, the larvae of each species can be identified by a combination of morphological peculiarities in the anterior and caudal regions of the body.
Full Text Available Previous records of species belonging to the order Rhabditida in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands is presented as compilation. Eighty species of forty genera and twelve families are listed. Information concerning each species contains scientific name, synonymy, distribution and remarks. Distributional data include localities and/or geographical areas where the species have been collected and the corresponding references. A short discussion on current knowledge on rhabditid nematodes in the Iberian geography is also made. Majority of species are defficiently known, being necessary additional taxonomic and/or faunistic studies of this taxon.
Se presenta una recopilación de citas previas de especies pertenecientes al orden Rhabditida en la España peninsular e Islas Baleares. Se listan ochenta especies de cuarenta géneros y doce familias. La información que concierne a cada especie contiene el nombre científico, sinonimia, distribución y observaciones. Los datos de distribución incluyen las localidades y/o áreas geográficas donde las especies han sido recolectadas, y las referencias correspondientes. También se realiza una breve discusión sobre el conocimiento de los nematodos rhabdítidos en el área ibérica, concluyéndose que la mayor parte de las especies se conocen deficientemente, siendo necesario un estudio taxonómico y/o faunístico adicional del taxon.
Full Text Available Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus brachyurus is one of the most important pathogens of patchouli that caused significant losses. Studies on the potential of endophytic bacterial to control P. brachyurus on patchouli had been conducted. To evaluate the effectiveness of endophytic bacterial against to P. brachyurus on patchouli, nine isolates of bacteria (NJ2, NJ25, NJ41, NJ46, NJ57, NA22, ERB21, ES32, and E26 were applied by deeping root seedling into bacterial suspension. A study of the physiological characteristics of nine isolates was conducted by using specific medium. The results showed that endophytic bacterial was significantly reduced the population of P. brachyurus and all isolates bacterial promoted growth of patchouli (shoot weight, root weight, and root length. Four isolates, i.e. Bacillus NJ46, Bacillus Na22, Bacillus NJ2, and Bacillus NJ57 were among the potential control agents that reduced nematode populations as much as 68.1–73.9%. Almost all of the isolated bacteria from patchouli roots were able to solubilizing phosphate, while some of them had the ability to produce chitinase, cellulase, protease, HCN, and fluorescency.
Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven
Twelve known and nine new species of Leptolaimus are described from bottom sediments collected in marine habitats of Sweden, including the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay, the Baltic Sea proper, Gullmarn Fjord and the Skagerrak. Three of these species have been previously recorded in Sweden while nine are new records for the Swedish fauna. The following known species are redescribed: Leptolaimus papilliger de Man, 1876, L. cupulatus Lorenzen, 1972, L. danicus Jensen, 1978, L. donsi (Allgén, 1946) comb. n., L. mixtus Lorenzen, 1972, L. pellucidus (Southern, 1914) comb. n., L. venustus Lorenzen, 1972, L. lorenzeni (Boucher & de Bovée, 1972) comb. n., L. alatus Vitiello, 1971, L. macer Lorenzen, 1972, L. septempapillatus Platt, 1973, L. elegans (Schuurmans Stekhoven & De Coninck, 1933) Gerlach, 1958. Leptolaimus primus sp. n. is characterised by the 319-472 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-2.0 µm long; amphid located 7.0-11.5 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 18.5-28.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 35 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male without tubular and with four alveolar supplements, alveolar supplements without sclerotized inner ring; spicules arcuate and 13.5-16.0 µm long. Leptolaimus secundus sp. n. is characterised by the 576-645 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 2.0 µm long; amphid located 6.5-7.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 23.0-28.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 18.0-23.0 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with single tubular and 9-15 alveolar supplements, tubular supplement weakly arcuate with blunt tips, alveolar supplements with sclerotized lining; spicules arcuate and 23.0-26.5 µm long. Leptolaimus tertius sp. n. is characterised by the 576-579 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 2 µm long; amphid located 4-5 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 21.0-23.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 26-29 µm from anterior end; male with four tubular and 7-10 alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly arcuate with blunt tips, alveolar supplements with sclerotized inner ring; spicules arcuate and 25-26 µm long. Leptolaimus quartus sp. n. is characterised by the 597-686 mm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 2.0-3.5 µm long; amphid located 5.0-7.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 23.5-27.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 19.0-27.0 µm from anterior end; male with three tubular and 8-9 alveolar supplements, tubular supplements straight with blunt expanded tips, alveolar supplements with sclerotized inner ring; spicules arcuate and 23.0-25.0 µm long. Leptolaimus quintus sp. n. is characterised by the 443-528 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.0-2.0 µm long; amphid located 7.0-10.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 18.0-28.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 25.0-41.0 µm from anterior end; female with two tubular supplements (one just posterior to cardia and one in front of anus), vagina without pars refringens, vulva right-sublateral; male with 8-10 tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly arcuate with anchor-like tips; spicules arcuate and 17.0-22.0 µm long. Leptolaimus sextus sp. n. is characterised by the 626-728 µm long body; truncated labial region offset from body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-2.0 µm long; amphid located 8.0-12.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 41.0-48.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 28.0-41.0 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with five (rarely six) tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly S-shaped with bifid tips; spicules arcuate and 39.0-46.0 µm long. Leptolaimus septimus sp. n. is characterised by the 679-850 µm long body; truncate labial region offset from body contour; cephalic setae 2.5-3.5 µm long; amphid located 8.5-11.5 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 37.0-44.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 26.5-37.0 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with four (rarely five) tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly S-shaped, with bifid or blunt tips; spicules arcuate and 31.0-33.5 µm long. Leptolaimus octavus sp. n. is characterised by the 541-638 µm long body; truncate labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-2.0 µm long; amphid located 8.5-12.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 31.5-41.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 26.0-40.0 µm from anterior end and expanding into bursa-like structures along the tail; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with four tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly S-shaped with dentate tips; spicules arcuate and 30.0-31.5 µm long. Leptolaimus nonus sp. n. is characterised by the 403-633 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-3.0 µm long; amphid located 8.0-10.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 16.5-29.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 47.0-99.0 µm from anterior end and expanding into bursa-like structures along the proximal part of the tail; female without supplements, vagina with bacilliform pars refringens, vulva right-subventral; male with 4-5 tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly arcuate with dentate tips; spicules arcuate and 17.0-26.0 µm long. The following nomenclatorial changes are proposed: Eutelolaimus donsi Allgén, 1947 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. donsi (Allgén, 1947) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus cangionensis Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. cangionensis (Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus harpaga Boucher & de Bovée, 1972 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. harpaga (Boucher & de Bovée, 1972) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus lorenzeni Boucher & de Bovée, 1972 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. lorenzeni (Boucher & de Bovée, 1972) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus pellucidus Southern, 1914 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. pellucidus (Southern, 1914) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus rivalis Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. rivalis (Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus marinus Kamran, Nasira & Shahina, 2010 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus as L. marinus (Kamran, Nasira & Shahina, 2010) comb. n. and considered a junior synonym of Leptolaimus rivalis (Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus sergeevae Ürkmez & Brennan, 2013 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus as L. sergeevae (Ürkmez & Brennan, 2013) comb. n.; Leptolaimus vitielloi nom. nov. is proposed for Leptolaimus minutus Vitiello, 1971 nec L. minutus (Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1942) comb. n.; Polylaimium exile Cobb, 1920 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. exilis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n. and is considered species inquirendae. A taxonomic review, tabular compendium and identification key for species of the genus Leptolaimus are also given.
Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven
The genus Deontolaimus de Man, 1880 is revised and the genus Camacolaimus de Man, 1889 is considered a junior synonym of Deontolaimus based on re-examination of type material of Camacolaimus tardus de Man, 1889 and C. barbatus Warwick, 1970. Two known and three new species of Deontolaimus are described from bottom sediments collected in marine habitats of Sweden: Deontolaimus uniformis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n., D. longicauda (de Man, 1922) comb. n., Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n., D. paraguillei sp. n. and Deontolaimus timmi sp. n. Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n. is characterized by body length of 1.3-1.7 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located short distance posterior to amphid; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located in front of cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located short distance posterior to onchiostyle base; onchiostyle with bluntly rounded tip and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to middle of body, tubular supplements absent; spicules 36-40 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. Deontolaimus paraguillei sp. n. is characterized by body length of 1.4-1.8 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located at level with onchiostyle; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2-0.3 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located at level with cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located just posterior to nerve ring level; onchiostyle with bluntly rounded tip and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to about three body diameters in front of cloaca, tubular supplements absent; spicules 42-46 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. Deontolaimus timmi sp. n. is characterized by body length of 0.7-0.9 mm; anterior-most somatic sensilla located at level with onchiostyle; cephalic sensilla equal to 0.2-0.3 labial region diameter in length; amphidial fovea ventrally-unispiral with one turn, located just in front of cephalic sensilla bases; excretory pore located just posterior to nerve ring level; onchiostyle with triangular tip with bluntly rounded apex and strongly sclerotized dorsal edge, and subcylindrical body; male with alveolar supplements extending from anterior end to anterior part of intestine, tubular supplements absent; spicules 28 µm long; and didelphic female reproductive system. The following nomenclatorial changes are proposed: genera Acontiolaimus Filipjev, 1918, Camacolaimoides De Coninck & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1933, Camacolaimus de Man, 1889, Digitonchus Cobb, 1920 and Ypsilon Cobb, 1920 are synonimized with the genus Deontolaimus de Man, 1880; Camacolaimus reykjanesi De Coninck, 1943 and Camacolaimus glauxicola Allgén, 1951a are considered junior synonyms of Deontolaimus papillatus de Man, 1880; Camacolaimus barbatus apud Pastor de Ward, 1984 is described as the separate species Deontolaimus catalinae sp. n.; Camacolaimus tardus apud Lorenzen, 1969 is considered to be the separate species Deontolaimus lorenzeni nom. n.; Camacolaimus tardus apud Timm, 1963 is described as the separate species Deontolaimus timmi sp. n.; Camacolaimus barbatus Warwick, 1970 is considered a junior synonym of Deontolaimus tardus (de Man, 1889) comb. n.; Camacolaimus parvus Timm, 1961 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. parvus (Timm, 1961) comb. n.; Digitonchus cylindricaudatus Chitwood, 1951 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. cylindricaudatus (Chitwood, 1951) comb. n.; Ypsilon exile Cobb, 1920 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. exilis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n.; Camacolaimus guillei de Bovee, 1977 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. guillei (de Bovee, 1977) comb. n.; Camacolaimus longicauda de Man, 1922 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. longicauda (de Man, 1922) comb. n.; Camacolaimus monhystera Gerlach, 1967 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. monhystera (Gerlach, 1967) comb. n.; Camacolaimus pontollittoralis Uzunov, 1977 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. pontollittoralis (Uzunov, 1977) comb. n.; Camacolaimus praedator de Man, 1922 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. praedator (de Man, 1922) comb. n.; Camacolaimus prytherchi Chitwood, 1935 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. prytherchi (Chitwood, 1935) comb. n.; Camacolaimus tardus de Man, 1889 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. tardus (de Man, 1889) comb. n.; Camacolaimus trituberculatus Blome, 1982 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. trituberculatus (Blome, 1982) comb. n.; and Digitonchus uniformis Cobb, 1920 is transferred to the genus Deontolaimus as D. uniformis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n. A taxonomic review and identification key for species of the genus Deontolaimus are also given.
R. Magalhães Pinto
Full Text Available Oncophora melanocephala, a camallanid nematode from the small intestine of Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 is redescribed from the Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and this occurrence represents a new host record for the speciesOncophora melanocephala, um nematóide camalanídeo de instestino delgado de Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829, é redescrito da Costa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e esta ocorrência representa um novo hospedeiro para a espécie.
Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mráček, Zdeněk; Lewis, E.
Roč. 4184, č. 3 (2016), s. 505-516 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alloionema appendiculatum * Neoalloionema tricaudatum * ITS rDNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016
Moravec, F; Mendoza-Franco, E; Vivas-Rodríguez, C
Third-stage larvae of the nematode Serpinema trispinosum (Leidy, 1852) were collected from the intestine of the freshwater cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther), from a small lake in Yucatan, Mexico. This is the first record of Serpinema larvae from fishes, and their presence may reflect the importance of fishes as paratenic hosts of turtle parasites in this genus.
Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mráček, Zdeněk
Roč. 18, č. 8 (2016), s. 949-962 ISSN 1388-5545 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alloionema appendiculatum * Neoalloionema tricaudatum * molecular Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2016
Moravec, Frantisek; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Latham, A David M
to a species of Ascarophis van Beneden, 1871 (Cystidicolidae), the genus including parasites of fishes, whereas the smaller larvae (about 4-5 mm long) belonged to the Acuariidae, a family with species parasitic as adults mostly in aquatic birds. In a sample of 82 specimens of M. hirtipes collected in July 2002....... Apparently, crabs play a role as intermediate hosts of these nematode species. This is the first record of larval representatives of Cystidicolidae and Acuariidae from invertebrates in the Australasian Region....
Kirillova, N Iu; Kirillov, A A; Vekhnik, V P
Fauna of parasitic nematodes from Chiroptera of the Samarskaya Luka has been studied. Seven nematode species has been recorded. Numbers of host specimens, indices of extensiveness and intensiveness of the invasion, parasite abundance, and brief characteristics of the nematode species are given. Some nematode species were for the first time recorded in bats of Russia.
Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk
Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poinar, G O; Thomas, G M
Studies were conducted on the behavior of the nematode, Rhabditis pellio, in the earthworm, Aporrectodea trapezoides, from southern California. Juvenile and adult nematodes were found in the bladders and tubules of the metanephridia of the host. Similar nematodes that entered the coelom were encapsulated and incorporated into multiple capsules ("brown bodies"). It was demonstrated that this host response is an effective defense reaction since dead and dying nematodes, as well as living forms, were found in the capsules.
Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Bocková, E.; Jedličková, Petra; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk
Roč. 113, č. 12 (2014), s. 4663-4667 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Mosquito vectors * Dirofilaria repens * Dogs * Zoonotic dirofilariosis * Setaria spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014
nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. in micro plot and in the field. The pathogenicity study in micro plot was done in Banguntapan, and field experiment was done in Ngipiksari, Pakem, Steman, Yogyakarta. The plots were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications. The treatments used in the research were: isolat no. 2 and 3 of P. penetrans; carbofuran nematicide. and control. The results in micro plot test were: 1 root damage caused by root-knot nematodes in plot treated with P. penetrans lower than the control, and 2 percentages of parasitism of P. penetrans were 63.57 % (in isolate no. 2 and 53.46 % (in isolate no. 3. In field experiment the results showed: 1 P. penetrans found to be effective in reducing root damage caused by Meloidogyne spp. especially in 45 days old of tomato plant, whereas in 90 days old the effectiveness were decreased; 2 P. penetrans was able to grow and reproduction in the field: 3 the level of parasitisms of P. penetrans were increased rapidly during the experiment: and 4 the highest yield was found in tomato treated with carbofuran and followed by isolate 2, isolate 3, and control.
Two new species, Oswaldocruzia lisnykiensis sp. n. and Oswaldocruzia lacertica sp. n., are described from Anguis fragilis L. (Reptilia: Anquidae) and Lacerta agilis L. (Reptilia: Lacertidae) respectively. Both species belong to the Palaearctic group of species which have spicules divided in three main branches (blade, fork and shoe) with fork division above its distal third. The new species differs from all previously known Palaearctic species by several morphological characters: type of caudal bursa (type III in O. lisnykiensis and type I in O. lacertica), shape of spicules (blade distally divided into four tips and specific shape of shoe) and synlophe structure (narrow cervical alae consist of three crests in both species). Illustrated descriptions of O. lisnykiensis and O. lacertica based on 63 and 38 specimens respectively are presented. Host specificity and geographical distribution of the species are discussed. O. dispar is considered as a species inquirenda.
Full Text Available A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensis is an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3 body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 µm, 43–50 µm in males, odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157 µm; pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 µm, ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997 are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to L. poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, L. macrosoma Hooper, 1961, L. caespiticola Hooper, 1961, L. helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, L. macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, L. pius Barsi et Lamberti, 2001, L. raskii Lamberti et Agostinelli, 1993, L. kheirii Pedram et al, 2008, L. silvae Roca, 1993, L. iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, L. vinearum Bravo et Roca, 1995 and L. major Roca et d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other species of the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of L. carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed.
Moravec, F; Jiménez-García, M I; Salgado-Maldonado, G
The dracunculoid nematode Mexiconema cichlasomae Moravec, Vidal et Salgado Maldonado, 1992, originally described from the abdominal cavity and viscera of Cichlasoma spp. from Mexico, was recorded from the abdominal cavity of the poeciliid Xiphophorus helleri Heckel in Lake Catemaco and its small tributary Arroyo Agrio, Veracruz and from the intestine of the nurse shark Ginglystoma cirratum (Bonnaterre) off the southern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in Campeche; both these findings represent new host records. The nematode specimens from these hosts are briefly described and illustrated. Whereas X. helleri evidently served as the true definitive host of this parasite, G. cirratum probably acquired Mexiconema infection accidentally while feeding on fish definitive hosts in the brackish or salt-water environment. The ability of M. cichlasomae to utilize fishes of different orders (Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes) as definitive hosts is rather exceptional among dracunculoid nematodes.
Método estimativo para amostragem quantitativa de Rondonia rondoni (Nematoda: Atractidae parasito de peixes Estimative method for quantitative sampling of Rondonia rondoni (Nematoda: Atractidae parasite of fish
Cristiane M. De Campos
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de Rondonia rondoni no intestino de Piaractus mesopotamicus, por meio da diferença entre peso úmido e peso seco das amostras de parasitos para cada hospedeiro, a partir da relação do peso seco e número de parasitos pré-estabelecida. Amostras totais de R. rondoni, de 37 espécimes de Piaractus mesopotamicus, foram medidas para obtenção do peso úmido, desidratadas em estufa com temperatura entre 55ºC e 60ºC e, após 24 h seu peso seco foi determinado. Por meio de uma regra de três simples, calculou-se o número de parasitos a partir da diferença entre o peso úmido e o peso seco, considerando um erro padrão médio de 6,027 para um número médio de 1010 indivíduos, quantificado em ensaio prévio. A equação da regressão linear estimada foi de y = 13,138x - 162,01 e r² = 0,9989, a qual foi significativa (p The presente work evaluated the number of Rondonia rondoni in intestine of Piaractus mesopotamicus, for diference of dry and wet weight of parasites samples by each host, from the relation dry weight and number of parasites. Totals samples of R. rondoni of 37 specimens of P. mesopotamicus for attaiment of wet weight, dehydrated in stove with temperature between 55ºC and 60ºC, the wet weight was measured after 24 h. The number of parasites was calculated with rule of three, considering the average number of 1,010 ± 6.027 specimens quantified in previous assay. The equation of linear regression is y = 13.138x - 162.01 and r² = 0.9989. The normality of the data was proven with Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p < 0.01.
Full Text Available In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes.
Czechowski, Paul; White, Duanne; Clarke, Laurence; McKay, Alan; Cooper, Alan; Stevens, Mark I
The potential impact of environmental change on terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems can be explored by inspecting biodiversity patterns across large-scale gradients. Unfortunately, morphology-based surveys of Antarctic invertebrates are time-consuming and limited by the cryptic nature of many taxa. We used biodiversity information derived from high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and invertebrate biodiversity in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. Across 136 analysed soil samples collected from Mount Menzies, Mawson Escarpment and Lake Terrasovoje, we found invertebrate distribution in the Prince Charles Mountains significantly influenced by soil salinity and/or sulfur content. Phyla Tardigrada and Arachnida occurred predominantly in low-salinity substrates with abundant nutrients, whereas Bdelloidea (Rotifera) and Chromadorea (Nematoda) were more common in highly saline substrates. A significant correlation between invertebrate occurrence, soil salinity and time since deglaciation indicates that terrain age indirectly influences Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity, with more recently deglaciated areas supporting greater diversity. Our study demonstrates the value of HTS metabarcoding to investigate environmental constraints on inconspicuous soil biodiversity across large spatial scales.
Yue, Yuan; Hou, Shouqing; Wang, Xiu; Zhan, Leilei; Cao, Guozheng; Li, Guoli; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hong, Weiling; Lin, Hao; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Feng; Yang, Yun; Jin, Yongfeng
Exon or cassette duplication is an important means of expanding protein and functional diversity through mutually exclusive splicing. However, the mechanistic basis of this process in non-arthropod species remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that MRP1 genes underwent tandem exon duplication in Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and early-diverging Chordata but not in late-diverging vertebrates. Interestingly, these events were of independent origin in different phyla, suggesting convergent evolution of alternative splicing. Furthermore, we showed that multiple sets of clade-conserved RNA pairings evolved to guide species-specific mutually exclusive splicing in Arthropoda. Importantly, we also identified a similar structural code in MRP exon clusters of the annelid, Capitella teleta, and chordate, Branchiostoma belcheri, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved competing pairing-guided mechanism in bilaterians. Taken together, these data reveal the molecular determinants and RNA pairing-guided evolution of species-specific mutually exclusive splicing spanning more than 600 million years of bilaterian evolution. These findings have a significant impact on our understanding of the evolution of and mechanism underpinning isoform diversity and complex gene structure.
Lacerda, A C F; Santin, M; Takemoto, R M; Pavanelli, G C; Bialetzki, A; Tavernari, F C
Fish larvae of 'corvinas' (Pachyurus bonariensis and Plagioscion ternetzi) from Sinhá Mariana Lagoon, Mato Grosso State, were collected from March 2000 to March 2004, in order to determine the parasitic fauna of fishes. Larvae from the two species were parasitized by the same endoparasites: Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larvae) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the mesentery and Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) paraguayensis (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in the stomach and the terminal portion of the intestine. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the standard length of hosts and the abundance of acanthocephalans and nematodes, and that the prevalence of nematodes presented a significant positive correlation with the standard length of the two species of hosts, indicating the presence of a cumulative process of infection. The present study constitutes the first record of nematodes and acanthocephalans parasitizing larval fish, as well as the first record of endoparasites in fish larvae in Brazil. In addition, it lists a new locality and two species of hosts for Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larva) and N. (N.) paraguayensis.
Full Text Available Abstract Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.
FloBner, D.; Kasprzak, P.; Mothes, G.; Ronneberger, D.; Schonborn, W.
Studies of invertebrate communities have been carried out to a certain extent in the whole Lake Stechlin area, but especially with reference to Lake Stechlin. The chapter summarizes important results of detailed investigations over a long period, made by several researchers in the periods before and after the nuclear power plant came into operation. The following sections deal with the combination of species, frequency, types of life-form, structure and dynamics of the living community of zoobenthos and zooplankton. Not dealt with or only considered in passing are Amoebina, Heliozoa, Ciliata, Turbellaria (excl. Tricladida), Nematoda, Tardigrada, Gastrotricha, and partly Oligochaeta. The research into micro-and meiooobenthos are limited to the years 1959-1968. Data after the bringing into operation of the nuclear power plant refer only to macrozoobenthos. Before the operation of the nuclear power plant the planktonic Rotaroria and Crustacea were examined only qualitatively. The first quantitative analysis of the zooplankton-community was undertaken in 1968, and only from 1978 onwards has continuous and comprehensive research information about the zooplankton in Lake Stechlin been available
Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T
In the Neotropical Region, information concerning hyporheic communities is virtually non-existent. We carried out a sampling survey in the hyporheic zone of the Tijuca River, in the Tijuca National Park, located in the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Biological samples from the hyporheic zone were collected in three different stream reaches, in June 2012. The main objectives were: 1) to describe the structure of invertebrate assemblages in the hyporheic zone of a neotropical stream; 2) to apply a reach-scale approach in order to investigate spatial patterns of the hyporheic assemblages in relation to hydrology, depth and microhabitat typology. A total of 1460 individuals were collected and identified in 31 taxa belonging to Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea, Hydrachnidia and Insecta. The class Insecta dominated the upper layer of the hyporheic zone. Copepods were the most abundant taxon among crustaceans and occurred mostly in the upwelling areas of the reaches. The results of this study represent one of the few contributions so far about hyporheic invertebrate assemblages of the Neotropical Region.
Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard
The molecularly defined clade Ecdysozoa comprises the panarthropods (Euarthropoda, Onychophora and Tardigrada) and the cycloneuralian worms (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha). These disparate phyla are united by their means of moulting, but otherwise share few morphological characters--none of which has a meaningful fossilization potential. As such, the early evolutionary history of the group as a whole is largely uncharted. Here we redescribe the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale. We document an elongate head with a pair of simple eyes, a terminal buccal chamber containing a radial array of sclerotized elements, and a differentiated foregut that is lined with acicular teeth. The radial elements and pharyngeal teeth resemble the sclerotized circumoral elements and pharyngeal teeth expressed in tardigrades, stem-group euarthropods and cycloneuralian worms. Phylogenetic results indicate that equivalent structures characterized the ancestral panarthropod and, seemingly, the ancestral ecdysozoan, demonstrating the deep homology of panarthropod and cycloneuralian mouthparts, and providing an anatomical synapomorphy for the ecdysozoan supergroup.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of coprolites have contributed to the knowledge of diet as well as infectious diseases in ancient populations. Results of paleoparasitological studies showed that prehistoric groups were exposed to spurious and zoonotic parasites, especially food-related. Here we report the findings of a paleoparasitological study carried out in remote regions of Brazil’s Northeast. Findings Eggs of Pharyngodonidae (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea, a family of parasites of lizards and amphibians, were found in four human coprolites collected from three archaeological sites. In one of these, lizard scales were also found. Conclusions Through the finding of eggs of Pharyngodonidae in human coprolites and reptile scales in one of these, we have provided evidence that humans have consumed reptiles at least 10,000 years ago. This food habit persists to modern times in remote regions of Brazil’s Northeast. Although Pharyngodonidae species are not known to infect humans, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat from lizards and other reptiles may have led to transmission of a wide range of zoonotic agents to humans in the past.
Sun, Miao-Miao; Han, Liang; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Wang, Shu-Qing; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Guo-Hua
Marshallagia marshalli (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) infection can lead to serious parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep, goat, and wild ruminant, causing significant socioeconomic losses worldwide. Up to now, the study concerning the molecular biology of M. marshalli is limited. Herein, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. marshalli and examined its phylogenetic relationship with selected members of the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea using Bayesian inference (BI) based on concatenated mt amino acid sequence datasets. The complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli is 13,891 bp, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes supported the monophylies of the families Haemonchidae, Molineidae, and Dictyocaulidae with strong statistical support, but rejected the monophyly of the family Trichostrongylidae. The determination of the complete mt genome sequence of M. marshalli provides novel genetic markers for studying the systematics, population genetics, and molecular epidemiology of M. marshalli and its congeners.
Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek
To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.
Crowther, Thomas W; Boddy, Lynne; Hefin Jones, T
Saprotrophic fungi are key regulators of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. They are the primary agents of plant litter decomposition and their hyphal networks, which grow throughout the soil-litter interface, represent highly dynamic channels through which nutrients are readily distributed. By ingesting hyphae and dispersing spores, soil invertebrates, including Arthropoda, Oligochaetae and Nematoda, influence fungal-mediated nutrient distribution within soil. Fungal physiological responses to grazing include changes to hydrolytic enzyme production and respiration rates. These directly affect nutrient mineralisation and the flux of CO(2) between terrestrial and atmospheric pools. Preferential grazing may also exert selective pressures on saprotrophic communities, driving shifts in fungal succession and community composition. These functional and ecological consequences of grazing are intrinsically linked, and influenced by invertebrate grazing intensity. High-intensity grazing often reduces fungal growth and activity, whereas low-intensity grazing can have stimulatory effects. Grazing intensity is directly related to invertebrate abundance, and varies dramatically between species and functional groups. Invertebrate diversity and community composition, therefore, represent key factors determining the functioning of saprotrophic fungal communities and the services they provide.
Full Text Available Les anguilles prélevées dans cinq zones de salinité variable du littoral de Bretagne sud, ont été examinées pour leur infestation présente et passée par le parasite Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, dracunculoidea. Les anguilles vivant dans des milieux peu salés au contact de la zone dulçaquicole sont très contaminées avec des prévalences supérieures à 90%, dont 61% concernent des prévalences présentes. Par contre, celles vivant dans des conditions estuariennes (Golfe du Morbihan sont relativement épargnées avec des prévalences de l’ordre de 15%, dont en moyenne moins de la moitié concernent des prévalences présentes. La salinité des baies et des estuaires semble donc pouvoir préserver de la contamination les populations d’anguilles côtières dont la gestion devient un enjeu prioritaire pour le stock d’anguilles.
Delgado, Patrick Mathews; Delgado, John Paul Mathews; Orbe, Rosa Ismińo
The paiche, Arapaima gigas represents a socio-economically important species in the Peruvian Amazon, and actually an intensive production for human consumption has emerged during the last years. Therefore, more studies are required in fish farming development, especially concerning populations of parasites that affect fish production yields. Eighty specimens of paiche collected between September and October of 2011 from semi-intensive fish farm in Loreto State, Peru, were examined for their helminthic parasites. Five species were recorded parasitizing A. gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium and Dawestrema cycloancistrioides (Monogenea) on gills, Trichodina sp. (Protozoa) on the skin, Caballerotrema arapaimense (Trematoda) in stomachs and Philometra senticosa (Nematoda) in the swim bladder. Highest prevalence was recorded for D. cycloancistrium (100.0%), D. cycloancistrioides (83.0%) and Trichodina sp. (50.0%) and highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were recorded for D. cycloancistrium (260) parasites per individual. The results confirm the necessity of constant monitoring of fish, seeking the diagnosis and timely control of infestations with parasites, in order to eradicate the mortality of the host that leads unviable the fish farming intended for human consumption.
Peel, John S; Stein, Martin; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg
Cycloneuralians form a rich and diverse element within Cambrian assemblages of exceptionally preserved fossils. Most resemble priapulid worms whereas other Cycloneuralia (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera), well known at the present day, have little or no fossil record. First reports of Sirilorica Peel, 2010 from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland described a tubular lorica covering the abdomen and part of a well developed introvert with a circlet of 6 grasping denticles near the lorica. The introvert is now known to terminate in a narrow mouth tube, while a conical anal field is also developed. Broad muscular bands between the plates in the lorica indicate that it was capable of movement by rhythmic expansion and contraction of the lorica. Sirilorica is regarded as a macrobenthic member of the stem-lineage of the miniaturised, interstitial, present day Loricifera. Like loriciferans, Sirilorica is now known to have grown by moulting. Evidence of the life cycle of Sirilorica is described, including a large post-larval stage and probably an initial larva similar to that of the middle Cambrian fossil Orstenoloricusshergoldii.
John S Peel
Full Text Available Cycloneuralians form a rich and diverse element within Cambrian assemblages of exceptionally preserved fossils. Most resemble priapulid worms whereas other Cycloneuralia (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, well known at the present day, have little or no fossil record. First reports of Sirilorica Peel, 2010 from the lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland described a tubular lorica covering the abdomen and part of a well developed introvert with a circlet of 6 grasping denticles near the lorica. The introvert is now known to terminate in a narrow mouth tube, while a conical anal field is also developed. Broad muscular bands between the plates in the lorica indicate that it was capable of movement by rhythmic expansion and contraction of the lorica. Sirilorica is regarded as a macrobenthic member of the stem-lineage of the miniaturised, interstitial, present day Loricifera. Like loriciferans, Sirilorica is now known to have grown by moulting. Evidence of the life cycle of Sirilorica is described, including a large post-larval stage and probably an initial larva similar to that of the middle Cambrian fossil Orstenoloricusshergoldii.
Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek
To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.
Helminths in Mesaspis monticola (Squamata: Anguidae from Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Entomelas (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae and a new species of Skrjabinodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae
Full Text Available Entomelas duellmani n. sp. (Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae from the lungs and Skrjabinodon cartagoensis n. sp. (Oxyurida: Pharyngodonidae from the intestines of Mesaspis monticola (Sauria: Anguidae are described and illustrated. E. duellmani is the sixth species assigned to the genus and is the third species described from the Western Hemisphere. It is easily separated from other neotropical species in the genus by pre-equatorial position of its vulva. Skrjabinodon cartagoensis is the 24th species assigned to the genus and differs from other neotropical species in the genus by female tail morphology.
Rappé; Vergin; Giovannoni
In order to extend previous comparisons between coastal marine bacterioplankton communities and their open ocean and freshwater counterparts, here we summarize and provide new data on a clone library of 105 SSU rRNA genes recovered from seawater collected over the western continental shelf of the USA in the Pacific Ocean. Comparisons to previously published data revealed that this coastal bacterioplankton clone library was dominated by SSU rRNA gene phylotypes originally described from surface waters of the open ocean, but also revealed unique SSU rRNA gene lineages of beta Proteobacteria related to those found in clone libraries from freshwater habitats. beta Proteobacteria lineages common to coastal and freshwater samples included members of a clade of obligately methylotrophic bacteria, SSU rRNA genes affiliated with Xylophilus ampelinus, and a clade related to the genus Duganella. In addition, SSU rRNA genes were recovered from such previously recognized marine bacterioplankton SSU rRNA gene clone clusters as the SAR86, SAR11, and SAR116 clusters within the class Proteobacteria, the Roseobacter clade of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, the marine group A/SAR406 cluster, and the marine Actinobacteria clade. Overall, these results support and extend previous observations concerning the global distribution of several marine planktonic prokaryote SSU rRNA gene phylotypes, but also show that coastal bacterioplankton communities contain SSU rRNA gene lineages (and presumably bacterioplankton) shown previously to be prevalent in freshwater habitats.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rice white tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi, a devastating nematode whose genome has not been sequenced, is distributed widely throughout almost all the rice-growing regions of the world. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome of A. besseyi and to identify parasite-related, mortality-related or host resistance-overcoming genes in this nematode. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Solexa/Illumina sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of mixed-stage populations of A. besseyi. A total of 51,270 transcripts without gaps were produced based on high-quality clean reads. Of all the A. besseyi transcripts, 9,132 KEGG Orthology assignments were annotated. Carbohydrate-active enzymes of glycoside hydrolases (GHs, glycosyltransferases (GTs, carbohydrate esterases (CEs and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs were identified. The presence of the A. besseyi GH45 cellulase gene was verified by in situ hybridization. Given that 13 unique A. besseyi potential effector genes were identified from 41 candidate effector homologs, further studies of these homologs are merited. Finally, comparative analyses were conducted between A. besseyi contigs and Caenorhabditis elegans genes to look for orthologs of RNAi phenotypes, neuropeptides and peptidases. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The present results provide comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of A. besseyi. Many of this species' genes are parasite related, nematode mortality-related or necessary to overcome host resistance. The generated transcriptome dataset of A. besseyi reported here lays the foundation for further studies of the molecular mechanisms related to parasitism and facilitates the development of new control strategies for this species.
Full Text Available Identification of Globodera rostochiensis was done based on the information given by the Direktorat Perlindungan Hortikultura, that the potato plants in the sub district of Bumiaji, Batu, East Java, were attacked by potato cyst nematode (Globodera. Plants and soil samples were taken from the potato's areas in the sub-district of Bumiaji, especially in the villages of Brakseng (± 1,700-1,800 m a.s.l, Tunggangan (± 1,600-1,700 m a.s.l, Kembangan (± 1,600-1.700 m a.s.l, and Junggo (± 1,200 m a.s.l. Based on morphological observations on eggs, larvae, females, and cysts, the nematode was identified as Globodera rostochiensis with special morphological characters: 1 second stage larvae vermifonn with total body length 531 - 563μ (x 548,4 μ, body width 22 - 26 μ (x 23,6u, stylet well developed with stylet knobs rounded, and part of the posterior portion hyaline in appearance; 2 cyst globular in shape with protruding neck, cyst's length 470 - 1,008 μ (x 638,08 μ, cyst's width 357 - 744 μ (x 490,33μ, and when the vulval basin is lost forming a single circular fenestra. Cuticle surface between anus and vulva basin have more than 12 paralel ridges.
Kharchenko, V A; Dvoĭnos, G M
356 parasitic larvae of the genus Triodontophorus from Equidae (two Equus hemionus and one E. grevyi) have been investigated. They belong to three phenons, which differ from each other by the shape and dimensions of a stoma, the structure of teeth and other signs. That phenons belong to three different species: T. serratus, T. tenuicollis and T. brevicauda. The differential diagnosis of L4 of that species of Triodontophorus are given.
Full Text Available Identification of nematode species is the fi rst step in the resolution of major nematological problems. Accurate identification of maize cyst nematode species is essential for more detailed research, particularly for it control measure. Although morphological observations by using the key characters of each nematode are suitable for identification purposes, the cyst nematodes could not beclearly identified based on it due to the wide variations. For the identification of the cyst nematode species, key characters relating to body surface, head, mouth, esophagus, tail as well as habitat and feeding habits was used in the present examination. Procedures for the permanent and temporary preparations of nematodes were used. The nematode specimens were observed under the microscope to confirm the key characters. Results of measurements and descriptions revealed that the cyst nematode collected from maize roots in Madura island have the same ambifenestrate as that of Heterodera zeae. The underbridge is short and thin and there is two layer of bullae arrangement in vulval cone, the first layer with four finger-like bullae located immediately below the underbridge and the second layer very randomly located below the fi rst one. These characteristics are of H. zeae. These complete of morphological identifications are a new report of H. zeae in Indonesia.
The study was performed to evaluate intensity of strongylid infection in stabled tarpans using the method of collecting worms after anthelmintic treatment and in wild tarpans from Popielne reserve on the basis of faecal examination. After treatment with ivermectin 12 cyathostomes and one large strongyle species were recovered from the faeces of two tarpans. The most abundant cyathostome species were C. catinatum, C. pateratum, C. longibursatum, C. nassatum and C. coronatus. A higher intensity of infections with small strongyles (cyathostomes) was found in stabled group than in the group from the reserve. Large strongyles were more prevalent in wild tarpans, with Strongylus vulgaris as most common species (66.7%), but the intensity of infection was low. The present results are compared with earlier studies of horses in Poland and other countries. The results confirm the stability of cyathostomes in different breed of horses over the world.
Trailović Saša M.
Full Text Available Cholinergic receptors of parasitic nematodes are one of the most important possible sites of action of antiparasitic drugs. This paper presents some of our own results of electrophysiological and pharamcological examinations of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors of nematodes, as well as data from literature on a new class of anthelmintics that act precisely on cholinergic receptors. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR is located on somatic muscle cells of nematodes and it is responsible for the coordination of parasite movement. Cholinomimetic anthelmintics act on this receptor, as well as acetylcholine, an endogenic neurotransmitter, but they are not sensitive to enzyme acetylcholineesterase which dissolves acetylcholine. As opposed to the nicotinic receptor of vertebra, whose structure has been examined thoroughly, the stoichiometry of the nicotinic receptor of nematodes is not completely known. However, on the grounds of knowledge acquired so far, a model has been constructed recently of the potential composition of a type of nematodes nicotinic receptor, as the site of action of anthelmintics. Based on earlier investigations, it is supposed that a conventional muscarinic receptor exists in nematodes as well, so that it can also be a new pharamocological target for the development of antinematode drugs. The latest class of synthesized anthelmintics, named aminoacetonitriles (AAD, act via the nicotinic receptor. Monepantel is the first drug from the AAD group as a most significant candidate for registration in veterinary medicine. Even though several groups of cholinomimetic anthelmintics (imiodazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines, organophosphat anthelmintics have been in use in veterinary practice for many years now, it is evident that cholinergic receptors of nematodes still present an attractive place in the examinations and development of new antinematode drugs. .
Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.; Würtz, J.; Taraschewski, H.; Sasal, P.
Roč. 92, č. 1 (2006), s. 130-137 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Procamallanus * Anguilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006
Moravec, František; Yooyen, T.
Roč. 58, č. 3 (2011), 224–232 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Rhabdochona * freshwater fish * Mystacoleucus * Pseudomystus * Thailand Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2011 http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=21989
Kajerová, V.; Baruš, Vlastimil
Roč. 74, č. 4 (2005), s. 571-574 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Psittacine birds * capillariids * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol74/74-571.pdf
Full Text Available A new free–living marine nematode species of Cyatholaimidae, Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. from Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia is morphologically described. Males are characterized by a slightly larger body than females, a cephalic ring followed by ten subcephalic setae, modified cuticular punctuation, caudal lateral differentiation of large dots, and strongly cuticularized gubernaculum with a unique shape and bidenticulated distal half. The cuticle ornamentation of females is similar to the males. However, their caudal lateral differentiation is composed of smaller and more spaced dots. An updated morphological key to species of Marylynnia is given.
Full Text Available Field application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN is still hampered by inefficient mass production. The aim of this study was to compare three published in vitro media (medium Wouts, Bedding and Han for mass propagation of three indigenous EPNs (Heterorhabditis indicus PLR2, H. indicus isolate 5, and Steinernema T96 and one commercial strain (S. carpocapsae #25. The media were impregnated in shredded polyurethane sponge, pre-inoculated with symbiotic bacteria of each nematode and inoculated with the respective infective juveniles (Ijs of the nematode. Nematode yields at three weeks after nematode inoculation were inconsistent accross replications and experiments and generally not significantly influenced by the kind of media tested. Average yields showed that the highest IJ productions were obtained on medium Han for H. indicus PLR2 (0,4×105 Ijs/g medium and for S. carpocapsae #25 (2.2×105 IJs/g medium, and on medium Wouts for H. indicus isolate 5 (6.5×105 Ijs/g medium and Steinernema T96 (1.5×105 IJs/g medium. The Ijs’ body were significantly shorter than those of in vivo propagated, which may impair the nematode pathogenicity. Modifications of the propagation technique and media formulation are needed to improve the quantity and quality of Ijs.
Hugot, J P; Gardner, S L; Morand, S
Recent redescriptions of most members of the Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864 parasitic in primates revealed that they share following derived characters: sexual dimorphism of lateral alae (single-crested in the males, double-crested in the females); in males a second pair of genital papillae always surrounded by strongly cuticularized rings; in females, uterine tube divided into 2 parts by a cellular wall forming a diaphragm. These characters are interpreted as synapomorphies, providing evidence that these taxa represent a monophyletic group, and we propose to classify them in a new subfamily of the Oxyuridae: the Enterobiinae subfam.nov. The Enterobiinae as recognized herein occurs in both Old World and New World Primates and rodents of the family Sciuridae (tribe Sciurini in the Holarctic region and tribe Xerini in the Ethiopian region). The new subfamily includes the following genera: Enterobius Leach, 1853; Colobenterobius Quentin, Betterton & Krishnasamy, 1979; Rodentoxyuris Quentin & Tenora 1974; Xeroxyuris Hugot, 1995; Lemuricola Chabaud & Petter, 1959; Protenterobius Inglis, 1961; Madoxyuris Chabaud, Brygoo & Petter, 1965; Trypanoxyuris Vevers, 1923; Hapaloxyuris Inglis & Cosgrove, 1965 and Paraoxyuronema Artigas, 1936. The genus Paraoxyuronema is revalidated as a subgenus of Trypanoxyuris due to its specialized buccal structures. This genus groups all pinworm nematodes specific for primates of the family Atelidae, including: P. brachytelesi Artigas, 1937 occurring in Brachyteles arachnoides; P. atelis (Cameron, 1929) occurring in Ateles spp., and P. duplicidens (Buckley, 1931) and P. lagothricis (Buckley, 1931), which are parasites of Lagothrix spp. Inglisoxyuris inglisi Chabaud, Petter & Golvan, 1961, included in the monospecific genus Inglisoxyuris and previously classified as a subgenus of the Lemuricola, does not share the characters of the new subfamily and, until its precise classification can be considered with more information, it is proposed to refer to this species as an Oxyuridae sensu lato. A diagnosis and a key of the genera included in the new subfamily are given.
Phan, K. L.; Mráček, Zdeněk; Půža, Vladimír; Nermuť, Jiří; Jarošová, Andrea
Roč. 16, č. 7 (2014), s. 761-775 ISSN 1388-5545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carpocapsae group * description * molecular Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2014
Full Text Available Radopholus similis is a major constraint to banana production in the world including Indonesia and growers have relied on nematicides to manage yield losses. The use of endophytic fungi is one method that may reduce the need for nematicides, however little is known on the effective application method of endophytic fungi to control R. similis. The aim of this research was to find out an effective application method of endophytic fungi to reduce R.similispopulation on banana. Fifteen isolates of endophytic fungi originated from banana corm and root collected from banana plantation in North Sumatera were applied to Barangan cultivar by sowing and deeping methods. The isolates was contained of 11 isolates of Fusarium sp. (2BSTMHMM, 3ASTMHP, 5ASP, 1ASU, 4BSP, 4BJP, 5BKJP, 4BSU, 1BJP, 2 BSP, and 4BKJP and 4 isolates ofTrichoderma sp. (2BSTMHP, 4BSTMHP, 2BSPH, and 2BSTMHH. All of these endophytic fungi were able to suppress the population of R. similis and they had potential to promote plant growth.
Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Dos Santos, Sonia Maria Cursino; Ceccarelli, Paulo Sérgio; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Tortelly, Rogério; Luque, José Luis
Five specimens of Arapaima gigas caught in the Araguaia River (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil) were investigated for helminths in 2004. Numerous adult specimens of the rhapidascarid nematode Goezia spinulosa were found in stomach ulcers in all the specimens of A. gigas and were surrounded by thickening of the mucosa. The gastric glands of all the fish were necrotic and there was a severe and diffuse inflammatory reaction composed of eosinophils (which were predominant), lymphocytes and rare macrophages in the mucosa, submucosa and muscle layer. This is the first report of tissue lesion occurrences in this host, in the presence of G. spinulosa, and it confirms the high pathogenicity of this parasite species.
Mafra, A C; Lanfredi, R M
This study was undertaken to clarify several aspects of morphological and taxonomic characters of Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz and Pereira, 1935, a parasite of the water rat, Nectomys squamipes. The cephalic structures (including lips, papillae, teeth, amphids, and porous areas) and details of the posterior end of male and female adult worms were examined by scanning electron microscopy, leading to the addition of new taxonomic characters for this species. We consider P. bispiculata a valid species, based on a comparative analysis of the specific characters for P. bispiculata and P. getula Seurat, 1917, including the morphology and morphometry of body structures as well as number and disposition of caudal papillae of the males.
Happy Cahya Nugrahana
Full Text Available Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN, Globodera rostochiensis has noted to be a devastated pest on potato in Indonesia. It is listed as the A2 pest by Plant Quarantine of Republik Indonesia, and it was also being a highly concerned plant parasitic nematode species worlwide. Therefore, both intensive and extensive surveys should be done to monitor the spread of PCN, especially in East Java as one of the centre of potato plantations in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to study the distribution of PCN in four potato plantations in East Java, i.e. Batu, Magetan, Probolinggo, and Pasuruan which were located between 1,205 to 2,063 m above the sea level. Extraction and isolation of cysts from soil samples was done using Baunacke method, and it was followed by identification of the nematodes using morphological and molecular approaches according to Baldwin and Mundo-Ocampo. The results showed that PCN was found on all sampling sites, i.e. Batu (Sumber Brantas, Jurang Kuali, Tunggangan, Junggo, Brakseng; Magetan (Dadi, Sarangan, Singolangu; Probolinggo (Tukul, Pandansari, Ledokombo, Sumberanom, Wonokerto, Ngadas, Pasuruan (Wonokerto, Tosari, Ledoksari, Ngadiwono. Magetan and Pasuruan were noted as new infested areas in East Java. Both morphological and molecular methods showed that the species found on all sites was Globodera rostochiensis. Intisari Nematoda Sista Kentang (NSK, Globodera rostochiensis telah tercatat sebagai hama yang menghancurkan tanaman kentang di Indonesia. NSK terdaftar sebagai Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Karantina golongan A2 oleh Badan Karantina Pertanian Republik Indonesia, dan juga merupakan spesies nematoda parasit tanaman yang sangat merugikan di seluruh dunia. Oleh karena itu, baik survei intensif maupun ekstensif harus dilakukan untuk memantau penyebaran NSK, terutama di Jawa Timur sebagai salah satu sentra tanaman kentang di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari distribusi NSK pada empat daerah sentra
Ocorrência e aspectos ecológicos de metazoários parasitos de peixes do Lago do Parque do Ingá, Maringá, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.507 Occurrence and ecological aspects of the metazoan fish parasites from Ingá lake, Maringá, Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.507
Marion Haruko Machado
Full Text Available Nenhum estudo de peixes e parasitos foi realizado, até o momento, no Lago do Parque do Ingá que sofre influências antrópicas desde seu represamento, em 1970. Este trabalho analisou alguns aspectos ecológicos dos parasitos metazoários dos peixes deste lago. Dos peixes analisados, (69,5% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Foram encontrados 1.372 parasitos pertencentes à Nematoda (larvas e Platyhelminthes (Monogenea e Cestoda, sendo estes os mais prevalentes e numerosos. O encontro de larvas de cestóides em Tilapia rendalli e Oreochromis niloticus confirma a importância destas espécies como participantes de níveis tróficos intermediários. A maior abundância de T. rendalli e O. niloticus, no local, pode ser um fator determinante no recrutamento de parasitos. O parasito aproveita-se das espécies de hospedeiros mais abundantes para garantir o desenvolvimento de seu ciclo de vida e também por serem os mais disponíveis à predação pelas aves piscívoras ali presentes, o que torna o local de grande importância para a sustentação do ciclo de vida desses parasitos. A baixa diversidade de endoparasitos coletados pode ser justificada pela presença de metais pesados – Cu e Pb – no sedimento, o que deve estar interferindo no desenvolvimento dos invertebrados, possíveis hospedeiros intermediários.Ingá lake was dammed in 1970 and, since then, no study on fish and parasites had been done, but it has suffered anthropic influences. This study analyzed some ecological aspects of the metazoan parasites form this lake. From analyzed fish, 69.5% had at least one species of parasite. Among them, 1.372 parasites were found, prevailing Nematoda (larvae and Platyhelminthes (Monogenea and Cestoda. The discovery of cestode larvae in Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis nitolicus confirms the importance of these species as participants of intermediate trophic levels. The great number of Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis
Ocorrência e aspectos ecológicos de metazoários parasitos de peixes do Lago do Parque do Ingá, Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Occurrence and ecological aspects of the metazoan fish parasites from Ingá lake, Maringá, Paraná State
Marion Haruko Machado
Full Text Available Nenhum estudo de peixes e parasitos foi realizado, até o momento, no Lago do Parque do Ingá que sofre influências antrópicas desde seu represamento, em 1970. Este trabalho analisou alguns aspectos ecológicos dos parasitos metazoários dos peixes deste lago. Dos peixes analisados, (69,5% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Foram encontrados 1.372 parasitos pertencentes à Nematoda (larvas e Platyhelminthes (Monogenea e Cestoda, sendo estes os mais prevalentes e numerosos. O encontro de larvas decestóides em Tilapia rendalli e Oreochromis niloticus confirma a importância destas espécies como participantes de níveis tróficos intermediários. A maior abundância de T. rendalli e O. niloticus,no local, pode ser um fator determinante no recrutamento de parasitos. O parasito aproveita-se das espécies de hospedeiros mais abundantes para garantir o desenvolvimento de seu ciclo de vida e também por serem os mais disponíveis à predação pelas aves piscívorasali presentes, o que torna o local de grande importância para a sustentação do ciclo de vida desses parasitos. A baixa diversidade de endoparasitos coletados pode ser justificada pela presença de metais pesados – Cu e Pb – no sedimento, o que deve estar interferindo nodesenvolvimento dos invertebrados, possíveis hospedeiros intermediários.Ingá lake was dammed in 1970 and, since then, no study on fish and parasites had been done, but it has suffered anthropic influences. This study analyzed some ecological aspects of the metazoan parasites form this lake. From analyzed fish, 69.5% had at least one species of parasite. Among them, 1.372 parasites were found, prevailing Nematoda (larvae and Platyhelminthes (Monogenea and Cestoda. The discovery of cestode larvae in Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis nitolicus confirms the importance of these species as participants of intermediate trophic levels. The great number of Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis nitolicus
Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina
Mirna C Oviedo
Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.
González M Teresa
Full Text Available The metazoan parasite fauna of Hippoglossina macrops (n = 123 from northern Chile (30°S is quantitatively described for the first time, and the role of host age and sex was evaluated. Twelve parasite species were recovered, including 5 ectoparasites (2 Monogenea, 2 Copepoda and 1 Piscicolidae and 7 endoparasites (1 Digenea, 3 Cestoda, 2 Acanthocephala, and 1 Nematoda. The copepod Holobomolochus chilensis, the monogenean Neoheterobothrium sp., the adult acanthocephalan Floridosentis sp. and the hirudinean, Gliptonobdella sp. are new geographical and host records. The most prevalent ectoparasitic species were the monogenean, Neoheterobothrium sp. and the copepod, H. chilensis. Among endoparasites, the acanthocephalans Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe were most prevalent and abundant. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection for most parasitic species were not affected by host sex, however the prevalence of Floridosentis sp. was significantly greater in males. Intensity of infection was positively correlated with host age for Neoheterobothrium sp., and negatively correlated for Floridosentis sp. and H. chilensis. The helminth species richness of the host H. macrops was lower compared to related flatfishes from the Northern Hemisphere. The relationship of the helminth fauna of H. macrops, its feeding habits and ecological habitats are discussed.
Umbers, Kate D. L.; Byatt, Lachlan J.; Hill, Nichola J.; Bartolini, Remo J.; Hose, Grant C.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Power, Michelle L
In alpine Australia, Orthoptera are abundant, dominant herbivores, important prey species, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Despite the central role of orthopterans in alpine ecosystems, the impact of parasites on orthopteran populations is under-explored. In this study we describe the relationship between parasite prevalence and host sex, body size and year of collection. We accessed an existing, preserved collection of 640 Kosciuscola tristis collected from across its range between 2007 and 2011. Upon dissection we collected juvenile parasites and used molecular tools to identify them to three families (Nematoda; Mermithidae, and Arthropoda: Diptera: Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae). The prevalence of nematodes ranged from 3.5% to 25.0% and dipterans from 2.4% to 20.0%. Contrary to predictions, we found no associations between parasite prevalence and grasshopper sex or size. Although there was an association between prevalence of both nematodes and dipterans with year of collection, this is likely driven by a small sample size in the first year. Our results provide a foundation for future studies into parasite prevalence within the alpine environment and the abiotic factors that might influence these associations. PMID:25919745
Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.
The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.
A. A. Boyko
Full Text Available One of the most common parasitic diseases of pigs globally is ascariasis. It is caused by the nematode Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 (Nematoda, Ascaridata, which parasitises the small intestine of pigs in its mature form and the respiratory system at the larval stage. This helminthiasis causes immense damage to swine-rearing. Control of the ascariasis pathogen in the host’s organism and in the environment is essential for the health of the animals and successful swine-rearing. The results of studying the effect of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods – cinnamaldehyde (0656 Codex Alimentarius, benzoic acid (Е210 Codex Alimentarius and methylparaben (Е218 Codex Alimentarius , on the viability of invasive eggs of A. suum are useful for determining the minimum concentration of solution of these substances for use against eggs of A. suum (10 g/l. The lowest efficiency against invasive eggs of A. suum was obtained for methylparaben (LD50 = 3850 ± 2130 mg/l, the highest was obtained with cinnamaldehyde (LD50 = 2437 ± 864 mg/l, and benzoic acid (LD50 = 1240 ± 680 mg/l.
Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.
Ronilson Macedo Silva
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora; Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida; Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea; Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala; Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda; Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae; and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda. A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish.
Fernando G. Spaccesi
Full Text Available The structure and composition of benthic communities on hard substrates covered by the nonindigenous bivalve Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, the golden mussel, were quantified in the middle zone of the Río de la Plata Estuary (Argentina from April 2001 through March 2002. A total of 26 taxa were recorded. L. fortunei and Nematoda were the central and dominant groups, with a prodigious abundance of over 80%. The prevalence of L. fortunei, rather than the environmental variables, regulated the dynamics of the associated invertebrate fauna. The golden mussel alters both the structure and function of benthic native communities on hard substrates, allows a higher surface available for colonization and refuge, and provides food source to deposit-feeding organisms in the form of organic or residual material. The mussel also increases the abundance and diversity of taxa on hard substrata - such as Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Tardigrada, Chironomidae, Copepoda, Tanaidacea, and Hydrachnidia. Similarities and nonparametric multidimensional-scaling analyses indicated that the benthic composition had a seasonal variation. L. fortunei has an environmental impact, an ability to invade new freshwater ambiences worldwide and ecological characteristic comparable to those of Dreissena polymorpha Pallas (the zebra mussel of North America and Europe.
Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.
Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197
Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.
Ananta, Sylvia Maharani; Suharno; Hidayat, Adi; Matsubayashi, Makoto
To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle in Indonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations in Indonesia have never been performed. Fecal samples from cattle at 35 farms in 7 districts in West Java, Indonesia, has been examined using the floatation or sedimentation methods, and a immunofluorescence assay and experimentally inoculation to mice for Cryptosporidium or Giardia.spp. 153 of 394 examined cattle (38.8%) were infected with gastrointestinal parasites. The prevalence of Eimeria spp., Nematoda spp. (including Oesophagustomum and Bunostomum-like), Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum spp. was 22.4%, 11.2%, 12.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. andersoni) was also found in two samples. One isolate of this parasite was confirmed to be transmitted to mice, in contrast to the isolates from other countries. although this survey is preliminary, the results shows that the infection of gastrointestinal parasites in Indonesia was not high, but these infected cattle could be as a potential source leading to economic losses in livestock production. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E
SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.
Quang, Ngo Xuan; Vanreusel, Ann; Smol, Nic; Chau, Nguyen Ngoc
Meiobenthos assemblages in eight estuaries of the Mekong river system were investigated in August 2008 (from the Cua Tieu estuary to the Tran De estuary). In each estuary, one sampling station was established for meiobenthos sampling. Twelve major taxa of meiobenthos were recorded in this estuarine system, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Tardigrada, Bivalvia, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Gastropoda, and Crustacean Nauplii larvae. The densities of the meiobenthos range from 581 to 3168 inds/10 cm2. Nematodes always occupy the highest numbers with a percentage ranging from 64-99%. There are 135 nematode genera recorded in this study with the following as dominant genera Desmodora, Leptolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassomonhystera, Theristus, Daptonema, Rhynchonema, Parodontophora, and Oncholaimus. Although the biodiversity of the meiobenthos at higher taxa level is not high compared to other marine environments, the estimates of nematode biodiversity at the genus level indicates high values. The increase in number of genera with increasing sampling intensity illustrate that the diversity is underestimated and would have been higher if the authors had considered a larger number of individuals, more replicates per station, and more sampling stations.
Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos
Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length.
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi
Loricifera is an enigmatic metazoan phylum; its morphology appeared to place it with Priapulida and Kinorhyncha in the group Scalidophora which, along with Nematoida (Nematoda and Nematomorpha), comprised the group Cycloneuralia. Scarce molecular data have suggested an alternative phylogenetic hypothesis, that the phylum Loricifera is a sister taxon to Nematomorpha, although the actual phylogenetic position of the phylum remains unclear. Ecdysozoan phylogeny was reconstructed through maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses of nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences from 60 species representing all eight ecdysozoan phyla, and including a newly collected loriciferan species. Ecdysozoa comprised two clades with high support values in both the ML and BI trees. One consisted of Priapulida and Kinorhyncha, and the other of Loricifera, Nematoida, and Panarthropoda (Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda). The relationships between Loricifera, Nematoida, and Panarthropoda were not well resolved. Loricifera appears to be closely related to Nematoida and Panarthropoda, rather than grouping with Priapulida and Kinorhyncha, as had been suggested by previous studies. Thus, both Scalidophora and Cycloneuralia are a polyphyletic or paraphyletic groups. In addition, Loricifera and Nematomorpha did not emerge as sister groups.
Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P
The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda.
Full Text Available Backgrounds: Genus Trichostrongylus (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae is one of the most important zoonotic nematodes with wide geographic distribution in the world. The purpose of the present study was to describe morphological and morphometrical characteristics of male Trichostrongylus species, currently prevalent in domestic ruminants of Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran.Methods: Gastro-intestinal organs of 1600 sheep, goats, cattle, and buffalos, slaughtered in Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran, were examined for infectivity with Trichostrongylus species. For examination and measurements of helminthes, Azo-carmine staining was performed, followed by camera lucida drawings of morphological characters and measurements of morphometrical criteria with a calibrated microscope. Using valid nematodes systematic keys, almost all the parasites were identified at the level of species.Results: Overall, 114 animals were found infected with at least one species of Trichostrongylus. Considering morphological characteristics of male Trichostrongylus, six species were identified including T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, T. probolorus, T. capricola, T. longispicularis and Trichostrongylus sp. Conclusion: Although, compared to the previous decades, currently Trichostrongylus is much less prevalent in the domestic ruminants of the study area, but still different species occur in these animals.
Sukardji Partodiharjo; Arifin, M.; Endang Yuliawati; Enuh Rahardjo
An experiment of vaccines was carried out is one of Nematoda worm present in abomasums or stomach of sheep or goat. The case in the field was high enough, may teach 60% the aim of this study is on observe the effect of gastric worm vaccination irradiated 5000 L 3 post challenge wild strain 5000 L 3 , The parameter of observe were clinic, blood twice description number of adult worms, with 3 treatments as follows; control (K), V 2 = twice vaccinations without challenge V 1 twice vaccinations with challenge. The result of the study the average of gain (gram); V 1 =97, V 2 =91 and K=31.20 (P 6 ), V 1 =6.50, V 2 =5.90 and K=6.10 (P 1 =29.30, V 2 =35.30 and K=27.50 (P 3 ), V 1 =9.30, V 2 =9.00 and K=7.40 (P 1 =8.30, V 2 =9.50 and K=6.20 (P 1 immunity respond of weight gain, erythrocyte and leucocyte to have immunity which is better than the respond of other treatments. (author)
Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova
Full Text Available Helminths from a total of 24 species of small mammals, representing three orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia were examined in Zhiguli State Reserve (Russia. 90 species of helminthes were identified: Trematoda – 24, Cestoidea – 21, Nematoda – 43 and Acanthocephala – 2. For each helminth species the following traits are specified: systematic position, hosts, localization, host specificity, sites of findings and geographical distribution. Rodents, in which 33 helminth species were noted, were proven to have the richest parasite fauna. In chiropterans and insectivores 32 and 28 species of helminths were registered, respectively. Only one parasite species was common for all three orders of mammals – the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis. 14 species of parasites were discovered in mammals of Russia for the first time: Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Rodentolepis erinacei, Staphylocystis syrdariensis, Aonchotheca erinacei, Crenosoma striatum, Tricholinstowia linstowi, T. talpae, Molinistrongylus alatus, M. spasskii, M. vespertilionis, Pterothominx neopulchra, Pterygodermatites bovieri, Syphacia nigeriana, Centrorhynchus aluconis, larvae, Moniliformis moniliformis, larvae. 21 species of parasitic worms were found for the first time in mammals of the Volga River basin. Nine helminth species, discovered in small mammals of the Zhiguli State Reserve, are of epidemiological and epizootiological importance.
Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira
Full Text Available The zooplankton of aquatic environments is composed mostly of protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, which play an important role in the food chain, transferring mass and energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This work was prepared with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity that occurs in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim. Water samples were taken at monthly intervals at four sampling stations located along the sub-basin in the period August 2009 to July 2010. To obtain the zooplankton community, 100 L of water were filtered on nylon net with an aperture of 50 mm. Were identified 72 taxa distributed in the following taxonomic categories Rotifera, Protozoa, Porifera, Nematoda, Anellida, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Isopoda and Insecta. In terms of species richness, the phylum Rotifera followed by the Protoctista were the most relevant with forty and fifteen taxa, respectively. The most representative taxa in numerical terms were Arcella vulgaris, Notholca sp. Rotary sp. and nematodes. Regarding the community diversity index, the community was characterized as low diversity, but the taxa were distributed evenly in all monitoring points.
Correa, Loreto; Zapata, Beatriz; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio
The breeding of wild animals for commercial purposes is becoming more frequent nowadays. This situation has led to an increase in contact rates between wild and domestic animals, with subsequent reciprocal transmission of parasites. In this study, we characterized the gastrointestinal and blood parasites of a group of 15 semi-captive guanacos (Lama guanicoe). We characterized gastrointestinal parasites by analyzing fecal samples through the sedimentation-flotation technique and hemoparasites by using blood smears stained with Giemsa. We found several gastrointestinal parasites including Nematoda and protozoans. The most frequently found parasites were Nematodirus sp. and Eimeria sp. In contrast with previous studies, neither Cestoda nor Fasciola were found. The only hemoparasite detected was Mycoplasma haemolamae, a parasite already described in llamas and alpacas. We conclude that the most frequent gastrointestinal parasites of semi-captive guanacos were nematodes and protozoans. Also, the hemoparasite M. haemolamae seems to be prevalent among captive populations of South American camelids. Finally, captive guanacos share several parasites with the traditional livestock. Therefore, keeping captive or semi-captive guanacos without an adequate sanitary protocol might have adverse consequences to adjacent traditional cattle farming and/or for wild animals.
Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua
Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.
Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.
Full Text Available Spatial patterns of species diversity provide information about the mechanisms that regulate biodiversity and are important for setting conservation priorities. Present knowledge of the biogeography of meiofauna in the deep sea is scarce. This investigation focuses on the distribution of the deep-sea nematode genus Manganonema, which is typically extremely rare in deep-sea sediment samples. Forty-four specimens of eight different species of this genus were recorded from different Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four out of the eight species encountered are new to science. We report here that this genus is widespread both in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new findings together with literature information indicate that Manganonema is a cosmopolitan genus, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans. Manganonema shows the highest diversity at water depths >4,000 m. Our data, therefore, indicate that this is preferentially an abyssal genus that is able, at the same time, to colonize specific habitats at depths shallower than 1,000 m. The analysis of the distribution of the genus Manganonema indicates the presence of large differences in dispersal strategies among different species, ranging from locally endemic to cosmopolitan. Lacking meroplanktonic larvae and having limited dispersal ability due to their small size, it has been hypothesized that nematodes have limited dispersal potential. However, the investigated deep-sea nematodes were present across different oceans covering macro-scale distances. Among the possible explanations (hydrological conditions, geographical and geological pathways, long-term processes, specific historical events, their apparent preference of colonizing highly hydrodynamic systems, could suggest that these infaunal organisms are transported by means of deep-sea benthic storms and turbidity currents over long distances.
Moravec, František; Santos, C. P.
Roč. 104, č. 3 (2009), s. 589-592 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Dracunculus * Eunectes * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009
Moravec, František; de Buron, I.
Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 722-727 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Philometroides * marine fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009
Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto; Morrow, Johnica J
Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%. Almost all of the positive samples came from agricultural sites. From Brazil, 0 pinworm positive samples were found in 325 samples from 7 sites. For the Andes region, 22 pinworm positive samples were found in 411 samples from 26 sites for a prevalence of 5.3%. Detailed analyses of these data defined several trends. First, preagricultural sites less frequently show evidence of infection compared to agricultural populations. This is especially clear in the data from North America, but is also evident in the data from South America. Second, there is an apparent relationship between the commonality of pinworms in coprolites and the manner of constructing villages. These analyses show that ancient parasitism has substantial value in documenting the range of human behaviors that influence parasitic infections.
Connick, W. J.; Nickle, W. R.; Williams, K. S.; Vinyard, B. T.
Shelf life (nematode survival) of Steinernema carpocapsae (strain All) nematodes at 21 C in "Pesta" granules, made by a pasta-like process, was increased from 8 to 26 weeks by incorporating low concentrations of formaldehyde. Pesta samples containing an average of 427,000 nematodes/g were prepared with wheat flour (semolina or bread flour), kaolin, bentonite, peat moss, nematode slurry, and formaldehyde (0-1.4% w/w) and were dried to a water content of 23.6-26.9%. Nematodes emerged from Pesta (S. carpocapsae) granules when placed in water or on moist filter paper. Incorporation of 0.2% w/w formaldehyde (nominal; 0.05% by analysis) was optimum for increasing nematode survival in semolina-based Pesta, and also inhibited fungal growth on the granules. Bread flour Pesta samples prepared by formaldehyde addition to the nematode slurry prior to dough preparation, rather than by addition to a mixture of dry ingredients, had longer shelf life. Nematodes recovered from granules made with 0.2% formaldehyde and stored 20 weeks at 21 C caused 100% mortality of wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae. PMID:19279903
Kang, Heonil; Eun, Geun; Ha, Jihye; Kim, Yongchul; Park, Namsook; Kim, Donggeun; Choi, Insoo
A new soybean cyst nematode Heterodera sojae n. sp. was found from the roots of soybean plants in Korea. Cysts of H. sojae n. sp. appeared more round, shining, and darker than that of H. glycines . Morphologically, H. sojae n. sp. differed from H. glycines by fenestra length (23.5-54.2 µm vs. 30-70 µm), vulval silt length (9.0-24.4 µm vs. 43-60 µm), tail length of J2 (54.3-74.8 µm vs. 40-61 µm), and hyaline part of J2 (32.6-46.3 µm vs. 20-30 µm). It is distinguished from H. elachista by larger cyst (513.4-778.3 µm × 343.4-567.1 µm vs. 350-560 µm × 250-450 µm) and longer stylet length of J2 (23.8-25.3 µm vs. 17-19 µm). Molecular analysis of rRNA large subunit (LSU) D2-D3 segments and ITS gene sequence shows that H. sojae n. sp. is more close to rice cyst nematode H. elachista than H. glycines . Heterodera sojae n. sp. was widely distributed in Korea. It was found from soybean fields of all three provinces sampled.
Çimen, H.; Půža, Vladimír; Nermuť, Jiří; Hatting, J.; Ramakuwela, T.; Faktorová, Lucie; Hazir, S.
Roč. 18, č. 4 (2016), s. 439-453 ISSN 1388-5545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : description * molecular * morphology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2016
Çimen, H.; Půža, Vladimír; Nermuť, Jiří; Hatting, J.; Ramakuwela, T.; Hazir, S.
Roč. 48, č. 3 (2016), s. 148-158 ISSN 0022-300X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : D2-D3 * entomopathogenic nematodes * ITS Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2016 http://journals.fcla.edu/jon/issue/view/4275
González-Solís, David; Mariaux, J.
Roč. 124, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0035-418X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : new species * nematode * Brycinus * Xenocharax Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2016
Vidal-Martínez, V M; Osorio-Sarabia, D; Overstreet, R M
Juveniles of Contracaecum multipapillatum infected the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and adults infected the olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the great egret (Casmerodius albus) in the coastal lagoon at Celestun, State of Yucatan, Mexico. All are new host records, and, even though the geographic locality record of Mexico for the species has not been published, unidentified but presumably conspecific specimens have been reported from there. When juveniles of C. multipapillatum were fed to a kitten, but not rats, ducks, or chickens, they developed into adults. Measurements and morphological data are provided on the specimens from the kitten. Development of an avian ascaridoid in the intestine of a mammal increases the potential of this widespread species to infect other mammals, including humans.
Blanco, María V; Lax, Paola; Dueñas, Juan C Rondan; Gardenal, Cristina N; Doucet, Marcelo E
A population of Hammerschmidtiella diesingi was detected in specimens of Periplaneta americana collected in Córdoba city (Argentina) was studied. Nematodes were characterized based on morphological, morphometric and genetic (D2-D3 expansion segment) analyses. New data are provided, especially on particular morphological characters that were a matter of controversy in previous studies. H. diesingi is reported in Argentina for the first time.
Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mráček, Zdeněk
Roč. 18, č. 9 (2016), s. 1095-1112 ISSN 1388-5545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bionomics * description * Italy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2016
Ramallo, Geraldine; Goldberg, Stephen; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos
Thubunaea eleodori sp. nov. is described from the stomach of Liolaemus eleodori (Sauria: Liolaemidae) from San Guillermo National Park, Province of San Juan, Argentina. T. eleodori is most similar to those species lacking spicules, T. cnemidophorus, T. fitsimonsi, T. parkeri, T. schukurovi, and T. smogorzhewskii. T. eleodori is separated from these species based on the papilla pattern. T. eleodori has 12 pedunculate papillae and 14 sessile papillae, T. smogorzhewskii lacks pedunculate papillae, T. fitsimonsi and T. parkeri lack sessile papillae, and T. cnemidophorus has14-16 pedunculate papillae and 12 sessile papillae. T. eleodori represents the first member of the genus to be reported from Argentina.
Galeano, Noelia Adelina; Tanzola, Ruben Daniel
Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province), revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907). This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.
Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Vitt, Laurie J
Oswaldocruzia nicaraguensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines of Ameiva festiva (Sauria: Teiidae) is described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia nicaraguensis represents the 78th species assigned to the genus and is most similar to the Caribbean species of the genus by possessing spicules in which each of the 3 divisions terminates in numerous fine points. Of the 8 species assigned to this group, O. nicaraguensis is most similar to Oswaldocruzia moraveci; of the 8 species, only O. moraveci and O. nicaraguensis possess a type II bursa and lack cervical alae. It is separated from O. moraveci by the position of the tips of ribs 5-6; close together in O. nicaraguensis, well separated in O. moraveci.
Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Telford, Sam R
Schulzia ptychoglossi n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines of Ptychoglossus festae (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) is described and illustrated. Schulzia ptychoglossi n. sp. represents the fourth species assigned to the genus and is most similar to the Venezuelan species S. usu by possessing a cervical inflation that begins a short distance from the anterior end of the body. Schulzia ptychoglossi differs from S. usu in that ray 8 separates midway between the root and tip of the dorsal ray in S. ptychoglossi, but separates close to the root of the dorsal ray in S. usu.
Moravec, František; Spratt, D. M.; Kay, W. R.
Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 273-278 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Micropleura * Crocodylus * Australia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2006
Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L
Photomicrographs of several morphologic features of hookworms (Uncinaria spp) from northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups are presented. The main purpose is to show and describe some physical characteristics of hookworms from the two hosts; it is not to decide from these attributes whether the Uncinaria spp are the same species. The number of species of Uncinaria in pinnipeds is uncertain and specimens need to be examined from the various infected seals and sea lions before the taxonomy of these parasites can be clarified. Information in the present paper should aid in this determination.
Santos, Cláudia Portes; Moravec, Frantisek
The nematode Goezia spinulosa (Diesing, 1839) (Raphidascarididae) is redescribed based on specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the naturally infected arapaima Arapaima gigas (Schinz) from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River Delta, Brazil. Light and electron microscopy examinations revealed some previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features in the species, such as the position of the excretory pore, phasmids in the male or the number (4) of postanal papillae. The morphology of G. spinulosa is compared with that of other four congeneric species parasitizing freshwater fishes in South America. This nematode seems to be one of the most pathogenic parasites of A. gigas in the Mexiana Island, which are responsible for a high mortality of cultured arapaima fingerlings. Apparently, the source of G. spinulosa infection for arapaima fingerlings cultured in tanks was the infected plankton collected in the localities inhabited by wild arapaimas. Therefore, control measures should include the sterilisation of the plankton before its use as food for fish. A rare infection of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Dioctophymatidae) in arapaima fingerlings was also found (new host record); the larvae were inside swellings on the body surface.
Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Santos, Sonia Maria Cursino dos; Ceccarelli, Paulo Sérgio; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Tortelly, Rogério; Luque, José Luis
Cinco espécimens de Arapaima gigas capturados no Rio Araguaia (Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil) foram investigados para diagnóstico de infecção por helmintos em 2004. Numerosos espécimes adultos do nematóide rafidascarídeo Goezia spinulosa foram encontrados em úlceras do estômago circundadas por um espessamento da mucosa em todos os exemplares de A. gigas. As glândulas gástricas de todos encontravam-se necróticas e havia um acentuado e difuso infiltrado inflamatório composto por eosinófilos, qu...
Silva, Maralina Torres da; Oliveira Cavalcante, Pedro Hercílio de; Camargo, Ana Carolina Alves de; Chagas Moutinho, Vanessa Aparecida das; Santos, Everton Gustavo Nunes Dos; Santos, Cláudia Portes
Arapaima gigas, a fish with a high market value, has been farmed in different localities within Brazil. Among its parasites, adults of Goezia spinulosa are reported to cause ulcers in the stomach and to result in the death of farmed fingerlings. Due to the veterinary importance of this nematode in cultured arapaimas, an integrative taxonomic study is proposed, combining morphological, ultrastructural and genetic profiles of this parasite. The fish were obtained from semi-intensive fish farming in Acre State, Brazil. The fish measured 7-42cm in total length and the intensity of infection was 1-60 parasites per fish. The site of infection was mainly the stomach. Morphological and ultrastructural analyses of G. spinulosa showed the importance of its spiny body in firmly attaching the worm to the gastric mucosa, resulting in lesions, ulcers and deep gastric perforations of the stomach wall. New sequences for partial 18S rDNA, ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA, partial 28S rDNA, cox1 mtDNA and for cox2 mtDNA are presented. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the partial 18S and 28S rDNA shows species of Goezia occur in a clade well separated from other genera in both analyses. Both the partial 18S and 28S rDNA genes represented good genetic markers for distinguishing genera of the Raphidascarididae, with exception of Hysterothylacium. This integrated taxonomic study produced a robust profile for G. spinulosa that will aid the diagnosis of both adults and larval stages from arapaimas and possible intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Santos, C. P.; Moravec, František
Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 55-63 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goezia * Arapaima * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2009
Santos, Cláudia Portes; Gibson, David I
Data-base searches of records of the helminth parasites of South American and African freshwater fishes revealed only two pairs of species from genera endemic to the two regions. One pair, species of the primitive amphilinid cestode genus Nesolecithus Dönges & Harder, 1966, has already been designated as likely Gondwana relicts. The second pair are the philometrid nematodes Nilonema gymnarchi Khalil, 1960 from Gymnarchus niloticus Cuvier (Gymnarchidae) in Africa and N. senticosum (Baylis, 1922) from the South American fish Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) (Arapaimidae). Both species are partly redescribed on the basis of light and scanning electron microscopical observations of the type-specimens, and their relationships are discussed. In view of the fact that both hosts are basal teleosts of the order Osteoglossiformes and they are the same two fish which harbour the amphilinid cestodes already indicated as Gondwana relics, the nematode pair is also deemed to be relictual. However, these species are suggested as being of limited potential value for calibrating a molecular clock.
Moravec, František; García-Magana, L.; Salgado-Maldonado, G.
Roč. 47, č. 3 (2002), s. 224-227 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Spinitectus * fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.732, year: 2002
Dichelyne (Dichelyne) spinigerus sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the marine fish Otolithes ruber (Sciaenidae) off Iran and first description of the male of Philometra otolithi Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 (Nematoda: Philometridae)
Moravec, František; Khosheghbal, M.; Pazooki, J.
Roč. 59, č. 2 (2014), s. 229-237 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Dichelyne * Philometra * marine fish * Otolithes * Iran Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2014
Experimental infection in Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida with larvae of Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae Infecção experimental em Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida com larvas de Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae
Full Text Available This trial registered the experimental infection viability with nematode larvae Camallanus sp. in Notodiaptomus sp., a crustacean, which can be an intermediate host. Adult females of nematode were dissected from the intestines of Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, at a fish farm in the State of São Paulo. Females were slightly compressed for larvae release, collected with Pasteur pipette and separated on Petri dishes with 9ml filtered water at 28.1ºC, from zooplankton culture. Treatments consisted of Petri dishes with 60 and 105 copepods, in which 120, 150 and 210 larvae of nematode were added in four replications. Twenty-four and 36h after exposition to the larvae, the copepods were fixed in 70% alcohol to record the amount of fixed larvae. Twenty four hours after exposition, 60 copepods group with 120 larvae showed significantly higher prevalence (46.5% when compared to 105 copepods and 120 larvae (33.2%. Thus, these answers suggested that 120 larvae were enough for a successful infectivity. Experimental infection was available and so, it was used as a pattern to life cycle studies of camallanid nematodes and hosts susceptibility tests.A viabilidade da infecção experimental com larvas do nematóide Camallanus sp. em Notodiaptomus sp., crustáceo com potencial para hospedeiro intermediário foi avaliada. Fêmeas adultas do nematóide foram extraídas de Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, provenientes de piscicultura de peixes ornamentais no estado de São Paulo. As fêmeas foram ligeiramente pressionadas para liberar as larvas, coletadas com pipeta Pasteur e separadas em placas de Petri contendo 9ml de água filtrada a 28,1ºC do próprio cultivo de zooplâncton. Os tratamentos consistiram de placas contendo 60 e 105 copépodes onde se adicionou 120, 150 e 210 larvas de nematóides em quatro repetições. Nos tempos de 24 e 36h após a exposição às larvas, os copépodes foram fixados em álcool 70% para quantificação de larvas. Após 24h de exposição, o grupo com 60 copépodes na presença de 120 larvas apresentou maior prevalência (46,5% do que 105 copépodes com 120 larvas (33,2%. Sugere-se que 120 larvas foram suficientes para o sucesso da infecção. A infecção experimental mostrou-se viável, servindo de modelo para o estudo do ciclo de vida de camalanídeos e testes de susceptibilidade de hospedeiros.
Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae in Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae in South America Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae em Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae na América do Sul
Eliane F. da Silveira
Full Text Available This is the first report of a species of Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, on anatid hosts in South America, causing granulomas. It is also the first detailed description and record of a species of Echinuria, for South America in the Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Fifty-two rosy-billed pochards were examined for helminths in the Municipalities of Santa Vitória do Palmar (locality of Fazenda Sossego and (locality of Ponta da Antena, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and Alvear, Province of Corrientes, northern Argentina. Samples were obtained from 2003 to 2004. After the catch each bird was immediately frozen with dry ice. Prior to necropsy birds were sexed, weighted, measured, and the state of maturity (juvenile or adult determined, based on the presence or absence of a bursa of Fabricius. The granulomas with the nematodes were found in the proximal esophagus at the junction with the proventriculus. Two birds had one (fistulated and two granulomas, respectively. One of the birds was from the wintering grounds along the coastal region in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The other, from one of the breeding grounds in northern Argentina, was captured before the trip to the wintering grounds along the migratory flyway. Prevalence was 3.8% while the mean intensity of infection was 7.2. Morphometry of males and females and the comparison with previous descriptions and illustrations allowed the identification of the present specimens as E. uncinata.Este é o primeiro registro de uma espécie do gênero Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, em hospedeiros anatídeos na América do Sul, causando granulomas. É, também, a primeira descrição detalhada e o primeiro registro de Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Soloviev, 1912, para a América do Sul, e o primeiro registro de um nematóide acuarióideo em Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Cinqüenta e dois marrecões foram examinados para helmintos nas localidades de Fazenda Sossego e Ponta da Antena, Município de Santa Vitória do Palmar, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região Sul do Brasil e Alvear, Província de Corrientes, região Norte da Argentina. As amostras foram obtidas no período de 2003 a 2004. Imediatamente após o abate, cada ave foi congelada em gelo seco. As aves foram separadas por sexo, pesadas e medidas. O estado de maturidade de cada ave foi avaliado (juvenil ou adulto com base na presença ou ausência da bolsa de Fabricius. Os granulomas, contendo os nematóides, estavam situados na base do esôfago quase junto à junção com o proventrículo. Duas aves estavam positivas, com um (fistulado e dois granulomas, respectivamente. Uma das aves era proveniente do Brasil (pólo de invernia na planície costeira do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A outra da região Norte da Argentina, capturada em um dos pólos de nidificação, antes de empreender sua viagem em direção à costa brasileira ao longo de sua rota de migração. A prevalência da infecção foi de 3,8% e a intensidade média de infecção de 7,2. A morfometria de machos e de fêmeas permitiu a identificação dos espécimes como E. uncinata.
Li, Qin-Fen; Sun, Li-Na; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Chen, Qing; He, Jian; Li, Shun-Peng; Zhang, Jun
A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, arsenite [As(III)]-resistant bacterium, designated strain YW8(T), was isolated from agricultural soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed over 97% sequence similarity to strains of the environmental species Xenophilus azovorans, Xenophilus aerolatus, Simplicispira metamorpha, Variovorax soli, and Xylophilus ampelinus. However, the phylogenetic tree indicated that strain YW8(T) formed a separate clade from Xenophilus azovorans. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain YW8(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbours were below 24.2-35.5%, which clearly separated the strain from these closely related species. The major cellular fatty acids of strain YW8(T) were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(18 : 1)ω7c, and summed feature 3(C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c). The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, an unknown polar lipid and phosphatidylserine. The major polyamines were 2-hydroxyputrescine and putrescine. On the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, phylogenetic position, DNA-DNA hybridization and chemotaxonomic data, strain YW8(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Xenophilus, for which the name Xenophilus arseniciresistens sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YW8(T) ( = CCTCC AB2012103(T) = KACC 16853(T)). © 2014 IUMS.
Devendra Kumar Biswal
Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena
Sandra Pardo C
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de endoparásitos del género Anisakidae en rubioSalminus affinis en el medio natural. Materiales y métodos. Por medio de diseccióne inspección de las vísceras y la cavidad abdominal fueron analizados 45 ejemplarescapturados en los ríos Sinú (n=34 y San Jorge (n=11 (Córdoba, Colombia.Resultados. Larvas terciarias (L3 de nemátodos del género Contracaecum(Nematoda: Anisakidae fueron halladas en la cavidad visceral de rubio capturadosen ambos ríos. La prevalencia de este nemátodo en los dos ríos estudiados fuemayor de 95%. El grado de infestación fue leve en 94.1% de los rubios del río Sinú yel restante 5.9% tuvieron una infestación moderada; mientras que el 100% de loscasos del río San Jorge tuvieron un grado de infestación leve. Conclusiones. Losresultados permiten concluir que el rubio de los ríos Sinú y San Jorge se encuentrancon un grado de infestación leve del anisákido Contracaecum sp; el cual se encuentraalojado en el tracto digestivo y grasa mesentérica en estado larval terciario (L3.
Elierson José Gomes da Rocha
Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatic capillariosis, caused by Capillaria hepatica (Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft, 1893, Travassos, 1915 (Nematoda, Trichinelloidea, Capillariidae, is a common zoonosis in rodents but is rare in humans. Seventy-two cases in humans have been reported worldwide since the first case was described by MACARTHUR in 192417,27. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Capillaria hepatica in humans and rodents in an urban area of Porto Velho, the capital of Rondônia, in Brazil. Methods: After conducting a census of the area, 490 residents were randomly selected, and, after signing a term of consent, provided blood samples that were screened for anti-Capillaria hepatica antibodies. Simultaneously, rats were captured to assess the prevalence of this parasite in rodents by histopathological examination in liver sections. Results: A prevalence of 1.8% was found among residents who had specific antibodies at a dilution of 1:150, indicating exposure to parasite eggs; 0.8% of the subjects also had positive titers at a dilution of 1:400, indicating true infection. The prevalence in rats was 2%. Conclusions: The prevalence of infection with this parasite among humans and rats was low. While the prevalence encountered among humans was within the limits reported in the literature, the prevalence among rodents was much lower.
Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Mayer, Georg
Onychophora (velvet worms) play a crucial role in current discussions on position of arthropods. The ongoing Articulata/Ecdysozoa debate is in need of additional ground pattern characters for Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Tardigrada, and Onychophora). Hence, Onychophora is an important outgroup taxon in resolving the relationships among arthropods, irrespective of whether morphological or molecular data are used. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from onychophorans. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an onychophoran, Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae), which shows several characteristic features. Specifically, the gene order is considerably different from that in other arthropods and other bilaterians. In addition, there is a lack of 9 tRNA genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. All these missing tRNAs have anticodon sequences corresponding to 4-fold degenerate codons, whereas the persisting 13 tRNAs all have anticodons pairing with 2-fold degenerate codons. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes provides a robust support for a clade consisting of Onychophora, Priapulida, and Arthropoda, which confirms the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. However, resolution of the internal ecdysozoan relationships suffers from a cluster of long-branching taxa (including Nematoda and Platyhelminthes) and a lack of data from Tardigrada and further nemathelminth taxa in addition to nematodes and priapulids.
Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming
Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. © 2016 The Author(s).
Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A
The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries . Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year . Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration . Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jex, Aaron R; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B
Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secementean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts.
Aaron R Jex
Full Text Available Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda, which parasitizes (at the adult stage the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secementean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida. The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts.
Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.
Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secernentean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts. PMID:18682828
Baltić Milan Ž.
Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.
Lü, Shi-Hai; Lu, Xin-Shi; Gao, Ji-Xi
To reveal the relationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors in the process of steppe desertification, field survey combined with laboratory analysis was made to study the community structure, population density and biodiversity of soil fauna, and their relationships with the changes of soil organic matter, hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus and moisture contents and soil pH at different stages of desertification of Hulunbeir steppe. The soil faunal specimens collected belonged to 4 phyla, 6 classes and 12 orders. Nematoda was the only dominant group of medium- and small-sized soil fauna, occupying 94.3% of the total, while Coleoptera and Hemiptera were the dominant groups of large-sized soil fauna, with the amount of 79.7%. The group amount, population density, diversity, and evenness of soil fauna had an obvious decreasing trend with the aggravation of steppe desertification. At serious stage of desertification, soil fauna vanished completely. The population density of soil fauna in 0-20 cm soil layer had significant linear correlations with soil nutrients and moisture contents, soil pH, and litter mass, indicating that soil fauna had stronger sensibility to the changes of soil environmental factors in the process of wind erosion desertification of Hulunbeir steppe.
Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena
De Donato, Carlo; Barca, Donatella; Milazzo, Concetta; Santoro, Raffaella; Giglio, Gianni; Tripepi, Sandro; Sperone, Emilio
Bioaccumulation of 13 trace elements in the livers of 38 Pelophylax sinkl. hispanicus (Ranidae) and its helminth communities were studied and compared among three sites, each with a different degree of pollution along River Neto (south Italy) during September, 2014. Trace element concentrations in water and liver were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For most elements, the highest concentration was recorded in the frogs inhabiting the third site, the one with the highest degree of pollution. The trend of trace element concentration in the liver can be represented as follows: Cu > Zn > Mn > Se > Cr. Concentrations of some elements in water and liver samples were significantly different among the three sites and this is evidenced by the bioaccumulation in the frogs. Four species of helminths, all belonging to Nematoda, were found: Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Cosmocerca ornata (Dujarden, 1845), Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917). The parasite survey presents an important difference of prevalence and average number of helminths in frogs between the three sites. Correlating parasitological and ecotoxicological data showed a strong positive correlation between prevalence and number of parasites with some trace elements such as Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, and Cd.
Panisse, Guillermo; Robles, María Del Rosario; Digiani, María Celina; Notarnicola, Juliana; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela Teresa
Taxonomic and ecological aspects of the helminths found in the assemblage of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae-Muroidea) of the Atlantic Forest in Argentina are studied in this paper. The following species Akodon montensis, Brucepattersonius sp. and Thaptomys nigrita (Tribe Akodontini), as well as, Euryoryzomys russatus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Sooretamys angouya (Tribe Oryzomyini) are analyzed. A complete taxonomic list with a total of 25 species of helminths, including Digenea (Dicrocoeliidae), Cestoda (Hymenolepididae) and Nematoda (Trichuridae, Capillariidae, Cooperidae, Helligmonellidae, Oxyuridae, and Onchocercidae) is provided. Twenty new host and locality records for Misiones, Argentina, are reported and the results of the ecological descriptors of component communities are given. The highest value of richness was observed for A. montensis (S=8) and E. russatus (S=7). The diversity index (H´) reached values between 1.03 and 1.39 in all rodents, with the exception of N. squamipes that reached 0.75. The equitability indeces with highest value were observed for T. nigrita and E. russatus. The Berger-Parker index of dominance was similar for all host species. The highest prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity values corresponded to Nippostrongylinae, followed by Syphacinii. This survey constitutes the report with the most diverse parasitic assemblage of rodents described for the Atlantic Forest ecoregion and for Argentina.
Koubková, B.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Matějusová, I.; Hodová, I.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 8, č. 5 (2006), s. 739-747 ISSN 1388-5545 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6093403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : DNA barcoding * Senegal * long-tailed thelastomatids Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2006
Laura Maria Farias dos Santos
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of helminthes parasitizing hares (Lepus europaeus in southern Brazil. The intestinal tracts of seven hares were opened and the contents were sieved. Among the seven animals in the study, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis parasitized six (85.7%. This study will be expanded and more animals captured to evaluate the occurrence of other helminthes and to assess whether the high prevalence of T. retortaeformis is accurate, as well as to assess the abundance and intensity of parasites. To our knowledge, this is the first record of T.retortaeformis parasitizing L. europaeus in southern Brazil.
A. A. Boyko
Full Text Available One of the most common nematodes of ruminants is Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856. Disease caused by these parasites brings economic losses to livestock operations. Therefore it is necessary to control their numbers. The eggs and three larval stages of S. papillosus live in the environment, while the fourth, fifth and mature individuals live in host organisms. Control of these parasites is necessary at all stages of development, including the free-living stage. An experiment on changes in the number strongiloids under the influence of environmental factors was carried out using aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. In the laboratory experiment we researched the effect on the survival of invasive and noninvasive types of S. papillosus larvae of 24 hours exposure at different doses to Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus, 1753, Artemisia annua Linnaeus, 1753, Echinacea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1753 Moench, 1794, Matricaria chamomilla Linnaeus, 1753, Tanacetum vulgare Linnaeus, 1753, Salvia sclarea Linnaeus, 1753, Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, 1824, Petroselinum crispum (Miller, 1768 Nyman ex A.W. Hill, 1925. The death of 50% of S. papillosus invasive larvae was registered at 464 ± 192 mg/l concentration of aqueous extract of S. sclarea inflorescences. The greatest effect up-on the non-invasive larvae was caused by aqueous extracts of inflorescences of S. sclarea, M. chamomilla and seeds of P. crispum: at concentrations of 327 ± 186, 384 ± 155 and 935 ± 218 mg/l, respectively, 50% of non-invasive larvae died. According to the results of the research, we suggest further study of the nematocidal activity of combinations, contained in the aboveground parts, of clary sage (S. sclarea, camomile (M. chamomilla and seeds of parsley (P. crispum, and also experimental usage of these species in the fodder compound for cattle, sheep, goats and pigs on experimental farms.
Full Text Available Three new species of the order Monhysterida are described based on specimens obtained at depths of 8081 and 9177 m in the Kermadec Trench. Thelonema clarki sp. nov. is characterised by a large body size (3230–4461 µm, short cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, and long conico-cylindrical tail. This is the first record of the genus since its original description over two decades ago from the Peru Basin. Metasphaerolaimus constrictus sp. nov. is characterised by a relatively long body (1232–1623 µm, slightly arcuate spicules without gubernaculum, and conico-cylindrical tail with inner cuticle conspicuously thickened immediately anterior to cylindrical portion. Monhystrella kermadecensis sp. nov. is characterised by a circle of papillose outer labial sensillae slightly anterior to the four short cephalic setae, gubernaculum with caudal apophyses, the presence of distinct cuticularised piece along anterior vaginal wall, and a relatively short conical (males or conico-cylindrical tail (females with conical, ventrally-curved spinneret. M. kermadecensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of the genus, and, indeed, the entire family, based on the variable position of the anterior gonad relative to the intestine. The new species is classified within the Monhysteridae, and not the closely-related Xyalidae, based on the small body size, a smooth cuticle, and the presence of six outer labial papillae and only one testis. Further work is required to clarify the placement of M. kermadecensis sp. nov. relative to other monhysterid genera. A tabular key to all ten valid Metasphaerolaimus species is presented.
Roč. 77, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-27 ISSN 0165-5752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Rhabdias * Lacerta * Slovakia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2010
Thaenkham, Urusa; Pakdee, Wallop; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapol; Komalamisra, Chalit
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of angiostrongyliasis, which is widely distributed throughout the world. It can specifically infect many species of intermediate and definitive hosts. This study examined the genetic differentiation and population structure using the RAPD-PCR method of parasites obtained from 8 different geographical areas of Thailand. Based on 8 primers, high levels of genetic diversity and low levels of gene flow among populations were found. Using genetic distance and neighbor-joining dendrogram methods, A. cantonensis in Thailand could be divided into two groups with statistically significant genetic differentiation of the two populations. However, genotypic variations and haplotype relationships need to be further elucidated using other markers.
Hung, G C; Jacobs, D E; Krecek, R C; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B
Genomic DNA was isolated from adult Strongylus asini collected from zebra. The second ribosomal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. The DNA sequence was compared with previously published data for 3 related Strongylus species. A PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism method allowed the 4 species to be differentiated unequivocally. The ITS-2 sequence of S. asini was found to be more similar to those of S. edentatus (87.1%) and S. equinus (95.3%) than to that of S vulgaris (73.9%). This result confirms that S. Asini and S vulgaris represent separate species and supports the retention of the 4 species within 1 genus.
Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose
Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded.
Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.
Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.
Čermák, V.; Háněl, Ladislav; Gaar, V.; Douda, O.
Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 181-186 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nematode * parthenogenesis * amphimixis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2012
Leptosomatum bacillatum, a marine nematode that occurs in high densities in the sponge Halichondria panicea, has an annual reproductive cycle at Dutch latitudes. During the period that the population has been studied, the smallest juveniles were present from July to September. Females continue
Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study the effect of P. penetrans and soil solarization on the population of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. and the effect of soil solarization on the infectivity of P. penetrans. The research was done in the field with high population of plant parasitic nematode especially root-knot nematodes. Soil solarization was done in dry season by covering the soil before french beans (buncis were planted with transparent plastic and P. penetrans were inoculated before soil solarization. Factorial design in Completely Randomized Design was used in this experiment with the following factors: 1 soil solarization (within 1, 2, and 3 moths; 2 isolates of P. penetrans (i.e. isolate 2 and 3. The research results were: 1 Isolate 2 and 3 of P. penetrans were able to parasitize root-knot nematodes in soil solarized within 1, 2, and 3 months; 2 the length of soil solarization afected the infectivity of P. penetrans on Meloidogyne spp. The percentages of Meloidogyne spp. infected with isolate 2 of P. penetrans in soil solarization within 1, 2, and 3 months were 40.3%; 25.7%, and 10.1%, respectively, whereas in soil inoculated with isolate 3 of P. penetrans were: 37.3%, 10.2%, and 2.2%, respectively; 3 inoculation of P. penetrans reduced the root damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.; and 4 treatment of P. penetrans combined with soil solarization reduced the root damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Key words: Pasteuria penetrans, soil solarization, root-knot nematode
Said, Yousra; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Dhibi, Moktar; Lahmar, Samia
In Tunisia and other North African countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. Thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of Tunisian wild ruminants. A total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (Addax, Barbary sheep, Barbary red deer, Dorcas gazelle, Slender-horned gazelle and Scimitar-horned Oryx) living in protected areas. Samples were examined with floatation (saturated sodium chloride solution), polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of only Nematodirus genus or molecular tools allowed a first identification of five gastrointestinal nematode species in North African wild ruminants: Chabertia ovina (1.6%), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (1.6%), Marshallagia marshalli (4.7%), Nematodirus helvetianus (62.5%) and Nematodirus spathiger (29.7%). This study reported the first records of C. mentulatus and M. marshalli in Addax and of M. marshalli in Dorcas gazelle and it was the first reported record of N. helvetianus and M. marshalli in Tunisia.
González, Cynthya E; Sanabria, Eduardo A; Quiroga, Lorena B
Here, we describe a new kathlaniid nematode, Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov., from the large intestine of Odontophrynus cf. barrioi (Anura: Cycloramphidae), from San Juan Province, Argentina. The new species belongs to the Falcaustra group that possesses a pseudosucker. It resembles F. andrias in the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (six precloacal, four adcloacal, 12 postcloacal, one unpaired median anterior to the cloaca) but differs from F. andrias in the following characters: the longer size of males and females (11.17-13.45 mm and 10.1-15.5 mm, respectively); the longer size and form of the gubernaculum (0.17-0.23 mm, triangular form); the arrangement of postcloacal papillae (three pairs on the ventral side, two pairs on the lateral side, one pair on the subventral side) and unpaired papilla anterior to the cloaca located on the protuberance. The species description is based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Falcaustra sanjuanensis sp. nov. represents the 12th Neotropical species assigned to the genus. Also, we added a key to Neotropical species of Falcaustra.
Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.
Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E
Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823). Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. i...
Newton, L A; Chilton, N B; Beveridge, I; Gasser, R B
Genetic differences among Nematodirus spathiger, Nematodirus filicollis, Nematodirus helvetianus and Nematodirus battus in the nucleotide sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA ranged from 3.9 to 24.7%. Pairwise comparisons of their ITS-2 sequences indicated that the most genetically similar species were N. spathiger and N. helvetianus. N. battus was the most genetically distinct species, with differences ranging from 22.8 to 24.7% with respect to the other three species. Some of the nucleotide differences among species provided different endonuclease restriction sites that could be used in restriction fragment length polymorphism studies. The ITS-2 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics of molineid nematodes.
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n3p117 This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/ host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.
Mráček, Zdeněk; Půža, Vladimír; Nermuť, Jiří
Roč. 3760, č. 3 (2014), s. 336-350 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : new species * affine/intermedium group * ITS Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014
Riera, Rodrigo; Núñez, Jorge; Brito, María del Carmen
In an ecological study of meiofaunal assemblages in two locations (Los Abrigos and Los Cristianos) of Tenerife (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean), several desmodorid species were found throughout the study period. Three species belonging to the family Desmodoridae were collected in intertidal and shallow subtidal sandy seabeds. These species were Desmodorella aff. tenuispiculum Allgen, 1928, Metachromadora sp. and Spirinia parasitifera Bastian, 1865. Descriptions, figures and tables with mer...
Full Text Available Abstract Species of Hystrichis are parasite nematodes of the digestive tract of aquatic birds in South America, Europe and Asia. In Brazil, Hystrichis acanthocephalicus has been reported in Phimosus infuscatus. There are few data on the morphometry of this species and there are no reports on pathological conditions that it causes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report morphometric data from H. acanthocephalicus and describe the pathological effects of this parasite on the Phimosus infuscatus proventriculus. Thirty gastrointestinal tracts of P. infuscatus were examined to search for nematodes and H. acanthocephalicus occurred in 83% of hosts. Were measured the total length and body width of males and females, and of their respective cuticular spines, esophagus, spicules and eggs, and the internal and external diameter of copulatory bursa. Histopathological examination revealed parasitic structures in the proventriculus from the lumen (anterior end to the outer layers of the organ (intermediate and posterior parts, in which we observed inflammatory reaction with infiltration of heterophils, hemorrhage and hemosiderin. The results of this study of histopathology, morphometry and parasitological indices are the first ones reported to H. acanthocephalicus and should contribute to the identification and recognition in cases of outbreaks in the Neotropical region.
Syrota Ya. Yu.
Full Text Available Five specimens of a parasitic nematode Dicheilonema ciconiae (Schrank, 1788 were collected from black stork, Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, in Kyiv Zoological Park. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by morphological examination of the specimens collected. The ornamentation of the body cuticle in caudal region of males (area rugosa is first described in D. ciconiae.
I GEDE SWIBAWA
Full Text Available The Community of Nematode in The Young Coffee ( Coffea Canephora Var. Robusta Crops in Tanggamus District, Lampung. Tanggamus district is one of coffee production center in Lampung province. Since year of 2013, farmers in Tanggamus have been replaced the unproductive old coffee by coffee seed introduced from East Java. Introducing coffe seed from outside area at risk of carrying plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this research was to study community of nematode associated with young coffee crops in Tanggamus. Survey was conducted in coffee robusta (Coffea canephora var. robusta fields belonging to farmer on September 2014. Soil samples were collected from three sites: Margo Mulyo, Sumber Rejo and Batu Bedil. Nematodes were extracted by sieving and centrifugation with sugar solution method. The results show that were 20 genera consisted of 9 genera of plant parasitic and 11 genera of free living nematodes associated with young coffee in Tanggamus. The nematode community was dominated by Pratylenchus and Radopholus. The population of Pratylenchus and Radopholus in Sumber Rejo site were 421 and 846 individual per 300 ml of soil respectively. It was needed to indentify up to species taxonomic level for Pratylenchus and Radopholus associated with young coffee in Tanggamus.
Moravec, František; Červinka, S.
Roč. 67, 1/2 (2005), s. 105-109 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometroides * Cyprinus * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2005
Smales, L R; Harris, P D; Behnke, J M
The spirurid nematode Protospirura muricola Gedoelst, 1916 is redescribed from Acomys dimidiatus (Desmarest) from the St Katherine Protectorate, Sinai, Egypt. Egyptian material closely resembled specimens of P. muricola from African mammals re-examined in this study, as well as conforming to published reports of this species. P. muricola with two denticles on each lateral lobe of the pseudolabia and six pairs of postanal papillae is closest to P. pseudomuris Yokohata & Abe, 1989, but can be readily distinguished in having the right spicule shorter than the left. The significance of the characteristics of the head and mouth, and of the male spicules, in characterising Protospirura Seurat, 1914 is evaluated. P. muricola, an African parasite of rodents, appears to have spread globally with synanthropic rat final hosts and possibly with the cosmopolitan dermapteran intermediate host Leucophaea maderae (Fabr.).
Nermuť, Jiří; Mráček, Zdeněk
Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), s. 141-148 ISSN 0869-6918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Steinernema feltiae * Steinernema arenarium * Steinernema kraussei Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010
Moravec, František; Jirků, Miloslav
Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 226-233 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * new species * redescription * Synodontis * Parachanna * Teleostei * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2015
Nematodes from the caecum and colon of Pogonomys (Muridae: Anisomyini) from Papua New Guinea with the descriptions of a new genus of Oxyuridae (Nematoda: Oxyurida) and a new species of Trichuridae (Nematoda: Enoplida).
Smales, L R
Nematodes, comprising 2 species, a new genus from the family Syphaciidae and a new species from the family Trichuridae were collected from the lower digestive tracts of 4 species of Pogonomys; P. championi, Flannery (12 individuals), P. loriae, Thomas (14 individuals), P. macrourus, (Milne Edwards) (19 individuals) and P. sylvestris, Thomas (27 individuals) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Pogonomicola rugala n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Sypaciidae in having cervical alae with numerous folds and a single weakly defined mamelon. Trichuris germani n. sp. differs from all congeners, including the cosmopolitan T. muris, the only other trichurid reported from the region, by the lengths of the spicules and vagina, the ratio of anterior to posterior body length and the number of convolutions of the testis. The genus Pogonomys, with four species from four nematode families had a relatively rich helminth fauna in the lower digestive tract compared to other ansomyins studied. The Oxyuridae, with three genera comprising 5 species was the dominant group found in the lower digestive tract of the Anisomyini, indicating the possibility that the isolation of the old endemic rodents in New Guinea has been associated with a period of coevolution between anisomyin hosts and their syphaciine parasites.
O regime hidrológico do rio Ivinhema (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e sua influência na assembléia zoobentônica=Hydrologic regime of the Ivinhema river (Mato Grosso do Sul, State and its influence on zoobenthic assemblage
José Antonio Arenas-Ibarra
Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em diferentes ambientes da várzea do rio Ivinhema com o intuito de analisar a variação espacial e temporal da assembléia de invertebrados bentônicos, bem como sua relação com as variáveis físicas e químicas e o nível hidrométrico. Foram estudados quatro ambientes, o canal principal do rio, o canal Ipoitã, a lagoa Ventura (sem comunicação e a lagoa dos Patos (com comunicação. As coletas foram realizadas trimestralmente de fevereiro a novembro de 2002. O sistema rio Ivinhema foi caracterizado por um regime de potamofase bimodal com intensidades moderadas e grandes amplitudes, permanecendo em potamofase 184 dias em 2001 e 67 dias em 2002. Foram observadas as variações espacial e temporal, quanto às variáveis físicas e químicas, sumarizadas em uma PCA. Dos 37 táxons registrados, Nematoda, Corbiculidae, Oligochaeta, Acari, Ostracoda e Chironomidae foram os mais abundantes, sendo as larvas de Chironomidae o táxon predominante no canal Ipoitã e na lagoa Ventura. Entretanto, a análise da estrutura da assembléia (CA demonstrou que a assembléia bentônica do rio Ivinhema é dissimilar a das lagoas. A relação entre PCA e CA não foi significativa, indicando que no sistema Ivinhema há uma estrutura complexa e que a uniformidade espacial da densidade e temporal da assembléia bentônica deve-se à maior conectividade entre os ambientes.This study was developed in different environments of the Ivinhema river floodplain in order to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of benthic assemblages and their relationship with physical and chemical variables and water level. Samples were taken quarterly between February and November 2002 in four environments: Ivinhema main channel, Ipoitã channel, Patos lake (with direct connectivity and Ventura lake (without connectivity. The system was characterized by a bimodal potamophase cycle with moderate intensities and large amplitudes, remaining in potamophase for
Full Text Available Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most economically important plant parasitic-nematodes (PPNs. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt DNA genome sequence of this plant pathogen. Compared with other PPNs genera, this genome (19,589 bp is only slightly smaller than that of Pratylenchus vulnus (21,656 bp. The nucleotide composition of the whole mtDNA sequence of M. graminicola is significantly biased toward A and T, with T being the most favored nucleotide and C being the least favored. The A+T content of the entire genome is 83.51%. The mt genome of M. graminicola contains 36 genes (lacking atp8 that are transcribed in the same direction. The gene arrangement of the mt genome of M. graminicola is unique. A total of 21 out of 22 tRNAs possess a DHU loop only, while tRNASer(AGN lacks a DHU loop. The two large noncoding regions (2,031 bp and 5,063 bp are disrupted by tRNASer(UCN. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes support the monophylies of the three orders Rhabditida, Mermithida and Trichinellida, the suborder Rhabditina and the three infraorders Spiruromorpha, Oxyuridomorpha and Ascaridomorpha, but do not support the monophylies of the two suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the three infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. The four Tylenchomorpha species including M. graminicola, P. vulnus, H. glycines and R. similis from the superfamily Tylenchoidea are placed within a well-supported monophyletic clade, but far from the other two Tylenchomorpha species B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus of Aphelenchoidea. In the clade of Tylenchoidea, M. graminicola is sister to P. vulnus, and H. glycines is sister to R. similis, which suggests root-knot nematodes has a closer relationship to Pratylenchidae nematodes than to cyst nematodes.
Moravec, František; Van As, L. L.
Roč. 62, JUL 22 2015 (2015), s. 039 ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : helminth parasites, * taxonomy * new species, * Cucullanus * Cithariniella * Synodontisia * Galeiceps * freshwater fish * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015
Sandra M. Sánchez
Full Text Available We discovered the nematode parasite, Cosmocerca parva, in C. fraterdanieli; this is the first record of this nematode species inColombia and C. fraterdanieli is a novel host of C. parva.
Valadas, V.; Mráček, Zdeněk; Oliveira, S.; Mota, M.
Roč. 39, č. 2 (2011), s. 169-178 ISSN 0391-9749 Grant - others:Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (PT) SFHR/BD/22086/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Steinernema intermedium * S. kraussei * Steinernema sp.
Steel, H.; Moens, T.; Scholaert, A.; Boshoff, M.; Houthoofd, W.; Bert, W.
Mononchoides composticola n. sp. was isolated from compost and is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy, supplemented with SSU rDNA sequence data. It is characterised by the following features: a denticulate ridge in addition to the dorsal claw-like tooth, a small tooth-like
Půža, Vladimír; Chundelová, Daniela; Nermuť, Jiří; Žurovcová, Martina; Mráček, Zdeněk
Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 547-554 ISSN 1386-6141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2352 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Steinernema * genetic diversity * intra-individual variability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10526-015-9664-5
Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.
A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074
Vieira, Vivian Suane de Freitas; Vieira, Fabiano Matos; Luque, José Luis
This paper describes the morphology of Cucullanus pinnai pinnai parasitizing Pimelodus maculatus in the Guandu River, Brazil, based on differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), providing new morphological data about this species of parasite. Nematodes were collected between May and October 2012 from specimens of Pimelodus maculatus in the Guandu River (22°48'2"S, 43°37'35"W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Some characteristics of specimens of Cucullanus in this study fall within the range of morphological variations of previously studied C. pinnai pinnai. Most of the specimens studied here had excretory pore and deirids located at the posterior end of the oesophagus, a feature not recorded in previous studies of this species. In addition, the size of the gubernaculum was larger than the other specimens previously studied. The SEM and DIC analyses of C. pinnai revealed several morphological details of the cephalic region and the tail papillae. With regard to the polymorphism of C. pinnai, morphological and genetic studies of this cucullanid nematode are needed, involving large numbers of host species and a wide geographical distribution.
Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mekete, T.; Mráček, Zdeněk
Roč. 4179, č. 3 (2016), s. 530-546 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Phasmarhabditis * Pellioditis * ITS rDNA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016
Hong, Jung-Ho; Lee, Wonchoel
Two new species of the family Enchelidiidae Filipjev, 1918 were collected from marine sediments near Maemul Island in South Korea: a new species of Abelbolla Huang & Zhang, 2004 and a new species of Ledovitia Filipjev, 1927. Abelbolla maemulensis sp. nov. is characterized by its small size (1,493 × 38 µm, body length × maximum body diameter); the presence of a circular amphid; the gubernacular apophysis with swollen distal tip; and the complex structure of the gubernaculum. It is close to Abelbolla huanghaiensis Huang & Zhang, 2004, but differs by the structure of gubernacular apophysis and body length (1,493 vs 2,303 µm). Ledovitia brevis sp. nov. can be separated from its congeners by its small size of body, the length of gubernacular apophysis, and the length of the spicules. It is close to Ledovitia pharetrata Wieser, 1953a, but differs by the length of the body (1,699 vs 2,640 µm) and the spicules (40 vs 100 µm).
Wang, Bu-Yong; Wen, Rong-Rong; Ma, Ling
Aphelenchoides besseyi, the nematode agent of rice tip white disease, causes huge economic losses in almost all the rice-growing regions of the world. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), an esophageal glands secretion protein, plays important roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs). Therefore, GPx is a promising target for control A. besseyi. Here, the full-length sequence of the GPx gene from A. besseyi (AbGPx1) was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full-length 944 bp AbGPx1 sequence, which contains a 678 bp open reading frame, encodes a 225 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AbGPxl shares highly homologous with other nematode GPxs, and showed the closest evolutionary relationship with DrGPx. In situ hybridization showed that AbGPx1 was constitutively expressed in the esophageal glands of A. besseyi, suggesting its potential roles in parasitism and reproduction. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to assess the functions of the AbGPx1 gene, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to monitor the RNAi effects. After treatment with dsRNA for 12 h, AbGPx1 expression levels and reproduction in the nematodes decreased compared with the same parameters in the control group; thus, the AbGPx1 gene is likely to be associated with the development, reproduction, and infection ability of A. besseyi. These findings may open new avenues towards nematode control.
Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.
Roč. 21, MAY 19 2014 (2014), s. 21 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Philometra * Marine fish * Alepes * Epinephelus * Selar * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2014
Josaine Cristina da Silva Rappeti
Full Text Available Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic nematode that parasites the kidneys of wild and domestic carnivores, and it has been reported frequently in Brazil. The aim here was to register the number of cases of dogs and cats diagnosed with dioctophymosis by necropsy (1981 to 2014 and ultrasound examination (2010 to 2015 in Pelotas-RS. In this context, a survey was conducted on dioctophymosis cases diagnosed at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV and Veterinary Clinical Hospital (HCV of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, and at a specialist veterinary imaging diagnostics clinic. In total, 95 cases were registered. The high series of the disease in dogs can be related to the presence of a large number of stray and semi-domestic dogs in the city, and also due to the ingestion of intermediate hosts of D. renale parasitized with the infective larvae. Thus, it can be concluded that Pelotas is a city with favorable conditions for the occurrence of dioctophymosis with high rate of disease in recent years.
Luis A. Gómez-Puerta
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe al nematodo Synhimantus (Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Chabaud, 1975 parasitando el proventrículo de dos polluelos de Pavo real (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 en cautiverio provenientes de Lima, Perú.
Full Text Available White rice stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata is a destructive insect pest which is difficult to control with various tactics. The possibility of the use of non-endemic natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernema and Heterorhabditis has been investigated in green house trials. Test of 12 isolates and species of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis originated from local and exotic sources revealed that H. indicus INA H4 was the most efficacious nematode by causing 74% larval and pupal mortality within rice stems. Reduction in plant damage due to nematode application could not be demonstrated as the experiment was limited to potted plants. Subsequent test using H. indicus INA H4 showed that increasing nematode concentration from 0.5 to 2.0x10^4 IJs/ml did not significantly affect insect mortality. The survival ability of H. indicus INA H4 infective juveniles on rice plant was less than 96 hours. Improvement of nematode application strategies including repeated spray, addition of antidesiccant, increasing spray volume and application at plant damage threshold or plant critical stage are therefore necessary to increase nematode effectiveness and simultaneously to reduce plant damage in field.
Chaerani, Chaerani; Nurbaeti, Bebet
White rice stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata) is a destructive insect pest which is difficult to control with various tactics. The possibility of the use of non-endemic natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) has been investigated in green house trials. Test of 12 isolates and species of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis originated from local and exotic sources revealed that H. indicus INA H4 was the most efficacious nematode by causing 74...
Gasser, R B; Rossi, L; Zhu, X
The sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA was determined for four species of Nematodirus (Nematodirus rupicaprae, Nematodirus oiratianus, Nematodirus davtiani alpinus and Nematodirus europaeus) from roe deer or alpine chamois. The second internal transcribed spacer of the four species varied in length from 228 to 236 bp, and the G + C contents ranged from 41 to 44%. While no intraspecific sequence variation was detected among multiple samples representing three of the taxa, sequence differences of 5.9-9.7% were detected among the four species, Nematodirus davtiani alpinus and N. rupicaprae were genetically most similar (94.1%), followed by N. oiratianus, N. europaeus and N. rupicaprae (91.1-91.5%), whereas N. oiratianus was genetically most different from N. davtiani alpinus. The interspecific sequence differences were exploited for the delineation of the four species by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (using two enzymes) and single-strand conformation polymorphism. The results have implications for diagnosis, epidemiology and for studying the systematics of the Nematodirinae.
Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian
The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.
Oviedo,Mirna C; Ramallo,Geraldine; Claps,Lucía E
Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823). Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.
Gómez-Puerta, Luis A.; Enciso, Marco A.; Rojas, Gianmarco
The nematode Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Chabaud, 1975 parasiting the proventriculus of two chicks of Common Peafowl (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity from Lima, Peru is described. En el presente trabajo se describe al nematodo Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Chabaud, 1975 parasitando el proventrículo de dos polluelos de Pavo real (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758) en cautiverio provenientes de Lima, Perú.
The research results showed: 1 continuously flooding inhibit the penetration and population development of M. graminicola on rice IR 64, but the life cycle of M. graminicola was not affected; and 2 seventy two hours period of draining enhanced the development of M. graminicola compared to period of draining shorter than 72 hours.
Fabio Ribeiro Braga
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the action of the crude extract of Duddingtonia flagrans (isolates AC001 and CG722 on infective larvae (L3 of cyathostomins in coprocultures and to confirm its proteolytic activity by means of a zymogram. The following groups were formed in coprocultures: Group 1: 10 mL of crude extract of D. flagrans (AC001; group 2: 10 mL of crude extract of AC001 with 10 mM of Ca2+; group 3: 10 mL of crude extract of D. flagrans (CG722; group 4: 10 mL of crude extract of CG722 with 10 mM of Ca2+; and group 5: control group (distilled water. The third-stage larvae (L3 were obtained after eight days. The crude extract of D. flagrans was effective in reducing the number of L3, with the following percentage reductions: group 1, 49.5%; group 2, 52.5%; group 3, 36.8%; and group 4, 57.7%; in relation to the control group (p > 0.05. The proteolytic activity of the crude extract was confirmed through the zymogram. The results from this study confirmed that the crude extract of the fungusD. flagrans could be used for controlling cyathostomin L3, and suggested that at least one protease of approximately 38 kDa was present.
Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.
Hudson Alves Pinto
Full Text Available Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.
Berón-Vera, B.; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Raga Esteve, Juan Antonio; Pedraza, S. N.
Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were...
Berón-Vera, B; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Pedraza, S N
Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were concentrated in the small intestine. Transmammary transmission is assumed because only adult hookworms were found in the pups. The mean intensity of hookworms per pup was 135; the mean intensity in females (92.78) was significantly different (P 0.05) in intensity was found between the 2 breeding areas, although prevalence was higher in the traditional breeding area than in the other area. Location was the only factor affecting hookworm prevalence (P log-linear model: 0.9552; chi2: 1.5629). No apparent trend between body condition and intensity of hookworms was observed.
Roberta Lima Caldeira
Full Text Available Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens, Subulina octona (157, Achatina fulica (45 and Bradybaena similaris (23. Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.
Thi Anh Duong Nguyen
Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Sectonema from natural habitats of northern Vietnam are studied. This paper includes their descriptions, measurements, line illustrations, and light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM pictures. Sectonema tropicum sp. nov. is characterized by a 2.56–3.24 mm long body, 19–21 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 20–21 μm long at its ventral side, 730–834 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 52–59% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 150–242 μm long or 1.2–2.5 times the body diameter, pars refringens vaginae present, V = 48–52, short (31–40 μm, c = 70–91, c’ = 0.5–0.6 and rounded tail, 91–97 μm long spicules, and only one weakly developed ventromedian supplement. Sectonema vietnamense sp. nov. is characterized by its slender (a = 33–49 and 2.71–4.25 mm long body, 14–16 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 8–9 μm long at its ventral side, 716–918 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 63–67% of total neck length, uterus simple and 209–242 μm long or 2.5–2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae absent, V = 54, short (34–39 μm, c = 70–115, c’ = 0.6–0.8 and rounded tail, 59–75 μm long spicules, and three or four irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Both species are also characterized by their nearly continuous lip region, an atypical feature in this genus. Molecular analysis of S. tropicum sp. nov. confirms that Sectonema is a natural (monophyletic taxon, very close to Metaporcelaimus.
Haarder, Simon; Kania, Per Walter; Holm, Thomas
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in developed countries is linked with elevated hygienic standards. One of the several factors involved in this question may be reduced exposure to the immunomodulatory effects of parasitic helminths. Several investigations on treatment of mice and humans with helm...
Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R; Bhutia, Pasang T
Rhabdias himalayanus n. sp. from the lungs of Duttaphrynus himalayanus and Rhabdias dehradunensis n. sp. from the lungs of Nanorana minica from Dehradun, India are described and figured. Of the 3 previously described Indian species, Rhabdias himalayanus n. sp. is most similar to Rhabdias shortii in having a cylindrical corpus, inflated cuticle, and conical tail; it differs from R. shortii in having greater body measurements, longer esophagus, larger eggs, and a different pattern of cuticle inflation at the vulva and tail region. Rhabdias dehradunensis n. sp. is most similar to Rhabdias bulbicauda in that both possess a swollen posterior end; it differs from R. bulbicauda by having a subterminal anus, a prominent tail, and a postequatorial vulva.
I Gede Swibawa
Full Text Available The soil nematode diversity in several land-use types in Way Kanan ASB-Benchmark Area. The conversion of forest to intensive agroecosystem such as monoculture system reduces biodiversity of the plant, herbivore, and decomposer subsystems. Those changes affected the litter and plant root quality. Consequently, few soil nematode species could be dominant and cause of disturbance of the stability of the below ground community. The increasing populations of plant parasitic nematodes usually occur on monoculture system . The research was conducted to study the effect of forest changes in several land use types on soil nematode diversity in Way Kanan Benchmark Area. Soil sampling on five land use types (secondary forest, agroforest or tree based agriculture, plantation, cassava field, and Imperata grass land was conducted in November1996 and December 1997. Nematodes were extracted by decantation-centrifugation with sugar method. The soil nematodes were grouped into order and generic level including plant parasitic and non- parasitic. The results show that the order of Rhabditida, Dorylaimida, and Tylenchida were found from those five land-use types. The total genera of plant parasitic nematodes in Imperata grass land were the highest among the other four land use types. The total number of non-plant parasitic nematodes in secondary forest (28.0 individual per 300 cc of soil was higher than total number in the plantation ( 2.6 individual per 300 cc of soil, cassava field (4.0 individual per 300 cc of soil or Imperata grass land (6.6 individual per 300 cc of soil. The total number of plant parasitic nematodes in Imperata grass land (59.8 individual per 300 cc of soil, agroforest (59.0 individual per 300 cc of soil, secondary forest (48.2 individual per 300 cc of soil, and plantation (17.6 individual per 300 cc of soil were not significantly different, but total number in Imperata grass land and agroforest were significantly higher than that in cassava field (11,6 individual per 300 cc of soil.
Moravec, František; Nagasawa, K.
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2002), s. 193-198 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : nematodes * parasite of fish * Japan Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2002
Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.
Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp. is described from Costa Rica where it produces lesions in the abdominal cavity of man. It can be distinguished from other species of the genus on the basis of its size, the length of the spicules, the position of the vulva and the morphology and position of the bursal rays. The parasite localizes in the small mesenteric arteries, especially in the ileocecal region, where it produces arteritis and thrombosis. Eggs in various stages of embryonation were found scattered in the tissues of the intestinal wall and regional lymph nodes, eliciting a granulomatous inflammatory reaction with in. tense eosinophilic infiltrationLos autores hacen la descripción de Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp., un nuevo metastrongilideo encontrado en Costa Rica, que produce lesiones en el hombre. Esta nueva especie se puede distinguir de las otras Catorce descritas hasta ahora, en base a su tamaño, la longitud de las espículas, la posición de la vulva y la morfología y disposición de los rayos bursales. A. costaricensis es la segunda especie del género de importancia en parasitología humana. La otra especie patógena para el hombre, A. cantonensis, es responsable de una forma de meningoencefalitis eosinofílica. Los parásitos adultos, machos y hembras, se localizan en las arterias del mesenterio y de la pared intestinal, especialmente de la región ileocecal en donde provocan fenómenos inflamatorios y trombóticos que llevan a grados diversos de necrosis. La presencia de huevos en varios estados de embrionación, en el tejido de la pared intestinal y de los ganglios linfáticos regionales, produce una reacción inflamatoria granulomatosa con intensa infiltración eosinofilica. La pared intestinal se presenta engrosada, llegándose a producir cuadros de suboclusión u oclusión que obligan a intervenciones quirúrgicas de emergencia. La presencia 4e huevos en los tejidos humanos sugiere una mejor adaptación de A. costaricensis en el hombre, en comparación con A. cantonensis, que no llega a alcanzar el estado adulto en los tejidos encefálicos humanos. Sin embargo en los casos en que hemos encontrado larvas completamente formadas, ellas siempre están encerradas en la cáscara del huevo, lo que sugiere la imposibilidad de que las mismas lleguen a la luz intestinal y regresen al suelo para completar su ciclo de vida
Tchesunov, Alexei V.
Morphological descriptions of seven free-living nematode species from hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are presented. Four of them are new for science: Paracanthonchus olgae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Cyatholaimidae), Prochromadora helenae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Chromadoridae), Prochaetosoma ventriverruca sp. n. (Desmodorida, Draconematidae) and Leptolaimus hydrothermalis sp. n. (Plectida, Leptolaimidae). Two species have been previously recorded in hydrothermal habitats, and one species is recorded for the first time in such an environment. Oncholaimus scanicus (Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) was formerly known from only the type locality in non-hydrothermal shallow milieu of the Norway Sea. O. scanicus is a very abundant species in Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Lost City hydrothermal sites, and population of the last locality differs from other two in some morphometric characteristics. Desmodora marci (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) was previously known from other remote deep-sea hydrothermal localities in south-western and north-eastern Pacific. Halomonhystera vandoverae (Monhysterida, Monhysteridae) was described and repeatedly found in mass in Snake Pit hydrothermal site. The whole hydrothermal nematode assemblages are featured by low diversity in comparison with either shelf or deep-sea non-hydrothermal communities. The nematode species list of the Atlantic hydrothermal vents consists of representatives of common shallow-water genera; the new species are also related to some shelf species. On the average, the hydrothermal species differ from those of slope and abyssal plains of comparable depths by larger sizes, diversity of buccal structures, presence of food content in the gut and ripe eggs in uteri.
Moravec, František; Jirků, Miloslav; Charo-Karisa, H.; Mašová, Š.
Roč. 105, č. 4 (2009), s. 1047-1052 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA AV ČR KJB600960813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Mexiconema * Auchenoglanis * Kenya Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009
Moravec, František; Jirků, Miloslav
Roč. 61, č. 2 (2014), s. 157-172 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * Globochona * freshwater fish * Barbus * Epiplatys * Marcusenius * Phenacogrammus * Raiamas * Congo River basin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014
Seasonal abundance of equine strongyles (Nematoda: Strongylidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abundância sazonal de estrongilídeos de eqüinos (Nematoda: Strongylidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Full Text Available The seasonal abundance of lumenal and larval forms of equine strongyles in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was evaluated. Thirty horses referred to the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro were necropsied and their gastrointestinal tracts were separated into stomach, small intestine, cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon and rectum. Two aliquots of 5% of the content were collected and examined for the presence of small strongyles and the rest of the content was examined for the presence of large strongyles. The mesenteric artery, liver, pancreas and peritoneum were examined for the presence of strongyle larvae. The mucosa of intestine segments was cut into parts of equal length, and each one was examined by the mural transillumination technique. Higher abundances of larvae of Strongylus equinus (PEstudou-se a ocorrência sazonal de formas larvares e adultas de estrongilídeos nas mucosas do estômago, intestino delgado, ceco, colon ventral, colon dorsal e reto de 30 eqüídeos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os grandes estrongilídeos foram encontrados em todas as mucosas e duas alíquotas de 5% do conteúdo foram retiradas para a procura de pequenos estrongilídeos. Artéria mesentérica, fígado, pâncreas e peritônio foram também examinados para larvas de estrongilídeos. As mucosas foram examinadas pela técnica de transiluminação. Larvas de Strongylus equinus (P<0,10 e adultos de Strongylus vulgaris (P<0,05 foram mais abundantes na estação seca. Larvas escistadas de ciatostomíneos o foram na estação chuvosa (P<0,02.
Proteolytic action of the crude extract of Duddingtonia flagrans on cyathostomins (Nematoda: Cyathostominae in coprocultures Ação proteolítica do extrato bruto de Duddingtonia flagrans sobre ciatostomíneos (Nematoda: Cyathostominae em coproculturas
Fabio Ribeiro Braga
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the action of the crude extract of Duddingtonia flagrans (isolates AC001 and CG722 on infective larvae (L3 of cyathostomins in coprocultures and to confirm its proteolytic activity by means of a zymogram. The following groups were formed in coprocultures: Group 1: 10 mL of crude extract of D. flagrans (AC001; group 2: 10 mL of crude extract of AC001 with 10 mM of Ca2+; group 3: 10 mL of crude extract of D. flagrans (CG722; group 4: 10 mL of crude extract of CG722 with 10 mM of Ca2+; and group 5: control group (distilled water. The third-stage larvae (L3 were obtained after eight days. The crude extract of D. flagrans was effective in reducing the number of L3, with the following percentage reductions: group 1, 49.5%; group 2, 52.5%; group 3, 36.8%; and group 4, 57.7%; in relation to the control group (p > 0.05. The proteolytic activity of the crude extract was confirmed through the zymogram. The results from this study confirmed that the crude extract of the fungus D. flagrans could be used for controlling cyathostomin L3, and suggested that at least one protease of approximately 38 kDa was present.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a ação do extrato bruto de Duddingtonia flagrans (isolados AC001 e CG722 sobre larvas infectantes (L3 de ciatostomíneos em coproculturas e confirmar a sua atividade proteolítica por meio de um zimograma. Foram formados os seguintes grupos em coproculturas: grupo 1: 10 mL de extrato bruto de D. flagrans (AC001; grupo 2: 10 mL de extrato bruto de AC001 com íons Ca2+ 10 Mm; grupo 3: 10 mL de extrato bruto de D. flagrans (CG722; grupo 4: 10 mL de extrato bruto de CG722 com íons Ca2+ 10 Mm; e grupo 5 como controle (água destilada, obtendo-se as L3 ao final de 8 dias. O extrato bruto de D. flagrans foi eficiente na redução do número de L3 com os seguintes percentuais de redução: grupo 1 (49,5%; grupo 2 (52,5%; grupo 3 (36,8% e grupo 4 (57,7% em relação ao grupo controle (p > 0,05. Confirmou-se a atividade proteolítica por meio do zimograma. Os resultados do presente trabalho confirmam a utilização do extrato bruto do fungo D. flagrans no controle de L3 de ciatostomíneos e sugere a presença de pelo menos uma protease de aproximadamente 38 kDa.
Arturo I. Kehr
Full Text Available Ecological aspects of diet, reproduction, and parasitism of Pseudopaludicola boliviana (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Corrientes, Argentina.The main objectives of this paper were to update the distribution range of Pseudopaludicola boliviana in Argentina, to determine its diet composition and the feeding patterns, to analyze some reproductive variables as mature ova count and diameter in relation to female snoutvent length, to describe the advertisement call for Argentinean populations, and to identify and to localize its helminth parasites. Eleven prey types were identified; dipterans were more important both in number (23.53% and in volume (41.30%;other important preys were collembolans, arachnids and coleopterans. The trophic niche width was 7.15 and the standardized trophic niche value was 0.61. Ovarian complement (number of mature ova for female ranged from 50 to 319 (mean 175.3 ± 86.12, while ovum diameter ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 mm (mean 0.27 ± 0.062. The nuptial call is composed by five notes. The dominant frequency ranged from 3.488 to5.927 kHz; emphasized frequency fluctuated between 4.942 and 5.224 kHz. A total of 10 helminth species (larvae and adults were found in 54 (96% infected frogs. Helminths were represented by Trematoda (7 species, Cestoda (1, Nematoda (1, and Acanthocephala (1.
Lehnert, Kristina; Randhawa, Haseeb; Poulin, Robert
Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated. Ten parasite species were identified, belonging to the Nematoda (Stenurus minor, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp. (Pseudaliidae), Anisakis sp. (Anisakidae), Crassicauda sp. (Crassicaudidae)), Cestoda (Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii (Phyllobothriidae)), Trematoda (Brachicladium palliata and Brachicladium delphini (Brachicladiidae)) and Crustacea (Scutocyamus antipodensis (Cyamidae)). Some of the parasite species encountered comprises new records for their host. Although the material was not sampled within a systematic parasitological survey, the findings contain valuable new information about the parasite fauna of rare, vagile and vulnerable marine wildlife from a remote oceanic environment.
Mabika, Nyasha; Barson, Maxwell; Van Dyk, Cobus; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè
Parasites of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) were investigated in the period October 2014 to July 2015 in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba. The fish were collected using seine netting and also during the annual Kariba International Tiger Fishing Tournament. A total of 80 fish specimens (24 males and 56 females) were collected and were infected with the following seven parasite taxa: Monogenea (Annulotrema sp.1 from the gills and Annulotrema sp.2 from the skin), Nematoda (Contracaecum larvae), Cestoda (bothriocephalid, larval cyclophyllid), Copepoda (Lamproglena hemprichii), pentastomid, Myxosporea (Myxobolus sp.,) and unicellular ciliate parasites (Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp., and unidentified). Annulotrema sp. 1 was observed in all fish and had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance. The fish organs infected were gills, skin, fin, body cavity, stomach, intestines, mesentery, liver, kidney, brain cavity and swim bladder. No parasites were observed in the muscle, eyes and blood. The distribution of the parasites was highest in the gills and lowest in the brain cavity and swimbladder. Bothriocephalids, pentastomes and Trichodina sp. were not observed in male fish. Sex was not related to the intensity of parasites. The results of the study showed that H. vittatus has a richer parasite community than other previous investigated alestids. Pentastomes, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp. and bothriocephalid cestodes are new records for H. vittatus in Zimbabwe.
Padanillay C. Prabu
Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.
[The endoparasitic helminths of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the two localities (Lagoon and gutter of the River) of the Guandu River, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].
Albuquerque, Marcia C; Santos, Michelle D; Monteiro, Cassandra M; Martins, Amanda N; Ederli, Nicole B; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C
Between November 2003 and March 2004, fourty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 from Guandu River and thirty-nine from Guandu Lagoon (Nova Iguaçu, RJ) were collected, for the analysis of endoparasitic fauna. A total of 236 specimens of Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928 (Nematoda, Cucullanidae) were collected, being 163 adult specimens in the gut, three in the stomach and 70 larvae in the celomatic cavity and seven specimens of adults Nomimoscolex sp. (Eucestoda, Proteocephalidea) in the gut were found. Cucullanus pinnai presented prevalence (P) 77.50%, mean intensity (MI) 3.40 and mean abundance (MA) 2.60 on River and P: 66.67%, MI: 5.04, MA: 3.36 on Lagoon. Nomimoscolex sp. presented on River P: 2.50%, MI: 2.00, MA: 0.05, and P: 10.26%, MI: 1.25, MA: 0.13 on Lagoon. There was not significant positive interspecific association on the lagoon. In this research, the endoparasitic richness of P. maculatus was scarcest than similar studies in Guandu River and others rivers of different basins. The results about C. pinnai could be suggesting that the cycle of C. pinnai evolve only a host, occurring a histotrophic fase, in this case, in P. maculatus. Periodic analysis of the endoparasites indices in P. maculatus through the years may be used to describe the hydric quality of the Guandu River.
Christie, Andrew E; Nolan, Daniel H; Garcia, Zachery A; McCoole, Matthew D; Harmon, Sarah M; Congdon-Jones, Benjamin; Ohno, Paul; Hartline, Niko; Congdon, Clare Bates; Baer, Kevin N; Lenz, Petra H
The Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, along with the Arthropoda, Nematoda and several other small phyla, form the superphylum Ecdysozoa. Numerous peptidomic studies have been undertaken for both the arthropods and nematodes, resulting in the identification of many peptides from each group. In contrast, little is known about the peptides used as paracrines/hormones by species from the other ecdysozoan taxa. Here, transcriptome mining and bioinformatic peptide prediction were used to identify peptides in members of the Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, the only non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa for which there are publicly accessible expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The extant ESTs for each phylum were queried using 106 arthropod/nematode peptide precursors. Transcripts encoding calcitonin-like diuretic hormone and pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) were identified for the onychophoran Peripatopsis sedgwicki, with transcripts encoding C-type allatostatin (C-AST) and FMRFamide-like peptide identified for the priapulid Priapulus caudatus. For the Tardigrada, transcripts encoding members of the A-type allatostatin, C-AST, insect kinin, orcokinin, PDH and tachykinin-related peptide families were identified, all but one from Hypsibius dujardini (the exception being a Milnesium tardigradum orcokinin-encoding transcript). The proteins deduced from these ESTs resulted in the prediction of 48 novel peptides, six onychophoran, eight priapulid and 34 tardigrade, which are the first described from these phyla. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.