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Sample records for bursaphelenchus xylophilus nematoda

  1. Efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchidae), in Pinus pinaster boards

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifacio, Luis; Sousa, Edmundo; Naves, Pedro; Inácio, Maria; Henriques, Joana; Mota, Manuel; Barbosa, Pedro; Drinkall, Mike; Buckley, Stanislas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is an important conifer disease worldwide. It is the direct cause of the death of millions of pines in south-east Asia (mainly Japan, China and Korea) and has been established in Portugal since 1999. The phasing out of methyl bromide has created an urgent need for alternative treatment of wood packaging materials. The effect of sulfuryl fluoride (SF), a broad-spectrum fumigant used to control insects, was tested in Pinus pinas...

  2. Molecular characterization and development of real-time PCR assay for pine-wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine-wood nematode (PWN), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, one of the most damaging emerging pest problems to forests around the world. It is native to North America where it causes relatively minor damage to native conifers but is labeled an EPPO-A-2 pest and a quarantine nematode for many countries outside of the United States because of its potential for destruction to their native conifers. Exports of wood logs and commodities involving softwood packaging materials now require a lab test for the presence/absence of this regulated nematode species. We characterized the DNA sequences on the ribosomal DNA small subunit, large subunit D2/D3, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit one on the aphelenchid species and described the development of a real-time-PCR method for rapid and accurate identification of PWN targeting the ITS-1. A total of 97 nematode populations were used to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of this assay, including 45 populations of B. xylophilus and 36 populations of 21 other species of Bursaphelenchus which belong to the abietinus, cocophilus, eggersi, fungivorus, hofmanni, kevini, leoni, sexdentati, and xylophilus groups and one unassigned group from a total of 13 groups in the genus Bursaphelenchus; 15 populations of Aphelenchoides besseyi, A. fragariae, Aphelenchoides species and Aphelenchus avenae; and one population of mixed nematode species from a soil sample. This assay proved to be specific to B. xylophilus only and was sensitive to a single nematode specimen regardless of the life stages present. This approach provides rapid species identification necessary to comply with the zero-tolerance export regulations. PMID:24244367

  3. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Li-hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp. caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  4. [Ecological relationships between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its companion microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue-liang; Mao, Zhen-chuan; Chen, Guo-hua; Xie, Bing-yan

    2011-03-01

    Pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a notorious invasive species from North America, which can kill a large amount of pine trees and causes economic losses and ecosystem destruction. There is a close relationship and ecological interaction between B. xylophilus and its companion microorganisms. This paper listed the species of companion microorganisms, reviewed their important ecological roles in the propagation and pathogenicity of the nematode, and discussed the pine wilt disease from the viewpoint of microecosystem. The companion fungi can supply food for B. xylophilus, hold the cycle of second infection of the nematode, increase the proportions of dauer juveniles, and benefit the infection and distribution of B. xylophilus. The companion bacteria can enhance the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus, promote the propagation of the nematode, benefit the pinene degradation, and thereby, promote the adaptability of the nematode. PMID:21657042

  5. Pine wilt disease and red ring disease of coconut: opportunities and perspectives in the study of two nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. cocophilus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Manuel; de Souza, Ricardo; Vieira, Paulo; Espada, Margarida; Nascimento, Francisco; Vicente, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The xylophagous nematodes Bursaphelenchus cocophilus and B. xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), are causative agents of two serious diseases, “red ring disease” (RRD) with great importance to coconut and certain oil palm species in Central and South America, and in “pine wilt disease” (PWD), which has wreaked havoc in forest areas in the Far East and now more recently in Europe (Portugal and Spain). PWD has not yet been detected in Brasil or any other country in Central or South Amer...

  6. A 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in response to oxidative stress in the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Li; Qingwen Zhang; Xuguo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease that has devastated pine forests in Asia. Parasitic nematodes are known to have evolved antioxidant stress responses that defend against host plant defenses. In this study, the infestation of whitebark pine, Pinus bungean, with B. xylophilus led to a significant increase in plant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid levels. Correspondingly, the expression of an antioxidative enzyme, 2-Cysteine ...

  7. New insights into the phylogeny and worldwide dispersion of two closely related nematode species, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

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    Filipe Pereira

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.

  8. Cultivation of the Pine Wilt Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Axenic Culture Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Jordan, W

    1982-01-01

    The pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been cultured axenically in vitro on soy peptone/yeast extract or modified Caenorhabditis medium supplemented with cholesterol and hemoglobin. Although growth, development and reproduction were best in soy peptone/yeast extract medium, satisfactory population size increases were observed in the chemically defined Caenorhaditis medium.

  9. Effect of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on the Assimilation and Translocation of 14 C in Pinus sylvestris

    OpenAIRE

    Melakeberhan, H; Webster, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of wound, wound + water, wound + Bursaphelenchus xylophilus culture filtrate, or wound + lethal B. xylophilus doses on the assimilation and translocation of ¹⁴C by 8-month-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings was tested. In two separate experiments, pine seedlings were exposed to 28.35 μCi of ¹⁴CO₂ for 20 minutes below or above (to the pine shoot leader) the point of nematode inoculation. After 2 and 4 hours of dark adaptation, 80% ethanol soluble ¹⁴C tissue extracts were determined by l...

  10. Genomic insights into the origin of parasitism in the emerging plant pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Taisei Kikuchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in

  11. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduct...

  12. Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Associated with Red Pine, Pinus resinosa, in Western Maryland

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Amy L.; Krusberg, Lorin R.; Nickle, William R.

    1986-01-01

    Red pines Pinus resinosa in Garrett and Allegany counties, Maryland, were examined during 1982-84 to determine distribution of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, within and among trees. Approximately 25-year-old (younger) and 47-year-old (older) trees were subdivided into the following categories: 1) trees with mostly green needles; 2) trees with mostly reddish-brown needles; 3) trees lacking needles but with bark intact; 4) trees lacking both needles and bark; and 5) trees wi...

  13. Suggestions on management measures of pine forest ecosystems invaded by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO You-qing; XIA Nai-bin; WU Hai-wei; SONG Ji-ying

    2008-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle is an important invasive alien species in forests of China and has become one of the most destructive forest diseases. In order to improve the resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystems against B. xylophilus invasion and make the pine forest ecosystem more timely responsive to PWN invasion,we made some recommendations based on five years of intensive observations. We advocate a set of management measures with the theme "Prevention is priority, but integrated with curative techniques and ecological resilience" on the pine forest ecosystem invaded by B. xylophilus; details of accurate measures are proposed. The aim is to discover the underlying problems of present pine forest ecosystems and to take, correspondingly, administrative measures and strategies, which will encourage the pine forest ecosystem to develop in a benign way.

  14. Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2013-10-01

    The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct contact assays. Some successful EOs were fractionated and the fractions containing hydrocarbons or oxygen-containing molecules tested separately. Twenty EOs showed corrected mortalities ⩾96% at 2 μL/mL. These were further tested at lower concentrations. Ruta graveolens, Satureja montana and Thymbra capitata EOs showed lethal concentrations (LC100)capitata EOs are potential environmentally friendly alternatives for B. xylophilus control given their high nematotoxic properties. Nematotoxic activity of an EO should be taken in its entirety, as its different components may contribute, in distinct ways, to the overall EO activity. PMID:23829930

  15. Functional analysis of the cellulose gene of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, using RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H B; Lu, Q; Liang, J; Zhang, X Y

    2011-01-01

    Cellulases are pathogenic substances suspected to be responsible for the development of the early symptoms of nematode disease. The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Parasitaphelenchidae), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, which kills millions of pine trees. We used RNA interference (RNAi), a reverse genetic tool, to analyze the function of the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene of B. xylophilus, which causes the most serious forest tree disease in China and the rest of eastern Asia. Silencing of this gene was detected through real-time PCR and cellulase activity assays after soaking for 24 h in dsRNA. The cellulase gene silencing effects differed among various siRNAs. The propagation and dispersal ability of these nematodes decreased when the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene was silenced. It is important to select an effective siRNA before performing an RNAi test. PMID:21948755

  16. New approaches for the control of the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mergulhão, Francisca de Sá Nogueira Santarém

    2015-01-01

    O nematode da madeira do pinheiro (NMP) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus é o agente etiológico da doença do nemátode da madeira do pinheiro em Pinus pinaster. Não existe ainda um método eficiente para controlar e/ou eliminar este agente patogénico. O quitosano é um produto extraído da parede celular de alguns fungos ou da desacetilação da quitina, um produto amigo do ambiente e amplamente usado como agente antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de testar a influência do quit...

  17. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of Three Pathogenesis-Related Cytochrome P450 Genes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoidoidea

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    Xiao-Lu Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, causes huge economic losses in pine forests. The high expression of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus during infection in P. thunbergii indicated that these genes had a certain relationship with the pathogenic process of B. xylophilus. Thus, we attempted to identify the molecular characterization and functions of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus. In this study, full-length cDNA of three cytochrome P450 genes, BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3 were first cloned from B. xylophilus using 3' and 5' RACE PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that all of them contained a highly-conserved cytochrome P450 domain. The characteristics of the three putative proteins were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. RNA interference (RNAi was used to assess the functions of BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3. The results revealed that these cytochrome P450 genes were likely to be associated with the vitality, dispersal ability, reproduction, pathogenicity and pesticide metabolism of B. xylophilus. This discovery confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of three cytochrome P450 genes from B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information in elucidating the molecular interaction mechanism between B. xylophilus and its host plant.

  18. Identification and characterization of a dual-acting antinematodal agent against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Wan-Suk Oh

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a mycophagous and phytophagous pathogen responsible for the current widespread epidemic of the pine wilt disease, which has become a major threat to pine forests throughout the world. Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of PWN currently exists. In the characterization of basic physiological properties of B. xylophilus YB-1 isolates, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS method that identifies potential hits within approximately 7 h. Using this HTS method, we screened 206 compounds with known activities, mostly antifungal, for antinematodal activities and identified HWY-4213 (1-n-undecyl-2-[2-fluorphenyl] methyl-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinolinium chloride, a highly water-soluble protoberberine derivative, as a potent nematicidal and antifungal agent. When tested on 4 year-old pinewood seedlings that were infected with YB-1 isolates, HWY-4213 exhibited a potent therapeutic nematicidal activity. Further tests of screening 39 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in channel proteins and B. xylophilus sensitivity to Ca(2+ channel blockers suggested that HWY-4213 targets the calcium channel proteins. Our study marks a technical breakthrough by developing a novel HTS method that leads to the discovery HWY-4213 as a dual-acting antinematodal and antifungal compound.

  19. A comparative proteomics analysis of pinus massoniana inoculated with bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine wilt disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, also known as pine wood nematode (PWN), is the most devastating disease of pine trees. Test results from different geographical provenance of P. massoniana inoculated with nematodes, indicated that Guang Dong5 (GD5) has strong resistance to PWN. This article used GD5 as the experimental material, and sensitive SX1 as comparison. Total proteins were extracted and separated by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS technology from the pine needles of GD5 and SX1, respectively. Differentially expressed proteins in the provenance between inoculated and un-inoculated with PWN for two weeks, were analyzed. At last, 87 differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The results also showed that there were six proteins involved in hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity and protecting the redox homeostasis system from being damaged. Their up-regulation may be the main cause of the provenance GD5 resistant to PWN. (author)

  20. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gai; Lai, Daowan; Liu, Qi Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2016-01-01

    During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, two acetylenic compounds, falcarindiol and falcarinol (2.20-12.60 μg/mL and 1.06-4.96 μg/mL, respectively) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity than two furanocoumarins, columbianetin, and isoimperatorin (21.83-103.44 μg/mL and 17.21-30.91 μg/mL, respectively) against the two species of nematodes, B. xylophilus and M. incognita. The four isolated constituents also displayed phototoxic activity against the nematodes. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of N. incisum and its four isolated constituents have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:27669203

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel endoglucanase from a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus metagenomic library.

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    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available A novel gene (designated as cen219 encoding endoglucanase was isolated from a Bursaphelenchus xylophilus metagenomic library by functional screening. Sequence analysis revealed that cen219 encoded a protein of 367 amino acids. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified endoglucanase suggested that Cen219 was a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for endoglucanase activity of Cen219 was separately 50 °C and 6.0. It was stable from 30 to 50 °C, and from pH 4.0 to 7.0. The activity was significantly enhanced by Mn(2+ and dramatically reduced by detergent SDS and metals Fe(3+, Cu(2+ or Hg(2+. The enzyme hydrolyzed a wide range of β-1, 3-, and β-1, 4-linked polysaccharides, with varying activities. Activities towards microcrystalline cellulose and filter paper were relatively high, while the highest activity was towards oat gum. The Km and Vmax of Cen219 towards CMC was 17.37 mg/ml and 333.33 U/mg, respectively. The findings have an insight into understanding the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions in B. xylophilus species. The properties also make Cen219 an interesting enzyme for biotechnological application.

  2. Control of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by essential oils and extracts obtained from plants: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Pedro; Vieira, Paulo; Dias, LS; Pedro, LG; Barroso, JG; Figueiredo, AC; Mota, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a serious threat to forest ecosystems at a global scale. The nematode has become a major quarantine problem due to its capability to completely destroy Pinus spp. trees, with great damage to the wood industry. Controlling the nematode inside a living tree is quite difficult, the techniques used being often ineffective and quite expensive. In the coming years, most chemicals used to control nematodes will be banned and ...

  3. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, P.; Lima, A.S.; Vieira, P.; Dias, L.S.; Tinoco, M. T.; Barroso, J.G.; Pedro, L. G.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Mota, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and T...

  4. Mutual influences in growth and reproduction between pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and bacteria it carries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Boguang; LIU Yutao; LIN Feng

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between pine wood nematode and three bacterium strains isolated from the nematode,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,which are two strong pathogenic bacterium strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens GcMS-1A and Pseudomonas putida ZpB1-2A and a weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,Pantoea sp.ZM2C,were studied.The result showed that the strong-pathogenic GcM5-1A strain and ZpB 1-2A strain significantly increased fecundity,reproduction rate,and the body volume of the adult nematode.Meanwhile,pine wood nematodes significantly promoted reproduction of the two strong-pathogenic bacterium strains.However,the weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,ZM2C,completely inhibited reproduction of pine wood nematodes.Aseptic pine wood nematodes significantly inhibited reproduction of the strain ZM2C.The results indicated that mutualistic symbiosis exists between pine wood nematodes and the two pathogenic bacteria it carries.The phenomenon showed that the pathogenic bacteria carried by the nematode were not accidentally contaminated,but rather had existed as symbionts of the nematode with which it had coevoluted over a long period.The role of mutualistic symbiosis in the process of pine wilt disease was also discussed.

  5. Effects of Endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Pine Wilt Disease

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    Long-Xi He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is responsible for devastating epidemics in pine trees in Asia and Europe. Recent studies showed that bacteria carried by the PWN might be involved in PWD. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between bacteria and the PWN remained unclear. Now that the whole genome of B. xylophilus (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is published, transcriptome analysis is a unique method to study the role played by bacteria in PWN. In this study, the transcriptome of aseptic B. xylophilus, B. xylophilus treated with endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSPmBx03 and fungus B. xylophilus were sequenced. We found that 61 genes were up-regulated and 830 were down-regulated in B. xylophilus after treatment with the endobacterium; 178 genes were up-regulated and 1122 were down-regulated in fungus B. xylophilus compared with aseptic B. xylophilus. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were used to study the significantly changed biological functions and pathways for these differentially expressed genes. Many pathogenesis-related genes, including glutathinone S-transferase, pectate lyase, ATP-binding cassette transporter and cytochrome P450, were up-regulated after B. xylophilus were treated with the endobacterium. In addition, we found that bacteria enhanced the virulence of PWN. These findings indicate that endobacteria might play an important role in the development and virulence of PWN and will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between bacteria and the PWN.

  6. Influence of Bxpel1 Gene Silencing by dsRNA Interference on the Development and Pathogenicity of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiu-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Lin; Ye, Jian-Ren

    2016-01-01

    As the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes huge economic losses by devastating pine forests worldwide. The pectate lyase gene is essential for successful invasion of their host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. To demonstrate the role of pectate lyase gene in the PWD process, RNA interference (RNAi) is used to analyze the function of the pectate lyase 1 gene in B. xylophilus (Bxpel1). The efficiency of RNAi was detected by real-time PCR. The result demonstrated that the quantity of B. xylophilus propagated with control solution treatment was 62 times greater than that soaking in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) after B. xylophilus inoculation in Botrytis cinerea for the first generation (F1). The number of B. xylophilus soaking in control solution was doubled compared to that soaking in Bxpel1 dsRNA four days after inoculation in Pinus thunbergii. The quantity of B. xylophilus was reduced significantly (p control solution treatment. Bxpel1 dsRNAi reduced the migration speed and reproduction of B. xylophilus in pine trees. The pathogenicity to P. thunbergii seedling of B. xylophilus was weaker after soaking in dsRNA solution compared with that after soaking in the control solution. Our results suggest that Bxpel1 gene is a significant pathogenic factor in the PWD process and this basic information may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of PWD. PMID:26797602

  7. Double-stranded RNA-mediated interference of dumpy genes in Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by feeding on filamentous fungal transformants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Diandong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xu; Liu, Wencui; Hou, Xiaomeng; Huang, Xiaoyin; Xie, Bingyan; Cheng, Xinyue

    2016-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool for studying gene function in vivo and provides a functional genomics platform in a wide variety of organisms. The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a prominent invasive plant-parasitic nematode and has become a serious worldwide threat to forest ecosystems. Presently, the complete genome sequence of B. xylophilus has been published, and research involving genome-wide functional analyses is likely to increase. In this study, we describe the construction of an effective silencing vector, pDH-RH, which contains a transcriptional unit for a hairpin loop structure. Utilising this vector, double-stranded (ds)RNAs with sequences homologous to the target genes can be expressed in a transformed filamentous fungus via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation technology, and can subsequently induce the knockdown of target gene mRNA expression in B. xylophilus by allowing the nematode to feed on the fungal transformants. Four dumpy genes (Bx-dpy-2, 4, 10 and 11) were used as targets to detect RNAi efficiency. By allowing the nematode to feed on target gene-transformed Fusarium oxysporum strains, target transcripts were knocked down 34-87% compared with those feeding on the wild-type strain as determined by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Morphological RNAi phenotypes were observed, displaying obviously reduced body length; weak dumpy or small (short and thin) body size; or general abnormalities. Moreover, compensatory regulation and non-specific silencing of dpy genes were found in B. xylophilus. Our results indicate that RNAi delivery by feeding in B. xylophilus is a successful technique. This platform may provide a new opportunity for undertaking RNAi-based, genome-wide gene functional studies in vitro in B. xylophilus. Moreover, as B. xylophilus feeds on endophytic fungi when a host has died, RNAi feeding technology will offer the prospect for developing a novel control strategy for the nematode

  8. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  9. Searching for resistance genes to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using high throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carla S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pine wilt disease (PWD, caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, damages and kills pine trees and is causing serious economic damage worldwide. Although the ecological mechanism of infestation is well described, the plant’s molecular response to the pathogen is not well known. This is due mainly to the lack of genomic information and the complexity of the disease. High throughput sequencing is now an efficient approach for detecting the expression of genes in non-model organisms, thus providing valuable information in spite of the lack of the genome sequence. In an attempt to unravel genes potentially involved in the pine defense against the pathogen, we hereby report the high throughput comparative sequence analysis of infested and non-infested stems of Pinus pinaster (very susceptible to PWN and Pinus pinea (less susceptible to PWN. Results Four cDNA libraries from infested and non-infested stems of P. pinaster and P. pinea were sequenced in a full 454 GS FLX run, producing a total of 2,083,698 reads. The putative amino acid sequences encoded by the assembled transcripts were annotated according to Gene Ontology, to assign Pinus contigs into Biological Processes, Cellular Components and Molecular Functions categories. Most of the annotated transcripts corresponded to Picea genes-25.4-39.7%, whereas a smaller percentage, matched Pinus genes, 1.8-12.8%, probably a consequence of more public genomic information available for Picea than for Pinus. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed that when P. pinaster was infested with PWN, the genes malate dehydrogenase, ABA, water deficit stress related genes and PAR1 were highly expressed, while in PWN-infested P. pinea, the highly expressed genes were ricin B-related lectin, and genes belonging to the SNARE and high mobility group families. Quantitative PCR experiments confirmed the differential gene expression between the two pine species

  10. Evidence for an Opportunistic and Endophytic Lifestyle of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus-Associated Bacteria Serratia marcescens PWN146 Isolated from Wilting Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Cláudia S L; Nascimento, Francisco X; Barbosa, Pedro; Ke, Huei-Mien; Tsai, Isheng J; Hirao, Tomonori; Cock, Peter J A; Kikuchi, Taisei; Hasegawa, Koichi; Mota, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) results from the interaction of three elements: the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; the insect-vector, Monochamus sp.; and the host tree, mostly Pinus species. Bacteria isolated from B. xylophilus may be a fourth element in this complex disease. However, the precise role of bacteria in this interaction is unclear as both plant-beneficial and as plant-pathogenic bacteria may be associated with PWD. Using whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization, we were able to investigate in more detail the genetic repertoire of Serratia marcescens PWN146, a bacterium associated with B. xylophilus. We show clear evidence that S. marcescens PWN146 is able to withstand and colonize the plant environment, without having any deleterious effects towards a susceptible host (Pinus thunbergii), B. xylophilus nor to the nematode model C. elegans. This bacterium is able to tolerate growth in presence of xenobiotic/organic compounds, and use phenylacetic acid as carbon source. Furthermore, we present a detailed list of S. marcescens PWN146 potentials to interfere with plant metabolism via hormonal pathways and/or nutritional acquisition, and to be competitive against other bacteria and/or fungi in terms of resource acquisition or production of antimicrobial compounds. Further investigation is required to understand the role of bacteria in PWD. We have now reinforced the theory that B. xylophilus-associated bacteria may have a plant origin. PMID:27461253

  11. Molecular characterization of Portuguese populations of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using cytochrome b and cellulase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, V; Laranjo, M; Mota, M; Oliveira, S

    2013-12-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causal agent of pine wilt disease and a worldwide pest with high economic impact. Since its first diagnosis in Portugal in 1999, it has been subjected to quarantine measures with impact on forest health and ecosystem stability, significantly affecting international trade of wood products. The disease was detected in the north and centre of continental Portugal and, since 2008, the whole country has been considered an affected area. Recently, it was detected in Madeira Island. In order to avoid new outbreaks, it has become of major importance to understand the patterns of spread, introduction points and to characterize the new populations from continental Portugal and Madeira Island. Mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and parasitic cellulase gene sequences were used to evaluate the genetic relationships among isolates that could indicate possible origins of the new outbreaks. Portuguese isolates were compared with isolates from USA, China, Japan and South Korea, in order to investigate possible infection pathways and disease spread patterns in Portugal. Phylogenetic trees based on both genes show that Portuguese isolates group with Asian isolates. Isolates from USA are in a separate position in both gene trees. However, the phylogenetic tree based on the cellulase gene sequences shows higher differentiation among Portuguese isolates than that of cytb. These results agree with those previously obtained using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). This was the first study to use cytb and cellulase genes to characterize pinewood nematode (PWN) populations. This study suggests that cellulase is a better marker than cytb to study genetic diversity in B. xylophilus. PMID:23067571

  12. Basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood infected with the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria Reva; Luı´s Fonseca; Jose´ L. Lousada; Isabel Abrantes; Anto´ nio R. Figueiredo; Domingos X. Viegas

    2015-01-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphe-lenchus xylophilus, has become one of the most severe threats to pine forest worldwide. Nematodes, migrating through resin canals and feeding on the living cells, induce rapid metabolic changes in ray parenchyma cells, create cavitation areas, decrease xylem water content and oleo-resin exudation, and cause necrosis of parenchyma and cambial cells. This study focused on the impact of PWN infection on technological parameters of wood and evalu-ated the impact of anatomic and biochemical incidences of tree defense reactions on basic density, extractive content and moisture sorption properties of Pinus pinaster wood. Samples of infected and uninfected wood were studied. The presence of nematodes reduced wood basic density by 2% and decreased the total content of extractives in infected wood as compared with uninfected (5.98 and 8.90% of dry wood mass, respectively). Extractives in infected trees had inverse distribution along the trunk as compared with uninfected trees. The adsorption isotherms for infected and uninfected wood had similar positioning. We recorded differences (some statistically significant) in the equilibrium moisture content of infected and uninfected wood under varying environmental conditions. Despite the verified differences in wood basic density, extractive con-tent and moisture sorption properties, the overall conclu-sion is that the PWN had a slight impact on these characteristics of wood.

  13. Two nematicidal furocoumarins from Ficus carica L. leaves and their physiological effects on pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qunqun; Du, Guicai; He, Hongwei; Xu, Hongkai; Guo, Daosen; Li, Ronggui

    2016-09-01

    The ethanol extract of the Ficus carica L. leaves was tested to show strong nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causing 90.93% corrected mortality within 72 h at 1.0 mg/mL. From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the F. carica L. leaves extract, the main nematicidal constituents were obtained by bioassay-guided isolation and identified as linear furocoumarins bergapten (1) and psoralen (2) by mass and NMR spectral data analysis. Bergapten and psoralen had significant nematicidal activity against PWN with the LC50 values of 97.08 aKSnd 115.03  μ g/mL within 72 h, respectively. The two furocoumarins could inhibit the activities of amylase, cellulase and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) from PWN. The morphologies of PWNs changed much after they were treated by bergapten and psoralen. The physiological effects of bergapten and psoralen on PWN might provide helpful clues to elucidate their nematicidal mechanisms.

  14. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

    2010-03-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and β-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), γ-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

  15. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-09-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC(50) values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode.

  16. Study of population dynamics of bacteria associated with pine wood nematode after inoculation with different strains of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Mariana Roriz Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Durante algum tempo pensou-se que o Bursaphelenchus xylophilus era o único agente etiológico da doença do nemátode da madeira do pinheiro. Recentemente, descobriu-se que existem bactérias associadas ao nemátode que contribuem para a patogénese desta doença, sobretudo através da libertação de toxinas que promovem a morte dos pinheiros. De entre as espécies mais comummente encontradas estão bactérias pertencentes aos géneros Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas e Xanthomonas. Este trabalho teve...

  17. Ecological relationships between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its companion microorganisms%松材线虫与伴生微生物的生态关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪亮; 茆振川; 陈国华; 谢丙炎

    2011-01-01

    Pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a notorious invasive species from North America, which can kill a large amount of pine trees and causes economic losses and ecosystem destruction. There is a close relationship and ecological interaction between B. xylophilus and its companion microorganisms. This paper listed the species of companion microorganisms, reviewed their important ecological roles in the propagation and pathogenicity of the nematode, and discussed the pine wilt disease from the viewpoint of microecosystem. The companion fungi can supply food for B. xylophilus, hold the cycle of second infection of the nematode, increase the proportions of dauer juveniles, and benefit the infection and distribution of B. xylophilus. The companion bacteria can enhance the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus, promote the propagation of the nematode, benefit the pinene degradation, and thereby, promote the adaptability of the nematode.%松材线虫是重要的外来有害生物,造成松树大量死亡,带来严重的经济损失和生态破坏.松材线虫与伴生微生物存在密切的生态关系.本文综述了松材线虫伴生微生物的种类及其在松材线虫繁殖和致病过程中的重要生态作用,从微生态系统角度对松材线虫病进行探讨.伴生真菌能为松材线虫提供食物,维持松材线虫次生侵染循环,提高分散型第三龄幼虫在种群中的比例,利于松材线虫侵染扩散;伴生细菌能够提高松材线虫致病性,促进其繁殖,并菌有助于松材线虫降解松萜类物质,从而提高松材线虫的适应性.

  18. 松材线虫两种实用分子检测技术%Two kinds of appliedmolecular skills to detect Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤毛; 叶建仁; 吴小芹; 谈家金; 黄麟

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the reliability of two methods, SCAR marker and real-time PCR, developed for detecting pine wood nematode, seven pine wood isolates and three identified nematode strains ( Bursaphelenchus xflophilus, B. mucronatus and Aphelenchoicles macronucleatus ) were assayed with the two methods. The traditional method of morphological identification was also used to determine the seven isolates samples. Results showed that 1 ) with the method of SCAR marker, isolates 2, 3, 4 and 7 showed a common specific electrophoretic band of 860 bp, as did by pine wood nematode B. xylophilus, whereas isolates 1, 5 and 6, and B. mucronatus and Aphelenchoides macronucleatus did not produce the specific band. That suggests that isolates 2, 3, 4 and 7 contained B. xylophilus, while isolates 1, 5 and 6 did not. 2) With the method of real-time PCR identification, fluorescent signal was detected from samples prepared from isolate 2, 3, 4, 7 and strain B. xylophilus, on the contrary, the rest isolates showed no signals and cycle threshold ( Ct values). 3) With morphological identification, it was revealed that isolate 2, 4 and 7 contained B. xylophilus while isolate 3 contained B. xylophilus as well as other nematodes. However, isolate 1, 5 and 6 did not contain B. xylophilus. Therefore, the two molecular methods showed a consistent result with morphological identification. Moreover, the two methods are highly specific and time-saving. SCAR marker method costs two hours to perform, while real-time PCR method takes only one hour. Both techniques make it possible to determine rapidly existence of juvenilepine wood nematodes with a simple and easily readable result.%为检验已开发的SCAR标记与实时PCR两种分子检测方法鉴定松材线虫的可靠性,本文选用线虫未知种样品7个以及已知种样品3个为实验材料,采用上述两种分子检测方法进行检测,并且对7个线虫未知种样品进行形态鉴定。结果表明:1

  19. Sequencing and Analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A Genome: A Pathogen Living in the Surface Coat of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Feng

    Full Text Available It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5 and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community.

  20. Sequencing and Analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A Genome: A Pathogen Living in the Surface Coat of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Li, Ronggui; Chen, Yingnan; Zhao, Boguang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5) and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community. PMID:26517369

  1. Sequencing and Analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A Genome: A Pathogen Living in the Surface Coat of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Li, Ronggui; Chen, Yingnan; Zhao, Boguang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5) and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community.

  2. 松材线虫毒力及发育转型与细胞自噬关系研究%Research on the relationship of autophagy with the virulence and development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽娜; 吴小芹

    2016-01-01

    采用透射电镜法对松材线虫的细胞自噬现象进行鉴认,并通过实时定量PCR的方法对不同毒力及不同发育期松材线虫的自噬基因BxAtg1和BxAtg8表达量进行测定。结果表明:饥饿诱导下不同毒力松材线虫存在细胞自噬现象,不同毒力松材线虫饥饿诱导12、24、36 h时,自噬基因BxAtg1表达量递减且趋势一致,而自噬基因BxAtg8在饥饿24 h时的强毒松材线虫体内表达量最高,在饥饿36 h时弱毒松材线虫体内表达量显著升高;与繁殖性松材线虫体相比,自噬基因BxAtg1和BxAtg8在扩散型3龄( JⅢ)和扩散型4龄幼虫( JⅣ)中的表达量均增加,推测自噬活性的调节机制可能与松材线虫的毒力相关,与松材线虫发育转型阶段的形态特征联系,暗示自噬可帮助松材线虫发育转型,从而提高松材线虫的适应性。%In order to identify the autophagy in Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, research on the relationship between autoph⁃agy and the different virulence and development of B. xylophilus was carried out in this paper. Transmission electron mi⁃croscopy (TEM) method was used to identify autophagy in B. xylophilus, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR ( qRT⁃PCR) was adopted to quantify the BxAtg1 and BxAtg8 at different virulence and at different stages of the develop⁃ment of B. xylophilus. The results from TEM observations showed that the process of autophagy existed in B. xylophilus after starvation⁃induced. The mRNA expression of BxAtg1 was decreased in different virulence nematodes which exposed to long⁃term starvation for 12, 24 and 36 h. The mRNA expression of BxAtg8 in strongly virulent nematodes was in⁃creased in 24 h, but the mRNA expression of BxAtg8 in weakly virulent nematodes was obviously increased in 36 h. And there was increment of both the mRNA expression of BxAtg1 and BxAtg8 in JⅢand JⅣcompared to the propagtive form of B. xylophilus. Compareing to

  3. 松材线虫雌虫尾部形态和寄主的关系%The Relationship between the Tail Morphology of Adult Female Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Its Host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文霞; 杨宝君

    2005-01-01

    Tenninal mucro of adult female was the distinct character between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Bx) and its allied species Bursaphe/enchus mucronatus (Bb). In general, Bx had no mucro. But it could have mucro in some situations. In the test, Bx without mucro was inoculated on Chineses pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). The results showed that 85% of adult females Bx isolated from Chinese pine had terminal mucro. On Japanese black pine only 4.2% of adult females Bx had terminal mucro. Bx with terminal mucro from Chinese pine was re-inoculated on the fungus, Pestalotia sp. and Japanese black pine. It was found that 100% adult females had no terminal mucro on the fungus and 3.4% with terminal mucro on Japanese black pine.

  4. Rapid Identification of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Determination Epidemic Areas by Comparative Morphology and Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology%应用比较形态学与PCR技术快速鉴定松材线虫及确立疫区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶燕华; 李迅东; 张志荣; 卓侃; 廖金铃; 陈沐荣; 秦长生

    2014-01-01

    Pine wood nematode disease,caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,is a destructive disease to pine.In this paper,The sample of the dead tree of suspected pine wilt disease,collected in different epidemic are-as of Guangdong province from 2004 to 2005 were studied.The results showed that application the technologies of comparative morphology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)could rapid discriminate B.xylophilus,and reliably determinate epidemic areas.%松材线虫病(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)是为害松树的一种毁灭性病害。应用比较形态学,并辅助以PCR分子生物学检测技术,对广东省2004-2005年间松材线虫病监测普查过程中采集的疑似样本进行对比研究,结果表明该技术可以快速、准确鉴定松材线虫并确立疫区。

  5. Pest Risk Assessment for Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Introduced to Yunnan Based on ArcView GIS%基于ArcView GIS的松材线虫传入云南风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 王志英; 喻盛甫

    2007-01-01

    根据国际粮农组织(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,FAO)的国际植物检疫措施标准-检疫性有害生物风险分析(Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests Including Analysis of Environmental Risks and Living Modified Organisms)以及欧洲和地中海地区植物保护组织(European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation,EPPO)的有害生物风险评估方案,应用美国环境系统研究所(ESRI)开发的地理信息系统(Geographic Information System, GIS)软件ArcView 3.2对云南省129个县(市、区)的年平均气温、年平均降雨、日照、寄主分布和媒介昆虫等信息进行分析,对松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)进入可能性、定殖可能性和经济影响等方面进行了风险评估(Pest Risk Assessment,PRA).划定松材线虫病发生低风险区2县、松材线虫病发生中度风险区20县(市、区)、松材线虫病发生较高风险区49县(市、区),其余县58县(市、区)为松材线虫病发生高度风险区.划定云南省北纬26°以南地区为重点防护区.并绘制寄主分布图、年平均气温图、松墨天牛分布图等风险评估地图.

  6. 葡萄牙松材线虫与其媒介昆虫之间的互作%Interactions of the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)with its vector in Portugal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Miguel Naves; Luís Bonifácio; Edmundo Sousa

    2011-01-01

    The most important aspects of the interactions be-tween the pine wood nematode ( PWN) ( Bursaphelenchus xylo-philus) and its local insect vector,the pine sawyer Monocham-us galloprovirzcialis have been recently studied for the first timein Portugal and Europe.Inside the dead pines the pinewoodnematode was found to associate with the callow adults in thepupal chambers,just before the insects' emergence.The nema-todes are more abundant on the thoracic region of the insects,namely on the meta-thorax segment.After emergence,trans-mission of the PWN into new hosts occurs by the feeding activi-ty of the beetles,being more frequent during the six weeks af-ter emergence.Nematode transmission also occurs by the ovi-position activity of the female beetles,although with less fre-quency and success.%对松材线虫与其在葡萄牙和欧洲的媒介昆虫樟子松墨天牛(Monochamus galloprovincialis)进行了首次研究.在病死木中发现,松材线虫在天牛刚羽化时聚集在蛹室中,线虫主要集中在天牛的后胸部.天牛羽化后6周内,松材线虫主要在天牛成虫补充营养时进入新寄主树,其次在天牛产卵时也会进入寄主树.总的看来,松材线虫在欧洲与其携带天牛之间互作与其在亚洲与松墨天牛及在北美与卡来罗纳墨天牛之间的关系十分相似.经研究,影响线虫与天牛携带关系的因子有内源和外源两类因子,如化学气味和各种信号.但是,其他多数因子尚未了解.研究影响线虫与天牛携带关系的因子将有助于了解两种生物密切关系的内在机制,并有助于研发出新的防控方法.

  7. 木质包装热处理国际标准对松材线虫有效性的试验研究%Confirmatory test on the validity of heat treatment of ISPM 15 to disinfestation of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in wood packaging material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹国平; 王新; 李丽; 王跃进; 杨赛军; 张瑞峰

    2009-01-01

    使用温度为65~85℃、相对湿度50%~90%的热空气,对不同规格和含水率的携带松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)的马尾松(Pinus massoniana)木板进行热处理验证试验,结果显示,当木材中心温度达到56℃并持续30min以上,10cm×10cm×10cm木块、5cm厚度木板以及高含水率10cm厚度木板中线虫死亡几率值达到9的要求,验证了国际植物检疫措施标准第15号所推荐的热处理技术指标对杀灭松材线虫的有效性.试验中也发现10cm厚度含水率低于30%木板的线虫死亡率达不到几率值9的要求,其原因可能是中心温度或持续时间没有达到该标准要求.%To validate heat treatment requirement of ISPM 15 to disinfestation of Pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in wood packaging material, lumber and block made from Masson Pine with different moisture content (MC), which was naturally infested with Pine wood nematode and sawed to 3 kinds of size, was heat trea-ted under the hot air with the temperature rang of 65 ~ 85℃ and Relative Humidity of 50% ~ 90% to reach the core temperature of 56℃ and more than 30min duration. The results shows that the mortality of the nematodes in all woods except in 10 × 10 × 80cm lumber with MC below 30% meet the requirement of mortality of probit 9 un-der 95% confidence level, the possible reason for the exception was due to the core temperature in wood or dura-tion less than the requirement of ISPM 15.

  8. Evaluation criteria and indicator system of resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystem against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus invasion%松林生态系统对松材线虫入侵的抵御及其恢复的评价标准及指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石娟; 骆有庆; 武海卫; 严晓素; 陈卫平; 蒋平

    2011-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle ( pine wood nematode, PWN), an important invasive alien species of forests in China, has become one of the most destructive forest diseases, especially for Pinus massoniana (Masson Pine).Firstly, Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang province, China. B. xylophilus carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes. Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees. The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.%松材线虫已经在中国造成以马尾松为主的森林毁灭性危害.对浙江地区5个样方中低径级马尾松的特征进行分析,结果表明:被松材线虫侵染和未被侵染的10株样树之间的平均树冠宽、树径冠比、5年累计树径生长量和树脂量表现出显著变异.被侵害样树的上述指标均下降或减少.研究通过利用描述森林系统抗干扰能力的抵御和恢复两个指标,使用解释结构数学模型,在浙江省建立了松林生态系统抗入侵病虫害的抵御和恢复的评价标准和指标系统.对两块试验地的测定指标分析表明,所建模型符合林间调查结果,并证明了松林生态系统的抵御和恢复体系的精确性.

  9. 松材线虫和拟松材线虫体内细菌的透射电镜观察及分离鉴定%Observation by transmission electron microscope and identification of endophytic bacteria isolated from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B.mucronatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁为敏; 吴小芹; 叶建仁; 田晓静

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The pine wood nematode, Bursaphlenchus xylophilus, morphologically similar to B. Mucronatus, is the pathogen of pine wilt disease. This study was focused on the endophytic bacteria present in these nematodes. [ Methods ] Detailed observations were made on sections of all parts of the two types of nematodes by transmission electron microscope. The nematodes were surface-sterilized by soaking in 1% mercuric chloride and antibiotic mixture, and then ground and cultured on nutrient agar plate. The physiological and biochemical characteristics combined with molecular characterization of bacteria were analyzed and identified. [Results] Endophytic bacteria were found in intestines of the two nematodes by transmission electron microscope observations. On the basis of surface sterilization, total three bacteria strains were obtained from B. Xylophilus and B. Mucronatus. These bacteria belong to Stenotrophomonas and Ewingella. [ Conclusion ] It confirms the presence of endophytic bacteria in Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. Mucronatus and these bacteria may play a physical and ecological roles in nematodes.%[目的]松材线虫是松树萎蔫病的病原,拟松材线虫在形态等方面与松材线虫极其相似.关于两种线虫与细菌的研究多集中于体表伴生细菌.本文要揭示松材线虫和拟松材线虫体内是否存在细菌.[方法]对松材线虫和拟松材线虫进行透射电镜观察;并采用1%升汞和抗菌素混合液对两种线虫虫体进行体表消毒后研磨,制备悬浮液涂布NA平板;通过生理生化测定和16S rDNA序列分析鉴定细菌种类.[结果]松材线虫和拟松材线虫透射电镜照片显示在两种线虫肠道内均发现细菌;体表无菌的松材线虫和拟松材线虫共分离到3株体内细菌;这3株细菌分别属于寡养单胞菌属(Stenotrophomonas)和爱文氏菌属(Ewingella).[结论]松材线虫和拟松材线虫体内均存在细菌;这些细菌对这两种线虫可

  10. Migration and Attacking Ability of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Joung A; Jung, Chan Sik; Han, Hye Rim

    2016-01-01

    To understand how Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills pine trees, the differences between the effects of B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus on pine trees are usually compared. In this study, the migration and attacking ability of a non-pathogenic B. mucronatus in Pinus thunbergii were investigated. The distribution of B. mucronatus and the number of dead epithelial cells resulting from inoculation were compared with those of the pathogenic B. xylophilus. Although B. mucronatus is non-pathogenic in pines, its distribution pattern in P. thunbergii was the same as that of B. xylophilus. We therefore concluded that the non-pathogenicity of B. mucronatus could not be attributed to its migration ability. The sparse and sporadic attacking pattern of B. mucronatus was also the same as that of B. xylophilus. However, the number and area of the dead epithelial cells in pine cuttings inoculated with B. mucronatus were smaller than in those cuttings inoculated with B. xylophilus, meaning that the attacking ability of B. mucronatus is weaker than that of B. xylophilus. Therefore, we concluded that the weaker attacking ability of B. mucronatus might be the factor responsible for the non-pathogenicity. PMID:27493609

  11. A Method for Rapidly Extracting DNA of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from the Infested Pine Wood for PCR and LAMP Detection%一种适于PCR和LAMP检测的松木中松材线虫DNA快速提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟大平; 王曦茁; 汪来发; 田国忠; 朱天辉; 郭民伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective]It is crucial for detection of the pine wood nematode ( PWN) to develop a rapid and economic method of DNA extraction from the infested wood samples by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. This study aims at developing a method for rapidly extracting DNA of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from the infested pine wood.[Method]In this study,a new method was developed to directly extract the nematode DNA from the infested wood chips by using Chelex-100 combined with alkaline guanidine thiocyanate. The extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification ( LAMP) . [Result]The Chelex-100 was used to extract the nematode DNA and the factors, including Chelex-100 concentration, freezing and boiling time, affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. The result showed that the optimum Chelex-100 final concentration was 1. 5% (W/V),the optimum thawing time was 5 min,and the optimum boiling time was 8 min. The DNA concentration extracted by the Chelex-100 method was significantly higher than that extracted by CTAB and Proteinase K method under the same condition. The ratios of OD260 / 280 of the three methods was in a descending order of CTAB method > Proteinase K ≥Chelex-100 method. The OD260 / 280 value of extraction with Chelex-100 method was significantly lower than that with the CTAB method,but slightly lower than,or equal to that with the Proteinase K method,however the low OD260 / 280 value did not affect the extracted DNA used for PCR amplification. The electrophoresis strip of the specific PCR amplification of the 75 × 32 times dilution of the nematode DNA extracted by Chelex-100 method was still clear. The results of PCR and LAMP indicated that the detection of PWN using the Chelex-100-extracted-DNA was sensitive,specific,and stable. With the method the entire infested wood samples by PWN were detected positive,however,the healthy pine samples,including Pinus thunbergii, P. massoniana,P. tabuliformis and

  12. 感染松材线虫病松树滑刃目线虫调查%Investigation on Aphelenchida (Nematoda) from pine wood infected with Bursaphe-lenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄任娥; 叶建仁; 潘宏阳; 吴小芹; 谈家金

    2008-01-01

    本研究首次在全国范围内调查感染松材线虫病松树体内滑刃目线虫的种群组成,包括种类记述和数量组成分析.结果表明:在300份样品中共分离得到10种滑刃目线虫,隶属于3科、4属,其中有2个国内新记录种;它们是松材线虫、拟松材线虫、霍夫曼尼伞滑刃线虫、薄荷滑刃线虫、大核滑刃线虫、小麦长尾线虫(国内新记录种)、爱尔密那长尾线虫(国内新记录种)、李氏长尾线虫、吴氏长尾线虫和外滑刃科线虫一种;描述并且图示比较它们的形态特征.种群数量组成分析表明:松材线虫在感病松树体内占据绝对的优势,削弱了松树线虫群落组成的多样性,即线虫群落结构趋向单一化.研究还表明,利用长尾属线虫的捕食习性来控制中国松材线虫病的流行与危害值得进一步探索与研究.

  13. 中国马尾松木上伞滑刃属线虫新种记述%DESCRIPTION OF BURSAPHELENCHUS PARAPINASTERI SP. NOV. (NEMATODA, PARASITAPHELENCHIDAE) IN WOOD OF PINUS MASSONIANA FROM FUJIAN PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏毅; 张绍升

    2007-01-01

    在福建省泉州市南安的马尾松树上发现伞滑刃属线虫1新种,拟小松伞滑刃线虫Bursaphelenchus parapinasetri sp.nov.,新种热杀死体形及形态测量值大小与小松伞滑刃线虫B.pinasteri非常相似,但两者区别主要为:新种口针长,有基部球,雌虫无阴门盖,而近似种则与之相反;两者雄虫交合刺、交合伞形态及尾部乳突数量等方面特征也不同.

  14. Description of Bursaphelenchus dongguanensis sp. n. in China (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)%中国伞滑刃线虫1新种记述(线虫门:滑刃科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方羽生; 赵军; 卓侃

    2002-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus dongguanensis sp. N. Is described and illustrated. Both sexes have a long, slender body (a=64~134) and a short tail (c=48~102). The female vulva lacks a flap and is more posterior than with other species (V=86~92). The conoid tail of both sexes has a sharply mucronate tip. The male tail is straight and has a short, terminal caudal ala. The spicules display a pointed rostrum.%报道了在马尾松枯死木质部中发现的伞滑刃线虫属1新种--东莞伞滑刃线虫.线虫标本采自广东省东莞市.两性虫体均细长,a值64~134;尾部短,c值48~102;雌虫无阴门罩,阴门体后位,V值达86~92;雌雄虫尾部圆锥形具锐尖的末端;雄虫尾端直,有短的端抱片,交接刺具尖的喙突.

  15. Observations on the Morphology of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Yik, Choi-Pheng; Birchfield, W.

    1981-01-01

    Scans of slash pine wood chips infested with pine wood nematodes showed coiled aggregates of 5-10 nematodes in the axial resin canals, and 1-2 nematodes folded in the radial resin canals. Observations of the pine wood nematode by SEM showed the head to be offset with six labial lobes. A smaller circle of six inner lobes surrounded the stoma. A single labial sensillum was observed on each of the two subventral and two subdorsal lobes. The two opposite lobes, without sensilla, bore a pore-like ...

  16. 松材线虫rDNA的测序和PCR—SSCP分析%SEQUENCING AND PCR-SSCP ANALYSIS OF RIBOSOMAL DNA OF Bursaphelenchus NEMATODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立海; 廖金铃; 冯志新

    2001-01-01

    To overcome limitations in the morphological identification of Bursaphelenchus species, a molecular approach was used. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region was amplified and sequenced. A pairwise comparison of this sequence data revealed that the differences in the ITS1 region (approximately 308 bp) between four B. xylophilus isolates were slight (only 1 bp), but there are marked differences (up to 7 bp) in this region between the B. mucronatus isolates from China (Guangdong) and France.The data also revealed that the differences in the ITS1 region between the two Bursaphelenchus species range from 32-39 bp. Based on these data, the method of extracting the genomic DNA of the individual pinewood nematode and PCR-SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis were employed for the unequivocal differentiation of the Bursaphelenchus variant from B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus. These methods should provide a valuable tool for sensitive and accurate identification of individual worm of B. xylophilus.%本文为克服形态鉴定的不足,用分子生物学的方法鉴别松材线虫。线虫核糖体DNA(rDNA)的内部转录间隔区(ITS1)区(约308 bp)的测序结果显示:松材线虫种内区别很小,不超过1 bp;拟松材线虫种内区别较大,最大达7 bp;这2种线虫的种间区别为32~39 bp。根据以上测序结果,本文结合单条线虫DNA的提取技术,对14个松材线虫和拟松材线虫样本进行了单链构象多态性(PCR—SSCP)分析,结果表明PCR-SSCP分析技术可明确区分这2种线虫,该技术可为单条松材线虫的鉴定提供一套灵敏而可靠的方法。

  17. Bursaphelenchus singaporensis sp. N. ( Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) in packaging wood from Singapore--a new species of the B. Xylophlus group%进境木质包装中检出线虫新种--新加坡伞滑刃线虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    从新加坡进境阔叶木质包装中分离到伞滑刃属松材线虫组新种--新加坡伞滑刃线虫.该线虫雌虫和雄虫体长分别为850(690~961)μm和792(553~950)μm,身体较粗壮,口针15~16μm,侧区有4条侧线,雌虫后阴子宫囊较长(平均102μm),尾部圆锥形(c=20),略向腹面弯曲,末端钝圆,或有极短的尾尖突(1~2μm),雄虫交合刺长(41~48μm),喙突显著,远端有盘状突.该线虫与松材线虫组的B.conicaudatus、B.luxuriosae 、 B . fraudulentus 、 B . kolymensis 、 B . baujardi 、 B . xylophilus 、 B . mucronatus 及 B . abruptus 形态上近似 , 但可从较大的交合刺及雌虫尾部形态来区分.另外用ITS-RFLP方法也可将该线虫区分出来.

  18. 2种常见伞滑刃线虫的特异PCR检测方法%Special PCR detection of 2 common Bursaphelenchus spp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊玉芬; 王旭; 葛建军; 顾建锋; 王金成; 郑春生

    2013-01-01

    包括松材线虫和椰子红环腐线虫在内的伞滑刃属线虫形态上相似性高,形态鉴定难度较大.本文通过对伞滑刃属常见线虫群体ITS2区序列比对、分析,设计了木质包装材料检疫中常见的泰国伞滑刃线虫和豆伞滑刃线虫特异引物对各1对,并研究了这2种常见伞滑刃线虫的PCR检测方法,使用本文特异引物可分别特异、快速检测出这两种线虫.%It' s relatively difficult to distinguish species from Bursaphelenchus nematodes, including B. xylophilus and B. cocophilus which were important plant quarantine nematodes, due to their high morphology similarity. Two PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) special primer pairs for B. thailandae and B. doui which were frequently seen in wood packages, were designed individually, through alignment and anylysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions of Bursaphelenchus nematodes. Using the two primer pairs, special and rapid methods for identifying B. thailandae and B. doui were complished.

  19. Research Advances in Interplay of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Other Key Biological Factors Related to Pine Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huimin; NING Shaohua; LIANG Jun; LU Quan

    2006-01-01

    The paper separately discusses interplay of pine wood nematode and several key biological factors related to pine wilt disease, such as host trees, insect vectors, fungi, symbiotic bacteria, and natural enemy acarid, etc. By virtue of so much complicated interplay among the biological factors related to pine wilt disease which is different from other forest disease, it also points out that the further researches about pine wilt disease should focus on interplay mechanism of key biological factors to discover pathogenic mechanism, and simple and quick inspection and quarantine methods.

  20. Bursaphelenchus hofmanni Braasch, 1998 associated with peat growth substrate in hops nurseries in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Cermak, Václav; Vieira, Paulo; Cudejkova, Mária; Gaar, Vladimir; Tomankova, Katerina; Mikuskova, Katerina; Eisenback, Jonh; Mota, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    To date, seven Bursaphelenchus species have been re- ported in surveys of the Czech Republic (Cˇ ermák et al., 2013). However, the occurrence of some species, such as Bursaphelenchus hofmanni Braasch, 1998, is limited to single detections in imported coniferous wood (un- publ. data in Braasch, 2001). During a survey to deter- mine pathogenic agents on hops (Humulus lupulus L.) conducted by State Phytosanitary Administration (CZ) in hops fields and nurseries in 2012, B. hofmanni was found in a...

  1. Ascobolus Xylophilus redescribed from France with remarks on its taxonomic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.; Candoussau, F.

    1981-01-01

    During a collecting trip in the High Pyrenees (France) the second author has collected several fruit bodies of Ascobolus xylophilus Seaver on a log of rotten coniferous wood in a mountain stream. Till then this fungus was only known from the original specimens, collected by Prof. E. Bethel & Dr. F.

  2. Advances in phylogenetic studies of Nematoda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nematoda is a metazoan group with extremely high diversity only next to Insecta. Caenorhabditis elegans is now a favorable experimental model animal in modern developmental biology, genetics and genomics studies. However, the phylogeny of Nematoda and the phylogenetic position of the phylum within animal kingdom have long been in debate. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies gave great challenges to the traditional nematode classification. The new phylogenies not only placed the Nematoda in the Ecdysozoan and divided the phylum into five clades, but also provided new insights into animal molecular identification and phylogenetic biodiversity studies. The present paper reviews major progress and remaining problems in the current molecular phylogenetic studies of Nematoda, and prospects the developmental tendencies of this field.

  3. 两株具有杀松材线虫活性海洋细菌的筛选和鉴定%Screening and Identification of Two Marine Bacterial Strains with Antinematodal Activity Against Barsaphelenchus Xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海营; 于洁; 李荣贵; 郭道森

    2012-01-01

    为对松材线虫病进行生物防治,利用海洋微生物资源,对采自青岛近海域的海水、海泥、海藻和海洋动物样品进行了细菌分离,共得到14株细菌,并采用浸渍法对这些菌株进行杀线活性的测定,从中筛选出对松材线虫具有较强杀线活性的2株海洋细菌PX3-1和PX3-2,用它们的培养滤液处理松材线虫8h,实验结果表明,松材线虫的校正死亡率分别达89.1%和91.6%.通过形态特征观察、生理生化特征测定、16SrDNA序列及其系统发育分析,鉴定菌株PX3 -1和PX3 -1同属于巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus Megaterium).此二菌株对松材线虫具有较强的杀线活性,该研究为海洋微生物资源的利用及对松材线虫病的防治提供了生物材料和理论基础.%In order to probe the feasibility of the resources of marine microorganisms for the biological control of pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, fourteen marine bacterial strains were isolated from the samples of sea water, sea bed mud, seaweed and marine animal collected from the Yellow Sea near Qingdao, Shandong and their cultural filtrates were assayed in vitro for nematicidal activity against B. Xylophilus using immersion test. It was found that the cultural filtrates of strain PX3 - 1 and strain PX3 - 2 displayed stronger nematicidal activity to the tested nematodes and the revised mortalities of B. Xylophilus treated for 8h were 89. 1% and 91. 6 %, respectively. Based on the observation of morphology, the determination of physiological and biochemical characteristics, the analysis of 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree, PX3 - 1 and PX3 - 2 were identified as the strains of Bacillus Megaterium. This study provides biological materials and theoretical basis for the resource utilization of marine microorganisms and the control of pine wilt disease.

  4. New Plant-Parasitic Nematode from the Mostly Mycophagous Genus Bursaphelenchus Discovered inside Figs in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Natsumi Kanzaki; Ryusei Tanaka; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Kerrie A Davies

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. is described. The species was found in syconia of a fig species, Ficus variegata during a field survey of fig-associated nematodes in Japan. Because it has a well-developed stylet and pharyngeal glands, the species is considered an obligate plant parasite, and is easily distinguished from all other fungal-feeding species in the genus based upon these characters. Although B. sycophilus n. sp. shares an important typological character, m...

  5. New plant-parasitic nematode from the mostly mycophagous genus Bursaphelenchus discovered inside figs in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Kanzaki

    Full Text Available A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. is described. The species was found in syconia of a fig species, Ficus variegata during a field survey of fig-associated nematodes in Japan. Because it has a well-developed stylet and pharyngeal glands, the species is considered an obligate plant parasite, and is easily distinguished from all other fungal-feeding species in the genus based upon these characters. Although B. sycophilus n. sp. shares an important typological character, male spicule possessing a strongly recurved condylus, with the "B. eremus group" and the "B. leoni group" of the genus, it was inferred to be monophyletic with the "B. fungivorus group". The uniquely shaped stylet and well-developed pharyngeal glands is reminiscent of the fig-floret parasitic but paraphyletic assemblage of "Schistonchus". Thus, these morphological characters appear to be an extreme example of convergent evolution in the nematode family, Aphelenchoididae, inside figs. Other characters shared by the new species and its close relatives, i.e., lack of ventral P1 male genital papilla, female vulval flap, and papilla-shaped P4 genital papillae in males, corroborate the molecular phylogenetic inference. The unique biological character of obligate plant parasitism and highly derived appearance of the ingestive organs of Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. expands our knowledge of the potential morphological, physiological and developmental plasticity of the genus Bursaphelenchus.

  6. 拟松材线虫携带细菌对云南松的致病性%Pathogenicity of bacterium carried by Bursaphelenchus mucronatus on Pinus yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姝江; 朱天辉; 张兴华

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pine wood nematode (PWN) is a destructive disease to pines.For the research on its pathogenic mechanism,the theory which is about the complex infection of PWN and the bacterium carried by it is recognized. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus is considered as a related species of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ,which may be differentiation with the homologous species in different environments.In early studies,B.mucronatus was served as contrast species to B.xylophilus due to the weak or lacking pathogenicity.But recently,many reports have pointed out that it has the strong pathogenicity and can cause the widespread death of pines,which referred to Pinus thunbergii P.yunnanensis P.taiwanensis P.densata ,etc.The large numbers of P.yunnanensis were dead in Sichuan in recent years. However,no systematic study was conducted on the pathogenicity of the bacterium carried by B.mucronatus .This study has the aim of evaluating the effects of the bacterium carried by B.mucronatus on wilting ratio and phenylpropanoid metabolism of pine needles,and further exploring the effect of bacterium in the pathogenic process of B.mucronatus . Two-year-old P.yunnanensis seedlings,B.mucronatus isolated from PWN disease district in Sichuan,the bacterium carried by B.mucronatus and its metabolite as the materials,the wilting ratio was calculated,and the total phenol content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) activities were determined by the inoculation of burette to branch phloem of P.yunnanensis in laboratory,which represented the pathogenicity of the bacterium and its metabolite on P.yunnanensis . The results showed that Pectobacterium cypripedii and its non-protein metabolite had strongest effect on P. yunnanensis in 26 species of bacteria isolated from the surface of nematodes,and the wilting degree and wilting ratio were significantly high in these two treatments.They caused the accumulation of total phenol content and the changes of PAL,PPO and

  7. Species and Toxicity of Predominant Bacteria Carried by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Different Countries%不同国家松材线虫体表携带优势细菌种类及其毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲爱玲; 郑敬荣; 朱若箐; 王殿玺; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria strains on the body surface of Pine Wood Nematode ( PWN ) isolates from America, Japan and China wereseparated and identified, and the toxicity of the bacteria in culture filtrates to aseptic pine seedlings without root was deter-mined. Result showed that the colony of bacteria was single. The identification of bacteria was made by Biolog microbial identi-fication system and 16S RNA gene sequence analysis. Bacterial strain of Pantoea agglomerans was separated from PWN iso-lates from America. strain of Pantoea toletana from Zhejiang Province of China. strain of Pseuclomona.s fluore.scens from Ja-pan, one strain of Enterobacter cloacae from Lishui of China and the other strain from Japan, strain of Comamonas aci-dovorans from nematode of B. mucronatu.s in China. A bioassay of bacteria toxicity to the aseptic pine ( Pinus thunbergiiand P. massoniana ) seedlings without root showed that toxicities of E. cloaeae and P. fluore.scens were strongest, followedby P. toletana. and P. agglomeran.s and C. acidovorans exhihited the weakest toxicities to the pine seedlings.%收集了来源于美国、日本和中国的松材线虫虫株,分离了各虫株体表携带的细菌,确定了优势菌并进行鉴定,并用细菌培养的无细胞滤液对无菌黑松和马尾松切根苗进行了生物测定,以了解各细菌菌株对松苗的毒性.结果表明:所有虫株均携带明显的优势菌.经Biolog细菌自动鉴定系统和16S rDNA 序列分析鉴定表明,美国线虫虫株上分离的优势细菌为成团泛菌(Pantoea agglomerans);中国浙江虫株优势细菌为Pantoea toletana;日本虫株优势菌为荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens);中国溧水虫株分离的菌株与另一个日本菌株为同一种,都为阴沟肠杆菌(Enterobacter cloacae);中国拟松材线虫上分离的菌株为食酸丛毛单胞菌(Comamonas acidovorans).生物毒性测定结果显示:阴沟肠杆菌和荧光假单胞菌菌株产毒能力最强,泛菌属(P.toletana)菌株产毒能力次之,成团泛菌和食酸丛毛单胞菌菌株产毒能力最弱.

  8. Use of the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique for genetic diversity analysis of the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)%松材线虫种群遗传多样性AFLP标记的建立及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成飞雪; 成新跃; 谢丙炎; 李一农; 谢培振; 陈祥盛; 徐汝梅

    2005-01-01

    松材线虫是极具危险性的外来入侵生物,其引起的松材线虫病,目前正在我国部分地区迅速扩展和蔓延,对我国林业生产造成了严重的经济损失.开展松材线虫的种群遗传学研究,是了解其成功入侵和爆发成灾内在机理的重要途径.但迄今为止,尚未找到很有效的分子标记方法来检测松材线虫入侵种群的遗传变异.本文采用AFLP分子标记技术,通过对各反应体系和反应条件的优化及对多态性引物组合的筛选,成功地建立了松材线虫的AFLP分子标记实验体系,并筛选出52对高效多态性的引物组合.应用4对引物对27个松材线虫种群样品进行遗传多样性检测,结果表明,AFLP是进行松材线虫种群遗传学研究的一种很灵敏和可靠的分子标记.此外,本文还对AFLP技术在松材线虫研究中的应用前景进行了讨论.

  9. 拟松材线虫媒介昆虫报道%Report on the Vector Insects of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus(Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇翔; 徐正会; 喻盛甫; 赫传杰; 董燕

    2006-01-01

    对拟松材线虫发生区内46株萎蔫云南松上的主要蛀干害虫松墨天牛、纵坑切梢小蠹和马尾松角胫象甲进行采样、分离和镜检,结果表明:松墨天牛携带拟松材线虫,是拟松材线虫的主要媒介昆虫,纵坑切梢小蠹和马尾松角胫象甲未检出拟松材线虫.通过分析云南拟松材线虫的危害性提出防控对策.

  10. UTJECAJ FOSFORA I CINKA NA ZAJEDNICU NEMATODA PRI UZGOJU FEFERONA (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Brmež, Mirjana; Varga, Ivana; Benković-Lačić, Teuta; Lončarić, Zdenko

    2014-01-01

    Zajednica nematoda proučavana je prilikom uzgoja feferona pod utjecajem gnojidbe Zn i P. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi promjene zajednice nematoda u tlu pod utjecajem aplikacije P, Zn i njihove kombinacije (P+Zn). Analiza zajednice nematoda u istraživanju uključila je ispitivanja promjene ukupnoga broja nematoda i ukupnoga broja rodova te analizu trofičkih grupa. Uznemirenost zajednice utvrđena je pomoću indeksa uznemirenja: MI, MI 2–5 i PPI, te odnosa PPI/MI, a raznolikost zajednice...

  11. Evolution of Plant Parasitism in the Phylum Nematoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, C.W.; Smant, G.; Helder, J.

    2015-01-01

    Within the species-rich and trophically diverse phylum Nematoda, at least four independent major lineages of plant parasites have evolved, and in at least one of these major lineages plant parasitism arose independently multiple times. Ribosomal DNA data, sequence information from nematode-produced,

  12. Identifying Virulence-Associated Genes Using Transcriptomic and Proteomic Association Analyses of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Chen, Fengmao; Pan, Hongyang; Ye, Jianren; Dong, Xuejiao; Li, Chunyan; Lin, Fengling

    2016-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (B. mucronatus) isolates that originate from different regions may vary in their virulence, but their virulence-associated genes and proteins are poorly understood. Thus, we conducted an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic data of highly and weakly virulent B. mucronatus isolates during the pathogenic processes. Approximately 40,000 annotated unigenes and 5000 proteins were gained from the isolates. When we matched all of the proteins with their detected transcripts, a low correlation coefficient of r = 0.138 was found, indicating probable post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in the pathogenic processes. A functional analysis showed that five differentially expressed proteins which were all highly expressed in the highly virulent isolate were involved in the pathogenic processes of nematodes. Peroxiredoxin, fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase relate to resistance against plant defence responses, while β-1,4-endoglucanase and expansin are associated with the breakdown of plant cell walls. Thus, the pathogenesis of B. mucronatus depends on its successful survival in host plants. Our work adds to the understanding of B. mucronatus’ pathogenesis, and will aid in controlling B. mucronatus and other pinewood nematode species complexes in the future. PMID:27618012

  13. Identifying Virulence-Associated Genes Using Transcriptomic and Proteomic Association Analyses of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifeng; Chen, Fengmao; Pan, Hongyang; Ye, Jianren; Dong, Xuejiao; Li, Chunyan; Lin, Fengling

    2016-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (B. mucronatus) isolates that originate from different regions may vary in their virulence, but their virulence-associated genes and proteins are poorly understood. Thus, we conducted an integrated study coupling RNA-Seq and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic data of highly and weakly virulent B. mucronatus isolates during the pathogenic processes. Approximately 40,000 annotated unigenes and 5000 proteins were gained from the isolates. When we matched all of the proteins with their detected transcripts, a low correlation coefficient of r = 0.138 was found, indicating probable post-transcriptional gene regulation involved in the pathogenic processes. A functional analysis showed that five differentially expressed proteins which were all highly expressed in the highly virulent isolate were involved in the pathogenic processes of nematodes. Peroxiredoxin, fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, and glutathione peroxidase relate to resistance against plant defence responses, while β-1,4-endoglucanase and expansin are associated with the breakdown of plant cell walls. Thus, the pathogenesis of B. mucronatus depends on its successful survival in host plants. Our work adds to the understanding of B. mucronatus' pathogenesis, and will aid in controlling B. mucronatus and other pinewood nematode species complexes in the future. PMID:27618012

  14. Helminth parasites (Cestoidea: Nematoda) of select herpetofauna from Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-four amphibians (6 families, 12 species) and 28 reptiles (5 families, 16 species) from Paraguay were examined for helminths. Fifteen (44%) amphibians and 6 (21%) reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 4 (12%) amphibians and 2 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections. Three species of Cestoidea and 17 species of Nematoda were found in the herptiles surveyed. Fourteen new host and 12 new locality records are documented, including the first report of the filaroid nematode, Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954) Chabaud and Frank, 1961, from South America.

  15. Mating pheromones of Nematoda: olfactory signaling with physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Daniel Hw; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-06-01

    Secreted pheromones have long been known to influence mating in the phylum Nematoda. The study of nematode sexual behavior has greatly benefited in the last decade from the genetic and neurobiological tools available for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as from the chemical identification of many pheromones secreted by this species. The discovery that nematodes can influence one another's physiological development and stress responsiveness through the sharing of pheromones, in addition to simply triggering sexual attraction, is particularly striking. Here we review recent research on nematode mating pheromones, which has been conducted predominantly on C. elegans, but there are beginning to be parallel studies in other species. PMID:27213246

  16. Occurrence of Tetrameres confusa (Nematoda, Tetrameridae) in Ara ararauna (Psittacidae) Ocorrência de Tetrameres confusa (Nematoda, Tetrameridae) em Ara ararauna (Psittacidae)

    OpenAIRE

    R.J. Silva; T.C.G. Oliveira-Sequeira; C.C. Gurgel

    2005-01-01

    Relata-se a ocorrência de Tetrameres confusa Travassos 1917 (= T. americana (Cram, 1927) Baylis, 1929) (Nematoda, Tetrameridae) em um novo hospedeiro, Ara ararauna Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves, Psittacidae). Este é o primeiro registro da ocorrência do nematódeo em psitacídeos no Brasil.

  17. Lista preliminar dos Nematoda, Annelida e Chordata terrestres dos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo A V Borges

    2005-01-01

    Apresenta-se uma lista preliminar dos Filos Nematoda, Annelida e Chordata terrestres dos Açores. Com base na recente lista de espécies animais terrestres da Europa, projecto “Fauna Europaea” (http://www.faunaeur.org), listam-se 80 espécies de nemátodos e 21 espécies de anelídeos terrestres. As cerca de 49 espécies de vertebrados (Chordata) listados correspondem às espécies que se reproduzem nos Açores. ABSTRACT: A preliminary list of the Phyla Nematoda, Annelida and Chordata was compiled. ...

  18. Algorithm of Orientation and Standardization on Spicule Morphologic Image of Bursaphelenchus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)%伞滑刃线虫交合刺形态图像的规范化和定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦树荣; 陈晓玲; 曾文才; 方羽生

    2008-01-01

    应用数字图像处理与分析技术中的最小外接矩形算法和镜像变换算法,用Visual c++作为开发工具,通过编程实现计算机对伞滑刃属线虫交合刺形态图像鉴定规范化和定位的智能化.输入伞滑刃属66个有效种的交合刺形态图像运行程序,均获得正确的定位结果.

  19. Bursaphelenchus sp. (nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)found in pine-wood box imported from South Korea.%从韩国进境松木包装箱上截获一种伞滑刃属线虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦国勋; 周弘

    2000-01-01

    从韩国进境的松木包装箱中截获了一种伞滑刃属线虫.该线虫与松材线虫、拟松材线虫、假伞滑刃线虫在形态上有许多相似之处,但又不同于这三种线虫.主要区别在雌虫的尾部形态及口针长度,雄虫的交合刺、交合伞,以及a、b测量值上.

  20. Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) infections of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in the Netherlands: epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathobiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980s an eel parasitic nematode, Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea), which infects the swimbladder of European eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) and other freshwater fish species, was introduced into The Netherlands. This thesis describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathobiology

  1. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  2. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Nematoda as revealed by ribosomal DNA, and their biological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, M.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nematodes – “eel worms”; members of the phylum Nematoda – can be considered as a success story within the Metazoa (multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes in which cells lack cell walls): they are speciose and – probably - the most numerous group of multicellular animals on our planet. Nematodes are

  4. Teaching Population Growth Using Cultures of Vinegar Eels, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; van Heerden, E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-06-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth's crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or recovered from 0.9-3.6-kilometre-deep fracture water in the deep mines of South Africa but have not been detected in the mining water. These subsurface nematodes, including a new species, Halicephalobus mephisto, tolerate high temperature, reproduce asexually and preferentially feed upon subsurface bacteria. Carbon-14 data indicate that the fracture water in which the nematodes reside is 3,000-12,000-year-old palaeometeoric water. Our data suggest that nematodes should be found in other deep hypoxic settings where temperature permits, and that they may control the microbial population density by grazing on fracture surface biofilm patches. Our results expand the known metazoan biosphere and demonstrate that deep ecosystems are more complex than previously accepted. The discovery of multicellular life in the deep subsurface of the Earth also has important implications for the search for subsurface life on other planets in our Solar System.

  6. Checklist of the phyla Platyhelminthes, Xenacoelomorpha, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, Myxozoa, Tardigrada, Cephalorhyncha, Nemertea, Echiura, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, Chaetognatha, and Chordata (Tunicata, Cephalochordata, and Hemichordata) from the coasts of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇINAR, Melih Ertan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the current status of the species diversity of 13 phyla, namely Platyhelminthes, Xenacoelomorpha, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, Myxozoa, Tardigrada, Cephalorhyncha, Nemertea, Echiura, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, Chaetognatha, and Chordata (invertebrates, only Tunicata, Cephalochordata, and Hemichordata) along the coasts of Turkey is reviewed. Platyhelminthes was represented by 186 species, Chordata by 64 species, Nemertea by 26 species, Nematoda by 20 species, Xenacoelomorpha by 11 spe...

  7. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, David M

    2015-08-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100-500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive

  8. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea in wildlife: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Spratt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20 given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna

  9. In vitro larvicidal activity of geraniol and citronellal against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae)

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Barros; A.R. Yamanaka; L.E. Silva; M.L.A. VANZELER; D.T. Braum; J. Bonaldo

    2009-01-01

    Human infection with fish parasites can result from the ingestion of incompletely cooked or raw fish, giving origin to parasitic diseases such as anisakiasis, caused by parasites of the Anisakidae family. The present study assessed the in vitro larvicidal effect of two monoterpene compounds, geraniol and citronellal, against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Four hundred live larvae of Contracaecum sp obtained from "traíra" fish (Hoplias malabaricus, Bloch, 1974) were analyzed on 40 Pet...

  10. Some Morphological Aspects of Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus (Nematoda: Cyathostominae Parasite of Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Helio MA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some morphological aspects of Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus (Ihle, 1920 (Nematoda: Cyathostominae from Equus caballus in Brazil. The worms were studied using an optical microscope (measurements and illustrations and a scanning electron microscope for a more detailed examination of the external morphology. The buccal capsule is very short, with a very thin wall, and the dorsal gutter is absent. Other morphological aspects are described including measurement of the spicules and gubernaculum.

  11. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae): new wild host and distribution expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia Paula Scioscia; Pablo Martín Beldomenico; Guillermo María Denegri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina w...

  12. Revision of the Australasian genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida), with molecular phylogeny, and descriptions of clades and associated Fergusonina fly larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a mutualistic association with Fergusonina flies, Fergusobia nematodes form galls on Myrtaceous hosts. The genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida) is revised, an emended diagnosis of the genus is presented, and its putative phylogeny is discussed. There is molecular and morphological evidence ...

  13. 一株具有杀松材线虫活性海洋真菌的筛选和初步鉴定%Screening and Preliminary Identification of One Marine Fungal Strain with Nematicidal Activity Against Barsaphelenchus Xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中强; 于洁; 刘超; 刘晓宇; 郭道森

    2013-01-01

    为了从分离得到的海洋真菌中筛选并鉴定具有杀松材线虫活性的菌株,本文采用稀释涂布平板法对采自青岛近海海域样品中的真菌进行分离,使用浸渍法对菌株的培养滤液和菌丝破碎液进行杀松材线虫活性测定,同时根据菌落形态、大小、色泽等特点的不同,经进一步纯化得到6个纯菌株,对这些菌株进行杀线活性测定,经初步筛选得到2株具有较强杀线活性的菌株,菌株HZ 11处理28 h时杀线活性最高,其培养滤液和菌丝破碎滤液的线虫校正死亡率分别达到72.6%和84.1%;菌株HZ 12处理32 h时杀线活性最高,其培养滤液和菌丝破碎滤液处理的线虫校正死亡率分别为46.3%和58.8%。选出活性表现最强的菌株HZ 11进行后续实验。实验结果表明,菌株HZ 11为轮枝孢属(Verticillium)的真菌。本研究对由松材线虫引起的松树萎蔫病的生物防治具有重要的理论意义。%In order to screen and identify the fungal strains with nematicidal activity against the pine wood nematode,Barsaphelenchus xylophilus,from the fungi isolated from the marine environment,in this pa-per,the dilution and streak plate method was used to isolate fungal strains from the samples collected from the Yellow Sea near Qingdao.The culture filtrate and mycelial extract of the fungal strains isolated were assayed invitro for nematicidal activity using immersion test.At the same time,based on the coloni-al morphology,size,color and other characteristics,six pure strains were isolated.After preliminary screening,two strains with strong nematicidal activity were obtained.Strain HZ 1 1 showed the highest activity against B.xylophilus.The revised mortalities of B.xylophilus treated with the culture filtrate and mycelial extract of HZ 1 1 for 28h were 72.6% and 84.1%,respectively.Strain HZ 1 2 reached the highest nematicidal activity against B.xylophilus treated with the culture filtrate and mycelial

  14. La necrosis bacteriana de la vid, causada por xylophilus ampelinus. Detección serológica, distribución en Aragón y sensibilidad varietal.

    OpenAIRE

    CAMBRA ALVAREZ, MIGUEL

    2011-01-01

    La necrosis bacteriana de la vid, causada por la bacteria de cuarentena Xylophilus ampelinus, es una enfermedad de difícil control químico y que ha causado en España importantes pérdidas económicas. Actualmente, es endémica en distintas zonas de Aragón y Galicia y se han identificado focos aislados en La Rioja. Ante la carencia de métodos sensibles y específicos de detección de esta bacteria que se puedan utilizar para el análisis rutinario, se ha puesto a punto un método de ex...

  15. First report of parasitism by Ophidascaris robertsi (Nematoda) in a sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps, Marsupialia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Agúndez, Miguel; Villaluenga Rodríguez, Jose Enrique; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Spratt, David M

    2014-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ophidascarsis robertsi (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) were found on necropsy in a female sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps (Marsupialia: Petauridae), two in heart chambers and one free in the peritoneal cavity. The animal was bred in captivity and had previous contact with Australian pythons captured in nature, which could be the source of the infection. The histopathologic diagnosis was intraluminal and perivascular pulmonary hemorrhage possibly due to the parasitosis. It is the first report of parasitism by O. robertsi in a sugar glider.

  16. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. represents the 21st species assigned to the genus and the 9th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; it is the only species possessing 24 or more rosette papillae to have 4 postcloacal papillae. In addition, a list of species assigned to Cosmocercoides is provided; however, C. fotedari Arya, 1992 is removed from the genus and until further study is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:24570052

  17. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  18. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Phymaturus spp. (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestines of Phymaturus punae and Phymaturus williamsi (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from province of San Juan, Argentina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon sanjuanensis sp. nov. is the 54th species assigned to the genus and the 8th from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus in that males possess 8 caudal papillae, 6 of which are large and pedunculate, 2 are small, almost inconspicuous; anterior lip echinate, posterior lip bilobate; females possess prominent vulva and short stiff tail spike. PMID:27447208

  19. Scientific Opinion on a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode from the bark of pine trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle...

  20. [Presence of a new Trichostrongyloidea (Nematoda) Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. in an Erinacoidea (Insectivora) in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, J C; Durette-Desset, M C

    1982-12-01

    Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea) of Ethiopian Erinacoidea. - Nochtia (Nochtia) atelerixi n. sp. is found in the intestine of the hedgehog Atelerix albiventris in Togo. It is distinguished from the two other congeneric species parasite of asiatic Primates, N. (N.) nochti Travassos et Vogelsang, 1929 and N. (N.) tani Le Van Hoa, 1966, mainly by the highest number of cuticular crests and spicules with six tips. PMID:6926936

  1. On a new species of Aplectana (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from Kulti, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Sow, Kanchan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2014-10-01

    During routine survey for amphibian nematodes from coalfield areas of West Bengal, India 7 male and 12 female nematodes were recovered from the rectum of one out of three Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1899) examined for helminth infection from Kulti, Burdwan. On examination the recovered nematodes were found to belong to a new species of the genus Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and the name Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. is proposed for them. This species is most similar to those species which possess gubernaculum but differs from all by distribution pattern of caudal papillae. Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. represents 49(th) species assigned to the genus, but only the 4(th) species reported from Oriental realm and second from India. PMID:25236282

  2. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae): new wild host and distribution expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum). Examination of the intestinal content was performed using the sedimentation and counting technique. Four foxes (5%) were found to be parasitized with adult specimens of A. buckleyi. This is the first report of Ancylostoma (A.) buckleyi in Argentina and adds L. gymnocercus as new host of this nematode species. PMID:27334825

  3. Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma buckleyi (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae: new wild host and distribution expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Paula Scioscia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957 (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus (Mammalia: Canidae. This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum. Examination of the intestinal content was performed using the sedimentation and counting technique. Four foxes (5% were found to be parasitized with adult specimens of A. buckleyi. This is the first report of Ancylostoma (A. buckleyi in Argentina and adds L. gymnocercus as new host of this nematode species.

  4. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee

    2014-10-01

    Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. PMID:25236275

  5. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  6. A new species of Biacantha (Nematoda: Molineidae), a parasite of the common vampire bat from the Yungas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina. PMID:22924934

  7. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda; Oxyuroidea; Pharyngodonide) and other Helminths in Ptychozoon Kuhli (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Lee Grismer, L

    2016-03-01

    Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. from the intestines of Ptychozoon kuhli (Gekkonidae) from East Malaysia is described and illustrated. Spauligodon geckonis sp. nov. represents the 52nd species assigned to the genus and the third species from the Oriental Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and spicule in the male and spinose filamentous tail and fusiform, two knobbed eggs in the female. Gravid individuals 3 species of Nematoda, Meteterakis singaporensis, Physalopteroides grismeri, and Skrjabinelazia machidai, as well as larvae assignable to the Ascaridae were also found. PMID:27078659

  8. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bisaggio Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus (Kyphosidae, off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  9. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Great Smoky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R T; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Ye, Weimin; Pedram, Majid

    2009-06-01

    In October 1985 during a survey of fauna of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Ernest Bernard recovered a limited number of specimens of a non-described species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and sent them to the senior author. The species is distinct from other species by its large size and having Z-organs in the genital tract. During July 2006, Dr. Bernard's survey crew took samples in the area where the species was first found and was successful in finding it again. Without Dr. Bernard's efforts, this species could not have been described and thus the new species is named X. bernardi n. sp. in his honor. Several female and juvenile specimens of the new species were recovered in a sample from a mixed forest of maple, hemlock, and silverbell. It is distinct from all others in Xiphinema group 4 species (with Z-organs) by having a longer total stylet length, 259.8 to 284.2 μm vs code for X. bernardi n. sp. is A4-B1-C6-D56-E56-F(4)5-G4-H2-I34-J5-K?-L1. Molecular approaches using the internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA suggested that X. bakeri and X. diversicaudatum are the most closely related species from the species examined. PMID:22661783

  10. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany. PMID:27617204

  11. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease. PMID:25772632

  12. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids or biting midges (ceratopogonids. Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25, roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6 and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7, all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  13. A new Cephalobium Cobb (Nematoda, Cephalobiidae, a parasite of Anurogryllus Muticus (De Geer (Orthoptera, Gryllidae from Argentina

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    Nora B. Camino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cephalobium from Gorina, La Plata, Argentina, parasiting nymphs of Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer (Orthoptera, Gryllidae is described and illustrated. This nematode can be characterized by having the stoma longer than broad, the glottoid apparatus anisoglottid and anisomorphic, divided into two portions, one with cuticularized walls and the other with three simple dorsal teeth. The male is further characterized by the presence of two long and separated spicules and short gubernaculum without any projection. Genital papillae are arranged in five postanal pairs.Uma espécie nova do gênero Cephalobium (Nematoda, Cephalobiidae, parasita de Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer (Ortoptera, Gryllidae de Gorina, La Plata, Argentina, é descrita e ilustrada. Este nematoda pode ser caracterizado por apresentar estoma mais longo que largo, o aparelho glottoideo anisoglottideo e anisomórfico, dividido em duas porções, uma com paredes quitinizadas e a outra com três dentes dorsais simples. O macho possui espículas longas e separadas e o gubernáculo curto sem qualquer projeção. As papilas genitais estão organizadas em cinco pares pós-anais.

  14. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinemaelongatum and X.pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872Xiphinemaelongatum and KP407873Xiphinemapachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinemapachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinemaelongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms.

  15. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema elongatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Damessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of X. elongatum and X. pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 X. elongatum and KP407873 X. pachtaicum with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of X. pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but X. elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4% which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as X. elongatum and X. pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms.

  16. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema elongatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 Xiphinema elongatum and KP407873 Xiphinema pachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinema pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinema elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms. PMID:25878528

  17. Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Great Smoky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R T; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Ye, Weimin; Pedram, Majid

    2009-06-01

    In October 1985 during a survey of fauna of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Ernest Bernard recovered a limited number of specimens of a non-described species of Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and sent them to the senior author. The species is distinct from other species by its large size and having Z-organs in the genital tract. During July 2006, Dr. Bernard's survey crew took samples in the area where the species was first found and was successful in finding it again. Without Dr. Bernard's efforts, this species could not have been described and thus the new species is named X. bernardi n. sp. in his honor. Several female and juvenile specimens of the new species were recovered in a sample from a mixed forest of maple, hemlock, and silverbell. It is distinct from all others in Xiphinema group 4 species (with Z-organs) by having a longer total stylet length, 259.8 to 284.2 μm vs Xiphinema bernardi n. sp. is distinctive because of its long body length (4.45 to 6.00 mm), tail shape, and c' ratio. Of the group 4 species, it most closely resembles X. phoenicis. Second, third and fourth stage juvenile descriptions and morphometrics are included. The polytomous key code for X. bernardi n. sp. is A4-B1-C6-D56-E56-F(4)5-G4-H2-I34-J5-K?-L1. Molecular approaches using the internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA suggested that X. bakeri and X. diversicaudatum are the most closely related species from the species examined.

  18. Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Figueiredo; Luis G. Pedro; Barroso, José G.; Maria Teresa Tinoco; Luís Silva Dias; Mendes, Marta D.; Jorge M. S. Faria; Pedro Barbosa; Manuel Mota

    2012-01-01

    Acetone was investigated and found to be an appropriate alternative to Triton X-100 as a solvent of essential oils in bioassays aimed to investigate their effects on pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) mortality. Therefore it was used as dilution agent to screen the effectiveness of fifty two essential oils against this pest. Thirteen essential oils were highly effective, resulting in more than 90% pinewood nematode mortality at 2 mg/mL, with six of them resulting in 100% mortality...

  19. Hexamermis paranaense new species (Nematoda, Mermithidae: a parasite of Diloboderus abderus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in Argentina Hexamermis paranaense sp. nov. (Nematoda, Mermithidae: parasito de Diloboderus abderus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Achinelly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Hexamermis paranaense n. sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae, a parasite of larvae of Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by amphids small, amphidial opening pocket-shaped, the anterior portion of the vagina muscularized and slightly protruding with a descending branch forming a loop before joining the uterus, and three rows of genital papillae: the ventrolateral divided in two rows with eight papillae in the outer row and with six papillae in the inner one; the ventral row with four pairs and one single preanal papillae, and with two pairs, a triplete, one pair, a single and one pair postanal papillae.Una nueva especie, Hexamermis paranaense sp. nov. (Nematoda, Mermithidae, parásito de larvas del gusano blanco, Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, se describe e ilustra. Esta nueva especie se caracteriza por poseer anfidos pequeños, con la apertura en forma de bolsillo, parte anterior de la vagina muscular, con una rama que desciende y forma un lazo antes de la conexión al útero, tres hileras de papilas genitales: la hilera de posición ventro-lateral dividida en dos hileras con ocho papilas en la hilera externa y con seis papilas en la interna; la hilera ventral con una papila, seguida de cuatro pares, todas en posición preanal y dos pares, interrumpidos por tres papilas, seguida de un par, una simple, y un par, todas de posición postanal.

  20. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti.

  1. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti. PMID:17622560

  2. Dracunculus mulbus n. sp. (Nematoda: Spirurida) from the water python Liasis fuscus (Serpentes: Boidae) in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hugh I; Mulder, Eridani

    2007-03-01

    A new species of Dracunculus Reichard, 1759 (Nematoda: Spirurida) is described from the tissues surrounding organs in the body-cavity of the water python Liasis fuscus Peters in northern Australia. One to 14 worms were recovered from 22% (27/120) of pythons examined. Males were located principally around the lungs, liver and heart of the hosts, and females were recovered from peritoneal tissue surrounding the intestines and lining the body-cavity. This species differs from previously described species of Dracunculus in the position of the papillae at the posterior end in males, and in the possession of thick, narrow caudal alae. Submedian cephalic papillae are single in both sexes. Dorsal and ventral anterior cephalic papillae are absent in males. This is the first report of a species of Dracunculus from the Australian region.

  3. Morphological variation of the corona radiata in Oesophagostomum dentatum, O-quadrispinulatum, and O-radiatum (Nematoda: Strongyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, B.; Bresciani, J.; Christensen, C.M.;

    1997-01-01

    The anterior end of 76 adult and of several juvenile Oesaphagostomum dentatum, of 75 adult O. quadrispinulatum, and of 70 adult O. radiatum (Strongylida, Nematoda) was investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Both an external and an internal ring of buccal leaves (corona radiata...... externa and interna) are present in O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum, whereas a single ring of buccal leaves occurs in O. radiatum. Remnants of external buccal leaves indicate that the single ring of leaves found in the latter species is homologous to the corona radiata interna of O. dentatum and O....... quadrispinulatum. The number of buccal leaves of the corona radiata varies remarkably in adults of all 3 species. There are 9-12 external leaves in O. dentatum, 9-11 external leaves in O. quadrispinulatum, and 30-40 internal leaves in O. radiatum. Nine leaves are most common in both O. dentatum and O...

  4. In vitro larvicidal activity of geraniol and citronellal against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae

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    L.A. Barros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection with fish parasites can result from the ingestion of incompletely cooked or raw fish, giving origin to parasitic diseases such as anisakiasis, caused by parasites of the Anisakidae family. The present study assessed the in vitro larvicidal effect of two monoterpene compounds, geraniol and citronellal, against Contracaecum sp (Nematoda: Anisakidae. Four hundred live larvae of Contracaecum sp obtained from "traíra" fish (Hoplias malabaricus, Bloch, 1974 were analyzed on 40 Petri dishes (10 larvae each with the compounds to be tested. The final concentrations tested for each compound were 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.2 µg/mL and the evaluation was carried out at five different times (2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h. The larvicidal action of geraniol and citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005 to the control (1% ethanol at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 µg/mL (geraniol and 250, 125, and 62.5 μg/mL (citronellal. However, no larvicidal activity was observed at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 µg/mL for geraniol and 31.2 µg/mL for citronellal. When the larvicidal action of geraniol was compared to that of citronellal, the former was found to be statistically superior (P < 0.05 to the latter at concentrations of 250 and 31.2 μg/mL. On the other hand, citronellal was statistically superior (P < 0.005 to geraniol at concentrations of 125 and 62.5 μg/mL. The larval mortality rate in terms of time (hours was higher for geraniol with the passing of time at the 250 μg/mL concentration. At this concentration (in 48 h the best larvicidal effect was observed with 90% lethality. The larvae were considered to be dead using no motility and loss of structural integrity as parameters. The data indicate that natural terpene compounds should be more explored for antihelminthic activity and can be useful for other studies about anisakiasis treatment.

  5. New North American records of aquatic insects as paratenic hosts of pheromermis (nematoda : mermithidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, D. P.; Vinikour, W. S.; Anderson, R. V.; Environmental Assessment; New York State Museum; Western Illinois Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Several species of aquatic insects in Trout Park Nature Preserve (Elgin, IL) were observed to have small, black spots (<0.1 mm diameter) visible within their bodies. Microscopic examination revealed these spots to be coiled juveniles of a mermithid (Nematoda: Mermithidae). Based on host habitat (seepage areas and rivulets), host species (aquatic insects), and size (mean diameter of coiled juveniles = 79 {mu}m), it is likely that these mermithids were in the genus Pheromermis. Since adult mermithids were not found, species determination was not feasible, and the possibility of a new species cannot be ruled out. Pheromermis pachysoma and Pheromermis vesparum, however, are two species known to use aquatic insects as paratenic (i.e., transport) hosts in order to reach their definitive hosts, vespid wasps. Wasp larvae are infected by consuming the flesh of adult aquatic insects that contain the coiled juveniles of these Pheromermis spp. Of the 19 macroinvertebrate species examined in this study, Pheromermis juveniles were found in 4 caddisfly species (Hesperophylax designatus, Lepidostoma liba, Glossosoma intermedium, and Diplectrona modesta) and in 2 stonefly species (Clioperla clio and Amphinemura delosa). In addition to all 6 insect species being new host records for Pheromermis infection, this also represents the first report of nematode infection in stoneflies within the Western Hemisphere and of a Pheromermis sp. in Illinois. Among trophic groups, insect detritivores have been frequently recorded infected with coiled Pheromermis juveniles because of their direct consumption of eggs, and we also observed this for detritivores in our investigation (e.g., L. liba and A. delosa). Because C. clio was intensively infected, however, our study also provided evidence that predatory insects can be paratenic hosts. Coiled juveniles were typically present in muscle and fat body and present in almost all body regions. Not every infected paratenic host had external signs of

  6. On Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: South American correlated species (Nematoda, Cucullanidae and some other helminths of micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Pisces, Sciaenidae Sobre Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: espécies sul americanas correlatas (Nematoda, Cucullanidae e alguns outros helmintos de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823(Pisces, Sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Júlio Vicente

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tomquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, from Venezuela, of which D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 is proposed as a junior synonym, is redescribed and comments on the present status of the remaining species under the group, namely D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1970 Petter, 1974 and D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974, occuring in South America are made. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acanthocephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium caryophyllum (Diesing, 1850(Cestoidea, Otobothriidae and Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819(Cestoidea, Dasyrhynchidae as well as larval forms of Echinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae are also reported.Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, da Venezuela, da qual D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 é proposta como sinônimo junior, é descrita, e são feitos comentários sobre a atual situação das outras espécies do mesmo grupo, ocorrendo na América do Sul, a saber: D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1971 Petter, 1974 e D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acantochephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium cariophyllum (Diesing, 1850 (Cestoidea, Otobothriidae e Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819 (Cestoidea, Dayrhynchidae bem como formas larvares de Exhinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae e Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae são também assinaladas.

  7. Moving towards a complete molecular framework of the Nematoda: a focus on the Enoplida and early-branching clades

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    Lambshead P John D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subclass Enoplia (Phylum Nematoda is purported to be the earliest branching clade amongst all nematode taxa, yet the deep phylogeny of this important lineage remains elusive. Free-living marine species within the order Enoplida play prominent roles in marine ecosystems, but previous molecular phylogenies have provided only the briefest evolutionary insights; this study aimed to firmly resolve internal relationships within the hyper-diverse but poorly understood Enoplida. In addition, we revisited the molecular framework of the Nematoda using a rigorous phylogenetic approach in order to investigate patterns of early splits amongst the oldest lineages (Dorylaimia and Enoplia. Results Morphological identifications, nuclear gene sequences (18S and 28S rRNA, and mitochondrial gene sequences (cox1 were obtained from marine Enoplid specimens representing 37 genera. The 18S gene was used to resolve deep splits within the Enoplia and evaluate the branching order of major clades in the nematode tree; multiple phylogenetic methods and rigorous empirical tests were carried out to assess tree topologies under different parameters and combinations of taxa. Significantly increased taxon sampling within the Enoplida resulted in a well-supported, robust phylogenetic topology of this group, although the placement of certain clades was not fully resolved. Our analysis could not unequivocally confirm the earliest splits in the nematode tree, and outgroup choice significantly affected the observed branching order of the Dorylaimia and Enoplia. Both 28S and cox1 were too variable to infer deep phylogeny, but provided additional insight at lower taxonomic levels. Conclusions Analysis of internal relationships reveals that the Enoplia is split into two main clades, with groups consisting of terrestrial (Triplonchida and primarily marine fauna (Enoplida. Five independent lineages were recovered within the Enoplida, containing a mixture of marine

  8. Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae) from a False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Cetacea: Delphinidae), Stranded on the Coast of Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    María Inés Zylber; Gabriela Failla; Alfredo Le Bas

    2002-01-01

    Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae) was found in the cranial air sinuses of a false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Owen), stranded on the coast of Uruguay in 1999. Although this species has been reported once in P. crassidens from the North Atlantic, this is the first record for South America. A total of 920 specimens were obtained, of which 663 were females (body length: 4.34 ± 0.45 cm) and 257 were males (2.99 ± 0.18 cm). Morphometric details are pre...

  9. Description and molecular characterisation of Cloacina johnstoni sp. nov. (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from the wallaroo, Macropus robustus (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) and relationships with the synhospitalic species C. macropodis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Mary; Jabbar, Abdul; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Cloacina johnstoni sp. nov. (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) is described from the sacculated forestomach of the wallaroo, Macropus robustus (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from Australia. It resembles the synhospitalic species Cloacina macropodis but differs from it principally in the shape of the cephalic papillae. The two species are also distinguishable based on differences in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Cloacina johnstoni commonly co-occurs in the same individual host as C. macropodis but has a more restricted geographical distribution. PMID:27169862

  10. 木质包装材料中线虫一新种(线虫门,滑刃科)记述%DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES (NEMATODA, APHELENCHOIDIDAE) ISOLATED FROM WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金成; 余本渊; 林茂松

    2005-01-01

    记述了伞滑刃属线虫1新种,即弯尾伞滑刃线虫Bursaphelenchus curvicaudatus sp.nov..线虫样本自中国连云港口岸截获木质包装材料中分离获得.新种体长相对较长(雌虫767~960 μm;雄虫663~831 μm),口针较短(雌虫13.9~17.4 μm;雄虫13.9~16.5 μm),口针基部略微加厚,交合刺小(16.5~21.6 μm),末端盘状结构不明显,雌虫尾明显向腹面弯曲.另外,新种雄虫有6个尾乳突,与以前报道有7个尾乳突不同.交合刺形状、雌虫尾的形状及体长等特征能将新种与B.hofmanni、B.abietinus、B.fun-givorus、B.hellenicus、B. hylobianum、B.rainufi、B.eggersi以及B.corneolus区分开来.新种特有的限制性酶切图谱(PCR-ITS-RFLP图谱)是该分离物为1新种的分子证据.%Bursaphelenchus curvicaudatus sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Specimens were extracted from the intercepted packaging wood from Lianyungang Port, Lianyungang City, China. Bursaphelenchus curvicaudatus sp. nov. is characterized by relatively long body lengths (female 767-960 μm; male 663-831 μm), short stylets (female 13.9-17.4 μm; male 13.9-16.5 μm) with weak basal thickening, small spicules (16.5-21.6 μm) with obscure cucullus, distinguishingly bent female tails and six male caudal papillae. Lots of features such as spicule shape, female tail shape, body length supported Bursaphelenchus curvicaudatus sp. nov. distinguishes from B. hofmanni, B. abietinus, B. fungivorus, B. hellenicus, B. hylobianum, B.rainulfi, B. eggersi and B. corneolus. The PCR-ITS-RFLP pattern also provided further evidence that this isolate is a new species.

  11. Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) larvae: developmental stages, migration route and morphological changes in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Sávio; Silveira, Andrea Kill; Vieira, Flávio Dias; Traversa, Donato

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the morphological modifications occurring during the larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), along with the reactions caused by parasitism and the migration route of the nematodes inside the flies. Houseflies were reared on faeces of a H. muscae-infected horse, then dissected and processed by histology. The experimental part of the study was performed in 1996 in the Parasitological Experimental Station W.O. Neitz, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Three different larval stages of H. muscae were recovered, measured and described. The encapsulation of larval nematodes was found in the third larval instar (L3) of M. domestica and cryptocephalic pupa. The mature capsules were observed in dipteran L3, pupae and mainly adults. In 1day-old or more M. domestica adults an active rupturing of capsules by H. muscae L3 and the migration to the head through the circulatory system and insect hemocoel were observed. Infective H. muscae L3s remained exclusively in the head of adult 5days-old or more M. domestica.

  12. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  13. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) from the stomachs of macropodid marsupials defined by morphological and molecular criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Gasser, Robin B; Koehler, Anson V; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-10-01

    Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) is described from the stomach of the red-legged pademelon, Thylogale stigmatica (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from north-eastern Queensland and Papua New Guinea, having formerly been confused with P. iota Johnston & Mawson, 1939. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. differs from all congeners in having 12 labial crown elements rather than eight or 16. Pharyngostrongylus iota was found in T. stigmatica, but only in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales, in the subspecies T. s. wilcoxi, compared with P. thylogale n. sp. which was found in T. s. stigmatica in northern Queensland and T. s. oriomo in Papua New Guinea. Differences in the sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of P. thylogale n. sp. and ten congeners support the erection of the new species, and the validity of the morphospecies examined. However, results of the phylogenetic analyses of the molecular data also provide evidence for the existence of cryptic species within P. kappa Mawson, 1965. No obvious co-evolutionary relationships were observed between parasite species and their macropodid marsupial hosts. PMID:27638730

  14. New evidence on a cold case: trophic transmission, distribution and host-specificity in Hedruris spinigera (Nematoda: Hedruridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, José L; Vieira, Fabiano M; Herrmann, Kristin; King, Tania M; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2010-09-01

    The life cycle of Hedruris spinigera Baylis, 1931 (Nematoda: Hedruridae) is determined here with the first formal identification of the parasite's intermediate host: the crustacean amphipod Paracorophium excavatum Thomson. Adult H. spinigera are redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of fishes, Retropinna retropinna (Richardson) and Aldrichettaforsteri (Valenciennes), from Lake Waihola, New Zealand. Immature adults of the parasite collected from intermediate hosts (P. excavatum) are also described for the first time. The prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection of H. spinigera in several fish species are quantified along with the occurrence of P. excavatum, the parasite's intermediate host, in fish stomach contents. Although H. spinigera's transmission mode (trophic transmission) and fish diet potentially expose all fish species to infection, some level of host specificity must exist as parasite prevalence, abundance and intensity of infection vary greatly between potential definitive host species. We suggest here that the anatomy of the fish digestive tract and especially that of the stomach plays an important role in host suitability for H. spinigera. While P. excavatum is the only intermediate host in Lake Waihola, H. spinigera was found in six different fish species: Aldrichetta forsteri, Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns), Retropinna retropinna, Rhombosolea retiaria Hutton, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus and Salmo trutta Linnaeus; although typical hedrurid attachment and mating positions were observed only in R. retropinna and A. forsteri. The limited distribution of H. spinigera is most likely due to that of its different host species (intermediate and definitive), all inhabitants of coastal fresh and brackish waters. PMID:20941914

  15. Effect of mini-sprinkler irrigation system on Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juvenile Efeito do sistema de irrigação por microaspersão em juvenis infectantes de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are currently being used as successful biological control agents of soil-dwelling insect pests. Previous field and greenhouse studies demonstrated that application techniques and non-biotic factors (temperature and pressure have a significant effect on EPNs efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of an irrigation spray application system on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae infective juveniles (IJ. Two assays were proposed. Their viability was evaluated under the microscope after the IJ passed through the irrigation system. Infectivity on Galleria mellonella larvae, and host search capability, as evidenced by larval mortality, were evaluated in containers (Experiment 1. In the field (Experiment 2, mortality of G. mellonella larvae was evaluated under different nematode concentrations (0, 100,000, 300,000 and 500,000 IJ per tree. No differences were recorded on the viability, infectivity and host search capability of the IJ in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, differences were recorded among the different concentrations used (p Nematóides entomopatogênicos (NEPs vêm sendo usados com sucesso como agentes do controle biológico de pragas de solo. Estudos anteriores mostraram que técnicas de aplicação e fatores abióticos (temperatura e pressão afetam a eficiência dos NEPs em testes de campo e casa-de-vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de condições geradas por um sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, na viabilidade, infectividade e na capacidade de busca de hospedeiros nos juvenis infectantes (JI de Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae. Dois experimentos foram propostos. A viabilidade dos juvenis infectantes (JI foi avaliada no microscópio imediatamente após sua passagem pelo sistema de irrigação. A infectividade e a capacidade de busca pelo

  16. Two species nematodes of the genus Bursa phelenchus in China (Nematoda..Parasitaphelenchidae)%中国2种伞滑刃属线虫记述(线虫门:寄生滑刃科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓侃; 王宏洪; 李迅东; 廖金铃

    2011-01-01

    运用线虫比较形态学和rDNA-ITS-RFLP及rDNA-ITS序列分析技术,对采自广东省的伞滑刃线虫进行鉴定.在广东番禺小叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)的栽培介质中和东莞木包装上分别发现了食菌伞滑刃线虫(Bursaphelenchus fungivorus)和豆伞滑刃线虫(B.doui),其中食菌伞滑刃线虫是中国的新记录种,豆伞滑刃线虫是中国大陆的新记录种.%Nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus collected from Guangdong Province were identified by using morphology, rDNA-ITS-RFLP and rDNA-ITS-PCR-sequencing.B.fungivorus and B.doui were isolated from a growing substrate for Ficus microcarpa in Panyu and wood packaging material in Dongguan respectively.B.fungivorus was a new geographic record species in China, and B.doui was a new geographic record species in Chinese Mainland.

  17. Catalogue of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda, and Rotifera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil: I. Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of type specimens of the phyla Acanthocephala, Nematoda and Rotifera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to July, 2005. A total of three holotypes and six lots of paratypes of three species of Acanthocephala; nine holotypes and 16 lots of paratypes of nine species of Nematoda; and 12 holotypes, six lectotypes, nine lots of paratypes and five lots of paralectotypes of 23 species and subspecies of Rotifera are listed. Specific and subspecific names are listed alphabetically within family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data (host and site of infection for parasitic species, and remarks where appropriate. A list of references containing the papers in which the taxa were first described is furnished.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo dos filos Acanthocephala, Nematoda e Rotifera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até julho de 2005. É relacionado um total de três holótipos e seis lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Acanthocephala; nove holótipos e 16 lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Nematoda; e 12 holótipos, seis lectótipos, nove lotes de parátipos e cinco lotes de paralectótipos de 23 espécies e subespécies de Rotifera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies e subespécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do gênero, categoria do tipo, número de registro na coleção, dados de localidade (hospedeiro e sítio de infecção no caso de espécies parasitas e comentários quando pertinentes. São relacionados, na lista de referências, os artigos nos quais a descrição original dos táxons foi publicada.

  18. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  19. Occurrence of novel verrucomicrobial species, endosymbiotic and associated with parthenogenesis in Xiphinema americanum-group species (Nematoda, Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, T T; Willems, A; Gillis, M; Coomans, A

    2000-11-01

    Numerous micro-organisms have been described as cytoplasmic symbionts of eukaryotes. Many so-called obligate endosymbionts rely exclusively on maternal (vertical or transovarial) transmission to maintain themselves, rendering them dependent on the host sex ratio, which they would tend to manipulate to their own advantage. The latter phenomenon is often associated with the presence of Wolbachia pipientis (alpha-Proteobacteria) in arthropods and nematodes. A potentially similar situation was discovered involving members of a new clade of Verrucomicrobia, another main line of descent in the Bacteria. Nematode species of the Xiphinema americanum group (Nematoda, Longidoridae), viz. Xiphinema americanum, Xiphinema rivesi and Xiphinema brevicollum, each harbour their own specific verrucomicrobial endosymbionts. They are exclusively maternally inherited and their hosts reproduce by thelytokous (mother-to-daughter) parthenogenesis, males being extremely rare. A new genus, 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' gen. nov., along with three new candidate verrucomicrobial species, 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter americani' sp. nov., 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter rivesi' sp. nov. and 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter brevicolli' sp. nov., are described on the basis of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. These are the first endosymbiotic species described among the Verrucomicrobia. They share a mean 16S rDNA similarity of about 93%, whereas similarity to their closest relative, clone WCHD3-88, is less than 87%. Thus, the endosymbionts form a homogeneous clade for which the new candidate genus 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' gen. nov. is proposed. The type species is 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter brevicolli' sp. nov.

  20. A new species of Potoroxyuris (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from the woylie Bettongia penicillata (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) from southwestern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Russell P; Elliot, Aileen D

    2016-12-01

    Potoroxyuris keninupensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described based on specimens recovered from the caecum and colon of two woylies, Bettongia penicillata (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) from Western Australia. Only one other species of Potoroxyuris has been described previously, Potoroxyuris potoroo (Johnston and Mawson, 1939) Mawson, 1964, from Potorous tridactylus. The new species is most easily differentiated from P. potoroo by the shape of the pharyngeal lobes. The pharyngeal lobes of P. keninupensis n. sp. are widest at the base while those of P. potoroo are widest at the tip. The genus Potoroxyuris most closely resembles Macropoxyuris based especially on structures of the caudal end of males. The other three genera of oxyurids known to infect Australian marsupials have longer caudal alae, and more caudal papillae than these two genera. The genus Potoroxyuris has previously been defined by the characteristic that the pharyngeal lobes protrude through the oral opening. However, the pharyngeal lobes of P. keninupensis n. sp. do not quite protrude, so the definition of the genus should be modified as follows. The genus Potoroxyuris can be easily differentiated from Macropoxyuris by the following differences in the morphology of the buccal cavity. The pharyngeal lobes of Potoroxyuris almost reach the oral opening, or protrude beyond it, whereas those of Macropoxyuris only reach to about the anterior third of the buccal cavity. The buccal cavity of Potoroxyuris is poorly cuticularized compared to Macropoxyuris and other genera of oxyurids known from Australian marsupials, and does not contain inter-radial lamellae. PMID:27437181

  1. Integrated taxonomy: traditional approach and DNA barcoding for the identification of filarioid worms and related parasites (Nematoda

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    Bandi Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditional morphological approach and DNA barcoding to distinguish filarioid nematodes species (Nematoda, Spirurida. A reliable and rapid taxonomic identification of these parasites is the basis for a correct diagnosis of important and widespread parasitic diseases. The performance of DNA barcoding with different parameters was compared measuring the strength of correlation between morphological and molecular identification approaches. Molecular distance estimation was performed with two different mitochondrial markers (coxI and 12S rDNA and different combinations of data handling were compared in order to provide a stronger tool for easy identification of filarioid worms. Results DNA barcoding and morphology based identification of filarioid nematodes revealed high coherence. Despite both coxI and 12S rDNA allow to reach high-quality performances, only coxI revealed to be manageable. Both alignment algorithm, gaps treatment, and the criteria used to define the threshold value were found to affect the performance of DNA barcoding with 12S rDNA marker. Using coxI and a defined level of nucleotide divergence to delimit species boundaries, DNA barcoding can also be used to infer potential new species. Conclusion An integrated approach allows to reach a higher discrimination power. The results clearly show where DNA-based and morphological identifications are consistent, and where they are not. The coherence between DNA-based and morphological identification for almost all the species examined in our work is very strong. We propose DNA barcoding as a reliable, consistent, and democratic tool for species discrimination in routine identification of parasitic nematodes.

  2. Deep subsurface mine stalactites trap endemic fissure fluid Archaea, Bacteria and Nematoda possibly originating from ancient (inland seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan eBorgonie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface, central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and discovered, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, the DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. . Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3 stalactites show a complex pattern of lamellae carrying bacterially precipitated mineral structures. Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. Salt stalactites exhibit a more uniform internal structure. Surprisingly, several Bacteria showing highest sequence identities to marine Bacteria were identified. This, together with the observation that the nematode M. parvella recovered from Beatrix gold mine stalactite can only survive in a salty environment makes the origin of the deep subsurface colonization enigmatic. The possibility of a Permian origin is discussed. Our results indicate stalactites are suitable for biodiversity recovery and act as natural traps for microorganisms in the fissure water long after the water that formed the stalactite stopped flowing.

  3. A review of Gongylonema spp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in North American rodents with description of a new species from the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus (Mammalia: Cricetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, John M; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Preisser, Whitney C

    2016-01-01

    Gongylonema archboldi n. sp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) is described from tunnels in the gastric mucosa of the stomach of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) from Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A. Measurements are also given for specimens from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus), oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), Florida mice (Podomys floridanus), and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) from the same locality. Additional specimens were collected from the cotton rat and the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) from Berry Island, San Patricio County, Texas. The new species is differentiated from congeners by a combination of the following characters: length of the left spicule, length and shape of the gubernaculum, distribution of cuticular bosses, length of esophagus, and distance of the vulva from the posterior end. The status of the genus Gongylonema in North American rodents is reviewed. PMID:27394819

  4. Aspects of the life history of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda: Muspiceidae, parasite of the house mouse (Mus domesticus in Australia

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    Spratt D.M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda infection in wild populations of Mus domesticus in forests in southeastern New South Wales and in rural Canberra, Australia was variable, relatively low and the parasite occurred predominantly in male mice. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice occurred only via subcutaneous inoculation but was achieved using i adults containing embryonating eggs, ii adults containing active larvae and iii active larvae dissected from the uterus of female worms. Experimental infection was not established using adults containing unembryonated eggs and was not established via intraperitoneal, percutaneous nor oral routes. Evidence indicates that larvae develop to the infective stage in the uterus of the adult worm, suggests that an obligate developmental phase on the host skin does not occur and that autoinfection is possible. Experimental infection predominated in males; females rarely became infected. When male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with M. borreli, immediately paired with an uninoculated female and permitted to breed for 90 days, infection was found in male and female offspring only of the second and subsequent litters or in the breeding female partner. Transmission to the young occurred within 21 days of birth and fifth-stage M. borreli were found in offspring of the second and subsequent litters only after 35 or more days. However, when a male was inoculated but mating delayed for 23 days, infection was found in progeny of the first and second litters. The life cycle is direct and the prepatent period in BALB/c mice is estimated at 50-60 days. The precise mode of transmission of the parasite in breeding pairs of mice was not determined but larvae remained active for approximately an hour in balanced saline solutions (pH = 7.2 and in human saliva but died under conditions emulating free-living (tap water pH = 7.1 and stomach (pepsin solution pH = 2 environments. Transmission was not effected by

  5. 松材线虫体表物质与其携带细菌的关系%The relationship between substance on the pine wood nematode body surface and bacteria carried by the nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲爱玲; 戚建光; 张宏娟; 陈玲; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    Pine wilt disease was complex infection caused by pine wood nematode ( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) , and bacteria. Studying the relationship between B. Xylophilus and bacteria may provide evidence for the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease. To clarify the relationship, the bacterial strains were inoculated to marinade on different aseptic B. Xylophilus surface body surface, and cultured aseptic B. Xylophilus after added the bacteria was to the B. Xylophilus suspension. The results showed that the reproduction of bacteria was stimulated by the marinade of B. Xylophilus body surface, B. Xylophilus numbers increased more rapidly with bacteria present than without bacteria. This revealed that the reproduction and growth of B. Xylophilus was also promoted by the bacteria. In conclusion, B. Xylophilus and the bacteria benefited each other. Experiments were also designed to investigate the tropism test of aseptic B. Xylophilus and bacteria, and test the specificity between the B. Xylophilus and bacteria it carried. The results indicated that the bacterial strain of P. Agglomerans or the bacterial strain mixed with P. Agglomerans had obvious taxis towards all isolates of aseptic B. Xylophilus. Experiments also tested the specificity between the B. Xylophilus and bacteria it carried. The results showed that the aseptic B. Xylophilus has no taxis towards the bacteria it carried, and that there was no obvious specificity taxis to the B. Xylophilus with the bacterial strains it carried.%松萎蔫病是由松材线虫与其所携带的细菌复合侵染所引起.为进一步明确松材线虫与其携带细菌的关系,笔者用无菌线虫体表浸泡物处理细菌,再将无菌线虫各虫株与细菌共培养,结果表明细菌的存在可促进线虫的繁殖,线虫体表浸泡物质可促进细菌繁殖,无菌线虫与细菌共培养后线虫繁殖数量较无菌线虫单独培养有明显增加,说明松材线虫与其体表细菌的关系为一

  6. The integrated use of chemical insecticides and the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae(Nematoda: Steinernematidae), for the control of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson; James J. Mathers; Phil Northing; Anthony J. Prickett; Keith F. A. Waiters

    2008-01-01

    The integration of chemical insecticides and infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Wesier) (Nematoda:Steinernematidae), to control second instars of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was investigated. Using a sand bioassay, the effects of direct exposure of S. carpocapsae for 24 h to field rate dilutions of four insecticides (spiromesifen, thiacloprid, imidaeloprid and pymetrozine) on infectivity to Galleria rnellonella larvae were tested. Although all chemicals tested, except spiromesifen, produced acceptable nematode infectivity rates, they were all significantly less than the water control. The effect of insecticide treatment (dry residues of spiromesifen, thiacloprid and pymetrozine and soil drench of imidacloprid) on the efficacy of the nematode against B. tabaci was also investigated. Nematodes in combination with thiacloprid and spiromesifen gave higher B.tabaci mortality (86.5% and 94.3% respectively) compared to using nematodes alone (75.2%) on tomato plants. There was no significant difference in B. tabaci mortality when using the chemicals imidacloprid, pymetrozine and spiromesifen in conjunction with nematodes compared to using the chemicals alone. However, using thiaeloprid in combination with the nematodes produced significantly higher B. tabaci mortality than using the chemical alone. The integration of S. carpocapsae and these chemical agents into current integrated pest management programmes for the control of B. tabaci is discussed.

  7. A new species of Syncuaria Gilbert, 1927 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae) from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Syncuaria mycteriae n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) was collected under the lining of the gizzard of a wood stork, Mycteria americana L., from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species can be distinguished from all known species of Syncuaria by having irregular dotted ornamentations on the caudal alae of males, a complex distal end of the left spicule comprising 3 protuberances, and a spicule ratio of 1:9.3. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of 11 Syncuaria spp. based on 9 morphological characters produced 2 equally parsimonious cladograms with a consistency index of 85%, differing only in the placement of S. hargilae. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is the sister species of S. leptoptili, whose male members have a single protuberance on the left spicule. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that the plesiomorphic host group for the genus is Ciconiiformes, specifically Ciconiidae (host for 5 species), with 2 species occurring in Threskiornithidae (also Ciconiiformes), possibly as a result of cospeciation, and 2 species each occurring in Pelecaniformes and Podicipediformes, resulting from 4 episodes of speciation by host switching.

  8. Description of two free-living nematode species of Halomonhystera disjuncta complex (Nematoda: Monhysterida) from two peculiar habitats in the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Portnova, Daria A.; van Campenhout, Jelle

    2015-03-01

    Morphological descriptions of two Halomonhystera species (Nematoda, Monhysterida) are presented ( Halomonhystera hermesi and Halomonhystera socialis). Halomonhystera hermesi sp. n. occurs in a dense monospecific and homogeneous population on bacterial mats in the Håkon Mosby mud volcano in the Barents Sea at a depth of 1,280 m. The species is an endemic lineage distinctly separated from other shallow-water cryptotaxa of the Halomonhystera disjucta species complex on the base of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (genetic divergence 19.6-23.8 %) and nuclear genetic markers, and on the base of morphometrics by Van Campenhout et al. (2014). H. socialis (Bütschli 1874) is redescribed on the basis of White Sea specimens. This species dwells in mass on the detached kelp accumulation in the upper sublittoral. H. socialis is differentiated from other species of the Halomonhystera disjuncta complex morphometrically by a larger body size and by genetic divergence in nuclear markers. The genus Halomonhystera Andrássy 2006 is redefined, and its morphospecies list is reviewed. Species H. bathislandica (Riemann 1995) comb. n., H. fisheri (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n., H. islandica (De Coninck 1943) comb. n. and H. vandoverae (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n. are transferred to Halomonhystera from Thalassomonhystera; H. paradisjuncta (de Coninck 1943) comb. n., H. rotundicapitata (Filipjev 1922) comb. n. and H. taurica (Tsalolikhin 2007) comb. n. transferred to Halomonhystera from Geomonhystera. Halomonhystera ambiguoides (Bütschli 1874) is considered as species inquirenda because of incompleteness of its diagnosis.

  9. Seven new and four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from the abyssal manganese nodule field (Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, North-Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2012-09-01

    The descriptions of seven new and supplemental descriptions of four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from about 5,000 m depth in the abyssal manganese nodule field of the French Claim of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (north-eastern tropical Pacific) are given. A. arthrochaeta sp. n. differs from other Acantholaimus species in having jointed cephalic setae. A. barbatus sp. n. is characterized by long cephalic setae and the presence of numerous somatic setae at the level of the pharynx. A. cornutus sp. n. possesses strong onchia and rugae and short cephalic setae. A. robustus sp. n. is characterized by a very large body size, two very large onchia, strongly developed rugae, and cervical setae grouped in threes. A. sieglerae sp. n. is a comparatively small species, though with very large onchia. A. tchesunovi sp. n. can be differentiated from the other species by the lateral differentiation of the body cuticle, consisting of 6-7 longitudinal rows of pores. A. veitkoehlerae sp. n. has a narrow elongate anterior end, two cervical setae, and strong onchia. A. angustus and A. occultus were found about 5,200 km from their type localities in the Peru Basin, south-east Pacific. A. iubilus and A. maks were previously found in different parts of the Atlantic and in the Peru Basin.

  10. Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae from a False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Cetacea: Delphinidae, Stranded on the Coast of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylber María Inés

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae was found in the cranial air sinuses of a false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, stranded on the coast of Uruguay in 1999. Although this species has been reported once in P. crassidens from the North Atlantic, this is the first record for South America. A total of 920 specimens were obtained, of which 663 were females (body length: 4.34 ± 0.45 cm and 257 were males (2.99 ± 0.18 cm. Morphometric details are presented for S. globicephalae in this host, which do not show significant differences from those parasitizing Globicephala melas (Traill, but are distinct from those parasitizing Peponocephala electra (Gray. The host's skull revealed loss of osseous mass with the disappearance of the left zygomatic arch, and the left jaw had three osseous fenestrations in the region related to the organ of acoustic reception. These lesions support the hypothesis that this infection, known as stenurosis, was related to the stranding.

  11. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  12. Haematological alterations of Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichtyes: Anostomidae naturally infected by Goezia leporini (Nematoda: Anisakidae in fish pond Alterações hematológicas em Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichtyes: Anostomidae infectado naturalmente por Goezia leporini (Nematoda: Anisakidae em viveiro de piscicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Martins

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Goezia leporini Martins & Yoshitoshi, 2003 (Nematoda: Anisakidae infection on the haematological characteristics of cultivated Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichthyes:Anostomidae was studied. Paleness of gills, kidneys, liver and heart, black spots on the kidney and accumulation of fluid in the visceral cavity, stomach and intestines were observed. Gall bladder content had pale and translucent aspect. Strong and slight positive correlations between number of nematodes and fish weight were estimated within the 0-100g and 100-200g fish weight group, respectively. Blood smears from infected fish showed variation in erythrocyte size (anisocytosis and shape (poikilocytosis, and also dividing erythrocytes. No significant alteration (P>0.05 was shown as to erythrocyte, leukocyte count, haemoglobin concentration and thrombocyte and monocyte percentage. Parasite infection provoked significant reduction (PEstudou-se efeito da infecção por Goezia leporini Martins & Yoshitoshi, 2003 (Nematoda: Anisakidae sobre as características hematológicas de Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichthyes:Anostomidae cultivado. Palidez das brânquias, rins, fígado e coração, pontos negros nos rins e acúmulo de líquido na cavidade visceral, estômago e intestinos foram observados. O conteúdo da vesícula biliar tinha aparência pálida e translúcida. Observaram-se alta e moderada correlações positivas entre número de nematóides e peso do peixe estimadas dentro dos grupos de peixe de 0-100g e 100-200g, respectivamente. As extensões sangüíneas revelaram variações no tamanho (anisocitose e forma (poiquilocitose dos eritrócitos, bem como eritrócitos em divisão. Não houve alteração (P>0,05 na contagem total de eritrócitos, de leucócitos, na taxa de hemoglobina e nos percentuais de trombócitos e monócitos. A infecção provocou redução (P<0,05 no percentual de hematócrito, no volume corpuscular médio, na concentração de hemoglobina

  13. A new heligmonellid (Nematoda) from Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) in Costa Rica, with some comments on species of Paraheligmonella Durette-Desset, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiani, María Celina; Carreño, Ramón A; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude

    2009-06-01

    Paraheligmonella kinsellai n. sp. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae) is described from the small intestine of a cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890) (Leporidae) from Costa Rica. The new species is similar to P. romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980), parasitic in Romerolagus diazi from Mexico and to P. lamothei Digiani, Carreño, and Durette-Desset, 2008, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus from Costa Rica, by the characters of the synlophe at mid-body, i.e., 14 cuticular ridges and a single axis of orientation inclined at 30 degrees to the sagittal axis in both sexes. The males of the new species are distinguished from those of P. romerolagi by a caudal bursa that is not bell-shaped, a bursal pattern of type 2-3 with a tendency to 2-2-1, and a genital cone that is not hypertrophied. They are also distinguished from the males of P. lamothei by having the same bursal pattern in both lobes (in P. lamothei the pattern is 2-2-1 on the right lobe and 2-3, with a tendency to 2-2-1, on the left lobe), rays 3 are much longer than rays 2, rays 2 and 3 diverging more proximally, and rays 8 are longer than the dorsal ray. The females of the new species also differ from those of P. lamothei by the shape of the posterior extremity (long and strongly curved vs. short and nearly straight) and by the synlophe at the ovejector level (ridge no. 1' hypertrophied and remaining ridges reduced vs. ventral ridges hypertrophied and dorso-lateral ridges reduced). PMID:19071967

  14. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  15. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  16. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine. PMID:27221001

  17. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  18. Larvas de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae do centro oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, parasitadas por microsporídeos (Protozoa e mermitídeos (Nematoda Simulids larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae from middle western, southeastern and southern Brazil, with microsporids (Protozoa and mermithids (Nematoda parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ambrós Ginarte

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of simulid larval parasites was carried out in different localities of the states of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February 1996 to May 1998. Prevalences for the microsporidian Polydispyrenia simulii Lutz & Splendore, 1908 were found in Morungaba and Leme, São Paulo, ranging from around 0.7 to 66.7%, depending mainly on the host simulid species. Microsporidiosis was registered in localities of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Parasitism by Isomermis sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae was found in Simulium larvae from Serra do Japi, ranging from 0.8 to 45.8%, depending on the simulid species and the larval microhabitat in the stream, whether a cemented ramp in a lake outlet or the natural stream bed. Parasitism by mermithids was also found in ten localities. Mycoses caused by Coelomycidium sp. were for the first time recorded for larvae of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832.

  19. Mechanisms of invasive population establishment and spread of pinewood nematodes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE BingYan; CHENG XinYue; SHI Juan; ZHANG QingWen; DAI ShuMing; CHENG Fei Xue; LUO YouQing

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our study of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus). By population genetic analysis, it was determined that there was no genetic bottle caused by the founder effect and genetic drift in the Chinese invasive population. Multiple invasions with large amounts of nematodes from different sources led to rich genetic diversity in the invasive population. Keeping high genetic diversity in the invasive process may be one of the genetic mechanisms in its successful invasion. By testing interspecies competition, it was shown that, with high fecundity and a strong competitive ability, B. Xylophilus outcompeted the native species B. Mucronatus in the natural ecosystem during the invasion process. Competitive displacement may be one of the ecological mechanisms of B. Xylophilus's invasion. In addition, an unequal interspecific hybridization with intro-gress was in favor of the invasive species which also accelerated the replacement of B. Mucronatus by B. Xylophilus. The structures, functions and evolutions of a few important genes that are closely related to the ecological adaptation of pinewood nematodes were studied to explore the molecular mechanism of its ecological adaptations. Further, the resistance and resilience mechanism of the pine ecosystem invaded by pinewood nematodes was also investigated. The results of these studies uncovered a por-tion of the genetic and ecological mechanisms of PWN's successful invasion and laid a foundation for further study to obtain a comprehensive interpretation of the mechanisms of the nematode invasion. The results also provided a scientific basis for effectively controlling the occurrence and spread of pine wilt disease which is caused by nematodes. Various aspects requiring further investigation are considered.

  20. Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis Lacépède (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-11-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (Lacépède) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05 mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38 mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925 µm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830 µm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10 mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.

  1. Monitoring of Pinus massoniana spatial pattern changes based on RS and GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; HUANG Hua-guo; ZHANG Xiao-li; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan

    2008-01-01

    Our research focused on Pinus massoniana information extracted from remote sensing images based on the knowledge detection and decision tree algorithm and established a spatial pattern model, combining quantitative theoretical ecology with remote sensing (RS) and geometric information system (GIS) techniques. Applying information extraction methods and a spatial pattern model, we studied P. massoniana spatial patterns changes before and after the invasion by pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Fuyang and Zhoushan counties, Zhejiang Province, east China. The P. massoniana spatial patterns are clustering,whether the invasion happened or not. But the degree of clustering is different. Our results show good agreement with field data.Applying the results, we analyzed the relationship between spatial patterns and the invasion level. Then we drew the elementary conclusion that there are two kinds of patterns for pine wood nematode to spread: continuous and discontinuous diffusion. This approach can help monitor and evaluate the changes in ecological systems.

  2. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  3. Mathematical analysis of dynamic spread of Pine Wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, D D; Bacic, J

    2013-01-01

    Since its detection in Portugal in 1999, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer), a causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease, represents a threat to European forestry. Significant amount of money has been spent on its monitoring and eradication. This paper presents mathematical analysis of spread of pine wilt disease using a set of partial differential equations with space (longitude and latitude) and time as parameters of estimated spread of disease. This methodology can be used to evaluate risk of various assumed entry points of disease and make defense plans in advance. In case of an already existing outbreak, it can be used to draw optimal line of defense and plan removal of trees. Optimization constraints are economic loss of removal of susceptible trees as well as budgetary constraints of workforce cost.

  4. Main forest pests on pines in Anxi County and its integrated control measures%安溪县松树主要有害生物及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长士

    2011-01-01

    总结了近10年安溪县松树6种主要有害生物(松突圆蚧、松墨天牛、马尾松毛虫、松大蚜、松针褐斑病、棕鼯鼠)的发生特点与分布情况,提出了各主要有害生物的综合防治措施。%The distribution,harm and main characteristics of the six main forest pests species on pines in Anxi County,including Hemiberlesia pitysophila,Monochamus alternatus,Dendrolimus punctatus,Cinara pinitabulaeformis,Lecanosticta acicola and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were dealt with by nearly 10 years of field studies.Integrated control measures were introduced according to local climate and forest pests characteristics,and could decrease the suffering rate caused by forest pests to less than 1.5‰.

  5. A revision of the genus Paracanthonchus (Cyatholaimidae, Nematoda) with a tabular key to species and a description of P. mamubiae sp. n. from the deep North-Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2015-01-01

    The species-rich genus of marine free-living nematodes, Paracanthonchus Mikoletzky 1924 (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae), is revised. The genus numbers 72 valid species; twenty are indicated as species inquirenda because of poor descriptions and/or doubtful placement in the genus. Species of the genus were described from all oceans and latitudes. Of valid species, 64 ones (90%) were described from the tidal or upper subtidal zones, four species were recorded from the medium or lower shelf, and three species are abyssal. Thirty one species (43%) are known from Europe and the Northern Africa; 19 and 9 ones were described from South and North America (respectively); 8 ones were recorded from Asia; and 6 ones from the Australian region. The type species, Paracanthonchus caecus Mikoletzky 1924 has been recorded by a number of authors from various oceans around the World, yet many of these specimens have only roughly resembled the type description. Evidently, this species represents a complex of closely related species. Possibly, the same situation is in some other Paracanthonchus species, the repeated findings of which have no strong resemblance to type specimens. A tabular key to species is provided. A new abyssal species Paracanthonchus mamubiae from the Zenkevich Rise (North-Western Pacific, off North Japan, 5350 m depth) is described. The new species is characterized by: the tail, which is long with a thin, cylindrical terminal section; the absence of lateral differentiation of the cuticle; the presence of two groups of lateral pores (level of posterior part of pharynx and in cloacal region); one large dorsal tooth and two pairs of small subventral teeth combined with pharyngostomal cuticular ridges forming two denticles which may appear as a third pair of subventral teeth; 3-5 indistinct tubular preanal supplements; and a massive, proximally paired gubernaculum possessing broad flattened plates on each distal end. Each flattened gubernacular plate bears numerous (50

  6. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers. PMID:26790677

  7. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  8. A cladistic analysis of the Trichostrongyloidea (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Hugot, J P; Darlu, P; Chabaud, A G

    1999-07-01

    A morphologically based cladistic analysis of 40 genera included within the Trichostrongyloidea (Amidostomatidae, Dromaeostrongylidae and Trichostrongylidae) is proposed. Two genera were used as outgroups, one from the Strongylina and the other from the Ancylostomatina. Seven genera do not appear in the matrix because some significant morphological characters remain unknown for these genera. Nonetheless, except for Moguranema which is excluded as incertae sedis, a likely systematic position could be assigned to them based on the morphological characters that are known. The classification which best fits the consensus tree is composed of three families. In adding the genera not included in the tree, we obtain: (i) Trichostrongylidae with three sub-families, Amidostomatinae (four genera), Filarinematinae (three genera) and Trichostrongylinae (five genera); (ii) Haemonchidae with two sub-families: Ostertagiinae (eight genera) and Haemonchinae (five genera); (iii) Cooperiidae with three sub-families: Libyostrongylinae (five genera), Obeliscoidinae n. subfam. (five genera) and Cooperiinae (ten genera). Dromaeostrongylus and Ortleppstrongylus, whose females have a caudal spine, are excluded from the Trichostrongyloidea and are placed in the Molineoidea. The hypotheses relating to the evolutionary history of the Trichostrongyloidea are: the origin of the superfamily could have occurred during the upper Cretaceous period. The two most ancient sub-families (Amidostomatinae and Filarinematinae) would be of Gwondwanan origin and evolved during the Paleocene period within Neotropical aquatic birds and within the Australian marsupials. The Trichostrongylinae would have arisen during the Eocene period within birds and then adapted to diverse archaic mammals in the Neotropical region on one hand and in the Nearctic region, on the other hand and lastly adapted to the Lagomorpha and subsequently to the Ruminantia. In both families originating from the Trichostrongylidae, the adaptation to the Lagomorpha may have taken place during the Oligocene but in a different way. In the Haemonchidae, the Ostertagiinae may have passed directly from the Neartic region to Europe. In the Cooperiidae, the adaptation to Lagomorpha may have occurred either within the Libyostrongylinae which may have remained in the Ethiopian region since the Paleocene, or, more likely, by the passage of the Obeliscoidinae from the Nearctic region to the Asian, through the Bering strait. In all cases, the adaptation of the Trichostrongyloidea of Lagomorpha to Ruminants apparently took place during the Miocene, mainly in the Palearctic and the Ethiopian regions.

  9. Procamallanus brasileiros - parte I (Nematoda, Camallanoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Nessa primeira parte do trabalho referente ao estudo dos Procamallanus brasileiros, os autores propoêm que Spirocamallanus Olsen, 1952, seja aceito apenas como um bom subgênero, baseando-se exclusivamente no aspecto de cápsula bucal. Assi, Spirocamallanus identifica os camalanídeos de cápsula bucal com lâminas espiraladas ou outras estruturas semelhantes, enquanto que Procamallanus se aplicaria aos de cápsula bucal lisa. Quanto às demais subdivisões existentes para o gênero, apoiadas em aspecto e quantidade de espículos, são consideradas resultado de um critério bastante arbitrário para conservarem-se válidas, visto serem os espículos caracteres sujeitos a diversas interpretações por parte dos especialistas, devido à fragilidade que os toma tão sujeitos a modificações no grupo dos camalanídeos. Três espécies são aqui tratadas: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus rarus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pimelodus, e Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus intermedius. As duas últimas são propostas como novas. Procamallanus (S. pimelodus é comparada a Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus olseni Campana-Rouget & Razahihelissoa, 1965, dela se distinguindo, principalmente, por apresentar o rebordo da asa caudal franjado e fortemente musculoso. Procamallanus (S. intermedius aproxima-se unicamente de Procamallanus (S. rarus, por apresentar o espículo maior com bifurcação distal e dela se afasta pelo maior número e menor espessura das lâminas espiraladas na cápsula bucal. Para Procamallanus (S. rarus é apresentada a descrição da fêmea, a redescrição do macho, salientando-se pela primeira vez no gênero, o aspecto singular do espículo maior, aspecto esse também observado ao se lidar com Procamallanus (S. intermedius, depois de se ter tido acesso ao exemplar tipo e único de Procamallanus (S. rarus. Foram examinadas 31 amostras de material que faz parte da Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.By introducing this work on brazilian nematodes under Procamallanus Baylis, 1923, the authors propose that Spirocamallanus Olsen, 1952, must be regarded only as a good subgenus based on the aspect of the buccal capsule. For this reason, Spirocamallanus should identify those worms bearing spiral thickenings, as well as similar structures inside their buccal cavity while Procamallanus may be applied every time the nematodes present a completely smooth capsule, lacking the above mentioned structures. Regarding to the early propositions in order to subdivide the genus using number and shape of the spicules as differential characters, the authors fully disagree with this point of view, which is rather a poor criterion, for the spicules are weakly chitinised in this group and for this reason they do not present enough strutural uniformity to be of great systematic significance. The authors deal here with three species: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus rarus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pimelodus and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus intermedius. The last two are proposed as new species. Procamallanus (S. pimelodus is related to Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus olseni Campanarouget & Razahihelissoa, 1965 and differs from it mainly by its caudal alae which shows a strongly muscular fringed rim. Procamallanus (S. intermedius only comes nearer to Procamallanus (S. rarus by possessing the bigger spicule with distal bifurcation and differs from it by the aspect of the buccal capsule which has more and thinner spiral thickenings. Of Procamallanus (S. rarus, the female is described, a redescription of the male is presented and the very peculiar aspect of the bigger spicule is pointed out for the first time in the genus. This was also observed when dealing with Procamallanus (S. intermedius, after examining the type of Procamallanus (S. rarus. In this first part of the work the authors handled 31 samples of nematodes as follows: From intestines of Pimelodus clarias (L.(27; Catfish (indeterminate(3 and Pimelodella lateristriga (Müll. Tros

  10. Diversity of bacteria carried by pinewood nematode in USA and phylogenetic comparison with isolates from other countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD is native to North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. Lately, mutualistic relationship has been suggested between the pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus the causal nematode agent of PWD, and bacteria. In countries where PWN occurs, nematodes from diseased trees were reported to carry bacteria from several genera. However no data exists for the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial community carried by B. xylophilus, isolated from different Pinus spp. with PWD in Nebraska, United States. The bacteria carried by PWN belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (79.9%, Betaproteobacteria (11.7%, Bacilli (5.0%, Alphaproteobacteria (1.7% and Flavobacteriia (1.7%. Strains from the genera Chryseobacterium and Pigmentiphaga were found associated with the nematode for the first time. These results were compared to results from similar studies conducted from other countries of three continents in order to assess the diversity of bacteria with associated with PWN. The isolates from the United States, Portugal and China belonged to 25 different genera and only strains from the genus Pseudomonas were found in nematodes from all countries. The strains from China were closely related to P. fluorescens and the strains isolated from Portugal and USA were phylogenetically related to P. mohnii and P. lutea. Nematodes from the different countries are associated with bacteria of different species, not supporting a relationship between PWN with a particular bacterial species. Moreover, the diversity of the bacteria carried by the pinewood nematode seems to be related to the geographic area and the Pinus species. The roles these bacteria play within the pine trees or when associated with the nematodes, might be independent of the presence of the nematode in the tree and only related on the bacteria's relationship with the tree.

  11. Mechanisms of invasive population establishment and spread of pinewood nematodes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of our study of the pinewood nematode(Bursaphelenchus xylophi-lus).By population genetic analysis,it was determined that there was no genetic bottle caused by the founder effect and genetic drift in the Chinese invasive population.Multiple invasions with large amounts of nematodes from different sources led to rich genetic diversity in the invasive population.Keeping high genetic diversity in the invasive process may be one of the genetic mechanisms in its successful invasion.By testing interspecies competition,it was shown that,with high fecundity and a strong competitive ability,B.xylophilus outcompeted the native species B.mucronatus in the natural ecosystem during the invasion process.Competitive displacement may be one of the ecological mechanisms of B.xylophilus’s invasion.In addition,an unequal interspecific hybridization with intro-gress was in favor of the invasive species which also accelerated the replacement of B.mucronatus by B.xylophilus.The structures,functions and evolutions of a few important genes that are closely related to the ecological adaptation of pinewood nematodes were studied to explore the molecular mechanism of its ecological adaptations.Further,the resistance and resilience mechanism of the pine ecosystem invaded by pinewood nematodes was also investigated.The results of these studies uncovered a portion of the genetic and ecological mechanisms of PWN’s successful invasion and laid a foundation for further study to obtain a comprehensive interpretation of the mechanisms of the nematode invasion.The results also provided a scientific basis for effectively controlling the occurrence and spread of pine wilt disease which is caused by nematodes.Various aspects requiring further investigation are considered.

  12. Synthesis, biological activities and structure-activity relationships for new avermectin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Nan, Xiang; Yu, Hai-Tao; Cheng, Pi-Le; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Ying-Qian; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Hu, Guan-Fang; Liu, Huanxiang; Chen, An-Liang

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to discover new molecules with good insecticidal activities, more than 40 new avermectin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities against three species of arachnids, insects and nematodes, namely, Tetranychus Cinnabarinus, Aphis craccivora and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. All the tested compounds showed potent inhibitory activities against three insect species. Notably, the majority of compounds exhibited high selectivity against T. cinnabarinus, some of which were much better in comparison with avermectin. Especially compounds 9j (LC50: 0.005 μM) and 16d (LC50: 0.002 μM) were 2.5- and 4.7-fold more active than avermectin (LC50: 0.013 μM), respectively, against T. cinnabarinus. Moreover, compounds 9b, 9d-f, 9h, 9j, 9l, 9n, 9p, 9r, 9v and 17d showed superior activities with LC50 values of 2.959-5.013 μM compared to that of 1 (LC50: 6.746 μM) against B. xylophilus. Meanwhile, the insecticidal activities of compounds 9f, 9g, 9h, and 9m against A. craccivora were 7-8 times better than that of avermectin, with LC50 values of 7.744, 5.634, 6.809, 7.939 and 52.234 μM, respectively. Furthermore, QSAR analysis showed that the molecular shape, size, connectivity degree and electronic distribution of avermectin analogues had substantial effects on insecticidal potency. These preliminary results provided useful insight in guiding further modifications of avermectin in the development of potential new insecticides. PMID:27318119

  13. 牡丹皮、黄连、大黄提取物对松材线虫生理代谢的影响%Effects of the extracts of Cortex Moutan Radicis,Coptis Chinensis Franch and Radix et Rhizoma Rhei on physiological metabolism of Bursaphelenchusxylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦宏伟; 张璐; 刘东; 赵宝华

    2014-01-01

    对3种中草药黄连、牡丹皮、大黄的乙醇提取物毒杀松材线虫作用机制进行了初步研究。测定了其对线虫体内总糖和蛋白含量的影响,处理前后线虫体内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)和乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)酶活性变化和丙二醛(MDA)含量变化,处理前后SOD、CAT、GSH-Px和AChE表达量变化;并用松枝水培试验测定3种提取物对松材线虫病害的防控效果。结果表明,提取物处理后线虫体内总糖及蛋白含量显著下降,线虫体内糖及蛋白质的代谢受到干扰;线虫体内SOD、CAT、GSH-Px酶活性提高,POD活性显著下降,MDA含量升高,表明线虫体内氧化与抗氧化作用失衡,细胞功能受到极大影响;AChE活性被抑制,表明线虫的神经系统受到破坏,SOD、CAT、GSH-Px和POD表达量与酶活性变化基本一致。松枝水培试验表明中药提取物能够有效控制松材线虫病害发生。综上,3种提取物引起的松材线虫体内众多生理指标的改变是造成线虫死亡的主要原因。%The objective of this study is to identify the poisoning mechanism of the ethanol extracts of three tradi-tional Chinese medicinal herbs,Cortex Moutan Radicis,Coptis Chinensis Franch and Radix et Rhizoma Rhei,a-gainst Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The effects of these extracts were evaluated on the metabolism of total sugar and protein and activities of protective enzymes,superoxide dismutase (SOD ),catalase (CAT ),peroxidase (POD),glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),acetylcholinesterase (AChE),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA)from B.xylophilus. The gene expression of SOD,CAT,GSH-Px and AChE was also analyzed. The con-trol effects of the extracts on B.xylophilus were measured in water-potted plants. The extracts of three TCM herbs interfered with the metabolism of total sugar and protein of B.xylophilus

  14. Simple diagnosis of Pine Wilt Disease using loop-mediated isothermal amplification%利用环介导恒温扩增法简易诊断松萎蔫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takuya Aikawa; Natsumi Kanzaki; Taisei Kikuchi

    2011-01-01

    诊断松萎蔫病的传统方法是从木质组织中分离松材线虫,然后用显微镜进行形态学鉴定.基于DNA分子检测的方法尽管很灵敏,不需要固定发育阶段的松材线虫,但是仍然需要用Baermann漏斗法分离线虫,并且需要昂贵的仪器.笔者研发了利用环介导恒温扩增法检测松材线虫的存在,该方法包括:(1)从木块中提取DNA;(2) DNA扩增;(3)通过反应溶液的颜色做出诊断.该方法仅使用培养箱且整个过程只需要90 min,比以往方法更加简便和快速.%Pine wilt disease (PWD) , a serious threat to pine forests in East Asia and Europe, is caused by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Because the nematodes are transmitted by insect vectors from dead to healthy trees, PWD spreads extremely rapid. Accurate and rapid diagnosis and then complete removal of the nematode-infected trees from pine forests are thus very important for control of PWD. To diagnose PWD, B. Xylophilus must be detected in infected trees. Generally, the nematode is extracted from wood tissues by u-sing the Baermann funnel technique and is then identified under stereo and light microscopes. However, this method requires technical knowledge of nematode morphology and expensive equipment such as microscopes. In addition, nematode extraction takes a long time (usually 1 or 2 days) , and identification of the nematode is possible only when adults ( both male and female) are extracted. Several DNA-based protocols for the identification of B. Xylophilus have recently been developed. Although these molecular techniques are sensitive and independent of the life stage of the nematode, they require both the use of a Baermann funnel to collect the nematodes from the wood tissues and expensive equipment such as a thermocycler or real-time PCR apparatus to amplify the DNA. We developed a simple and low-cost method of determining the presence of PWD by using loop-mediated isothermal amplification ( LAMP

  15. Metabolic Profiling of Somatic Tissues from Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae Reveals Effects of Irradiation on Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjian Qu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-level of sexual sterility is of importance for the sterile insect technique (SIT. However, the use of high-dose-intensity gamma radiation to induce sterility has negative impacts not only on reproductive cells but also on somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the metabolite differences in somatic tissues between non-irradiated, 20-Gy-irradiated, and 40-Gy-irradiated male Monochamus alternatus, an important vector of the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which kills Asian pines. The results showed that metabolite levels changed moderately in the 20-Gy samples but were markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples compared with the non-irradiated samples. Twenty-six and 53 metabolites were disturbed by 20-Gy and 40-Gy radiation, respectively. Thirty-six metabolites were found to be markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples but were not changed significantly in the 20-Gy samples. The comprehensive metabolomic disorders induced by 40-Gy radiation dysregulated six metabolic pathways involved in the life process. The findings presented in this manuscript will contribute to our knowledge of the characteristic metabolic changes associated with gamma-radiation-induced damage to somatic cells and will allow for better exploration of the SIT for the control of this target pest.

  16. Preliminary Study of Strain HNQ11, a Pinewood Nematode Trapping Fungus%松材线虫捕食真菌——少孢节丛孢HNQ11菌株初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢小宁; 郑服丛; 伍素娟

    2006-01-01

    从海南岛香蕉根围土壤分离得到松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,PWN)捕食真菌HNQ11菌株,鉴定为少孢节丛孢(Arthrobotrys oligospora).研究了HNQ11菌株的捕食作用及影响HNQ11捕食率的因素,结果表明,HNQ11菌株对松线虫表现出较好的捕食作用.HNQ11在含20g/L玉米粉的CMA培养基上捕食率最高:20~28℃,pH 6.5~7.5条件下均能捕食松材线虫,25℃,pH 6.5条件下捕食率最高,为87%;在不加入诱饵松材线虫或仅加入线虫洗液时不能产生捕食器官,在加入诱饵松材线虫和线虫磨碎液时能产生捕食器官,但线虫磨碎液诱导的菌环数比PWN诱导的菌环数少78%.

  17. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC₅₀ (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L₉ (3⁴) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in Monochamus alternatus digested with azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Qisi; Chen, Jingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope, a major forest insect pest, is the primary vector of the destructive forest pest pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Azadirachtin, an active compound of neem, is biologically interesting because it represents a group of important, successful botanical pesticides. We provide insight into the molecular effects of azadirachtin on M. alternatus at the transcriptional level to provide clues about possible molecular-level targets and to establish a link between azadirachtin and insect global responses. We found that 920 and 9894 unique genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively. We obtained expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), identifying 4247, 3488 and 7613 sequences that involved cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes, respectively, and showed that the DEGs were distributed among 50 Gene Ontology categories. The Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were enriched in 50 pathways. Detailed gene profile knowledge of the interaction of azadirachtin with M. alternatus should facilitate the development of more effective azadirachtin-based products against M. alternatus and other target Coleoptera. These results further enhance the value of azadirachtin as a potential insecticide of biological origin, as well as for other biological applications. PMID:27629396

  19. The Nematicidal Toxicity'of the Fruit Bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus%平菇( Pleurotus ostreatus )子实体对线虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向红琼; 冯志新

    2001-01-01

    平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)子实体各部分均不能杀死线虫(Panagrellus redivivus,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus),但子实体一旦萌发形成菌丝,则能杀死线虫.48h时,子实体萌发部位的线虫死亡率约为32%,并且有的线虫局部解体.生物学测定结果表明:子实体丙酮和水粗提物均不具有毒杀线虫的活性.来自于相同子实体组织分离,于2%CMA培养基25℃培养7;d的菌丝处理线虫,线虫与菌丝接触1~5min被击倒,4~6h成虫死亡,48h线虫死亡率达90%以上.同时,该菌菌丝丙酮和水粗提物均能杀死线虫.实验证明,平菇子实体不含杀线虫毒素.

  20. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  1. Dispersal patterns of exotic forest pests in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won II Choi; Young-Seuk Park

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species have potentially devastating effects on ecological communities and ecosystems.To understand the invasion process of exotic forest pests in South Korea,we reviewed four major species of exotic forest pests:the pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis),pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus),the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) and the black pine bast scale (Matsucoccus thunbergianae).We consider their biology,ecology,invasion history,dispersal patterns and related traits,and management as exotic species.Among these species,the dispersal process of fall webworm was linear,showing a constant range expansion as a function of time,whereas the other three species showed biphasic patterns,rapidly increasing dispersal speed after slow dispersal at the early invasion stage.Moreover,human activities accelerated their expansion,suggesting that prevention of the artificial movement of damaged trees would be useful to slow expansion of exotic species.We believe that this information would be useful to establish management strategies for invasion species.

  2. Application of an expert knowledge system in the study of forest spatial patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-yan; ZHANG Xiao-li

    2008-01-01

    For the sake of exploring how the pattern of Chinese pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb) community changed after the invasion of the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Niclde) in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, we established a test area in the local Chinese pine community. Landsat5 TM images from 1991 and 2006 were integrated with auxiliary data from field investigation and spectral data as additional sources of information. A method of expert knowledge classifier was applied to establish the expert knowledge dataset of the main vegetation cover types from which we obtained a forest type distribution map. The spatial patterns and stability of the forest, before and after the invasion of the pine wood nematode, were analyzed in terms of community patterns. The results indicated that the predominant coniferous forest type changed to a mixed forest. As a result, the forest structure became complex and the interaction between coniferous forest patches became weakened over the period from 1991 to 2006.Therefore, the resistance of the forest coo-system to plant diseases and insect pests and the stability of forest eco-system enhanced.

  3. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  4. Calodium (Capillaria hepaticum (Nematoda, Capillariidae in insular small rodent populations

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    Bugmyrin Sergey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the distribution of the nematode Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft 1893 Moravec 1982 (syn.: Capillaria hepatica, Hepaticola hepatica on the islands of Kizhi Archipelago are reported (N 62°00'; E 35°12'. Samples were collected on 18 islands and the mainland part of the Kizhi skerries region in the period from August 2005 till 2014. The method of partial helminthological dissection was applied to 346 specimens of rodents belonging to two species – the bank vole Myodes glareolus Schreber 1780 (301 spm. and the field vole Microtus agrestis Linnaeus 1761 (45 spm.. The prevalence and the abundance index of nematode were 16.6% and 1.1 in M. glareolus and 11.1%; 0.3 in M. agrestis, respectively. The highest prevalence and abundance of C. hepaticum were detected in mature voles. No sex-related differences were found. C. hepaticum was present in 12 of 19 sampling sites. On the islands where the sample number (host individuals was over 15, the highest prevalence and abundance values were 57% and 5.8 spm., respectively. Significant positive coefficients of correlation (Spearman’s and Pearson’s ones between nematode numbers and characteristics of the island were found in the pair «Prevalence – degree of isolation» (0.48 and 0.49. Single-factor analysis of variance showed that the size of the island had some effect on the nematode invasion prevalence and abundance. However, no significant regression relationship between the prevalence and abundance of nematodes and characteristics of an island was revealed by multivariate regression analysis (multiple regression: the coefficient of determination of the regression equation R2 < 0.3, and the regression coefficients were insignificant The reasons for high abundance of C. hepaticum in northern insular ecosystems are discussed. Possible key factors for the stable vitality of the parasite populations are: 1 favourable hydrothermal conditions of the soil in the shore (littoral zone; 2 the possibility of passive transfer between islands; 3 the ability to survive outside the host for a long time (an egg can remain invasive in the external environment for up to three years; and 4 cannibalism as the main pathway of vermination circulation in isolated populations of small mammals.

  5. Reproduction in Strongyloides (Nematoda): a life between sex and parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, A

    2008-03-01

    Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides parasitize the small intestines of vertebrates. In addition to a parasitic life-cycle, which is generally considered to be parthenogenetic, Strongyloides can also have a facultative, free-living generation involving male and female worms. The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on the modes of reproduction, the routes of development in the two generations of Strongyloides, discuss the controversial opinions in the literature regarding these aspects and point to new opportunities for addressing key questions in relation to the biology of reproduction of members of the genus employing genetic and genomic tools. PMID:18076772

  6. First report of Xiphinema rivesi (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dagger nematode Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso 1969 transmits several viruses in North America and Europe (2), causing severe yield reduction in crops. During a routine survey of cherry orchards suffering from cherry rasp leaf disease caused by Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV) (genus Cheravirus) in Che...

  7. Xiphinema campinense, nova espécie (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gonzaga E. Lordello

    1951-12-01

    Full Text Available X. campinense n. sp. is described. It is a Xiphinema closely resembling X. pratense Loos, 1949, from which it is distinguished by its measurements, by the absence of any cuticular transverse striatum as well as by the number and location of the caudal papillae.

  8. Morphometrics of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urek, G.; Sirca, S.; Karssen, G.

    2005-01-01

    In early spring 2002 nematodes of the X. americanum group were found in soil samples taken near the roots of peach trees from an orchard at Bilje near Nova Gorica, Slovenia. Re-sampling in different locations in the same area confirmed their presence in high numbers (from 5 LIP to 100 nematodes/100

  9. Dorylaimoidea (Nematoda from rivers in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with nematodes from rivers in the Kruger National Park. Three new species are described, viz. Dorylaimus deaconi n.sp., Laimydorus olifanti n.sp. and Aporcelaimellus glandus n.sp. Lenonchium fimbricaudatum Swart & Heyns, 1991, Aporcelaimellus micropunctatus Botha & Heyns, 1990, Discolaimus monoplanus Heyns, 1963, Discolaimus major Thome, 1939 and Xiphinema italiae Meyl, 1953 have been recorded from the park before. Biometric data of the new populations are tabulated, and where appropriate illustrations are also given.

  10. The phylogenetics of Anguillicolidae (Nematoda: Anguillicoloidea, swimbladder parasites of eels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetsch Dominik R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anguillicolidae Yamaguti, 1935 is a family of parasitic nematode infecting fresh-water eels of the genus Anguilla, comprising five species in the genera Anguillicola and Anguillicoloides. Anguillicoloides crassus is of particular importance, as it has recently spread from its endemic range in the Eastern Pacific to Europe and North America, where it poses a significant threat to new, naïve hosts such as the economic important eel species Anguilla anguilla and Anguilla rostrata. The Anguillicolidae are therefore all potentially invasive taxa, but the relationships of the described species remain unclear. Anguillicolidae is part of Spirurina, a diverse clade made up of only animal parasites, but placement of the family within Spirurina is based on limited data. Results We generated an extensive DNA sequence dataset from three loci (the 5' one-third of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA, the D2-D3 region of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA and the 5' half of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene for the five species of Anguillicolidae and used this to investigate specific and generic boundaries within the family, and the relationship of Anguillicolidae to other spirurine nematodes. Neither nuclear nor mitochondrial sequences supported monophyly of Anguillicoloides. Genetic diversity within the African species Anguillicoloides papernai was suggestive of cryptic taxa, as was the finding of distinct lineages of Anguillicoloides novaezelandiae in New Zealand and Tasmania. Phylogenetic analysis of the Spirurina grouped the Anguillicolidae together with members of the Gnathostomatidae and Seuratidae. Conclusions The Anguillicolidae is part of a complex radiation of parasitic nematodes of vertebrates with wide host diversity (chondrichthyes, teleosts, squamates and mammals, most closely related to other marine vertebrate parasites that also have complex life cycles. Molecular analyses do not support the recent division of Anguillicolidae into two genera. The described species may hide cryptic taxa, identified here by DNA taxonomy, and this DNA barcoding approach may assist in tracking species invasions. The propensity for host switching, and thus the potential for invasive behaviour, is found in A. crassus, A. novaezelandiae and A. papernai, and thus may be common to the group.

  11. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from Vietnam (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Duong Nguyen, Thi Anh; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from evergreen forest soil in Vietnam is described, including scanning electron micrograph (SEM) observations and D2-D3 LSU rDNA analysis. The new species is characterized by its 3.12 to 5.80 mm long body, lip region offset by deep constriction and 21 to 23 μm broad, mural tooth 13 to 14 μm long at its ventral side, 940 to 1,112 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 61% to 69% of total neck length, uterus a long simple tube-like structure 292 to 363 μm long or 2.7 to 2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae well developed, V = 48 to 56, short (36–51 μm, c = 77–132, c′ = 0.5–0.8) and rounded tail, 87 to 99 μm long spicules, and four or five irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. differs from the typical pattern of Sectonema in the nature of the stomatal protrusible structure, bearing a mural tooth attached to the ventral side of the stoma. Molecular data obtained and the derived evolutionary trees support a close phylogenetic relationship with other Sectonema species. PMID:27418702

  12. Ultrastructure of the adults of Bunostomum phlebotomum (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cesar Rios Leite

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the male and female of Bunostomum phlebotomum are described based on scanning electron microscope (SEM observations. The attachment of the worms to the small intestinal mucosa and during the copula were observed. Structures of the bucal capsule and genital organs were also studied.

  13. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from Vietnam (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Duong Nguyen, Thi Anh; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2016-06-01

    Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from evergreen forest soil in Vietnam is described, including scanning electron micrograph (SEM) observations and D2-D3 LSU rDNA analysis. The new species is characterized by its 3.12 to 5.80 mm long body, lip region offset by deep constriction and 21 to 23 μm broad, mural tooth 13 to 14 μm long at its ventral side, 940 to 1,112 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 61% to 69% of total neck length, uterus a long simple tube-like structure 292 to 363 μm long or 2.7 to 2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae well developed, V = 48 to 56, short (36-51 μm, c = 77-132, c' = 0.5-0.8) and rounded tail, 87 to 99 μm long spicules, and four or five irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. differs from the typical pattern of Sectonema in the nature of the stomatal protrusible structure, bearing a mural tooth attached to the ventral side of the stoma. Molecular data obtained and the derived evolutionary trees support a close phylogenetic relationship with other Sectonema species. PMID:27418702

  14. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtoni, is described from soil collected from a field with a cropping history including potatoes in Oregon. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles (J2) with a body length of 450 um (365-515), stylet length of 20.9 um (19-22.5) with basal kn...

  15. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  16. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1961-01-01

    The nematode parasite Anisakis sp. can be recovered, relatively unaltered, from chum salmon musculature by high temperature (52°+2°C.) peptic digestion of the flesh. The procedure, which is presented in detail, appears to be more thorough in isolating the parasite than dissection of the flesh and manual isolation of the worms. In addition, the procedure is rapid, comparatively simple, economical, and suitable for the examination of large numbers of samples.

  17. Five new species of the genus Tripylella (Nematoda: Enoplida: Tripylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Vera, Ignacio Cid Del; Ferris, Howard; Nadler, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of the genus Tripylella are described, two from México, one from Fátima, Portugal, one from Quito, Ecuador, and one from California, USA. Tripylella mexicana sp. n. is characterized by its short body (average 0.74 mm), short pharynx (average 161 μm), short tail (average 117 μm), presence of an excretory pore and small setae distributed sparsely along the body, the presence of body pores, the posterior position of the subventral teeth in relation to the small dorsal tooth with all teeth in contiguous stomal chambers, the finely-striated cuticle with many anastomoses, the non-protruding vulval lips, and the presence of sclerotized pieces in the vulval region. Tripylella muscusi sp. n. is characterized by its body length (average 0.94 mm), pharynx length (average 201 μm), tail length (average 140 μm), the anterior position of the subventral teeth in relation to the small dorsal tooth in a single stomal chamber, the presence of an excretory pore, the presence of body pores and sparse somatic setae, the finely-striated cuticle with sparse anastomoses, protruding vulval lips and sclerotized oval-shaped pieces present in the vulval region. Tripylella quitoensis sp. n. is characterized by the short body length (average 0.72 mm), the short outer labial setae, the short pharynx (average 175 μm), the location of the anterior subventral teeth and posterior dorsal tooth in the same stomal chamber, the short tail (average 98 μm), the apparent absence of an excretory pore, presence of body pores, presence of somatic setae, a finely-striated cuticle, non-protruding vulval lips, and very small oval sclerotized pieces in the vulva. Tripylella fatimaensis sp. n. is characterized by the short body, (average 0.74 mm) long, by the length of the pharynx (average 180 μm), the length of the tail (average 110 μm) and in the length of its reduced diameter portion, 45-58 μm, the presence of an excretory pore, body pores and three pairs of caudal setae (one pair each latero-ventral, latero-dorsal and ventral). Tripylella dentata sp. n. is characterized, and differs from all the species of the genus, by the presence of two adjacent stomal chambers, with two large teeth, one dorsal and one ventral, in the posterior stomal chamber and two subventral teeth in the anterior smaller chamber, short body (average 0.85 mm), pharynx length (average 209 μm), tail length (average 115 μm), the apparent absence of an excretory pore, the presence of two cervical setae in a lateral position, and by the presence of conspicuous pores along the body. PMID:27394860

  18. Revision of the genus Paracooperia Travassos, 1935 (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, L M

    1978-09-01

    Only five of the eight species assigned to the genus Paracooperia are considered valid and are redescribed. P. petrowi Memmedov, 1961 and P. indiana Ali and Deshpande, 1970 are considered synonyms of P. nodulosa (Schwartz, 1928) Travassos, 1937 and the synonymy of P. matoffi Le Roux, 1950 with P. nodulosa is confirmed. A key to the species of the genus is given and their hosts and geographical localities are listed.

  19. Morphology and Systematics of the Order Plectida Malakhov, 1982 (Nematoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Nematodes constitute one of the largest animal phyla. Hitherto about 20.000 species have been described but there are estimates that this number is less than 2% of the total number of existing species. Although the larger animal and human parasites were known since ancient times the description of f

  20. Mitochondrial coi in phylogenetic relationships of Laimaphelenchus belgradiensis (nematoda: Aphelenchoididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oro Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes of the genus Laimaphelenchus are small and tiny organisms. Some parts of their body are measured in nanometers. The identification and classification of such organisms is a complex task. Previously, the major source of classification was morphology based on anatomical characters and measurements. Nowadays, this approach is supplemented by: “nano-morphology” based on scanning electron microscopy and molecular data and phylogeny, resulting in molecular systematics. Laimaphelenchus belgradiensis was recently described species. Since cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was successful in DNA based species diagnosis, it was chosen as a molecular marker to infer phylogeny of the newly discovered species. Phylogenetic relationships were based on Bayesian inference, the pairwise distances and the content of nitrogenous bases. The great genetic diversity was observed among close and distant species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  1. The Nematoda Filarioidea: critical analysis linking molecular and traditional approaches

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    Bain O.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The molecular analysis of the Filarioidea and the endobacteria Wolbachia is no more limited to the agents of human diseases and the diversified sampling permits a synthesis with the morphological and biological results. The validity of the genera with “uncoherent host range”, such as Mansonella, Litomosoides and Cercopithifilaria, is confirmed and, consequently, their evolution by host-switchings. Dirofilaria and Onchocerca, types of two subfamilies, appear more closely related than with other onchocercids. Waltonellinae from anurans and Oswaldofilariinae from reptiles have a basal position. These filariae, and some others also considered primitive, do not harbour Wolbachia. Evidence for transversal transmission of the bacteria and a second acquisition event is given with the supergroup F, identified in Mansonella, in one of the Cercopithifilaria species and in arthropods.

  2. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; Heerden, van E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth’s crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere1–4. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxy

  3. Diversification and adaptive sequence evolution of Caenorhabditis lysozymes (Nematoda: Rhabditidae

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    Boehnisch Claudia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysozymes are important model enzymes in biomedical research with a ubiquitous taxonomic distribution ranging from phages up to plants and animals. Their main function appears to be defence against pathogens, although some of them have also been implicated in digestion. Whereas most organisms have only few lysozyme genes, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis possess a surprisingly large repertoire of up to 15 genes. Results We used phylogenetic inference and sequence analysis tools to assess the evolution of lysozymes from three congeneric nematode species, Caenorhabditis elegans, C. briggsae, and C. remanei. Their lysozymes fall into three distinct clades, one belonging to the invertebrate-type and the other two to the protist-type lysozymes. Their diversification is characterised by (i ancestral gene duplications preceding species separation followed by maintenance of genes, (ii ancestral duplications followed by gene loss in some of the species, and (iii recent duplications after divergence of species. Both ancestral and recent gene duplications are associated in several cases with signatures of adaptive sequence evolution, indicating that diversifying selection contributed to lysozyme differentiation. Current data strongly suggests that genetic diversity translates into functional diversity. Conclusion Gene duplications are a major source of evolutionary innovation. Our analysis provides an evolutionary framework for understanding the diversification of lysozymes through gene duplication and subsequent differentiation. This information is expected to be of major value in future analysis of lysozyme function and in studies of the dynamics of evolution by gene duplication.

  4. Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria

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    Qunqun Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD, a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA. RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34 orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v. The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight. The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL and RosA (1 mg/mL also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina.

  5. Effects of methamidophos and deltamethrin on in vitro protein phosphorylation in Monochamus alternatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu; Xi-Wu Gao; Yi-Jun Wu; Wei Li; Qi-Lian Qin; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2008-01-01

    Monochamus alternatus Hope(Coleoptera:Cerambycidae)is not onlY a serious Dest insect to pine trees but alSO the main vector of pine wood nemadote Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,which causes pine wilt disease.To explore the insecticidal mechanism of insecticides to M alternatus,we chose methamidophos and deltamethrin as the representa-tives of two groups of insecticides(organophosphates and pyrethroids),which arc widely used for pest controlin China and investigated their effects on phosphorylation of proteins from the insect.Phosphorylation of proteins from the insect fat body and head was determined by fn vitro 32P-labelling.In the fat body,deltamethtin obviously reduced basal phosphorylation levels of proteins at 111,95,77,and 44 kDa,but enhanced the basal phosphorylation level of a protein at 138 kDa.However,in the presence of calmodulin but not cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP),deitamethrin increased phosphorylation of the protein at 111 kDa.In the head,deltamethrin inhibited basal phosphorylation levels of proteins at 113,98,and 51 kDa,but potentiated phosphorylation of a protein at 167 kDa activated by cAMP.Methamidophos inhibited phosphorylation of a protein at 44 kDa in the fat body.Although methamidophos did not impact basal phosphorylation levels of any proteins in the head,it inhibiled calcium/calmodulin(Ca2+/CAM) stimulated phosphoryla-tion of a protein at 5 1 kDa.Together.our dam indicate that methamidophos and deltamethrin altered phosphorylation levels of various proteins in thc head and fat body of the pine insect and these two kinds of inseeticides acted on the proteins that call be phosphorylated in the tissues respectively,Which is possibly related to their toxicity.

  6. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindole arylcarbonyl hydrazone derivatives as nematicidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhiping; Zhang, Shaoyong; Shao, Yonghua; Fan, Lingling; Xu, Hui; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Rui

    2013-06-19

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based pesticidal agents, 54 novel N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindole arylcarbonyl hydrazone derivatives were prepared, and their structures were well characterized by ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, HRMS, ESI-MS, and mp. Their nematicidal activity was evaluated against that of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in vivo. Among all of the derivatives, especially V-12 and V-39 displayed the best promising nematicidal activity with LC₅₀ values of 1.0969 and 1.2632 mg/L, respectively. This suggested that introduction of R¹ and R² together as the electron-withdrawing substituents, R³ as the methyl group, and R⁴ as the phenyl with the electron-donating substituents could be taken into account for further preparation of these kinds of compounds as nematicidal agents. Six selected descriptors are a WHIM descriptor (E1m), two GETAWAY descriptors (R1m+ and R3m+), a Burden eigenvalues descriptor (BEHm8), and two edge-adjacency index descriptors (EEig05x and EEig13d). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies demonstrated that the structural factors, such as molecular mass (a negative correlation with the bioactivity) and molecular polarity (a positive correlation with bioactivity), are likely to govern the nematicidal activities of these compounds. For this model, the correlation coefficient (R²(training set)), the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(LOO)), and the 7-fold cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(7-fold)) were 0.791, 0.701, and 0.715, respectively. The external cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²ext) and the root-mean-square error for the test set (RMSE(test set)) were 0.774 and 3.412, respectively. This study will pave the way for future design, structural modification, and development of indole derivatives as nematicidal agents. PMID:23738496

  7. Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe.

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    Tarek Soliman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008-2030, assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014-2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300-800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions.

  8. Cloning and expression of a toxin gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingying; Guo, Daosen; Zhou, Shiyi; Yu, Xinlei; Hou, Guixue; Li, Ronggui; Zhao, Boguang

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A was isolated from the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, obtained from wilted Japanese black pine, Pinus thumbergii, in China. In this paper, a genomic library of the GcM5-1A strain was constructed and a toxin-producing clone was isolated by bioassay. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,290 bp encoding a protein of 429 amino acids with N-terminal putative signal peptide of 36 amino acids, which shared a similarity of 83, 82 and 80% identity with hypothetical protein PFLU2919 from P. fluorescens SBW25, Dyp-type peroxidase family protein from P. fluorescens Pf-5 and Tat-translocated enzyme from P. fluorescens Pf0-1, respectively. The gene encoding a full-length protein or without the putative signal peptide was cloned and expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The recombinant protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by affinity chromatography using a Ni2+ matrix column. Its relative molecular weight was estimated to be 48.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE for full-length protein, and 45.0 kDa for the recombinant protein without putative signal peptide. Bioassay results showed that the recombinant protein with or without the putative signal peptide was toxic to both suspension cells and P. thunbergii seedlings. HPLC analysis demonstrated that components in branch extracts of P. thunbergii were significantly changed after addition of the recombinant full-length protein and hydrogen peroxide, which indicated that it is probably a peroxidase. This study offers information that can be used to determine the mechanism of pine wilt disease caused by the PWN.

  9. Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-ji; Ning, Tiao; Fu, Da-ying; Haack, Robert A; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, De-dao; Ma, Xue-yu; Ye, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer), in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural) expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system) in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were infested with PWN

  10. Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-ji Hu

    Full Text Available The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer, in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were

  11. The ratio and concentration of two monoterpenes mediate fecundity of the pinewood nematode and growth of its associated fungi.

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    Hongtao Niu

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, vectored primarily by the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, is an important invasive pest and causal agent of pine wilt disease of Chinese Masson pine, Pinus massoniana. Previous work demonstrated that the ratios and concentrations of α-pinene:β-pinene differed between healthy trees and those trees containing blue-stain fungus (and M. alternatus pupae. However, the potential influence of the altered monoterpene ratios and concentrations on PWN and associated fungi remained unknown. Our current results show that low concentrations of the monoterpenes within petri dishes reduced PWN propagation, whereas the highest concentration of the monoterpenes increased PWN propagation. The propagation rate of PWN treated with the monoterpene ratio representative of blue-stain infected pine (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8, 137.6 mg/ml was significantly higher than that (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.1, 137.6 mg/ml representative of healthy pines or those damaged by M. alternatus feeding, but without blue stain. Furthermore, inhibition of mycelial growth of associated fungi increased with the concentration of the monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene. Additionally, higher levels of β-pinene (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8 resulted in greater inhibition of the growth of the associated fungi Sporothrix sp.2 and Ophiostoma ips strains, but had no significant effects on the growth of Sporothrix sp.1, which is the best food resource for PWN. These results suggest that host monoterpenes generally reduce the reproduction of PWN. However, PWN utilizes high monoterpene concentrations and native blue-stain fungus Sporothrix sp.1 to improve its own propagation and overcome host resistance, which may provide clues to understanding the ecological mechanisms of PWN's successful invasion.

  12. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  13. Nematodes species survey and identification in the pine wood in Vietnam%越南松树枯死病症状及原因初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuan; Le Bao Thanh; 颜学武

    2016-01-01

    xylophilus was not found so far in Vietnam country,while Bursaphelen-chus distributed widely in 3 provinces in Vietnam.Nematodes were isolated from 46 samples in 52 samples of pine trees.Nematode isolated ratio was 88.5%.The isolated ratio of dead,dying and healthy pine samples were 93.5%, 66.7% and 33.3% respectively.The isolated ratio of dead,dying and healthy P.kesiya samples were 96.5%,66.7%and 33.3% respectively.The isolated ratio of P.massoniana samples was 90.9%.The isolated ratio of P.merkusii samples was 83.3%.This is the first report about nematodes on pine wood distribution in Viet Nam.

  14. Cheilospirura hamulosa (Diesing, 1851 (Nematoda, Acuarioidea in turkeys in Brazil: occurrence and pathology Cheilospirura hamulosa (Diesing, 1851 (Nematoda, Acuarioidea em perus no Brasil: ocorrência e patologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Brener

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso de infecção de perus, Meleagris gallopavo, por Cheilospirura hamulosa no Brasil, com base no achado de três espécimes fêmeas de C. hamulosa, inseridos na submucosa da moela de um peru, retirado de um lote de 15 aves, provenientes de criadouros domésticos no estado de Minas Gerais. A ocorrência foi de 6,7%. A ave parasitada não apresentava sinais clínicos. As lesões microscópicas da moela eram severas, caracterizando-se por intensos processos inflamatórios crônicos e difusos, com infiltrados mistos de granulócitos, estendendo-se à mucosa e às camadas musculares. Nessa área, foram observados fragmentos dos parasitos e perfuração da mucosa, com destruição das camadas musculares.

  15. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae in Argentina Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae de Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae na Argentina

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    Noelia Adelina Galeano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province, revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.Necropsia de 15 espécimes de mergulhão-de-orelha-branca, Rollandiarolland, coletados nas lagoas Mar Chiquita e Chascomús (Província de Buenos Aires, revelou a presença de Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. Esse nematóide tem uma marcada especificidade pelas aves podicipediformes. Os espécimes foram identificados a partir de características, tais como estruturas morfológicas cefálicas e esofágicas e papilas caudais, utilizando-se microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Esse é o primeiro registro de C. ovale parasito de R. rolland na Argentina.

  16. First report of Ascarophis Van Beneden, 1871: A. Brasiliensis n.sp. (Nematoda, Ascarophidinae and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus Pereira/Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda, Procamallaninae in South America

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    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascarophis brasiliensis recovered from the stomach of Trachinotus carolinus (L. 1766, is proposed as a new species and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 is redescribed from a new host: Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steind., 1875. A. brasiliensis is more closely related to A. crassicolis Dollfus & Campana-Rouget, 1956, from which it differs mainly by the absence of cervical cuticular expansion and size of the eggs. The new species is also compared to A. cooperi johnston & Mawson, 1945 and A. girellae (Yamaguti, 1935 Campana-rouget, 1955. The validity of the proposed species is discussed.Ascarophis brasiliensis coletada do estômago de Trachinotus carolinus (L., 1766, é proposta como espécie nova e Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux., 1946 é redescrita de um novo hospedeiro: Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steind., 1875. A. brasiliensis mais se aproxima de A. crassicolis Dollfus & Campana-rouget, 1956, da qual se difere, principalmente, pela ausência da expansão cuticular cervical e tamanho dos ovos. A nova espécie é também comparada a A. cooperi Johnston & Mawson, 1945 e A. girellae (Yamaguti, 1935 Campana-rouget, 1955, quando a validade de tal proposição é discutida.

  17. Contribuição ao conhecimento de Thubunaea dactyluris karve, 1938 (Nematoda, Spiruroidea Contribution to the Knowledge of Thubunaea dactyluris Karve, 1938 (Nematoda, Spiruroidea

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    Sueli P. de Fabio

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Na presente nota, redescrevemos Thubunaea dactyluris karve, 1938, em novo hospedador e assinalamos a ocorrência deste gênero pela primeira vez no Brasil. O material é resultante de uma necrópsia feita em Ameiva ameiva (L., proveniente da Praia do Anil, Município de Magé, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram estudados 8 machos e 10 fêmeas. São apresentados 9 figuras e 1 quadro com as medidas correspondentes, mostrando as variações encontradas.In this paper the authors redescribe Thubunaea dactyluris Karve, 1938 in a new host; this is the first reference of this genus in Brazil. The nematodes were recovered from the stomach of Ameiva ameiva (L., from Anil Beach, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The authors studied eight males and ten females. Nine figures and one measurement table are presented, showing all these variations.

  18. Systematics of the genus Gnathostoma (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae in the Americas Sistemática del género Gnathostoma (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae en América

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    Florencia Bertoni-Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, more than 20 species of the genus Gnathostoma have been described as parasites of mammals, 9 of them in the Americas. However, the taxonomic status of some of these species has been questioned. The main goal of this study is to clarify the validity of the American species included in the genus. In order to complete this objective, we analyze type and/or voucher specimens of all these species deposited in 6 scientific collections, through morphometric and ultrastructural studies. Based on diagnostic traits as host specificity, site of infection, body size, cuticular spines, presence of 1 or 2 bulges in the polar ends of eggs, as well as eggshell and caudal bursa morphology, we re-establish Gnathostoma socialis (Leidy, 1858 and confirm the validity of other 6 species: Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902, Gnathostoma americanum Travassos, 1925, Gnathostoma procyonis Chandler, 1942, Gnathostoma miyazakii Anderson, 1964, Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991, and Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio-Sarabia and León-Règagnon, 2005. Gnathostoma didelphis Chandler, 1932 and Gnathostoma brasiliensis Ruiz, 1952 are considered synonyms of G. turgidum. Finally, based on a wide revision of specimens deposited in 6 American collections, we conclude that records of Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836 in the Americas are invalid.A la fecha, se han descrito más de 20 especies del género Gnathostoma parásitas de mamíferos, 9 de ellas en America. Sin embargo, el estado taxonómico de algunas ha sido cuestionado. El objetivo de este estudio es aclarar la validez de las especies americanas incluidas en el género. Para ello, se analizaron ejemplares tipo o de referencia de todas las especies, depositados en 6 colecciones científicas, mediante estudios morfométricos y ultraestructurales. Con base en rasgos diagnósticos como especificidad hospedatoria, sitio de infección, dimensiones corporales, espinas cuticulares (número de puntas, densidad, forma y distribución, presencia de uno ó dos tapones polares en los huevos, así como morfología de la bursa, patrón papilar y de la cubierta de los huevos, se re-establece a Gnathostoma socialis (Leidy, 1858 y se confirma la validez de otras 6 especies: Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902, Gnathostoma americanum Travassos, 1925, Gnathostoma procyonis Chandler, 1942, Gnathostoma miyazakii Anderson, 1964, Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991 y Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio Sarabia y León-Règagnon, 2005. Gnathostoma didelphis Chandler, 1932 y Gnathostoma brasiliensis Ruiz, 1952 son consideradas sinónimos de G. turgidum. Basados en una amplia revisión de material depositado en 6 colecciones Americanas, se invalidan los registros de Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836 en America.

  19. Redescriptions of genera Raphidascaris Railliet et Henry, 1915 and Paranisakis Baylis, 1923 (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae), and Paracamallanus Yorke and Maplestone, 1926 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from fish of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, I R; Rao, K H; Shyamasundari, K

    1989-01-01

    The present paper deals with the redescriptions of the species of a nematode of the families, Heterocheilidae Railliet et Henry, 1915 and Camallanidae Railliet et Henry, 1915 from the intestine and stomach of marine fishes, Epinephelus areolatus (Forskål), Tachysurus tenuispinis (Day), Johnius diacantus (Lecépède), Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes), Pomadasys maculatus (Blooch). Dasyatis (Himantura) uarnak (Forskål), Pterois russelli Bennett, Scoliodon sorrakowah (Cuvier) and Carangoides malabaricus Bloch and Schneider from Visakhapatnam and Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh). Most of the characters tally with Raphidascaris chirocentri Yamaguti, 1935, Paranisakis pastinacae (Rud., 1819) Baylis, 1936 and Paracamallanus theraponis Kalyankar, 1970, but differs from it body measurements, oesophagus length, location of the nerve ring, length of the tridents, possession of striations, shape and position of the vulvar process and size of the eggs. Except for these minor variations, in all other characters there is agreement with above species. Because of the non-availability of the male, it is not possible to assign the present specimens to any of the known species of the genus Raphidascaris, Paranisakis and Paracamallanus. Hence these are referred as Raphidascaris sp., Paranisakis sp. and Paracamallanus sp. Dasyatis uarnak, Pterois russelli, Scoliodon sorrakowah and Carangoides malabaricus are new host records. Visakhapatnam and Kakinada are the new locality records. PMID:2487509

  20. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ADULT GERM LINES FROM TWO PAIRS OF SIBLING NEMATODE SPECIES ISOLATED FROM PINE WOOD IN CHINA%两对姊妹线虫成虫生殖系细胞学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄任娥; 叶建仁; 吴小芹

    2008-01-01

    采用DAPI-荧光染色法研究松材线虫、拟松材线虫、李氏长尾线虫和吴氏长尾线虫等两对形态相似的姊妹线虫的成虫生殖系细胞学特征,描述并且比较了两对姊妹线虫之间以及姊妹线虫对之间的成虫生殖系细胞排列方式和贯穿于生殖细胞分裂过程中的染色体变化行为,同时也图示了这4种线虫的成虫生殖系细胞核形态图和染色体形态图.研究表明,利用线虫成虫生殖系细胞学特征来探讨线虫种类之间甚至个体之间的相互关系,将可能便于人们更好地界定线虫"种"的范围及解释线虫进化和系统发育过程;研究还表明,经DAPI-荧光染色的生殖系细胞排列模式可能町以作为一种较好的线虫分类特征.此外,本研究的4种线虫的染色体数目均为2n=12.%With DAPI staining, structures of the young adult germ lines from two pairs of morphologically cryptic spedes of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucromatus and Seinura lii and S. wuae were characterized. Within and between the two pairs of sibling species, germ-call arrangement patterns and chromosome behaviour included in germ cells divisions were described and compared. Nuclear morphologies of the four young adult germ-lines were illustrated. This study suggested that cytological features from the germ-line of nematodes might assist taxonomic and systematic researchers to better understand the relationships between and within nematode species. It also indicated that the germ-cell arrangement patterns revealed by DAPI-fluoreseence method might be a sound taxonomic character for use in nematode classification. In addition, six bivalents of chromosomes were ohserved in both male and female germ cells in all four species studied.

  1. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Beachgrasses

    OpenAIRE

    HANDOO, Zafar A.; Huettel, Robin N.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. is described and illustrated from American beachgrass (Ammophila breviliffulata) originally collected from Henlopen State Park and Fenwick Island near the Maryland state line in Delaware, United States (6). Its relationship to M. graminis, M. spartinae, and M. californiensis is discussed. Primary distinctive characters of the female perineal pattern were a high to rounded arch with shoulders, widely spaced lateral lines interrupting transverse striations, a sunken v...

  2. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae in Brazil

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    Vicente J Júlio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari.

  3. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea) parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J J; Muniz-Pereira, L C; Noronha, D; Pinto, R M

    2000-01-01

    Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari).

  4. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-12-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement.

  5. Experimental heteroxenous cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 (Nematoda: Ascarididae in white mice and in cats

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    Gregorio S. Volcan

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of natural infections of sylvatic carnivores by adult worms of species similar to Lagochilascaris minor in the Neotropical region led to attempts to estabilish experimental cycles in laboratory mice and in cats. Also, larval development was seen in the skeletal muscle of an agouti (Dasyprocta leporina infected per os with incubated eggs of the parasite obtained from a human case. In cats, adult worms develop and fertile eggs are expelled in the feces: in mice, larval stages of the parasite develop, and are encapsulate in the skeletal muscle, and in the adipose and subcutaneous connective tissue. From our observations, we conclude that the larva infective for the mouse is the early 3rd stage, while for the final host the infective form is the later 3rd stage. A single moult was seen in the mouse, giving rise to a small population of 4th stage larvae, long after the initial infection.

  6. Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Mexico: three clinical cases from the Peninsula of Yucatan

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    Mario Barrera-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human lagochilascariasis (HL is a parasite produced by Lagochilascaris minor Leiper 1909 that also can be found in cats and dogs. HL is considered an emerging zoonosis in the Americas, spreading from Mexico to Argentina, and the Caribbean Islands. The present paper describes three HL cases from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico, recorded in the last decade. It describes the characteristics of the lesions and discusses the route of transmission in humans and particularly in the observed patients.

  7. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed. PMID:25517533

  8. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism

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    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  9. The Syphaciinae (Oxyuridae, Nematoda) parasitic in rodents and lagomorpha. Numerical taxonomy. Cladistic analysis of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, J P

    1990-01-01

    Two different methods are successively used for the systematic study of the Syphaciinae, a parasitic group of pin-worms specific for the Rodents and Lagomorpha. The statistical method permits to build a "phenetic classification"; the cladistic method permits to build a "phylogenetic classification". The classification finally proposed is principally found on the results of the morphological study of the parasites, but has also in view the integration of all available data concerning the biology, the biogeography and the phylogeny of the hosts.

  10. A cladistic analysis of the genera in the subfamily Pudicinae (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea, Heligmonellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Justine, J L

    1991-09-01

    A parsimony analysis was performed on 37 specific taxa belonging to the subfamily Pudicinae (family Heligmonellidae), which contains parasites mainly from South American caviomorph rodents. Thirteen characters were used from the synlophe (rotation of axis, presence of carene, carene asymmetry, presence of comaretes, single ventral comarete length, ridge discontinuity, ventral ridge numbers, presence of a peculiar posterior synlophe, presence of supernumerary spines) and the male caudal bursa (relative length of rays 9 and 10, caudal bursa type, division of the dorsal ray, divergence of the 10th rays). The cladogram shows a consistency index of 1.0. The subfamily Pudicinae has two synapomorphies. Two suprageneric groups are recognized. Suprageneric group 1 shows one synapomorphy and contains Heligmostrongylus, Fuellebornema, Sciurodendrium and Pseudoheligmosomum; suprageneric group 2 shows two synapomorphies and contains Pudica, Acanthostrongylus, Justinema and Durettestrongylus. Five genera are defined on the basis of synapomorphies. The genera Heligmostrongylus, Sciurodendrium and Pudica which are considered paraphyletic, however, are retained due to lack of knowledge as to their relationships.

  11. Studies on the genus Paraphanolaimus Micoletzky, 1923 (Nematoda: Aphanolaimidae) with description of P. paraguayensis sp. n.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Sturhan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Two known and one new species of Paraphanolaimus are described, viz. P. behningi from Germany, P. anisitsi from Paraguay and Germany and P. paraguayensis sp. n. from Paraguay. Paraphanolaimus paraguayensis sp. n. is characterised by 0.84-0.94 mm long body, presence of 37-44 lateral epidermal glands,

  12. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) with insecticides used in the tomato crop

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique de Siqueira Sabino; Fernanda Soares Sales; Elsa Judith Guevara; Alcides Moino Jr.; Camila Cramer Filgueiras

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are agents that can be used for the biological control of pests associated with insecticides in a tank mix. Compatibility studies need to be conducted to analyze which products are compatible with nematodes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the compatibility between EPNs and the insecticides that are most used on the tomato crop, and to correlate the toxicological classification of the chemical products with two species of EPNs that have the p...

  13. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

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    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  14. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America. PMID:26187357

  15. Primer registro de Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenidae) para el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Pedro A. Ospina; Ramirez, Mercy G.; Nelly G. Cribillero

    2014-01-01

    Reportamos por primera vez la presencia del nematodo, Serratospiculum tendo Nitzsch, 1819, parasitando los sacos aéreos de un halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771). Seis nematodos (2 machos y 4 hembras) fueron colectados e identificados como S. tendo. El hallazgo de este nematodo constituye el primer registro en el Perú.

  16. Primer registro de Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenidae para el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos por primera vez la presencia del nematodo, Serratospiculum tendo Nitzsch, 1819, parasitando los sacos aéreos de un halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771. Seis nematodos (2 machos y 4 hembras fueron colectados e identificados como S. tendo. El hallazgo de este nematodo constituye el primer registro en el Perú.

  17. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  18. Enhanced growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) in the presence of 4-Nonylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, Sebastian; Juettner, I.Ingrid; Traunspurger, Walter; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, K.-W.; Steinberg, C.E.W

    2002-12-01

    4-Nonylphenol can enhance growth and reproduction of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed over a whole life-cycle (72 h) to several concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (NP; nominal concentrations: 0-350 {mu}g/l). Growth and reproduction of C. elegans were enhanced at NP concentrations of 66 and 40 {mu}g/l, respectively, with effects showing dose-response relationships. These stimulatory effects might be of ecological relevance in benthic habitats, where organisms can be exposed to high concentrations of NP.

  19. Redescription of Oncophora melanocephala (Rudolphi, 1819 Baudin-Laurencin, 1971 (Nematoda, Camallanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncophora melanocephala, a camallanid nematode from the small intestine of Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 is redescribed from the Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and this occurrence represents a new host record for the speciesOncophora melanocephala, um nematóide camalanídeo de instestino delgado de Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829, é redescrito da Costa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e esta ocorrência representa um novo hospedeiro para a espécie.

  20. Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Van As, Liesl L

    2015-07-22

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, eight species (five adult and three larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Enoplida were collected from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, namely Falcaustra similis Moravec et Van As, 2004, Atractidae gen. sp. (only female) (both Cosmocercoidea), Cucullanus sp. (only female) (Seuratoidea), Cithariniella longicaudata sp. n., Synodontisia annulata sp. n. (both Oxyuroidea), Contracaecum sp. third-stage larvae, third-stage larvae of Galeiceps sp. (both Ascaridoidea) and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae (Dioctophymatoidea). The new species Citharinella longicaudata (type host Schilbe intermedius Rüppel) is mainly characterised by the shape and size of cephalic papillae and the spicule 108 µm long, and Synodontisia annulata (type host S. intermedius) by the shape of cephalic papillae, body length of gravid females (4.88-5.33 mm) and a short spicule (66 µm long). The female specimen of Cucullanus sp. from Tilapia sparmanni Smith markedly differs from congeners parasitising inland fishes in Africa by the elongate pseudobuccal capsule and by the excretory pore far posterior to the oesophago-intestinal junction; apparently, it belongs to an undescribed species. Galeiceps larvae parasitising fishes are described for the first time. Cithariniella gonzalezi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 is considered a junior synonym of C. khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972, and the previous records of Cithariniella citharini Khalil, 1964 from Synodontis spp. in Egypt concern, in fact, Cithariniella khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972. The specimens of Cithariniella reported by Koubková et al. (2010) from Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin) in Senegal and misidentified as C. gonzalesi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 are considered to represent a new species, C. koubkovae sp. n.; this is established by reference to the description and drawings provided by Koubková et al. (2010).

  1. Two new species of free-living marine nematodes (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Enchelidiidae) from Maemul Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung-Ho; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-04-04

    Two new species of the family Enchelidiidae Filipjev, 1918 were collected from marine sediments near Maemul Island in South Korea: a new species of Abelbolla Huang & Zhang, 2004 and a new species of Ledovitia Filipjev, 1927. Abelbolla maemulensis sp. nov. is characterized by its small size (1,493 × 38 µm, body length × maximum body diameter); the presence of a circular amphid; the gubernacular apophysis with swollen distal tip; and the complex structure of the gubernaculum. It is close to Abelbolla huanghaiensis Huang & Zhang, 2004, but differs by the structure of gubernacular apophysis and body length (1,493 vs 2,303 µm). Ledovitia brevis sp. nov. can be separated from its congeners by its small size of body, the length of gubernacular apophysis, and the length of the spicules. It is close to Ledovitia pharetrata Wieser, 1953a, but differs by the length of the body (1,699 vs 2,640 µm) and the spicules (40 vs 100 µm).

  2. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  3. First report and morphological, molecular characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Xiphinema species, new to Canada was recovered from rhizosphere of oak trees in Ontario, Canada. The identity was confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as X. chambersi Thorne, 1939. Female bodies are 2.1–2.4 mm long; odontostyle lengths are 110–118 µm; tail 110–177 µm long, arcuate, elongate-conoid, with hyline region 22-43 µm long. Vagina directed about 30 degrees posteriorly. Reproductive system is monodelphic with ovary reflexed anteriorly, vulva opening at 23–26% of the body. Males were not found. The 18S and ITS1 sequences of this population had 3–4 bp differences (99% identity and 30 bp differences (97% identity from two Arkansas populations respectively. The nematode population had three juvenile stages. Some variations of the morphometrics were observed comparing with the other populations. This is the first report of X. chambersi in Canada.

  4. First report of Xiphinema brevicolle Lordello et Costa, 1961 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromichi Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed populations of Xiphinema americanum-group species were detected from a root zone soil sample of Japanese holly, Ilex crenata, during a survey for plant-parasitic nematodes of commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. From the result of the morphological study, the species were identified as X. brevicolle and Xiphinema sp. This is the first record of X. brevicolle in Japan. Morphometrics of X. brevicolle generally agree with those of the type specimens and the topotype specimens. Xiphinema sp. morphometrically resembles X. paramonovi except for tail length. The mitochondrial COI region, the nuclear 18S rDNA and the nuclear large subunit rDNA D2/D3 region of the species were sequenced and compared in the molecular study. For the COI region, PCR primers were newly designed to obtain longer sequences, ca. 900 bp, than previously used. Sequence identities of COI, 18S and D2/D3 regions between these two populations were 84.0-84.1%, 99.9% and 98.1-98.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of maximum likelihood trees were carried out to compare genetic relationships among the group and some suggestions were made on the X. brevicolle-subgroup.

  5. First report of Xiphinema brevicolle Lordello et Costa, 1961 (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Takeda, Ai; Mizukubo, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Mixed populations of Xiphinema americanum-group species were detected from a root zone soil sample of Japanese holly, Ilex crenata, during a survey for plant-parasitic nematodes of commercial ornamental plant nurseries in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. From the result of the morphological study, the species were identified as Xiphinema brevicolle and Xiphinema sp. This is the first record of Xiphinema brevicolle in Japan. Morphometrics of Xiphinema brevicolle generally agree with those of the type specimens and the topotype specimens. Xiphinema sp. morphometrically resembles Xiphinema paramonovi except for tail length. The mitochondrial COI region, the nuclear 18S rDNA and the nuclear large subunit rDNA D2/D3 region of the species were sequenced and compared in the molecular study. For the COI region, PCR primers were newly designed to obtain longer sequences, ca. 900 bp, than previously used. Sequence identities of COI, 18S and D2/D3 regions between these two populations were 84.0-84.1%, 99.9% and 98.1-98.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of maximum likelihood trees were carried out to compare genetic relationships among the group and some suggestions were made on the Xiphinema brevicolle-subgroup.

  6. Observations of All Postembryonic Stages of Xiphinema coxi coxi (Nematoda: Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Robbins, R T

    1990-01-01

    Initial morphometric data and descriptions of males and the four juvenile stages of Xiphinema coxi coxi Tarjan, 1964 collected from soil about the roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at Gainesville, Florida, and from a greenhouse microplot at Fayetteville, Arkansas, are given. Males were similar morphometrically and in shape to females and had 3-5 preanal supplements. The four juvenile stages were easily separated by differences in body size, odontostyle, and replacement odontostyle lengths. Supplemental morphometric data for females are given along with scanning electron microscope ultrastructural information. Three X. coxi coxi females with abnormal gonad development are reported.

  7. Electron microscopy of the germ cells and the ovarian wall in Xiphinema (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, M C; Coomans, A

    1988-01-01

    The ovary of Xiphinema theresiae is studied ultrastructurally. It consists of two cell types, the ovarian epithelial cells and the germ cells. The ovarian epithelial cells form a thin layer around the germ cells. Their nuclei are located in between the germ cells. At some sites, processes of the ovarian epithelial cells migrate inward and form a central cytoplasmic mass. The germ cells have a large lobated nucleus, with an eccentric nucleolus, and are considered to represent young previtellogenic oocytes. In contact with the central cytoplasmic mass, the germ cells develop two membrane derived features, the villi and the small coated bulges, which most probably play a role in transport.

  8. Xiphinema pirinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Longidoridae), a new species from Bulgaria with a digitate tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincheva, Yordanka; Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada

    2008-07-01

    A description of Xipinema pirinense n. sp. is provided. This is a parthenogenetic nematode found associated with Fragaria sp. and Alchemilla sp. (Rosaceae) close to pine trees in the Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria. The species is characterised by its medium body length (3.2-3.9 mm), rounded head region slightly demarcated by a shallow depression, long odontostyle (116-134.5 microm), tripartite uterus with a Z-differentiation consisting of 4-7 irregular moderately refractive bodies with a clear central part, and a digitate tail with a ventral peg. The new species is most similar to X. index Thorne & Allen, 1950 and X. diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939.

  9. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm) and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 μm, 43–50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed. PMID:22287876

  10. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    OpenAIRE

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabdi...

  11. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C S; Fassuliotis, G

    1985-04-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  12. Status of the genus Cyrnea (Nematoda: Spiruroidea) in wild turkeys from the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Hon, L T; Forrester, D J

    1977-04-01

    Two species of Cyrnea are reported from 706 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from 25 localities in 9 southeastern states. Cyrnea (Cyrnea) neeli sp. n. in birds from Alabama and Florida is differentiated primarily by distal processes of the left spicule and spicule lengths. Specimens from wild turkeys previously reported as C. eurycerca are identified as C. coloni. The configuration of caudal papillae of C. colini is redescribed. Neither species occurred in birds from montainous regions, and C. neeli sp. n. was restricted to Florida and southern Alabama. Poults less than 1-month old were not infected. Infections peaked in early fall and then declined rapidly.

  13. Philometra ovata (Nematoda: Philometroidea): a potential sentinel species of heavy metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barus, V; Jarkovský, J; Prokes, M

    2007-04-01

    To assess the bioindicator value of parasites, the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry in gravid females of the nematode Philometra ovata, body cavity parasites of gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and muscle samples of infected and uninfected hosts. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher in specimens of P. ovata compared to the host muscle tissue. The parasite-to-muscle ratio of heavy metals varied from 3.2 to 121.7, in increasing concentrations for Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The presence of parasites did not influence the heavy metal content of the hosts, and no significant differences were found between muscle tissues of parasitized and non-parasitized fishes. The bioconcentration factor (BF = Cparasite/Csediment)varied between 0.4 and 25.8, in increasing order for Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr. These results indicate that P. ovata may serve as sensitive indicator species of heavy metal pollution in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17149604

  14. Cosmopolitanism and Biogeography of the Genus Manganonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida in the Deep Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of species diversity provide information about the mechanisms that regulate biodiversity and are important for setting conservation priorities. Present knowledge of the biogeography of meiofauna in the deep sea is scarce. This investigation focuses on the distribution of the deep-sea nematode genus Manganonema, which is typically extremely rare in deep-sea sediment samples. Forty-four specimens of eight different species of this genus were recorded from different Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four out of the eight species encountered are new to science. We report here that this genus is widespread both in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new findings together with literature information indicate that Manganonema is a cosmopolitan genus, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans. Manganonema shows the highest diversity at water depths >4,000 m. Our data, therefore, indicate that this is preferentially an abyssal genus that is able, at the same time, to colonize specific habitats at depths shallower than 1,000 m. The analysis of the distribution of the genus Manganonema indicates the presence of large differences in dispersal strategies among different species, ranging from locally endemic to cosmopolitan. Lacking meroplanktonic larvae and having limited dispersal ability due to their small size, it has been hypothesized that nematodes have limited dispersal potential. However, the investigated deep-sea nematodes were present across different oceans covering macro-scale distances. Among the possible explanations (hydrological conditions, geographical and geological pathways, long-term processes, specific historical events, their apparent preference of colonizing highly hydrodynamic systems, could suggest that these infaunal organisms are transported by means of deep-sea benthic storms and turbidity currents over long distances.

  15. Rotylenchus castilloi n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae), a new species with long stylet from northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talezari, Atefeh; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Ahmad; Liébanas, Gracia; Aliramaji, Farzad; Pedram, Majid; Rezaee, Saeed; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rotylenchus castilloi n. sp., a new bisexual species is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The new species is characterised by having a hemispherical, continuous lip region with an irregular corncob-like appearance under SEM, very long stylet (62-68 µm), vulva located at 49.7-62.2% of body length from anterior end, with a protruding double epiptygma, a rounded to convex-conoid (rarely bi-lobed) tail with 8-12 annuli and specific sequences of D2-D3 segments of 28S and ITS1-rRNA genes. Differences between the new species and four other species of the genus (R. mesorobustus, R. cazorlaensis, R. magnus and R. jaeni) are discussed. Morphologically, the new species can be separated from these species mostly by its body length, lip region characters, stylet length and location of phasmid. Phylogenetic analyses using 721 bp partial sequences of D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S and 590 bp ITS1-rRNA genes revealed the new species forming a clade with two isolates of R. eximius and two isolates of R. unisexus, two morphologically unrelated species. PMID:25781816

  16. New isolate of Mononchoides composticola Steel, Moens, Scholaert, Boshoff, Houthoofd & Bert, 2011 (Nematoda: Neodiplogasteridae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Ebrahim; Seddiqi, Elahe; Panahi, Hadi; Abolafia, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Mononchoides composticola was isolated during a survey on free living nematodes from vermicompost in Iran. This population of M. composticola is characterised by a dorsal claw-like tooth; 7-9 µm long and 3-5 µm wide, 14-15 finely visible longitudinal ridges on the cuticle, in which each ridge comprises two lines, long spicules (39-45 μm long), a short gubernaculum (15-17 µm or less than half of the spicule length), two pairs of precloacal papillae, five pairs of postcloacal papillae, papillae (v3) comprising three small papillae, and a long filiform tail (418-654 μm in females, 382-455 μm in males). Molecular analysis of M. composticola based on sequence of the 18S rDNA placed it close to M. composticola (GU943511; GU943512; from Belgium) and M. striatus (AY593924; from The Netherlands) in a well supported clade (1.00 posterior probability). Measurements, illustrations, LM and SEM pictures, and the phylogenetic position of M. composticola are given. PMID:26624707

  17. Phylogeny of Cephalobina (Nematoda): Molecular evidence for recurrent evolution of probolae and incongruence with traditional classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadler, S.A.; Ley, de P.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Smythe, A.B.; Stock, S.P.; Bumbarger, D.; Adams, B.J.; Ley, de I.T.; Holovachov, O.V.; Baldwin, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Nematodes of the suborder Cephalobina include an ecologically and morphologically diverse array of species that range from soil-dwelling microbivores to parasites of vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite a long history of study, certain of these microbivores (Cephaloboidea) present some of the most

  18. Further study of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Spheniscidae) from Argentinean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Lucas E; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I; Cremonte, Florencia

    2007-02-01

    The anisakid species Contracaecum pelagicum Johnston and Mawson, 1942, is reported for first time at 2 different sites on the Argentine coast (Peninsula Valdés, 42 degrees 04'S, 63 degrees 38'W and Mar del Plata, 38 degrees 05'S, 57 degrees 38'W), parasitizing the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster. Morphometric analysis and further studies of adult specimens of C. pelagicum were done using light and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of bifurcated interlabia differentiates the present species from most others in the genus, except (1) from Contracaecum travassosi, which possesses higher interlabia and longer spicules, and a blunt, more constrained tail; (2) from Contracaecum rudolphii, which has longer spicules, blunter spicule tips, postparacloacal papillae with oblique disposition, and a blunter constrained tail; (3) from Contracaecum eudyptulae, which has a blunter tail and longer spicules; and (4) from Contracaecum variegatum, which possesses smaller-diameter, hooklike extensions on auricle lips, and a less robust interlabium with a more marked furrow. In this paper we present the first detailed description of C. pelagicum adults from S. magellanicus. Morphometric data between adult specimens of C. pelagicum from S. magellanicus and those from the black-browed albatross, Diomedea melanophris Temminck, from Argentinean coasts were compared. In addition, fourth-stage larvae that parasitized both hosts were assigned to a nondeterminated Contracaecum species. Ecological parameters for adults and larvae nematodes were calculated. PMID:17436954

  19. Human infection by Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae in Chile: report of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercado Rubén

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1997 to 1999, we identified seven human cases of infection by fourth stage larvae of Pseudoterranova decipiens in Chile. All identified larvae were coughed up by the patients. Subjects were 10-55 years old; five were female. Some patients complained of coughing, expectoration, pharyngeal pain, nausea or anal and nasal pruritus. Larvae of three patients were coughed up from 36 h to 7 days after having eaten raw (cebiche or sushi or lightly fried fish. P. decipiens has a marine life cycle. Infective third stage larva develop to adult stage in pinniped mammals. The nematode eggs are voided with the host faeces and develop and hatch releasing third stage larvae. Some crustaceans and fish act as hosts of third stage larvae. Man is an accidental host for third or fourth stage larvae.

  20. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human.

  1. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., a New Entomopathogenic Nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Harun; Půža, Vladimír; NermuŤ, JiŘí; Hatting, Justin; Ramakuwela, Tshima; Hazir, Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    A new species of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., was isolated from a maize field in Senekal, Free State Province of South Africa. Morphological and molecular studies indicated the distinctness of S. biddulphi n. sp. from other Steinernema species. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp. is characterized IJs with average body length of 663 μm (606–778 μm), lateral fields with six ridges in mid-body region forming the formula 2,6,2. Excretory pore located anterior to mid-pharynx (D% = 46). Hyaline layer occupies approximately half of tail length. Male spicules slightly to moderately curved, with a sharp tip and golden brown in color. The first generation of males lacking a mucron on the tail tip while the second generation males with a short filamentous mucron. Genital papillae with 11 pairs and one unpaired preanal papilla. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions (D2-D3) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phylogenetic data show that S. biddulphi n. sp. belongs to the “bicornutum” clade within the Steinernematidae family.

  2. Larval spirurida (Nematoda) from the crab Macrophthalmus hirtipes in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Latham, A David M;

    2003-01-01

    Previously undescribed third-stage larvae of two species of Spirurida were found in the haemocoel of the stalk-eyed mud crab Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Heller) (Ocypodidae) in New Zealand. Examinations by light and scanning electron microscopy showed that the larger larvae (about 7 mm long) belonged...... from Papanui Inlet, on Otago Peninsula, South Island, 74 crabs (90.2%) were infected with larval nematodes with an intensity of 1-18 (mean 4.6) nematodes per crab; no distinction between nematode species was made in these estimates, although juvenile Acuariidae greatly outnumbered larval Ascarophis....... Apparently, crabs play a role as intermediate hosts of these nematode species. This is the first record of larval representatives of Cystidicolidae and Acuariidae from invertebrates in the Australasian Region....

  3. Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. (Nematoda:Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea), a parasite of Bufo marinus from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, B; Guerrero, R; Durette-Desset, M C

    1996-01-01

    A new species of Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917, a parasite of Bufo marinus L. from Venezuela, is described. Like most Neotropical Oswaldocruzia, Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. is characterized by spicules with three principal branches: blade, shoe and fork, and by a division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length. O. vaucheri Ben Slimane et Durette-Desset, 1993 is the most closely related species due to its caudal bursa of type II and its cervical alae of the same shape but it differs in the following characters: the position of the papillae of rays 4 situated nearer the papillae of rays 3 rather than rays 5, a higher percentage of the ridges in the oesophageal region, the cervical alae three times longer and sharp and the spicular fork divided less deeply.

  4. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:24506422

  5. Redescription of Neocamallanus singhi (Nematoda: Camallanidae) with a note on related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, N C; Majumdar, G

    1984-01-01

    The present paper deals with the redescription of the nematode Neocamallanus singhi Ali, 1957 based on specimens collected from the fish, Channa striata from Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Comparative study of this species with other related forms described from freshwater fishes of India and Pakistan indicates that Neocamallanus bengalensis Soota et Chaturvedi, 1971 and N. ophicephali Rehana et Bilquees, 1972 are synonyms of N. singhi. PMID:6745795

  6. Primer registro de Aplectana hylambatis (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae para anfibios de la provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga, Lorena B.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La presente nota representa los primeros registros de parásitos (nematodos para anfibios de la provincia de San Juan. Además, se discute la variación morfológica de los nematodos encontrados con otras poblaciones de Argentina.

  7. Molecular separation of Oesophagostomum stephanostomum and Oesophagostomum bifurcum (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Woods, W G; Huffman, M A; Blotkamp, J; Polderman, A M

    1999-07-01

    The ITS-2 sequences for adult specimens of Oesophagostomum stephanostomum from the common chimpanzee and Oesophagostomum bifurcum from the Mona monkey were determined. For both species, the length and GC content of the ITS-2 sequences were 216 bp and 43%, respectively. While there was no unequivocal sequence difference among individual worms representing each of the two species, five (2.3%) interspecific nucleotide differences were detected. These differences were associated with the presence of unique restriction sites in the ITS-2 sequence of 0. stephanostomum for multiple endonucleases of diagnostic value for the differentiation of the two taxa by restriction analysis. Pairwise comparisons of the ITS-2 sequences of O. stephanostomum and O. bifurcum with published ITS-2 sequences for five different congeners indicated that these species from the subgenus Conoweberia are closely related, in accordance with previous morphological studies. PMID:10501618

  8. Description of Tylenchorhynchus thermophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchina) from Saltgrass in Death Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, A M; Baldwin, J G; Mundo-Ocampo, M

    1995-09-01

    A stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus thermophilus n. sp., is described and illustrated from soil collected around roots of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) in Death Valley, California. It is distinguished from the similar species, T. ewingi, T. mexicanus, and T. mashoodi, in having a longer female body, longer tail with more annules, and larger phasmids. Physical and chemical analysis of soil from saltgrass roots showed it to consist of 71% sand and possess high salinity (salt content of 0.51%) and a pH of 9.3.

  9. Description of Tylenchorhynchus thermophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchina) from Saltgrass in Death Valley, California

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, A. Morgan; Baldwin, James G.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.

    1995-01-01

    A stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus thermophilus n. sp., is described and illustrated from soil collected around roots of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) in Death Valley, California. It is distinguished from the similar species, T. ewingi, T. mexicanus, and T. mashoodi, in having a longer female body, longer tail with more annules, and larger phasmids. Physical and chemical analysis of soil from saltgrass roots showed it to consist of 71% sand and possess high salinity (salt content of 0.51%) a...

  10. Two new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae) in anuran hosts from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R; Bhutia, Pasang T

    2013-04-01

    Rhabdias himalayanus n. sp. from the lungs of Duttaphrynus himalayanus and Rhabdias dehradunensis n. sp. from the lungs of Nanorana minica from Dehradun, India are described and figured. Of the 3 previously described Indian species, Rhabdias himalayanus n. sp. is most similar to Rhabdias shortii in having a cylindrical corpus, inflated cuticle, and conical tail; it differs from R. shortii in having greater body measurements, longer esophagus, larger eggs, and a different pattern of cuticle inflation at the vulva and tail region. Rhabdias dehradunensis n. sp. is most similar to Rhabdias bulbicauda in that both possess a swollen posterior end; it differs from R. bulbicauda by having a subterminal anus, a prominent tail, and a postequatorial vulva. PMID:23020804

  11. [Microecological characterization of parasitic nematoda present in goats of arid zones of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, G; Pino, L A; Aldana, E; Perdomo, L; Molina, E

    1986-01-01

    Goats from the Venezuelan northern arid zones were found infested by the following nematodes: Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, Cooperia curticei, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Skrjabinema ovis y Trichuris globulosa. The Shannon-Weaver index of diversity values oscillated between 0.045 and 1.73 bits (means = 1.16 +/- 0.24 bits). The maximum value of montly diversity ranged from 1 to 2.80 bits (means = 2.49 +/- 0.28 bits) and the equitability ranged from 0.045 to 0.67 (means = 0.44 +/- 0.09). Parasitic associations were found among 1) T. axei, T. colubriformis and H. contortus, 2) T. colubriformis, H. contortus and O. columbianum and 3) T. colubriformis, S. ovis and T. globulosa. The above results suggest that in months when the diversity index is close to the maximum value and the equitability index is near unity, wide spectrum antihelmintic treatment should be used for poly-parasitized animals. PMID:3587000

  12. Detection of cryptic species of Rugopharynx (Nematoda: Strongylida) from the stomachs of Australian macropodid marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS-1 and ITS-2) were determined for species of the genus Rugopharynx and Rugonema labiatum, nematodes from the stomachs of macropodid marsupials. Phylogenetic analyses of the aligned sequence data were conducted. The relationships provided molecular support for all species currently recognised, some of which are based on minor morphological differences and on multilocus enzyme electrophoretic data, but also indicated that additional, cryptic species exist within the genus. In addition, the genus Rugonema is placed as a synonym of Rugopharynx, its sole species becoming Rugopharynx labiatum n. comb. The molecular data provided some insights into the evolution of complex buccal capsule morphologies within the genus, but there was no evidence of co-evolution between the macropodid hosts and their parasites. PMID:27330983

  13. Rhabditid species (Nematoda, Rhabditida recorded in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolafia, Joaquín

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous records of species belonging to the order Rhabditida in peninsular Spain and Balearic Islands is presented as compilation. Eighty species of forty genera and twelve families are listed. Information concerning each species contains scientific name, synonymy, distribution and remarks. Distributional data include localities and/or geographical areas where the species have been collected and the corresponding references. A short discussion on current knowledge on rhabditid nematodes in the Iberian geography is also made. Majority of species are defficiently known, being necessary additional taxonomic and/or faunistic studies of this taxon.

    Se presenta una recopilación de citas previas de especies pertenecientes al orden Rhabditida en la España peninsular e Islas Baleares. Se listan ochenta especies de cuarenta géneros y doce familias. La información que concierne a cada especie contiene el nombre científico, sinonimia, distribución y observaciones. Los datos de distribución incluyen las localidades y/o áreas geográficas donde las especies han sido recolectadas, y las referencias correspondientes. También se realiza una breve discusión sobre el conocimiento de los nematodos rhabdítidos en el área ibérica, concluyéndose que la mayor parte de las especies se conocen deficientemente, siendo necesario un estudio taxonómico y/o faunístico adicional del taxon.

  14. Emended Description of Litomosoides molossi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) and First Records of Litomosoides Species Parasitizing Argentinean Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Notarnicola, Juliana; Miotti, M Daniela; Claps, Lucía E

    2016-08-01

    :  During a long-term study on biodiversity of bats in the Yungas and Entre Ríos provinces, 1,304 specimens of bats included in the families Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, and Molossidae were collected and checked for filarioids. Litomosoides molossi Esslinger, 1973 was recovered from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of Molossus molossus (prevalence [P] = 6.4%); Litomosoides chandleri Esslinger, 1973 from Artibeus planirostris (P = 6.9%), Sturnira oporaphilum (P = 66.6%), Sturnira erythromos (P = 23.8%), Sturnira lilium (P = 7.2%), and Eumops perotis (P = 50%); and Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. was collected from Eptesicus furinalis (P = 1.7%). In this paper, we emend the description of L. molossi; describe a new species, Litomosoides saltensis n. sp., on the basis of 1 female specimen; and report for the first time L. molossi and L. chandleri parasitizing Argentinean bats, expanding the host and locality records. Litomosoides molossi exhibits a slender buccal capsule, with an anterior segment transparent, and the posterior chitinous portion displays 2 thickenings in the first third; possesses 1 dorsal prominent cephalic papilla and 4 labial papillae distributed around the mouth; cuticle with lateral punctuations all along the hypodermic chords in both sexes; and male with area rugosa and tail without cloacal papillae. In L. chandleri, the lateral punctuations are distributed on the posterior extremity of the body in both sexes. Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. displays a thick buccal capsule with a posterior segment well cuticularized, possessing 2 thickenings in the anterior half; 4 labial and 2 ventral cephalic papillae; a globular vulva located anterior to the esophagus-intestine junction; cuticle with lateral punctuations in the posterior extremity of the body; and tail with salient phasmids. We also provide a taxonomic key for the identification of the Litomosoides sp. of bat dwelling. Long-term studies and large sample sizes are needed to detect the presence of Litomosoides sp. in bats, in contrast to the findings in cricetid rodents, which seem to be more frequently collected. PMID:27098753

  15. The occurance of Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) in a captive slow loris, Nycticebus coucang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.

  16. Cyathoshiva amaleshi gen. n. sp. n. (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae) from the coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Tridip Kumar; Miljutin, Dmitry M; Chakraborty, Susanta Kumar; Mohapatra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Cyathoshiva, of free-living marine nematodes from the subfamily Cyatholaiminae (family Cyatholaimidae, order Chromadorida), is described from the Indian coast. The new genus differs from other known Cyatholaiminae genera in having a unique combination of morphological characters: buccal cavity with well-developed dorsal tooth and two subventral teeth, proximally unpaired gubernaculum and non-cup shaped supplements. The type species Cyathoshiva amaleshi gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by having multispiral amphids with 4.5 turns, punctated cuticle with a weak lateral differentiation, a conical tail, three supplements possessing both tubular and setoid parts, and a gubernaculum with a serrated and dentate distal end. PMID:27395607

  17. Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae) from a Wild Cougar ( Puma concolor ) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Iturbe-Morgado, José Carlos; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto Enrique; García-Prieto, Luis

    2016-07-01

    We document parasitation of a wild cougar ( Puma concolor ) by the nematode Lagochilascaris minor in Hidalgo State, Mexico. This finding contributes to our understanding of the epidemiology of this zoonotic agent in Mexico. PMID:27310170

  18. Two new species of Chromadoridae (Chromadorida: Nematoda) from the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Gao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Chromadoridae, a family of free-living marine nematodes, are described from intertidal sediments of the East China Sea. Ptycholaimellus pirus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cuticle with six longitudinal rows of double dots and long somatic setae, relatively long cephalic setae, a pear-shaped terminal pharyngeal bulb occupying less than 30% of pharyngeal length, and an elongate conical tail. The new species is distinguished from all related species by the unique character of the cuticle, with six longitudinal rows of horizontal double dots, and the pear-shaped terminal pharyngeal bulb. Hypodontolaimus ventrapophyses sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body with a slightly expanded anterior end and a conical tail, a homogeneous cuticle with lateral differentiation of two longitudinal rows of larger dots, a well developed pharynx with oval-shaped buccal bulb and terminal bulb, and a large ventral gland. Males have slender, strongly curved spicules and a gubernaculum with a ventral apophysis, and precloacal supplements are absent. The new species differs from all related species in this genus by the structure of the gubernaculum, which has a ventral apophysis. PMID:27470838

  19. Dogielophis, a replacement name for Dogielina Sobolev 1950 (Nematoda) non Bogdanowicz & Woloszynova 1949 (Foraminifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The generic name Dogielina was proposed by Sobolev (in Skrjabin & al. 1950: 68; for Physaloptera inexpectata Dogiel & Bychowsky 1939: 93, type species by original designation) for a parasitic nematode of the fishes from the western shores of the Caspian Sea (Sara Island) of the former USSR (now Azerbaijan: Sarı adası, Nərimanabad). However, this name is already preoccupied by a fossil Foraminifera Dogielina Bogdanowicz & Woloszynova (1949: 185), published earlier in the same year (see note on publication dates below), which is in active current use in palaeontology and even served as a basis for a specific geological Dogielina sarmatica biozone in the Upper Miocene stratigraphy of Eurasia (Krézsek & Filipescu 2005). Besides this earliest generic name, a later homonym is also known in Protista: Dogielina Raabe (1959: 448) [Infusoria]. PMID:27395113

  20. The diet of Enoplus brevis (Nematoda) in a supralittoral salt marsh of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika; Armonies, Werner; Lorenzen, Sievert

    1991-09-01

    The gut content of nearly 2000 specimens of Enoplus brevis was quantitatively analysed. E. brevis is an opportunistic omnivore. Main food categories found were cyanobacteria, diatoms, oligochaetes, nematodes, and rotifers. With a few exceptions, the diet of females and males was identical. Predominantly, juveniles fed on cyanobacteria and adults on animal prey. Experiments revealed that living oligochaetes are attacked and preyed upon. The quantities of the food categories eaten by Enoplus varied according to their ambient abundance, both temporarily and spatially on a small scale. At least the nematode prey was strongly selected: some species were significantly preferred and others avoided.

  1. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human. PMID:27270391

  2. Spatial distribution of subtidal Nematoda communities along the salinity gradient in southern European estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adão, Helena; Alves, Ana Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João Magalhães; Costa, Maria José; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of subtidal nematode communities along the salinity gradients of two Portuguese estuaries exposed to different degrees of anthropogenic stress: the Mira and the Mondego. The nematode communities were mainly composed of Sabatieria, Metachromadora, Daptonema, Anoplostoma, Sphaerolaimus and Terschellingia species, closely resembling the communities of Northern European estuaries. In both estuaries, nematode density and community composition followed the salinity gradient, naturally establishing three distinct estuarine sections: (i) freshwater and oligohaline - characterised by the presence of freshwater nematodes, low nematode density and diversity; (ii) mesohaline - dominated by Terschellingia, Sabatieria and Daptonema, with low total density and diversity; and (iii) polyhaline and euhaline - where nematodes reached the highest density and diversity, and Paracomesoma, Synonchiella, and Odontophora were dominant. Despite the similarities in community composition and total nematode density, the proportion of different nematode feeding types were remarkably different in the two estuaries. In Mira, selective deposit feeders were dominant in the oligohaline section, while non-selective deposit feeders were dominant in the other sections. On the contrary, in the Mondego estuary, epigrowth-feeders and omnivores/predators were dominant in the freshwater sections and in the euhaline sector of the southern arm. Differences observed along each estuarine gradient were much stronger than overall differences between the two estuaries. In the Mondego estuary, the influence of anthropogenic stressors seemed not to be relevant in determining the nematodes' spatial distribution patterns, therefore suggesting that mesoscale variability responded essentially to natural stressors, characteristic of estuarine gradients. Nevertheless, the proportion of the different feeding types was different between the two estuaries, indicating that the response of nematode feeding guilds is able to reflect anthropogenic-induced stress and can be useful in assessing biological quality in transitional waters ecosystems.

  3. One new and three known species of Geocenamus Thorne & Malek, 1968 (Nematoda: Merliniidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Reza; Karegar, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples collected from different plants and localities in Iran yielded one new and three known species of the genus Geocenamus with tessellated cuticle. Geocenamus conicaudatus n. sp. is characterised by a hemispherical cephalic region, set-off from the rest of body by a constriction, a slender stylet 17-20 µm long with laterally directed knobs, coarsely annulated cuticle with 32-34 longitudinal striae and a conical tail with smooth, finely rounded terminus. Morphological and molecular studies on the populations of G. paniculoides and G. tartuensis indicated that G. paniculoides may be considered as a valid species. Intraspecific variability of some characters of 30 Iranian populations of G. rugosus were studied. An identification key to 32 valid species of the genus Geocenamus is given. PMID:27395998

  4. Strongyloides ferreirai sp.n. (Nematoda, Rhabdiasoidea parasito do roedor Kerodon rupestris (Wied. no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de Oliveira Rodrigues

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrita uma nova espécie de nematóide do gênero Strongyloides Grassi, 1879, Strongyloides ferreirai sp.n. parasita do instestino delgado de Kerodon rupestris (Wied. proveniente de Floriano Peixoto, Estado do Piauí. Esta é a primeira referência deste gênero parasitando roedor caviideo no Brasil.Strongyloides ferreirai n.sp. is described and compared to the closely related species S. ratti, S. venezuelensis and S. myopotami, parasites of rodents in Brazil. The description is based on parasitic females, recovered from the small intestine of Kerodon rupestris (Wied. (Caviidae captured in Floriano Peixoto, Piauí State, Brazil.

  5. A new species of the genus Discolaimus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Qudsianematidae) from Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jia; Yan, Lin; Xu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Ke; Jin, Sheng-Ying; Xie, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the family Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965 collected from soil from Qinghai Province, China is described as Discolaimus anemaqen n. sp. It is mainly characterized by having a disc-like lip region with six labial sectors separated by six Y-shaped radial grooves; amphid fovea an inverted-stirrup shape; odontostyle aperture 53-59% of its length; anterior part of pharynx with two swellings, basal part expanded gradually with a sheath of tissue visible ventrally and at the base; no groups of large cells observed in cardiac region; female genital system amphidelphic; tail dorsally convex, conoid, with flat ventral side and bluntly rounded terminus, and males not found. The new species is close to D. major Thorne, 1939, D. similis Thorne, 1939 and D. silvicolus Sauer & Annells, 1985 in most measurements, but can be differentiated from them by lip morphology, pharynx structure, body size, and tail shape. A key to the species of Discolaimus is also provided. PMID:27394329

  6. Survey of entomopathogenic nematodes from the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae (Nematoda: Rhabditida) in Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in the Families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae was conducted on the coast of the State of Colima, Mexico, to determine their occurrence, recovery frequency, and predominant plant species in disturbed and undisturbed habitats. Nineteen soil samples...

  7. Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines baiomydis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae, a parasite of Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynggaard Christina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines baiomydis n. sp., an intestinal parasite of the northern pygmy mouse, Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae, collected in La Yerbabuena, Colima, Mexico, is described herein. Specimens were studied using light and scanning electronic microscopy. This is the 19th species of the subgenus Paucipectines described worldwide and the fourth collected in Mexico. It is differentiated from the remaining species in the subgenus by having 25 perioral denticles, arranged in a triangle (seven on each lateroventral margin, and eleven on the dorsal margin, and 10 pairs of caudal papillae.

  8. Surgical extraction of intraocular Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in a horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case Description – A 4-year-old Hanoverian horse from Wisconsin presented for evaluation of a worm-like structure in the anterior chamber of the right eye. Clinical Findings – Ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed a white, thin, mobile parasite, presumably a nematode, present in the ventr...

  9. Cerviconema cygneum and Papuadorus amplus, two new genera and species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida from high altitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrássy, I.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of dorylaimid nematodes each representing a new genus are described and illustrated. Cerviconema gen. n., with C. cygneum sp. n. from Bolivia as type, belongs to the family Paraxonchiidae and is characterized by the strongly tapered neck, small head, simple and medium-long odontostyle, short cylindrus, paired gonads, transverse vulva and conoid tail. Papuadorus gen. n., with P. amplus sp. n. from Papua New Guinea as type, belongs to the family Nordiidae and can be characterized by the long and slender odontostyle, rod-like odontophore, amphidelphic genital organ, longitudinal vulva, great number of contiguous supplements and conoid tail.

  10. Host status and damage potential of Paratrichodorus renifer and Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda) to blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus species) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) have been associated with blueberry in most blueberry-growing regions of North America. Relatively little is known, however, of the host status and pathogenicity of these nematodes to blueberry. We per...

  11. Pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda:Steinernematidae) to Ixodes Scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Aeschliman, A.

    1995-01-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30?C, and was lower at 15?C.

  12. Descriptions of two new record species ofScutellonema (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, Hong-Yu; ZHU, Xiao-Feng; DUAN, Yu-Xi; CHEN, Li-Jie

    2014-01-01

    From 2011 to 2012, we collected Scutellonema commune from the rhizosphere soil of coconut (cocos nucifera L.) and Scutellonema magniphasma from the rhizosphere soil of Rosa chinensis in Shenyang, China. S. commune was characterized by rounded scutella, which was varied from two annules anterior to the anus and five annules posterior. The lateral field was not areolated at the level of scutella. S. magniphasma was characterized by varying scutellum, about 7.0 μm in diameter, in position from four annules posterior to four annules anterior to the anus, and areolated at the level of the scutellum. PMID:24470457

  13. Paurodontella parapitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Ye, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Paurodontella parapitica n. sp., collected from the rhizosphere of an apple tree in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 505 to 723 µm (females) and 480 to 600 µm (males), lip region continuous by depression; 7 to 8 μm broad, 3 to 4 µm high, stylet length 7 to 9 µm or 1 to 1.3 times the lip region diameter, short postuterine sac of 4 to 6 μm long, lateral fields with five to six incisures; outer incisures crenated and inner incisures weakly crenated, excretory pore situated 90 to 100 µm from anterior end; functional males common in the population, with spicules 24 to 26 μm long. Tail of both sexes similar, almost straight and elongate-conoid. The new species resembles in morphology and morphometrics to four known species of the genus, namely P. apitica, P. minuta, P. myceliophaga, and P. sohailai. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of D2/D3 expansion region of 28S rRNA gene revealed this genus is polyphyletic in four different clades in Tylenchid. PMID:27418704

  14. Genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (Dictyocaulus, Nematoda) in wild deer in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Zoltán; Hayward, Alexander; Sugár, László

    2016-09-01

    Dictyocaulus nematode worms live as parasites in the lower airways of ungulates and can cause significant disease in both wild and farmed hosts. This study represents the first population genetic analysis of large lungworms in wildlife. Specifically, we quantify genetic variation in Dictyocaulus lungworms from wild deer (red deer, fallow deer and roe deer) in Hungary, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequence data, using population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. The studied Dictyocaulus taxa display considerable genetic diversity. At least one cryptic species and a new parasite-host relationship are revealed by our molecular study. Population genetic analyses for Dictyocaulus eckerti revealed high gene flow amongst weakly structured spatial populations that utilise the three host deer species considered here. Our results suggest that D. eckerti is a widespread generalist parasite in ungulates, with a diverse genetic backround and high evolutionary potential. In contrast, evidence of cryptic genetic structure at regional geographic scales was observed for Dictyocaulus capreolus, which infects just one host species, suggesting it is a specialist within the studied area. D. capreolus displayed lower genetic diversity overall, with only moderate gene flow compared to the closely related D. eckerti. We suggest that the differing vagility and dispersal behaviour of hosts are important contributing factors to the population structure of lungworms, and possibly other nematode parasites with single-host life cycles. Our findings are of relevance for the management of lungworms in deer farms and wild deer populations. PMID:27150969

  15. Pseudolella major sp. nov. (Axonolaimidae, Nematoda) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming; Huang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A new species of free-living nematode, Pseudolella major sp. nov. is described from the intertidal mudflats of Ximen Island in the East China Sea. Pseudolella major sp. nov. is characterized as follows: body length ~1 300 μm; short cephalic setae, 2-3 μm long; amphidial fovea loop-shaped with elongated ventral branch; ventral branch 50-60 μm long and extending past the base of buccal cavity; buccal cavity cylindrical with arching or spherical base; three heavy outwardly-curving odontia with blunt tips located at anterior of buccal cavity; pharynx short with posterior bulb; ventral gland cell elongate oval-shaped, located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore situated at the level of the middle of buccal cavity; tail conical to cylindrical; spicules arched, with double-cephalate proximal end; gubernaculum with a strong dorsal caudal apophysis.

  16. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

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    Rubén Mercado

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  17. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  18. Introducing Alphitobius Diaperinus, (Insecta: Tenebrionidae as a New Intermediate Host of Hadjelia Truncata (Nematoda

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    A Rahbar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hadjelia truncata is a nematode that causes lesions in the gizzard lining of pigeons, which may even lead to death. The aim of this study was to introduce Alphitobius diaperinus as a new intermediate host for Hadjelia truncata. Methods: H. truncata infection was identified in a pigeon flock in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Iran by performing fecal examination and autopsy. Adult and larval stages of beetles were collected from the litter of pigeon houses, and identified morphologically. The beetle larvae were cultured in a medium, containing feces of the infected pigeons. Nematode larval stages from naturally and experimentally (culturally infected adult beetles were fed to two groups of pigeons.Results: The collected beetles were identified as Alphitobius diaperinus. Average length and width of the adult beetles were 6.31 mm and 2.88 mm respectively. Infection rates of naturally and experimentally infected beetles with larval stages of the nematode were 66.2% and 45.1% respectively. The adult nematodes collected from gizzards of experimentally infected pigeons were identified as H. truncata. Nematode infection rates in pigeons after feeding the infective larvae collected from naturally and experimentally infected beetles were 44.7% and 32.5 % respectively.Conclusion: A. diaperinus can serve as a natural intermediate host for H. truncata.

  19. A new molineid (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasite of Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, María C; Digiani, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Delicata abbai n. sp. collected from the small intestine of the southern long-nosed armadillo, Dasypus hybridus, from Argentina is herein described. This new species is characterized by vulvar opening within second half of body length, female tail conical, ending bluntly with a terminal spine, complex spicules, presence of a bursal membrane supported by 2 small rays, and a synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 26 cuticular ridges. By the morphology of the caudal bursa, caudal end of female, and shape of spicules, the new species resembles Delicata cameroni Travassos, 1935 and Delicata variabilis Travassos, 1935 . However, it differs from D. cameroni by having rays 5 and 6 diverging more proximally, rays 8 shorter than the dorsal ray, and spicules with a different shape. Delicata abbai n. sp. is distinguished from D. variabilis mainly by the spicules, which have a different shape and proportion of their constitutive parts. This is the first report of a species of Delicata in Argentina.

  20. Paracooperia horaki n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) from the nyala Tragelaphus angasi Gray, 1849.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J

    1986-09-01

    A new species of Paracooperia Travassos, 1935 was found in small numbers in the small intestines of 36 out of 68 nyala Tragelaphus angasi Gray 1849 in the Mkuzi, Ndumu and Umfolozi Game Reserves, Natal. The worms, for which the name Paracooperia horaki is proposed, can be differentiated from the closely related Paracooperia devossi Boomker & Kingsley, 1984 by the absence of ridges on 1 of the branches of the spicules, the slightly longer branches of the tips of the dorsal ray and the large hemispheric knobs on the ends of the spicules. Furthermore, the branch of the spicules that bears the hook-like process is about two thirds the length of the spicule in P. devossi and almost the entire length of the spicule in P. horaki. The ovigerous females of P. horaki have 2 or 3 expanded ridges in front of the vulva that form vulvar flaps. The females without eggs resemble those of P. devossi and have only a single vulvar flap.

  1. Parocooperia devossin. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) from the bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J; Kingsley, S A

    1984-03-01

    A new species of Paracooperia Travassos, 1935 was found in the small intestines of 4 bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766), and 3 greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766), all culled in the Kruger National Park. The nematodes appear to be widespread in the Park, since the bushbuck originated from Skukuza in the central part of the Park, 2 of the 3 kudu from near Malelane in the south and the remaining kudu from Pafuri in the extreme north. The worms are named Paracooperia devossi after Dr V. de Vos of the Kruger National Park and can be differentiated from the closely related Paracooperia tragelaphi Gibbons & Khalil, 1980 by the single indistinct ridge on 1 of the branches of the spicules. Furthermore, the spicules end as fairly large ovoid knobs, and vulvar flaps are present in the females.

  2. Paracooperioides peleae gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) from the vaal ribbok, Pelea capreolus (Forster, 1790).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J; Horak, B; De Vos, V

    1981-09-01

    A new genus and species of trichostrongylid nematode, Paracooperioides peleae, was collected from the small intestines of vaal ribbok, Pelea capreolus (Forster, 1790), from the bontebok National Park, Swellendam, Cape Province. These nematodes are small and slender with a small cephalic inflation. The cuticle bears numerous transverse striations which are more pronounced anteriorly. The dorsal ray is long and is similar to that of Gazellostrongylus Yeh, 1956, and Cooperioides hepaticae Ortlepp, 1938, but differs in that it bifurcates in its distal quarter, Each branch divides again, giving rise to a thinner, outer branch and a thicker inner branch. The latter recurves upon itself to form a small, elongated knob. The spicules of paracooperioides peleae resemble those of C. hepaticae but can be differentiated from them in that they bear small lateral barbs on their tips. Ten longitudinal ridges, supported by sclerotized rods, are present at the middle of the body. In transverse section, Paracooperiodes peleae is intermediate between Cooperioides Daubney, 1933 and Paracooperia travassos, 1935.

  3. Nematodes of armadillos in Paraguay: a description of a new species Aspidodera esperanzae (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, O; Abe, N; Oku, Y; Sanabria, L; Inchaustti, A; Kamiya, M

    1995-12-01

    Twelve species of nematodes comprising 9 genera were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of 2 Euphractus sexcinctus and 2 Dasypus novemcinctus captured in the Department of San Pedro, Paraguay. All armadillos were infected with 1 or more species of nematode. The following nematodes were recovered: Mazzia mazzia, Spirura guianensis, Trichohelix tuberculata, Ancylostoma sp., Moennigia complexus, Moennigia pintoi, Ascaris dasypodina, Cruzia tentaculata, Aspidodera fasciata, Aspidodera scoleciformis, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., and Heterakinae gen. sp. This report describes a new species of the Aspidodera nematode, Aspidodera esperanzae n. sp., the first species to be reported bearing cephalic cordons made up of 7 longitudinal loops in the subfamily of Aspidoderinae. This study also documents a new host record for S. guianensis and shows a new geographical distribution in Paraguay for M. mazzia, S. guianensis, T. tuberculata, M. complexus, and M. pintoi.

  4. Pharmacological receptors of nematoda as target points for action of antiparasitic drugs

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    Trailović Saša M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic receptors of parasitic nematodes are one of the most important possible sites of action of antiparasitic drugs. This paper presents some of our own results of electrophysiological and pharamcological examinations of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors of nematodes, as well as data from literature on a new class of anthelmintics that act precisely on cholinergic receptors. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR is located on somatic muscle cells of nematodes and it is responsible for the coordination of parasite movement. Cholinomimetic anthelmintics act on this receptor, as well as acetylcholine, an endogenic neurotransmitter, but they are not sensitive to enzyme acetylcholineesterase which dissolves acetylcholine. As opposed to the nicotinic receptor of vertebra, whose structure has been examined thoroughly, the stoichiometry of the nicotinic receptor of nematodes is not completely known. However, on the grounds of knowledge acquired so far, a model has been constructed recently of the potential composition of a type of nematodes nicotinic receptor, as the site of action of anthelmintics. Based on earlier investigations, it is supposed that a conventional muscarinic receptor exists in nematodes as well, so that it can also be a new pharamocological target for the development of antinematode drugs. The latest class of synthesized anthelmintics, named aminoacetonitriles (AAD, act via the nicotinic receptor. Monepantel is the first drug from the AAD group as a most significant candidate for registration in veterinary medicine. Even though several groups of cholinomimetic anthelmintics (imiodazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines, organophosphat anthelmintics have been in use in veterinary practice for many years now, it is evident that cholinergic receptors of nematodes still present an attractive place in the examinations and development of new antinematode drugs. .

  5. Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 (Nematoda, Camallanoidea in ornamental aquarium fishes: pathology and morphology

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    Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathology induced by the nematode Camallanus cotti in the aquarium fishes Beta splendens (beta fish and Poecilia reticulata (guppy consisted of gross and microscopic lesions, the former characterized by abdominal swelling with reddish parasites protruding from the anus in both fish hosts and the latter, similar in the beta fishes and guppies, by hemorrhage, congestion, edema, a few glandular elements, and extensive erosion areas in the rectum mucosa, with a marked thickening of the wall and absence of inflammatory infiltrate. Lesions were associated with the presence of several worms attached to the wall or free in the rectal lumen. This is the second reference of the parasite in Brazil and the first report of pathological findings related to this nematode species that is also briefly redescribed and illustrated for the first time on the basis of Brazilian samples.

  6. A karyological study of the spirurid nematode Mastophorus muris (Nematoda: Spirocercidae

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    Špakulová M.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 comprises four pairs of small autosomal chromosomes and two larger sex X chromosomes in females or one X chromosome in males (2n = 8 + XX/XO. All pairs of chromosomes possess rather uniform morphology without distinct primary or secondary constrictions. No heterochromatin bands were found by C-banding analysis. The absolute chromosome length ranges from 4.02 to 2.24 μm. The mean total length of the haploid complement is 14.34 μm. The course of gametogenesis represents a typical pattern common in the order Spirurida. The recently available karyotypes of spirurid nematodes have been reviewed.

  7. Characterization of Iberian species of the genus Pungentus Thorne & Swanger, 1936 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Nordiidae

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    Joaquin Abolafia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several populations of four known species of the genus Pungentus (P. clavatus, P. engadinensis, P. marietani and P. silvestris, collected in the wild and in cultivated soils from the Iberian Peninsula, are studied. Detailed redescriptions and morphometrics are presented for each species. Illustrations are provided, including line drawings, light microscopy pictures of the four species as well as scanning electron microscopy observations of P. engadinensis. The Iberian populations are compared to type and other known populations, and new data are given that provide a better characterization of these taxa. Pungentus engadinensis is the most widely distributed species in the Iberian Peninsula.

  8. An Investigation of Embryo and Eggshell Development in Trichuris suis (Nematoda, Trichuridae under Laboratory Conditions

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    Yevstafieva V. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of embryogenesis morphology and biometric parameters of Trichuris suis Schrank, 1788 eggs sampled from different organic substrates are described. The eggs of T. suis under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 27 °С reach the infectious stage in 40 days and pass through seven stages of embryogenesis. The study revealed significant differences in growth and development of eggs obtained from the nematode gonads and the faeces of infected animals (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758, according to length and width of eggs and eggshell plugs. The excreted T. suis eggs were shown to be better adapted to environment (survivability 96.6 ± 0.33 %, than the eggs obtained from the gonads of female nematodes (survivability 89.3 ± 0.33 %.

  9. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae in carangid and serranid fishes off New Caledonia, including three new species

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    Moravec František

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent examination of newly obtained specimens of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae parasitising carangid and serranid fishes off New Caledonia, South Pacific, revealed the presence of several nematodes of the genus Philometra Costa, 1845, including three new species: P. austropacifica n. sp. (males and females from the ovary of Alepes vari (Carangidae, P. piscaria n. sp. (males from the ovary of Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae, and P. selaris n. sp. (males probably from the abdominal cavity (found in washings of Selar crumenophthalmus (Carangidae. The new species are characterised mainly by the length and structure of the spicules and gubernaculum, body size, their location in the host and the type of host. Philometra austropacifica n. sp. is the first known nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitising a carangid fish. In addition, the gravid female of P. fasciati Moravec & Justine, 2008 from the ovary of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae is described for the first time. Carangid host fish were identified by both morphology and DNA barcoding.

  10. Nematodes from the gulf of California. Part 2. Ceramonema nasobema sp. n. (Nematoda: Ceramonematidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; Ley, de I.T.; Ley, de P.

    2008-01-01

    An unusual new ceramonematid, Ceramonema nasobema sp. n., is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. It is particularly characterised by the presence of a perioral tube projecting 5.5-7.0 ¿m anterior to the lips, moderately long body (0.86-1.09 mm), relatively small number of body an

  11. New species of Thelonema, Metasphaerolaimus, and Monhystrella (Nematoda, Monhysterida from Kermadec Trench, Southwest Pacific

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    Daniel Leduc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the order Monhysterida are described based on specimens obtained at depths of 8081 and 9177 m in the Kermadec Trench. Thelonema clarki sp. nov. is characterised by a large body size (3230–4461 µm, short cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, and long conico-cylindrical tail. This is the first record of the genus since its original description over two decades ago from the Peru Basin. Metasphaerolaimus constrictus sp. nov. is characterised by a relatively long body (1232–1623 µm, slightly arcuate spicules without gubernaculum, and conico-cylindrical tail with inner cuticle conspicuously thickened immediately anterior to cylindrical portion. Monhystrella kermadecensis sp. nov. is characterised by a circle of papillose outer labial sensillae slightly anterior to the four short cephalic setae, gubernaculum with caudal apophyses, the presence of distinct cuticularised piece along anterior vaginal wall, and a relatively short conical (males or conico-cylindrical tail (females with conical, ventrally-curved spinneret. M. kermadecensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of the genus, and, indeed, the entire family, based on the variable position of the anterior gonad relative to the intestine. The new species is classified within the Monhysteridae, and not the closely-related Xyalidae, based on the small body size, a smooth cuticle, and the presence of six outer labial papillae and only one testis. Further work is required to clarify the placement of M. kermadecensis sp. nov. relative to other monhysterid genera. A tabular key to all ten valid Metasphaerolaimus species is presented.

  12. DNA-binding activity in the excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, CH; Ko, RCC

    2001-01-01

    A novel DNA-binding peptide of Mr approximately 30 kDa was documented for the first time in the excretory-secretory (E-S) products of the infective-stage larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis. Larvae recovered from muscles of infected mice were maintained for 48 h in DMEM medium. E-S products of worms extracted from the medium were analysed for DNA-binding activity by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Multiple DNA-protein complexes were detected. A comparison of the Mr of protei...

  13. First report of Lagochilascaris (Nematoda: Ascarididae) eggs in a public park in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Jeske, Sabrina; Gallina, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Villela, Marcos Marreiro

    2012-03-23

    Public parks, especially in developing countries, are places where stray animals run free and may contaminate the environment with different species of parasites. In an evaluation of environmental sanitation of these sites, soil samples were collected monthly from public parks in the Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Eggs of the nematode Lagochilascaris sp. were found in a public playground. This is the first report of identification of this nematode in Southern Brazil.

  14. Description of Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. (Nematoda, Cyatholaimidae from Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia

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    Boufahja, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new free–living marine nematode species of Cyatholaimidae, Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. from Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia is morphologically described. Males are characterized by a slightly larger body than females, a cephalic ring followed by ten subcephalic setae, modified cuticular punctuation, caudal lateral differentiation of large dots, and strongly cuticularized gubernaculum with a unique shape and bidenticulated distal half. The cuticle ornamentation of females is similar to the males. However, their caudal lateral differentiation is composed of smaller and more spaced dots. An updated morphological key to species of Marylynnia is given.

  15. New cystidicolid species (Nematoda) from Galaxias platei (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonian freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2008-08-01

    During a parasitological survey of Galaxias platei Steindachner, 1898, from Patagonian Andean Lakes, a new species of Cystidicolidae was found in the stomach of fish. The new species was described using light and scanning electron microscopy; the species has characteristics of Ascarophis and is distinguishable from other species by a combination of the following features: well-developed pseudolabia with T-shaped inner extensions, bifurcate deirids, small ratio GE:ME, small left spicule, small ratio LS:RS, and larvigerous eggs with thick and fine filaments in both poles. Intraspecific variation in the morphology of larvigerous eggs was studied. This is the first species of Ascarophis described from freshwater fishes. PMID:18576739

  16. The first report of Cosmocerca parva (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae from Colostethus fraterdanieli (Anura: Dendrobatidae in Colombia

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    Sandra M. Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We discovered the nematode parasite, Cosmocerca parva, in C. fraterdanieli; this is the first record of this nematode species inColombia and C. fraterdanieli is a novel host of C. parva.

  17. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, C H; Huang, C S; Cares, J E

    1985-07-01

    Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm. PMID:19294098

  18. New species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Molineidae) in Ameiva festiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Vitt, Laurie J

    2006-04-01

    Oswaldocruzia nicaraguensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines of Ameiva festiva (Sauria: Teiidae) is described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia nicaraguensis represents the 78th species assigned to the genus and is most similar to the Caribbean species of the genus by possessing spicules in which each of the 3 divisions terminates in numerous fine points. Of the 8 species assigned to this group, O. nicaraguensis is most similar to Oswaldocruzia moraveci; of the 8 species, only O. moraveci and O. nicaraguensis possess a type II bursa and lack cervical alae. It is separated from O. moraveci by the position of the tips of ribs 5-6; close together in O. nicaraguensis, well separated in O. moraveci. PMID:16729693

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of two whipworms Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor (Nematoda: Trichuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yan; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Ye, Yong-Gang; Li, Jia-Yuan; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-12-01

    For many years, whipworms (Trichuris spp.) have been described with a relatively narrow range of both morphological and biometrical features. Moreover, there has been insufficient discrimination between congeners (or closely related species). In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two whipworms Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor, compared them and then tested the hypothesis that T. ovis and T. discolor are distinct species by phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the mt protein-coding genes. The complete mt genomes of T. ovis and T. discolor were 13,946 bp and 13,904 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes are circular, and consist of 37 genes, including 13 genes coding for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, and 22 genes for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of human and pig whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis. Taken together, these analyses showed genetic distinctiveness and strongly supported the recent proposal that T. ovis and T. discolor are distinct species using nuclear ribosomal DNA and a portion of the mtDNA sequence dataset. The availability of the complete mtDNA sequences of T. ovis and T. discolor provides novel genetic markers for studying the population genetics, diagnostics and molecular epidemiology of T. ovis and T. discolor.

  20. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

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    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of the rice white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae.

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    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rice white tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi, a devastating nematode whose genome has not been sequenced, is distributed widely throughout almost all the rice-growing regions of the world. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome of A. besseyi and to identify parasite-related, mortality-related or host resistance-overcoming genes in this nematode. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Solexa/Illumina sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of mixed-stage populations of A. besseyi. A total of 51,270 transcripts without gaps were produced based on high-quality clean reads. Of all the A. besseyi transcripts, 9,132 KEGG Orthology assignments were annotated. Carbohydrate-active enzymes of glycoside hydrolases (GHs, glycosyltransferases (GTs, carbohydrate esterases (CEs and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs were identified. The presence of the A. besseyi GH45 cellulase gene was verified by in situ hybridization. Given that 13 unique A. besseyi potential effector genes were identified from 41 candidate effector homologs, further studies of these homologs are merited. Finally, comparative analyses were conducted between A. besseyi contigs and Caenorhabditis elegans genes to look for orthologs of RNAi phenotypes, neuropeptides and peptidases. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The present results provide comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of A. besseyi. Many of this species' genes are parasite related, nematode mortality-related or necessary to overcome host resistance. The generated transcriptome dataset of A. besseyi reported here lays the foundation for further studies of the molecular mechanisms related to parasitism and facilitates the development of new control strategies for this species.

  2. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida with insecticides used in the tomato crop

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    Paulo Henrique de Siqueira Sabino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are agents that can be used for the biological control of pests associated with insecticides in a tank mix. Compatibility studies need to be conducted to analyze which products are compatible with nematodes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the compatibility between EPNs and the insecticides that are most used on the tomato crop, and to correlate the toxicological classification of the chemical products with two species of EPNs that have the potential to control tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta. Among the products tested, Certero (triflumuron, Decis (deltamethrin, Previcur (dimethylamino-propyl, Ampligo (lambdacyhalothrin + chlorantranilprole, Premio (clorantranilprole, Engeo Pleno (thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin were compatible (IOBC class 1 with both nematode species.

  3. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda: Onchocercidae infection in vectors from Amazonian Brazil following mass Mectizan™ distribution

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    Verônica Marchon-Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium populations is of primary importance in the assessment of the effectiveness of onchocerciasis control programs. In Brazil, the main focus of onchocerciasis is in the Amazon region, in a Yanomami reserve. The main onchocerciasis control strategy in Brazil is the semi-annually mass distribution of the microfilaricide ivermectin. In accordance with the control strategy for the disease, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was applied in pools of simuliids from the area to detect the helminth infection in the vectors, as recommended by the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas and the World Health Organization. Systematic sampling was performed monthly from September 1998 to October 1999, and a total of 4942 blackflies were collected from two sites (2576 from Balawaú and 2366 from Toototobi. The molecular methodology was found to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of infected and/or infective blackflies in pools of 50 blackflies. The results from the material collected under field conditions showed that after the sixth cycle of distribution of ivermectin, the prevalence of infected blackflies with O. volvulus had decreased from 8.6 to 0.3% in Balawaú and from 4 to 0.1% in Toototobi.

  4. Revision of the species complex Amidostomum acutum (Lundahl, 1848) (Nematoda: Amidostomatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kavetska, Katarzyna M.; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Stapf, Agata; Grzesiak, Wilhelm; Kalisińska, Elżbieta; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła

    2011-01-01

    Most available literature indicates that the most dominant nematode in Anatinae is a cosmopolitan species Amidostomum acutum (Lundahl, 1848). However, studies on wild duck helminthofauna in northwestern Poland suggest that these birds are attacked by not one but three different parasite species, previously described as a single species. Hence the aim of this study was the redescription of the species complex Amidostomum acutum, conducted on a representative sample of parasites and their hosts...

  5. Experimental evolution of parasite life-history traits in Strongyloides ratti (Nematoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Steve; Barber, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary ecology predicts that parasite life-history traits, including a parasite's survivorship and fecundity within a host, will evolve in response to selection and that their evolution will be constrained by trade-offs between traits. Here, we test these predictions using a nematode parasite of rats, Strongyloides ratti, as a model. We performed a selection experiment by passage of parasite progeny from either early in an infection (‘fast’ lines) or late in an infection (‘slow’ lines)....

  6. Two atypical new species of the genus Sectonema Thorne, 1930 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae from Vietnam

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    Thi Anh Duong Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Sectonema from natural habitats of northern Vietnam are studied. This paper includes their descriptions, measurements, line illustrations, and light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM pictures. Sectonema tropicum sp. nov. is characterized by a 2.56–3.24 mm long body, 19–21 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 20–21 μm long at its ventral side, 730–834 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 52–59% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 150–242 μm long or 1.2–2.5 times the body diameter, pars refringens vaginae present, V = 48–52, short (31–40 μm, c = 70–91, c’ = 0.5–0.6 and rounded tail, 91–97 μm long spicules, and only one weakly developed ventromedian supplement. Sectonema vietnamense sp. nov. is characterized by its slender (a = 33–49 and 2.71–4.25 mm long body, 14–16 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 8–9 μm long at its ventral side, 716–918 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 63–67% of total neck length, uterus simple and 209–242 μm long or 2.5–2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae absent, V = 54, short (34–39 μm, c = 70–115, c’ = 0.6–0.8 and rounded tail, 59–75 μm long spicules, and three or four irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Both species are also characterized by their nearly continuous lip region, an atypical feature in this genus. Molecular analysis of S. tropicum sp. nov. confirms that Sectonema is a natural (monophyletic taxon, very close to Metaporcelaimus.

  7. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  8. Description of Meloidogyne panyuensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), parasitic on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, J.; Yang, W.; Feng, Z.; Karssen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Meloidogyne panyuensis n.sp. is described and illustrated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., in Guangdong, P.R.China. It is characterized by: female stylet of 13 mu m length, DGO of 10 mu m; perineal pattern ovoid to oval shaped, smooth to moderately coarse striae, dorsal arch relatively low, lateral

  9. Molineus torulosus (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea a parasite of Neotropical primates: new morphological and histological data

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    Durette-Desset M.-C.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Molineus torulosus (Molin, 1861 parasite of Cebus spp. from South America is redescribed in Cebus apella and C. olivecaeus (new host from French Guyana with emphasis on the synlophe. During the maturation process, the larvae dwelt in the cysts carved alongside the external part of the small intestine. The turn-out of the mature worms and the laid eggs depended on the tissular organisation of cyst walls as the inflammatory process waned and fibrosis progressed to seal the cystic lumen. Adult worms entwine themselves in the cysts, live there permanently as their presence has never been evidenced in the intestinal lumen. They copulated, laid eggs, degenerated and died once entrapped by the fibrotic process. Laid eggs released in the intestinal lumen through a narrow channel ensured the continuation of the developmental cycle. However, erratic migration was possible via the vascular channels surrounding the cysts.

  10. Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris lanfrediae sp. nov. (Nematoda: Anisakidae from the fish Satanoperca jurupari (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

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    Marly de Fátima Carvalho de Melo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris lanfrediae sp. nov. is described from the intestine of the freshwater fish Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel (Cichlidae from the Guamá River, state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence in fish (n = 59 was 27% with intensity of one-124 (mean 16 nematodes per fish. The new species is characterized mainly by the markedly larger size of ventricular appendix in relation to the oesophagus, presence of short male caudal alae, 14-16 subventral pairs of preanal papillae and six pairs of postanal papillae.

  11. Sphaerularia bombi (Nematoda: Sphaerulariidae) parasitizing Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E

    2012-08-01

    Bumble bees are some of the most important insect pollinators. However, knowledge on parasites associated to bumble bees in South America is very limited. This study reports the first isolation of a sphaerularid nematode parasitizing queens of the native bumble bee Bombus atratus in Argentina. Measurements and morphological characters of eggs, juveniles, and adults strongly suggest that the species is Sphaerularia bombi, a parasite that affects the reproduction and foraging behavior of the host. The nematode was detected in bumble bees of San Carlos de Bariloche, northwestern Patagonia region, and the surroundings of La Plata, northeastern Pampas region. Prevalence varied between 8% and 20%. PMID:22350676

  12. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  13. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

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    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  14. Identifikasi Dan Distribusi Nematoda Parasitik Pada Tanaman Tembakau Deli (Nicotiana Tabacum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dongoran, Ahmad Pinayungan

    2012-01-01

    In general, the visible symptoms from parasitic nematode infection declined the plant growth. Plants infected by the nematodes were susceptible to attack by secondary pathogens. It was expected/presumed that there were diffent nematodes diversity and population at different places in Deli tobacco planting areas of region II (Helvetia, Bulu Cina, Klambir Lima, Klumpang), PTPN II, Tanjung Morawa. The experiment was conducted by sampling soil from surrounding Deli tobacco planting area at Del...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Koerneria sudhausi (Diplogasteromorpha: Nematoda) supports monophyly of Diplogasteromorpha within Rhabditomorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Kim, Jiyeon; Nadler, Steven A; Park, Joong-Ki

    2016-05-01

    Testing hypotheses of monophyly for different nematode groups in the context of broad representation of nematode diversity is central to understanding the patterns and processes of nematode evolution. Herein sequence information from mitochondrial genomes is used to test the monophyly of diplogasterids, which includes an important nematode model organism. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Koerneria sudhausi, a representative of Diplogasteromorpha, was determined and used for phylogenetic analyses along with 60 other nematode species. The mtDNA of K. sudhausi is comprised of 16,005 bp that includes 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) encoded in the same direction. Phylogenetic trees inferred from amino acid and nucleotide sequence data for the 12 protein-coding genes strongly supported the sister relationship of K. sudhausi with Pristionchus pacificus, supporting Diplogasteromorpha. The gene order of K. sudhausi is identical to that most commonly found in members of the Rhabditomorpha + Ascaridomorpha + Diplogasteromorpha clade, with an exception of some tRNA translocations. Both the gene order pattern and sequence-based phylogenetic analyses support a close relationship between the diplogasterid species and Rhabditomorpha. The nesting of the two diplogasteromorph species within Rhabditomorpha is consistent with most molecular phylogenies for the group, but inconsistent with certain morphology-based hypotheses that asserted phylogenetic affinity between diplogasteromorphs and tylenchomorphs. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences strongly supports monophyly of the diplogasteromorpha. PMID:26581631

  16. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae from vineyard soil in Slovenia

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    Saša Širca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensis sp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensis is an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6–8.2 mm and plump (a=51–72.4, ave. 66.3 body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23–25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42–47 µm, 43–50 µm in males, odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136–157 µm; pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122–145 µm, ventromedian supplements 13–17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997 are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to L. poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, L. macrosoma Hooper, 1961, L. caespiticola Hooper, 1961, L. helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, L. macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, L. pius Barsi et Lamberti, 2001, L. raskii Lamberti et Agostinelli, 1993, L. kheirii Pedram et al, 2008, L. silvae Roca, 1993, L. iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, L. vinearum Bravo et Roca, 1995 and L. major Roca et d’Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other species of the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of L. carniolensis sp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed.

  17. Longidorus carniolensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from vineyard soil in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, Saša; Urek, Gregor; Lazarova, Stela; Elshishka, Milka; Peneva, Vlada

    2011-01-01

    A new needle nematode, Longidorus carniolensissp. n., recovered from the soil around the roots of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. from Slovenia, is described and illustrated. Longidorus carniolensisis an amphimictic species, characterised by females with a moderately long (L=5.6-8.2 mm) and plump (a=51-72.4, ave. 66.3) body, assuming a spiral to C-shape when heat relaxed. Head region continuous, anteriorly almost flat, lip region 23-25 µm wide; guiding ring situated posteriorly (42-47 μm, 43-50 μm in males), odontostyle long (ave. 146.6 (136-157) μm); pharyngeal glands with normal location, their nuclei of approximately equal size; tail bluntly conoidal to almost hemispherical. Males abundant, spicules slender and long (122-145 μm), ventromedian supplements 13-17, irregularly spaced, preceded by an adanal pair. Four juvenile stages present, the first stage juvenile with bluntly conoidal tail. Codes for identifying the new species when using the key by Chen et al. (1997) are: A 56, B 4, C 4, D 1, E 4, F 35, G 1, H 1, I 2. The new species is morphologically the most similar to Longidorus poessneckensis Altherr, 1974, Longidorus macrosoma Hooper, 1961, Longidorus caespiticola Hooper, 1961, Longidorus helveticus Lamberti et al., 2001, Longidorus macroteromucronatus Altherr, 1974, Longidorus pius Barsi & Lamberti, 2001, Longidorus raskii Lamberti & Agostinelli, 1993, Longidorus kheirii Pedram et al. 2008, Longidorus silvae Roca, 1993, Longidorus iuglandis Roca et al., 1985, Longidorus vinearum Bravo & Roca, 1995 and Longidorus major Roca & d'Erico, 1987, but differs from these species either by the body and odontostyle length, position of guide ring, head region and tail shape or the shape of the first stage juvenile tail. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rDNA distinguishes this new species from other speciesof the genus Longidorus with known sequences. Relationships of Longidorus carniolensissp. n. with other Longidorus species based on analysis of this DNA fragment and morphology are discussed.

  18. First record of Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda : Anisakidae in fish-eating birds from Zimbabwe

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    M. Barson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoparasites of fish-eating birds, Phalacrocorax africanus, P. carbo, Anhinga melanogaster and Ardea cinerea collected from Lake Chivero near Harare, Zimbabwe, were investigated. Adult Contracaecum spp. were found in the gastrointestinal tract (prevalence 100% in P. africanus, P. carbo and A. melanogaster; 25 % in A. cinerea. Parasite intensity was 11-24 (mean 19 in P. africanus, 4-10 (mean 7 in P. carbo, 4-56 (mean 30 in A. melanogaster and 2 (mean 0.5 in A. cinerea. The cormorants fed mainly on cichlid fishes and carp; the darters and the grey herons on cichlids. All these fishes are intermediate hosts of Contracaecum spp. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Contracaecum rudolphii infected both cormorant species and darters; C. carlislei infected only the cormorants while C. tricuspis and C. microcephalum infected only the darters. Parasites from the grey heron were not identified to species because they were still developing larvae. These parasites are recorded in Zimbabwe for the first time.

  19. A new species of Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae), parasite of Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) from Costa Rica Una especie nueva de Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae), parásita de Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    María Celina Digiani; Ramón A. Carreño; Marie-Claude Durette-Desset

    2008-01-01

    Paraheligmonella lamothei n. sp. (Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae) is described from the small intestine of a cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890) (Leporidae), from Costa Rica. New morphological data on the synlophe and caudal bursa of Paraheligmonella romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980), the most similar species, are also provided. The new species differs from P. romerolagi, parasitic of Romerolagus diazi (Ferrari-Pérez, 1893) from Mexico, mainly by the characters of the caudal ...

  20. A new species of Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae, parasite of Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae from Costa Rica Una especie nueva de Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae, parásita de Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celina Digiani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Paraheligmonella lamothei n. sp. (Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae is described from the small intestine of a cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890 (Leporidae, from Costa Rica. New morphological data on the synlophe and caudal bursa of Paraheligmonella romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980, the most similar species, are also provided. The new species differs from P. romerolagi, parasitic of Romerolagus diazi (Ferrari-Pérez, 1893 from Mexico, mainly by the characters of the caudal bursa and the synlophe of the female within the posterior region of body. Males of P. lamothei n. sp. possess a caudal bursa not bell-shaped, with a pattern of type 2-2-1 for right lobe and 2-3 with a tendency to type 2-2-1 for left lobe, whereas males of P. romerolagi possess a bell-shaped caudal bursa, with a pattern of type 2-2-1 with a tendency to type 4-1 for both lobes. In P. lamothei n. sp. rays 3 are slightly longer than rays 2 and the genital cone is poorly developed, whereas in P. romerolagi rays 3 are much longer than rays 2 and the genital cone is large and bulbous. Females of P. lamothei n. sp. possess, at ovejector level, ventral and latero-ventral ridges hypertrophied and dorsal ridges reduced, whereas at the same level, females of P. romerolagi possess lateral ridges hypertrophied and dorsal and ventral ridges reduced. Additionally, hypertrophied cuticular ridges posterior to the vulva are present in P. lamothei n. sp., but absent in P. romerolagi.Se describe Paraheligmonella lamothei n. sp., parásita del intestino delgado de Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890 (Leporidae de Costa Rica. Se aportan además datos nuevos morfológicos sobre el synlophe y la bolsa caudal de Paraheligmonella romerolagi (Gibbons y Kumar, 1980, la especie morfológicamente más parecida. La especie nueva se diferencia de P. romerolagi, parásita de Romerolagus diazi (Ferrari-Pérez, 1893 de México, principalmente por caracteres de la bursa caudal y el synlophe de la hembra en la región posterior del cuerpo. Los machos de P. lamothei n. sp. poseen una bursa caudal sin forma de campana, con un patrón de tipo 2-2-1 para el lóbulo derecho y 2-3 con tendencia a tipo 2-2-1 para el lóbulo izquierdo, mientras que los machos de P. romerolagi poseen una bursa en forma de campana, con un patrón de tipo 2-2-1 con tendencia a tipo 4-1 para ambos lóbulos. En P. lamothei n. sp. los rayos 3 son ligeramente más largos que los rayos 2 y el cono genital está poco desarrollado, mientras que en P. romerolagi los rayos 3 son mucho más largos que los rayos 2 y el cono genital es grande y bulboso. Las hembras de P. lamothei n. sp. poseen, a la altura del oviyector, las crestas cuticulares ventrales y latero-ventrales hipertrofiadas y las dorsales y laterales reducidas, mientras que a la misma altura, las hembras de P. romerolagi poseen las crestas laterales hipertrofiadas y las dorsales y ventrales reducidas. Adicionalmente, las crestas cuticulares hipertrofiadas posteriores a la vulva en P. lamothei n. sp., están ausentes en P. romerolagi.

  1. Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parasite of Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parásito de Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae

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    JORGE FALCÓN-ORDAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the revision of the type material of Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier & Mehra, 1959, and new specimens collected from Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, in Veracruz, Mexico, we herein to which A. ackerti is transferred as Lamotheoxyuris ackerti This new genus differs from all other genera included in 1 mouth surrounded by six lips; 2 extension of lateral alae describe a new genus (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., (Kruidener & Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Heteroxynematinae by the following main traits: reduced; and 3 lack of caudal alae.Con base en la revisión del material tipo de Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier y Mehra, 1959 y de nuevos ejemplares recolectados en Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, en Veracruz, México, se describe un nuevo género (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., al que A. ackerti es transferido como Lamotheoxyuris ackerti (Kruidener y Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Este nuevo género se distingue de todos los demás géneros incluidos en Heteroxynematinae por las siguientes características: 1 presencia de seis labios rodeando la boca; 2 extensión reducida del ala lateral; y 3 carencia de ala caudal.

  2. Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae em Guira guira e Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae in Guira guira and Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae on Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Adriane Bartmann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nematóides do gênero Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912 parasitam aves de diversas ordens e têm sido estudados, principalmente, em aves de importância econômica devido às lesões que provocam no proventrículo dos hospedeiros. Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920 é registrado em duas espécies de Cuculiformes, anu-branco, Guira guira Gmelin, 1788 e anu-preto, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758, no Sul do Brasil. Entre 2005 e 2008 foram coletados e necropsiados 120 espécimes de G. guira e 120 espécimes de C. ani nos municípios de Cacequi, São Vicente do Sul e Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A prevalência de D. nasuta foi de 28,3% em G. guira e 26,7%, em C. ani, e a intensidade média de infecção foi de 8,81 (DP=18,41; Amplitude 1 - 82 helmintos/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 5,10 (DP=6,17; Amplitude 1 - 30 helmintos/hospedeiro, em C. ani. Já a abundância média de infecção foi de 2,28 (DP=10,02 helminto/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 1,32 (DP=3,82 helminto/hospedeiro em C. ani. Análise comparativa entre o sexo, a maturidade sexual e a estação do ano, para as duas espécies de aves, mostrou que em C. ani não ocorreram diferenças significativas com relação a qualquer dos parâmetros analisados. Em G. guira as fêmeas estavam mais parasitadas do que os machos (P=0,039; as fêmeas encontravam-se mais parasitadas no inverno (P=0,008; os machos, no verão (P=0,011; os machos jovens estavam mais parasitados do que os adultos (P=0,015. As lesões encontradas no proventrículo das aves parasitadas confirmaram o diagnóstico de hiperplasia adenomatóide do proventrículo com proventriculite granulomatosa. Esta comunicação amplia o número de espécies hospedeiras e a distribuição geográfica do nematóide D. nasuta.Nematodes of the genus Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912 are parasites of several groups of birds which have been primarily studied in birds of economic importance due to the injuries caused in the host proventricle. Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920, was found in two species of Cuculiformes, guira cuckoos, Guira guira Gmelin, 1788 and smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758, in the southern-most State of Brazil. From 2005 to 2008, 120 specimens of G. guira and 120 specimens of C. ani, were collected in Cacequi, São Vicente do Sul and Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The prevalence of D. nasuta in G. guira was 28.3% and in C. ani 26.7%; the average intensity of infection was 8.81 (DP=18.41; Amplitude 1 - 82 helminths/host in G. guira and 5.10 (DP=6.17; Amplitude 1 - 30 in C. ani; the average abundance of infection was 2.28 (DP=10.02 helminths/host in G. guira, and 1.32 (DP=3.82 in C. ani, respectively. Comparative analysis between the species, sex, sexual maturity and seasonality showed that C. ani did not present significant differences with regard to any of the analyzed parameters. Guira guira presented some differences: females had more parasites than males (P=0.039; female birds collected in the winter (P=0.008 and male birds collected in the summer had more parasites (P=0.011; and immature males had more parasites than adult males (P=0.015. The injuries found in the proventricle of the parasitized birds were compatible with adenomatoid hyperplasia and with granulomatosis proventriculitis. This communication expands the number of host species and the geographic distribution of D. nasuta.

  3. Experimental infection in Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida with larvae of Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae Infecção experimental em Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida com larvas de Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae

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    M.L. Martins

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial registered the experimental infection viability with nematode larvae Camallanus sp. in Notodiaptomus sp., a crustacean, which can be an intermediate host. Adult females of nematode were dissected from the intestines of Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, at a fish farm in the State of São Paulo. Females were slightly compressed for larvae release, collected with Pasteur pipette and separated on Petri dishes with 9ml filtered water at 28.1ºC, from zooplankton culture. Treatments consisted of Petri dishes with 60 and 105 copepods, in which 120, 150 and 210 larvae of nematode were added in four replications. Twenty-four and 36h after exposition to the larvae, the copepods were fixed in 70% alcohol to record the amount of fixed larvae. Twenty four hours after exposition, 60 copepods group with 120 larvae showed significantly higher prevalence (46.5% when compared to 105 copepods and 120 larvae (33.2%. Thus, these answers suggested that 120 larvae were enough for a successful infectivity. Experimental infection was available and so, it was used as a pattern to life cycle studies of camallanid nematodes and hosts susceptibility tests.A viabilidade da infecção experimental com larvas do nematóide Camallanus sp. em Notodiaptomus sp., crustáceo com potencial para hospedeiro intermediário foi avaliada. Fêmeas adultas do nematóide foram extraídas de Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, provenientes de piscicultura de peixes ornamentais no estado de São Paulo. As fêmeas foram ligeiramente pressionadas para liberar as larvas, coletadas com pipeta Pasteur e separadas em placas de Petri contendo 9ml de água filtrada a 28,1ºC do próprio cultivo de zooplâncton. Os tratamentos consistiram de placas contendo 60 e 105 copépodes onde se adicionou 120, 150 e 210 larvas de nematóides em quatro repetições. Nos tempos de 24 e 36h após a exposição às larvas, os copépodes foram fixados em álcool 70% para quantificação de larvas. Após 24h de exposição, o grupo com 60 copépodes na presença de 120 larvas apresentou maior prevalência (46,5% do que 105 copépodes com 120 larvas (33,2%. Sugere-se que 120 larvas foram suficientes para o sucesso da infecção. A infecção experimental mostrou-se viável, servindo de modelo para o estudo do ciclo de vida de camalanídeos e testes de susceptibilidade de hospedeiros.

  4. Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina

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    Mirna C Oviedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.

  5. New species of Aspiculuris (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae, parasite of Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae, from Hidalgo, Mexico Una nueva especie de Aspiculuris (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae, parásito de Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae, de Hidalgo, México

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    Jorge Falcón-Ordaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp. was found in the intestine of Mus musculus collected from 2 localities in Hidalgo, Mexico, and is described herein. The new species possesses cervical alae abruptly interrupted at mid-length of esophageal bulb form an acute angle, distinguishing it from 5 of the 17 species in the genus. The new species is differentiated from 11 of the remaining species by having cervical alae that form an acute angle and end at mid-length of the esophageal bulb. Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp. most closely resembles A. tetraptera in the position of the terminal end of the cervical alae. However, the new species can be distinguished from that species by the number of caudal papillae (12 vs. 14, the presence of a sessile precloacal papilla between 2 cuticular folds, and by having a single pedunculate papilla located slightly posterior to the cloaca.Se describe una especie nueva, Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp., proveniente del intestino de Mus musculus de 2 localidades de Hidalgo, México. Esta especie cuenta con 1 ala cervical interrumpida abruptamente formando un ángulo agudo; con base en este carácter, la especie nueva se distingue de 5 de las 17 especies que contiene el género. De 11 especies más, A. huascaensis n. sp. se diferencia por el ángulo agudo que forma el ala cervical y porque ésta finaliza a la mitad de la longitud del bulbo esofágico. Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp. se asemeja a A. tetraptera por la terminación del ala cervical. Sin embargo, puede distinguirse de dicha especie por el número de papilas caudales (12 vs. 14, por la presencia de una papila precloacal sésil entre 2 pliegues cuticulares y por una papilla sencilla detrás de la cloaca.

  6. A new species of Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae) from the lungs of a nine-banded armadillo in Central Mexico Especie nueva de Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae) de los pulmones de un armadillo del centro de México

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    F. Agustín Jiménez; Rogelio Rosas-Valdez; Scott L. Gardner

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four worms were collected from the bronchioles in both lungs of a male nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 captured in Teacalco, Morelos, Mexico. The worms, herein named Metathelazia mexicana n. sp., show a constriction in the esophagus at the level of the nerve ring; males of the species have 7 pairs of papillae, fewer than the other species in the genus. Metathelazia capsulata is the most similar species to Metathelazia mexicana; however, the latter has much sho...

  7. A new species of Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae from the lungs of a nine-banded armadillo in Central Mexico Especie nueva de Metathelazia (Nematoda: Pneumospiruridae de los pulmones de un armadillo del centro de México

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    F. Agustín Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four worms were collected from the bronchioles in both lungs of a male nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 captured in Teacalco, Morelos, Mexico. The worms, herein named Metathelazia mexicana n. sp., show a constriction in the esophagus at the level of the nerve ring; males of the species have 7 pairs of papillae, fewer than the other species in the genus. Metathelazia capsulata is the most similar species to Metathelazia mexicana; however, the latter has much shorter spicules. This is the fourth species in the genus known to occur in the New World.Se recolectó un total de 24 nemátodos de las cavidades bronquiales de un armadillo de 9 bandas Dasypus novemcinctus Lineo, 1758 en la localidad de Teacalco, Morelos, México. Los nemátodos, descritos con el nombre Metathelazia mexicana, muestran una constricción en el esófago al nivel del anillo nervioso y 7 pares de papilas caudales en los machos, número que es menor al observado en las otras especies del género. Metathelazia mexicana es semejante a Metathelazia capsulata en varios rasgos morfológicos pero difiere en el tamaño de las espículas, que son más cortas en la especie aquí descrita. Esta es la cuarta especie del género registrada en el continente americano.

  8. Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae in Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae in South America Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae em Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae na América do Sul

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    Eliane F. da Silveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of a species of Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, on anatid hosts in South America, causing granulomas. It is also the first detailed description and record of a species of Echinuria, for South America in the Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Fifty-two rosy-billed pochards were examined for helminths in the Municipalities of Santa Vitória do Palmar (locality of Fazenda Sossego and (locality of Ponta da Antena, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and Alvear, Province of Corrientes, northern Argentina. Samples were obtained from 2003 to 2004. After the catch each bird was immediately frozen with dry ice. Prior to necropsy birds were sexed, weighted, measured, and the state of maturity (juvenile or adult determined, based on the presence or absence of a bursa of Fabricius. The granulomas with the nematodes were found in the proximal esophagus at the junction with the proventriculus. Two birds had one (fistulated and two granulomas, respectively. One of the birds was from the wintering grounds along the coastal region in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The other, from one of the breeding grounds in northern Argentina, was captured before the trip to the wintering grounds along the migratory flyway. Prevalence was 3.8% while the mean intensity of infection was 7.2. Morphometry of males and females and the comparison with previous descriptions and illustrations allowed the identification of the present specimens as E. uncinata.Este é o primeiro registro de uma espécie do gênero Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, em hospedeiros anatídeos na América do Sul, causando granulomas. É, também, a primeira descrição detalhada e o primeiro registro de Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Soloviev, 1912, para a América do Sul, e o primeiro registro de um nematóide acuarióideo em Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Cinqüenta e dois marrecões foram examinados para helmintos nas localidades de Fazenda Sossego e Ponta da Antena, Município de Santa Vitória do Palmar, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região Sul do Brasil e Alvear, Província de Corrientes, região Norte da Argentina. As amostras foram obtidas no período de 2003 a 2004. Imediatamente após o abate, cada ave foi congelada em gelo seco. As aves foram separadas por sexo, pesadas e medidas. O estado de maturidade de cada ave foi avaliado (juvenil ou adulto com base na presença ou ausência da bolsa de Fabricius. Os granulomas, contendo os nematóides, estavam situados na base do esôfago quase junto à junção com o proventrículo. Duas aves estavam positivas, com um (fistulado e dois granulomas, respectivamente. Uma das aves era proveniente do Brasil (pólo de invernia na planície costeira do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A outra da região Norte da Argentina, capturada em um dos pólos de nidificação, antes de empreender sua viagem em direção à costa brasileira ao longo de sua rota de migração. A prevalência da infecção foi de 3,8% e a intensidade média de infecção de 7,2. A morfometria de machos e de fêmeas permitiu a identificação dos espécimes como E. uncinata.

  9. Procamallanus brasileiros (Nematoda, Camallanoidea: considerações finais, com chave para determinação das espécies Brazilian Procamallanus (Nematoda, Camallanoidea: final remarks on the subject, with a key to the species

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    R. Magalhães Pinto

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Encerrando uma série de observações em nematódeos do gênero Procamallanus Baylis, 1923, que ocorrem no Brasil, reunimos no presente trabalho a descrição de uma nova espécie: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus paraensis, a redescrição de Procamallanus (S. hilarii vaz & Pereira, 1934 e as descrições originais de Procamallanus (S. barroslimai Pereira, 1935 e Procamallanus (S. macaensis vicente & Santos, 1972, modificadas e adaptadas. Quanto a barroslimai, colocamos em dúvida sua validade e somente não a tomamos sinônima a Procamallanus (S. inopinatus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928, devido à falta absoluta de material, impossibilidade de acesso ao tipo e dados concretos que justificassem tal procedimento, no que somos apoiados por Kloss (1966. Relacionamos amostras de material parcialmente danificado que não nos permitiu uma diagnose específica. Referências são feitas a Procamallanus (S. iheringi Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928. Para Procamallanus (S. inopinatus é assinalado um novo hospedador. Como a maioria do material observado provinha de necrópsias realizadas em peixes dulcícolas caracídeos, fizemos um estudo comparativo entre os Procamallanus anteriormente referidos nesses hospedadores a fim de estabelecermos possíveis afinidades entre os caracteres morfológicos considerados distintivos quando da proposição das diversas espécies. Desta forma, pudemos ratificar as afirmações de Kloss (1966, com relação aos Procamallanus, quando do estudo dos parasitos de espécies simpátricas de Astyanax. Finalmente, incluímos uma chave para a determinação dos Procamallanus brasileiros.With this work, we went through the Brazilian Procamallanus, all of them but one recovered from freshwater fishes. We describe Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus paraensis n. sp., which is related to Procamallanus (S. pexatus pinto, Fabio, Noronha & Rolas, 1976 and to Procamallanus (S. inopinatus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus hilarii Vaz & Pereira, 1934 is redescribed. The adapted and modified original descriptions of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus barroslimai Pereira, 1935 are included. The latter should be considered a synonym of P. (S. inopinatus, but the lack of the type sample or fresh material and substantial data prevented us to do so. Therefore, its validity is rather doubtful as also suggested by Kloss (1966, and for this reason it was not included in the key to the species. All the Brazilian Procamallanus species recovered from characid fishes were discussed in order to let one knows what are the really valid ones up to now. We also list the unidentified damaged material which was put only under the genus, as well as the hosts' scientific and common names and their geographical distribution.

  10. Epidemiological studies of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in indigenous communities of Pauini municipality, Amazonas, Brazil Estudos epidemiológicos da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades indígenas do município de Pauini, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mansonella ozzardi has a widespread distribution among the indigenous and riverine communities of Amazonas, Brazil. We estimated the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in indigenous communities of the Pauini municipality, Amazonas state, Brazil and the rate of parasitic infection in vectors. We collected thick blood smears from individuals from six Apurinã indigenous communities along the Purus River and its tributaries. Collections of simuliids were made and dissected, and the larval instars of M. ozzardi identified. The overall prevalence of M. ozzardi was 28.40%, with the highest incidence among males and agricultural workers. Among age groups, children 2-9 years of age had the lowest incidence, while individuals older than 58 exhibited the highest rates of infection. We found infected simuliids in three communities, with Parasitic Infection Rates (PIR of 0.34-6.58%. The prevalence of M. ozzardi among the Apurinã people is high, possibly related to the diary activities of the riparian people, where a high abundance of the vectors exists.Esse trabalho tem como objetivos estimar a prevalência de Mansonella ozzardi em comunidades indígenas do município de Pauini, Amazonas, Brasil e estimar a Taxa de Infecção Parasitária nos vetores. Foram examinados indígenas da etnia Apurinã, pelo método de gota espessa, em seis comunidades localizadas as margens e afluentes do rio Purus. A prevalência geral para M. ozzardi foi de 28,40%, com maior incidência para o sexo masculino e nos indivíduos com atividade no campo (agricultores. Em relação à faixa etária, as menores prevalências foram obtidas nos indivíduos mais jovens (2-9 anos, enquanto as maiores nos indivíduos acima de 58 anos. Foram encontrados simulídeos parasitados em três comunidades, com uma Taxa de Infecção Parasitária que variou de 0,34 a 6,58%. A prevalência de M. ozzardi entre os Apurinã é elevada, possivelmente relacionada às suas atividades diárias as margens dos rios, onde existe uma grande abundância dos vetores.

  11. First report of interaction of nematophagous fungi on Libyostrongylus douglassii (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae Primeiro relato da interação de fungos nematófagos sobre Libyostrongylus douglassii (Nematoda: Trichostrongilidae

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    Fabio Ribeiro Braga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Libyostrongylus douglassii is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of ostriches that can cause up to 50% mortality in young birds. The objective of this study was to compare the predatory capacity of two isolates of the predatory fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 and CG722 isolates and one of Arthrobotrys cladodes (CG719 on infective larvae (L3 of L. douglassii under laboratory conditions, in 2% water-agar medium. The results showed that the fungi tested were effective in preying upon the L3 of L. douglassii (P 0.05 during the seven days of experimental testing. In comparison with the control, without fungus, there were significant decreases (P Libyostrongylus douglassii é um nematóide parasito gastrintestinal de avestruzes que pode causar até 50% de mortalidade em aves jovens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a capacidade predatória de dois isolados de fungos predadores Duddingtonia flagrans (isolados AC001 e CG722 e um Arthrobotrys cladodes (CG719 sobre larvas infectantes (L3 de L. douglassii em condições laboratoriais, em meio ágar–água 2%. Os resultados demonstraram que os fungos testados foram eficientes em predar as L3 de L. douglassii (P 0,05 durante os sete dias do ensaio experimental. Em comparação ao controle, sem fungo, houve uma redução significativa (P < 0,05 de 85,2% (AC001; 81,2% (CG722 e 89,2% (C719 na média de L3 recuperadas nas placas do grupo tratado com os isolados testados. No presente trabalho, os três isolados de fungos predadores D. flagrans (AC001 e CG722 e A. cladodes (CG719 foram eficientes na destruição in vitro das L3 de L. douglassii.

  12. Two new species of Parapharyngodon parasites of Sceloporus pyrocephalus, with a key to the species found in Mexico (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Montes de Oca, Edgar Uriel; Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Parapharyngodon collected from the intestine of the Mexican boulder spiny lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus are described. This study increases to 49 the number of valid species assigned to Parapharyngodon worldwide, 11 of them distributed in Mexico. Males of the two new species share the presence of four pairs of caudal papillae, an anterior echinate cloacal lip and the presence of lateral alae; however, both differ from each other in lateral alae extension and echinate cloacal anterior lip morphology. Females of both species have a prebulbar uterus and eggs shell punctuate with pores, characteristics shared with few other species of Parapharyngodon. Both new species differ from other congeneric species in the papillar arrangement, the anterior cloacal lip morphology, the lateral alae extension and total length/spicule ratio. A taxonomic key for the species of Parapharyngodon distributed in Mexico is provided. PMID:27006602

  13. Two new genera and five new species of Selachinematidae (Nematoda, Chromadorida from the continental slope of New Zealand

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    Daniel Leduc

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and five new species of Selachinematidae are described from the New Zealand upper continental slope (350-1240 m depth. Synonchiella rotundicauda sp. nov. is characterised by cephalic setae 0.25 cbd long, mandibles each with two pairs of hooks and two wing-like projections laterally, eight cup-shaped pre-cloacal supplements and short rounded tail. Pseudocheironchus gen. nov. is similar to Cheironchus, but differs from the latter in having a cuticle without lateral differentiation, cephalic setae only slightly longer than the outer labial sensillae, and a posterior buccal cavity with three equal mandibles. Pseudocheironchus ingluviosus gen. et sp. nov. is characterised by mandibles with eight blunt teeth, multispiral amphideal fovea with five turns, and a short rounded tail. Males of this new species with 17-19 cup-shaped pre-cloacal supplements. Males of the genus Cobbionema are described for the first time; C. trigamma sp. nov. is characterised by four long cephalic setae and six smaller outer labial setae in one circle, six rhabdions surrounding the anterior buccal cavity, each with two pairs of pointed projections at their posterior extremities, posterior buccal cavity widening posteriorly, with three pairs of rhabdions fused posteriorly and widening anteriorly, males with two testes pointing anteriorly and with reflexed posterior testis, and no pre-cloacal supplements. Gammanema agglutinans sp. nov. is characterised by a short, stout body often covered in adhering mucus and detritus, cuticle with minute spines, leaf-shaped somatic setae with ducts, sexual dimorphism in the shape of the amphideal fovea (loop-shaped in males and spiral in females, posterior buccal cavity with three pairs of broad, column-shaped rhabdions fused anteriorly, intestine cells with orange-brown granules, and small tubular pre-cloacal supplements. Bendiella gen. nov. is most similar to Halichoanolaimus, but differs from the latter, and all other genera of the family Selachinematidae, in having a cuticle with lateral differentiation consisting of longitudinal rows of larger dots, and from all other genera of the Choniolaiminae in lacking pre-cloacal supplements. Bendiella thalassa gen. et sp. nov. is characterised by amphideal fovea with 5.25 turns, anterior buccal cavity with twelve rhabdions, each with a pair of pointed projections at posterior extremity, posterior buccal cavity with three Y-shaped pairs of slender rhabdions fused from two thirds of distance from anterior ends, and conico-cylindrical tail.

  14. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the bagre Rhamdia guatemalensis (Pisces) from cenotes in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Scholz, T; Vivas Rodríguez, C

    1995-01-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis sp. n., is described from the intestine of the freshwater pimelodid catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) from cenotes (= sinkholes) in Yucatan, Mexico. It differs from other three related species parasitizing freshwater fishes mainly in possessing the spicule with a simple rim of its proximal end and a non-expanded distal end, in the length of the spicule (0.218-0.295 mm), and the size (0.050-0.060 x 0.025-0.030 mm), shape and structure of eggs, and also in the host types and geographical distribution. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis is the first known autochtonous species of Pseudocapillaria parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico. PMID:9599428

  15. Methods for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi Mitskevich (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea larvae in faeces from reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L.

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    Odd Halvorsen

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating the density of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi larvae in reindeer faeces that have been deep frozen is described. The method involves the use of an inverted microscope with plankton counting chambers. Statistical data on the efficiency and sensitivity of the method are given. With fresh faeces, the results obtained with the method were not significantly different from those obtained with the Baermann technique. With faeces that had been stored in deep freeze, the method detected on average 30 per cent more larvae than the Baermann technique.Metoder for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring fra reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En metode for å estimere tettheten av hjernemarklarver i avføring som har vært dypfryst blir beskrevet. Anvendelse av et invertert mikroskop med plankton tellekammer inngår i metoden. Det blir gitt statistiske data for metodens effektivitet og følsomhet. Ved undersøkelse av fersk avføring skilte ikke de resultatene metoden ga seg fra de som ble oppnådd med Baermanns metode. Ved undersøkelse av avføring som hadde vært lagret dypfrosset ga metoden i gjennomsnitt 30 prosent flere larver enn Baermanns metode.

  16. Mitochondrial genome of the eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda (Nematoda: Spirurida, as the first representative from the family Thelaziidae.

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    Guo-Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Human thelaziosis is an underestimated parasitic disease caused by Thelazia species (Spirurida: Thelaziidae. The oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, infects a range of mammalian definitive hosts, including canids, felids and humans. Although this zoonotic parasite is of socio-economic significance in Asian countries, its genetics, epidemiology and biology are poorly understood. Mitochondrial (mt DNA is known to provide useful genetic markers to underpin fundamental investigations, but no mt genome had been characterized for any members of the family Thelaziidae. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the mt genome of T. callipaeda. This AT-rich (74.6% mt genome (13,668 bp is circular and contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lacks an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction; the gene order is the same as those of Dirofilaria immitis and Setaria digitata (Onchocercidae, but distinct from Dracunculus medinensis (Dracunculidae and Heliconema longissimum (Physalopteridae. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference (BI showed that T. callipaeda (Thelaziidae is related to the family Onchocercidae. This is the first mt genome of any member of the family Thelaziidae and should represent a new source of genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, ecology, population genetics and systematics of this parasite of humans and other mammals.

  17. First record of Anguillicoloides crassus (Nematoda) in American eels (Anguilla rostrata) in Canadian estuaries, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, L S; Jones, K M M; Cone, D K

    2009-04-01

    In the summer of 2007, American eels, Anguilla rostrata, from 2 localities on Cape Breton Island, were found to be infected with the swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus. This is the first documented report of this highly invasive parasite in Canadian waters. More than half of the yellow eels in Mira River (6 of 10), and 1 eel (of 5) from Sydney Harbour were infected. Parasite intensity ranged from 1 to 11 worms per eel. The occurrence of A. crassus at these 2 localities suggests the need for a more extensive survey on the distribution of this exotic parasite in eel populations throughout Cape Breton Island. PMID:18767906

  18. Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the Chinese marine fishes.

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    Xu, Zhen; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    A new species of ascaridoid nematode, Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the intestine of the slender lizardfish Saurida elongata (Temminck et Schlegel) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) in the Yellow Sea, China. The new species differs from its congeners by its small body size (12.8-13.2 mm), the absence of cervical alae, a very short intestinal caecum (representing 8.86-9.52% of oesophageal length) and a long ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:15.3-20.0), short spicules (0.38-0.41 mm, representing 2.97-3.11% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (25-28 pairs arranged as follows: 18-22 pairs precloacal, 3 pairs paracloacal, and 3-4 pairs postcloacal). In addition, Hysterothylacium tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) is also redescribed based on the material collected from the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi) (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the South China Sea. PMID:24827106

  19. Report of epibiont Thecacineta calix (Ciliophora: Suctorea) on deep sea Desmodora (Nematoda) from the Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Singh, R.; Sautya, S.; Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.

    Paula (CSIR), Goa-403 004, India, 2 Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, B. Khmelnitsky Street, 15, 01601, Kiev, Ukraine, 3 Indian School of Learning, ISM Annexe, PO–ISM, Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand, India Suctorian epibionts Thecacineta calix attached...

  20. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Siler, Cameron D; Brown, Rafe M

    2015-12-01

    Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Cyrtodactylus gubaot (Squamata: Gekkonidae) collected on Leyte Island, Philippines is described and illustrated. Cosmocerca leytensis sp. nov. is the 30th species assigned to the genus, the 4th from the Oriental region, and the first from the Philippine Islands. The new species is most similar to those species possessing 4 pairs of plectanes, i.e., C. archeyi, C. australis, C. oroensis, and C sardiniae. Cosmocerca sardiniae lacks lateral alae; C. archeyi, C. australis, C. leytensis sp. nov. and C. oroensis possess lateral alae. Spicule length of C. oroensis is less than 75 μm, while C. archeyi, C. australis, and C. leytensis sp. nov. have spicule lengths greater than 75 μm. Males of C. australis possess 2 pairs of rosette caudal papillae, which are lacking in C. archeyi and C. leytensis sp. nov. Females of C. archeyi posses a conical tail, females of C. leytensis sp. nov. have a rounded posterior end supporting a flexible filament.

  1. Ultrastructural immunogold localization of major sperm protein (MSP) in spermatogenic cells of the nematode Acrobeles complexus (Nematoda, Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushin, Vladimir V; Claeys, Myriam; Bert, Wim

    2016-10-01

    The nematode spermatozoa represent a highly modified (aberrant) type of male gametes that lack a flagellum but for which the process of spermatogenesis culminates in the production of a crawling spermatozoon on the basis of the cytoskeletal component known as "major sperm protein", or MSP. MSP is also known as an important hormone triggering oocyte maturation and ovulation in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where this protein was first identified. However, direct evidence of MSP localization and of its fate in nematode spermatogenic cells is rare. In this study, the spermatogenesis and sperm structure in the rhabditid nematode Acrobeles complexus (Rhabditida: Tylenchina: Cephalobomorpha: Cephaloboidea: Cephalobidae) has been examined with electron microscopy. Morphological observations were followed by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation which allows post-embedding immunogold localization of MSP in all stages of sperm development using antibodies raised for MSP of C. elegans. In spermatocytes, synthetic activity results in the development of specific cellular components, fibrous bodies (FB) and membranous organelles (MO), which appear as FB-MO complexes where the filamentous matter of FB has been MSP-labeled. The spermatids subdivide into a residual body with superfluous cytoplasm, and a main cell body which contains nucleus, mitochondria and FB-MO complexes. These complexes dissociate into individual components, MO and FB, with the MSP being localized in FB. Immature spermatozoa from testes are opaque cells where a centrally located nucleus is surrounded by mitochondria, MO and FB clustered together, the MSP still being localized only in FB. Cytoplasm of mature spermatozoa from spermatheca is segregated into external pseudopods lacking organelles and a central cluster of mitochondria with intact MO surrounding the central nucleus. The FB ultimately disappear, and the MSP labeling becomes concentrated in the filamentous content of pseudopods and cytoplasm of the main cell body. Although the spermatogenesis and sperm structure of A. complexus is similar to that of many other rhabditid nematodes, their intact MO makes the morphology of the mature spermatozoa distinct from the "rhabditid pattern" and may be considered as a synapomorphy. The MSP localization in spermatogenic cells of A. complexus also follows the "rhabditid pattern" described in C. elegans and Ascaris spp. Our results and techniques of MSP labeling of A. complexus spermatogeneous cells reveal new possibilities to elucidate different research questions on MSP localization in nematodes related to C. elegans. Furthermore, the laboratory-cultured A. complexus strains can be used as a new and fascinating model to study MO and MSP functions in nematode reproduction.

  2. Spinitectus mexicanus n. sp. (Nematoda : Cystidicolidae) from the intestine of the freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2000-02-01

    A new nematode, Spinitectus mexicanus n. sp., is described on the basis of the specimens recovered from the intestine of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel) (Poeciliidae, Cyprinodontiformes) from 3 rivers of the Papaloapan River basin (type locality La Basura River), Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz State, Mexico. It differs from its congeners mainly in having the spination of the cuticle separated into 4 longitudinal sectors, each with posteriorly diminishing numbers of larger spines at the anterior part of body. It is the first species of Spinitectus described from a poeciliid fish and the second reported from freshwater fishes in Mexico. PMID:10701569

  3. Systematic position of some nearctic Heligmosomoidea (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) from the U.S. National Parasite collection and their description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Digiani, Maria Celina

    2005-08-01

    The systematic position of some heligmosomoid nematodes from rodents, deposited in the U.S. National Parasite Collection (USNPC), is revised, mainly through the study of their synlophe, which in all cases was unknown or insufficiently described. The material was registered as different species of Longistriata Schulz, 1926, a genus whose representatives are only parasitic in Holarctic insectivores. Longistriata norvegica Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Rattus sp. becomes a synonym of Hassalstrongylus aduncus (Chandler, 1932). Specimens registered as Longistriata dalrymplei Dikmans, 1935, from Ondatra zibethicus, are confirmed to belong to Carolinensis (Travassos, 1937). Specimens registered as Longistriata noviberiae Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus alacer, were found to belong to Vexillata, and Vexillata noviberiae n. comb. is here proposed. This is the first record of a species of Vexillata in a lagomorph. Other specimens registered as Longistriata norvegica, parasitic in Geomys floridanus austrinus, were also found to be an undescribed species of Vexillata (Hall, 1916), which is named Vexillata chitwoodi n. sp. This is similar to Vexillata chabaudi Yoyotte-Vado, 1972, Vexillata petteri Durette-Desset, 1970, Vexillata scorzai Guerrero, 1984 and Vexillata tejerai Guerrero, 1984, all having the same number of cuticular ridges (4 dorsal, 5 ventral) and the division of the dorsal ray at its apex. The most related species is V. chabaudi, which is differentiated from the new species by rays 4 not curved distally, by thick rays 8, and by a dorsal ray enlarged at the level of the arising of rays 8. PMID:17089761

  4. Ecotoxicological assessment of aquatic sediments with Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) -- A method for testing liquid medium and whole-sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traunspurger, W.; Haitzer, M.; Hoess, S.; Beier, S. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.; Ahlf, W. [TU Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Steinberg, C. [Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    The authors present a method using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess toxicity in liquid medium and whole-sediment setups. Test duration is 72 h; endpoints are body length, number of eggs inside worms, percentage of gravid worms, and number of offspring per worm. The effect of CdCl{sub 2} on C. elegans in liquid-phase exposures is described as an example. Results from a field study with cadmium polluted sediments from the River Elbe (Germany) suggest that nematodes may be useful organisms in assessing toxicity of sediments in the whole phase.

  5. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-09-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules produced by parasitic nematodes, including larval Anisakis simplex, a parasite occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The effects of these substances on host physiology have not been fully described. The present work elucidates the influence of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in immunomodulation. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase/lipase, valine and cysteine arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and α-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. In addition, based on the notion that A. simplex ES products may have an immune-depressive effect (by minimizing immune gene expression) it could also be suggested that worm enzymes directly target host immune molecules which would add to a decreased host immune response and increased worm survival.

  6. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  7. Species discovery and diversity in Lobocriconema (Criconematidae: Nematoda) and related plant-parasitic nematodes from North American ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Olson, S; Lodema, M; Matczyszyn, J; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2016-03-03

    There are many nematode species that, following formal description, are seldom mentioned again in the scientific literature. Lobocriconema thornei and L. incrassatum are two such species, described from North American forests, respectively 37 and 49 years ago. In the course of a 3-year nematode biodiversity survey of North American ecoregions, specimens resembling Lobocriconema species appeared in soil samples from both grassland and forested sites. Using a combination of molecular and morphological analyses, together with a set of species delimitation approaches, we have expanded the known range of these species, added to the species descriptions, and discovered a related group of species that form a monophyletic group with the two described species. In this study, 148 specimens potentially belonging to the genus Lobocriconema were isolated from soil, individually measured, digitally imaged, and DNA barcoded using a 721 bp region of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI). One-third of the specimens were also analyzed using amplified DNA from the 3' region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18SrDNA) and the adjacent first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Eighteen mitochondrial haplotype groups, falling into four major clades, were identified by well-supported nodes in Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and recognized as distinct lineages by species delimitation metrics. Discriminant function analysis of a set of morphological characters indicated that the major clades in the dataset possessed a strong morphological signal that decreased in comparisons of haplotype groups within clades. Evidence of biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns was apparent in the dataset. COI haplotype diversity was high in the southern Appalachian Mountains and Gulf Coast states and lessened in northern temperate forests. Lobocriconema distribution suggests the existence of phylogeographic patterns associated with recolonization of formerly glaciated regions by eastern deciduous forest, but definitive glacial refugia for this group of plant parasitic nematodes have yet to be identified. Unlike agricultural pest species of plant-parasitic nematodes, there is little evidence of long-distance dispersal in Lobocriconema as revealed by haplotype distribution. Most haplotype groups were characterized by low levels of intragroup genetic variation and large genetic distances between haplotype groups. The localization of nematode haplotypes together with their characteristic plant communities could provide insight into the historical formation of these belowground biotic communities.

  8. Mitochondrial genomes of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. incognita (Nematoda: Tylenchina): comparative analysis, gene order and phylogenetic relationships with other nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys-Pereira, Danny A; Elling, Axel A

    2014-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important plant pathogens. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the root-knot nematodes, M. chitwoodi and M. incognita were sequenced. PCR analyses suggest that both mt genomes are circular, with an estimated size of 19.7 and 18.6-19.1kb, respectively. The mt genomes each contain a large non-coding region with tandem repeats and the control region. The mt gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita is unlike that of other nematodes. Sequence alignments of the two Meloidogyne mt genomes showed three translocations; two in transfer RNAs and one in cox2. Compared with other nematode mt genomes, the gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita was most similar to Pratylenchus vulnus. Phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference) were conducted using 78 complete mt genomes of diverse nematode species. Analyses based on nucleotides and amino acids of the 12 protein-coding mt genes showed strong support for the monophyly of class Chromadorea, but only amino acid-based analyses supported the monophyly of class Enoplea. The suborder Spirurina was not monophyletic in any of the phylogenetic analyses, contradicting the Clade III model, which groups Ascaridomorpha, Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Importantly, comparisons of mt gene arrangement and tree-based methods placed Meloidogyne as sister taxa of Pratylenchus, a migratory plant endoparasitic nematode, and not with the sedentary endoparasitic Heterodera. Thus, comparative analyses of mt genomes suggest that sedentary endoparasitism in Meloidogyne and Heterodera is based on convergent evolution.

  9. Some nematodes of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitising amphibians in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; du Preez, Louis H; Junker, Kerstin

    2015-06-04

    Based on material collected from Rhinella cf. margaritifera (Laurenti) and Rhi. marina (Linnaeus) (Anura: Bufonidae) during a parasite survey of the herpetofauna of French Guiana, updated descriptions of Rhabdias androgyna Kloss, 1971 and R. fuelleborni Travassos, 1926 are presented. In addition to metrical data, which may overlap in closely related species, emphasis is placed on qualitative characters. Rhabdias androgyna is distinguished by the unique presence of an outer and inner cephalic cuticular inflation, a shoulder-like broadening of the body at the anterior end, a wide and shallow buccal capsule (average buccal ratio 0.36) with serrated lumen in apical view, a prominent anterior dilatation of the oesophagus, and the presence of an additional posterior dilatation anterior to the oesophageal bulb. Characters that may help to differentiate R. fuelleborni from closely related species parasitising the Rhi. marina species group are the presence of six relatively uniform lips, and the division of the buccal capsule into an anterior and posterior segment, with differently structured walls. Both the presence of R. androgyna and R. fuelleborni in French Guiana constitute new geographic records. A single specimen of Rhabdias sp. is described from Pristimantis chiastonotus (Lynch et Hoegmood) (Anura: Craugastoridae). This species differs from all its Neotropical congeners by the distinct globular swelling of its head, similar to that seen in only one Palaearctic and one Afrotropical Rhabdias species. A list of species of Rhabdias parasitising amphibians in the Netropical Realm is also provided.

  10. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Comesomatidae (Nematoda: Araeolaimida) from coast of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-24

    Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given.

  11. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  12. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from olive orchards in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Francesca; Lazarova, Stela; Troccoli, Alberto; Vovlas, Nicola; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    A population of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 originating from olive orchards in Brindisi, Italy and containing both adults and all juvenile stages, is described and illustrated. The first juvenile stage is reported for the first time. Molecular characterisation of this species, using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rDNA and ITS region, was carried out. PCR-RFLP analyses of the ribosomal gene regions determined species-specific patterns that clearly differentiate X. macroacanthum. Sequences of the D2-D3 domains and the partial 18S-ITS1 rRNA genes were analysed using several methods for inferring phylogeny to reconstruct the relationships between X. macroacanthum and other Xiphinema species.

  13. Phylogenetic Relationships and Genetic Variation in Longidorus and Xiphinema Species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) Using ITS1 Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Szalanski, Allen L; Robbins, R T

    2004-03-01

    Genetic analyses using DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 were conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation within and among Longidorus and Xiphinema species. DNA sequences were obtained from samples collected from Arkansas, California and Australia as well as 4 Xiphinema DNA sequences from GenBank. The sequences of the ITS1 region including the 3' end of the 18S rDNA gene and the 5' end of the 5.8S rDNA gene ranged from 1020 bp to 1244 bp for the 9 Longidorus species, and from 870 bp to 1354 bp for the 7 Xiphinema species. Nucleotide frequencies were: A = 25.5%, C = 21.0%, G = 26.4%, and T = 27.1%. Genetic variation between the two genera had a maximum divergence of 38.6% between X. chambersi and L. crassus. Genetic variation among Xiphinema species ranged from 3.8% between X. diversicaudatum and X. bakeri to 29.9% between X. chambersi and X. italiae. Within Longidorus, genetic variation ranged from 8.9% between L. crassus and L. grandis to 32.4% between L. fragilis and L. diadecturus. Intraspecific genetic variation in X. americanum sensu lato ranged from 0.3% to 1.9%, while genetic variation in L. diadecturus had 0.8% and L. biformis ranged from 0.6% to 10.9%. Identical sequences were obtained between the two populations of L. grandis, and between the two populations of X. bakeri. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS1 DNA sequence data were conducted on each genus separately using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Among the Longidorus taxa, 4 subgroups are supported: L. grandis, L. crassus, and L. elongatus are in one cluster; L. biformis and L. paralongicaudatus are in a second cluster; L. fragilis and L. breviannulatus are in a third cluster; and L. diadecturus is in a fourth cluster. Among the Xiphinema taxa, 3 subgroups are supported: X. americanum with X. chambersi, X. bakeri with X. diversicaudatum, and X. italiae and X. vuittenezi forming a sister group with X. index. The relationships observed in this study correspond to previous genera and species defined by morphology.

  14. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  15. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec František

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae, from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm, broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  16. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

  17. Morphological variability and molecular identification of Uncinaria spp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from grizzly and black bears: new species or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; van Paridon, Bradley; Pagan, Christopher A; Wasmuth, James D; Tizzani, Paolo; Duignan, Pádraig J; Nadler, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    The hookworms Uncinaria rauschi Olsen, 1968 and Uncinaria yukonensis ( Wolfgang, 1956 ) were formally described from grizzly ( Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears ( Ursus americanus ) of North America. We analyzed the intestinal tracts of 4 grizzly and 9 black bears from Alberta and British Columbia, Canada and isolated Uncinaria specimens with anatomical traits never previously documented. We applied morphological and molecular techniques to investigate the taxonomy and phylogeny of these Uncinaria parasites. The morphological analysis supported polymorphism at the vulvar region for females of both U. rauschi and U. yukonensis. The hypothesis of morphological plasticity for U. rauschi and U. yukonensis was confirmed by genetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Two distinct genotypes were identified, differing at 5 fixed sites for ITS-1 (432 base pairs [bp]) and 7 for ITS-2 (274 bp). Morphometric data for U. rauschi revealed host-related size differences: adult U. rauschi were significantly larger in black bears than in grizzly bears. Interpretation of these results, considering the historical biogeography of North American bears, suggests a relatively recent host-switching event of U. rauschi from black bears to grizzly bears which likely occurred after the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Phylogenetic maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of the concatenated ITS-1 and ITS-2 datasets strongly supported monophyly of U. rauschi and U. yukonensis and their close relationship with Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884), the latter a parasite primarily of canids and felids. Relationships among species within this group, although resolved by ML, were unsupported by MP and bootstrap resampling. The clade of U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala was recovered as sister to the clade represented by Uncinaria spp. from otariid pinnipeds. These results support the absence of strict host-parasite co-phylogeny for Uncinaria spp. and their carnivore hosts. Phylogenetic relationships among Uncinaria spp. provided a framework to develop the hypothesis of similar transmission patterns for the closely related U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala. PMID:25548982

  18. Description of Abursanema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Iran and its phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Ali; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Pedram, Majid; Siddiqi, Mohammad Rafiq; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Abursanema iranicum n. gen., n. sp. is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The new genus is characterized by its smooth outer and annulated inner cuticle, having two incisures in lateral field, lacking stylet knobs, having pyriform terminal bulb with stem-like extension projecting into the intestine and lacking of bursa in male. The new genus belongs to the family Paurodontidae. It most closely resembles the genera Paurodontoides and Paurodontus, but has affinities based on male characters with Gymnotylenchus of the family Neotylenchidae too. From Paurodontoides, it differs by the absence of stylet knobs and having six sectors in the head framework. Compared to Paurodontus, the new genus differs by the absence of stylet knobs, structure of the pharynx and absence of a bursa in male. It differs from Gymnotylenchus mainly by lacking of stylet knobs, presence of a basal pharyngeal bulb with an extension into the intestine and in the structure of the spicules. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new genus using 706 bp partial sequences of the 28S rDNA D2/D3 segment revealed it forming a clade with two species of Sphaerularia in both Bayesian Inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses with 1.00 Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) and 0.96 bootstrap support values (BS). Using 942 bp partial sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the new genus formed a clade with a species of Deladenus with 0.86 BPP and 0.62 BS in BI and ML methods, respectively. With both BI and ML methods, this clade forms a larger highly supported clade with two species of Sphaerularia. PMID:24990048

  19. Parasites of South African wildlife. XVIII. Cooperia pigachei n. sp. (Nematoda : Cooperiidae from the mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boomker

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cooperia, for which the name Cooperia pigachei n. sp. is proposed, was recovered from a mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, from the Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve, Free State Province, and is described and illustrated. It is close to Cooperia neitzi Mönnig, 1932 and the South African race of Cooperia rotundispiculum in having more than 14 longitudinal cuticular ridges and in that the lateral cervical synlophe is of the closed type. The new species differs from all the other species of the genus in that the lateral branches of the dorsal ray are large and T-shaped. The spicules are robust, over 0.3 mm long and have large, curved shoes on their tips.

  20. Small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus in Iran: first evidence for the infection with Spirura sp. (Nematoda: Spiruridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.12980/JCLM.2.2014APJTB-2014-0162

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the infection with gastrointestinal helminthes in small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus and its epidemiologic aspects in Iran. Methods: During June 2012 to July 2013, a total of 13 small Indian mongooses were caught using live trap boxes in an area located near Shiraz, southern of Iran. Captured animals were euthanized, eviscerated and parts of the alimentary tract were inspected. Two mongooses showed a nematode attached to the mucosa of the stomach. Results: According to the main morphological characteristics, the specimens belonged to the genus Spirura (Blanchard 1849. This study represents the first evidences of the infection with Spirura sp. in Herpestes auropunctatus in the world. Conclusions: Because the animal can invade and appear in the habitat of the other animal populations including omnivores or carnivores, it seems that mongooses in this area could have a high potential for the transmission of the infection with the spirurid nematodes to a large range of animals. Thus, besides the necessity of conducting the controlling programs, autochthonous dogs, cats and rodents should be included in more epidemiological studies in this region.

  1. Morphology and molecular analysis of Paratylenchus nanjingensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from the rhizosphere soil of Pinus massoniana in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Xie, H; Li, Y; Wu, W J; Xu, C L

    2016-03-01

    Paratylenchus nanjingensis n. sp. was obtained from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. This new species is characterized by having a female with a slender, vermiform body (243-279 μm), head with distinct submedian lobes, slender and long stylet (64-68 μm), anchor-shaped stylet knobs, excretory pore anterior to the level of the stylet knobs, small lateral vulval flaps and lateral field with four lines; and male with more distinct body annuli, stylet lacking and pharynx degenerate. The internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA) gene of the new species were amplified and sequenced in this study. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species with other Paratylenchus species using the ITS rRNA gene sequences are given. PMID:26821707

  2. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria maricaensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Capillariidae and remarks on the helminthological fauna of Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Lacertilia, Iguanidae

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    H. de Oliveira Rodrigues

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyicapillaria maricaensis n. sp. is described from the small intestine of the lizard, Liolaemus lutzae Meterns, 1938, collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro Brazil. The author compares the new species with Capillaria crotaliRudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1915, Capillaria freitaslenti Araujo & Gandra, 1941, Pseudocapillaria (Pseudocapillaria amarali (Freitas & Lent, 1934 Moravec, 1952, Pseudocapillaria (Pseudocapillaria cezarpintoi (Freitas & Lent, 1934Moravec, 1952 and Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria murinae (travassos, 1914 Moravec, 1952 previously reported from lizards in Brazil. The nematode Thelandros sceleratus Travassos, 1923 and the trematode paradistomum parvissimum (Travassos, 1918 Travassos, 1919 are for the first time reported from this same host.

  3. Two species of Acuaria Bremser, 1811 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

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    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Two species of Acuaria were collected from passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proenca, 1945, was collected from Myiarchus nuttingi. Specimens from Costa Rica differ from the original description by having a spicule ratio of 1:1.5-1.7 versus 1:1.43-1.47, as well as shorter spicules and female tails. Acuaria wangi n. sp. in Hylophylax naevioides and Gymnopithys leucaspis resembles A. alii, A. crami, A. cyanocitta, A. minuta, A. pattoni, and A. cissae by having cordons extending posteriorly to the anterior portion of the glandular esophagus. The new species differs from A. alii by having 4 pairs of preanal and 6 pairs of postanal papillae rather than 2 pairs of preanal and 7 pairs of postanal papillae, a shorter left spicule, a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.1 and in having spicules with blunt rather than pointed distal ends. Acuaria crami and A. minuta differ from A. wangi by having 7 pairs of postanal papillae and spicule ratios of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.3 in A. crami and 1:1.1 in A. minuta; in addition, A. minuta has spatulate-shaped spicules and a tricupsid-shaped distal end of the right spicule. The new species can be distinguished from A. pattoni by having a longer left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1 and from A. cissae by having a shorter left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:2.5-2.7. Acuaria wangi is similar to A. cyanocitta, which has similarly shaped spicules, including a very pointed distal end of the left spicule, but differs in body length, in having shorter spicules, in the arrangement of postanal papillae, and in having smaller eggs.

  4. Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasira, K; Shahina, F; Firoza, K

    2013-06-01

    Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetusChitambar, 1991; D. leptosomaGagarin, 2001; D. ipiniMassey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) caniiBedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialisBedding, 1974; D. nevexiiBedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximusBedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyiBedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicolaBedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoniBedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females.

  5. Rhabdochona kharani sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 from Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan.

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    Asmatullah, Kakar; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Kakar, Juma Khan

    2006-01-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona kharani sp. nov., has been isolated from the intestine, stomach and swim bladder of the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 (Fam. Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from spring water at Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan. The new species is characterized largely by the presence of eight anterior teeth in the prostom, inconspicuous deirids, by the shape and length of unequal spicules (0.08 - 0.09 and 2.9 - 3.1 mm), and by 17-18 pairs of caudal papillae including 6-7 postanal, one adanal, and 10 -11 preanal. Other characteristics include a pointed tail tip, non filamented eggs, a bulbous, voluminous, vaginal complex that is directed backward, and a vulva that is post-equatorial with a triangular large anterior lip and a smaller posterior lip.

  6. Free-living nematode species (Nematoda) dwelling in hydrothermal sites of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge

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    Tchesunov, Alexei V.

    2015-12-01

    Morphological descriptions of seven free-living nematode species from hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are presented. Four of them are new for science: Paracanthonchus olgae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Cyatholaimidae), Prochromadora helenae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Chromadoridae), Prochaetosoma ventriverruca sp. n. (Desmodorida, Draconematidae) and Leptolaimus hydrothermalis sp. n. (Plectida, Leptolaimidae). Two species have been previously recorded in hydrothermal habitats, and one species is recorded for the first time in such an environment. Oncholaimus scanicus (Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) was formerly known from only the type locality in non-hydrothermal shallow milieu of the Norway Sea. O. scanicus is a very abundant species in Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Lost City hydrothermal sites, and population of the last locality differs from other two in some morphometric characteristics. Desmodora marci (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) was previously known from other remote deep-sea hydrothermal localities in south-western and north-eastern Pacific. Halomonhystera vandoverae (Monhysterida, Monhysteridae) was described and repeatedly found in mass in Snake Pit hydrothermal site. The whole hydrothermal nematode assemblages are featured by low diversity in comparison with either shelf or deep-sea non-hydrothermal communities. The nematode species list of the Atlantic hydrothermal vents consists of representatives of common shallow-water genera; the new species are also related to some shelf species. On the average, the hydrothermal species differ from those of slope and abyssal plains of comparable depths by larger sizes, diversity of buccal structures, presence of food content in the gut and ripe eggs in uteri.

  7. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  8. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  9. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2009-10-01

    The present study used experimental infections to compare the life cycles and life histories of 6 Rhabdias spp. infecting snakes and anurans. Free-living development of anuran lungworms was primarily limited to heterogonic reproduction, and females utilized matricidal endotoky exclusively, whereas snake lungworms primarily reproduced homogonically and, when heterogonic reproduction occurred, females used a combination of releasing eggs and matricidal endotoky. Infective snake lungworms survived for longer periods in fresh water compared to anuran worms. Infective anuran lungworms penetrated into the skin of frogs and toads; few infections resulted from per os infections. In contrast, snake lungworms were unable to penetrate skin; instead, infective juveniles penetrated into snake esophageal tissue during per os infections. Despite separate points of entry, anuran and snake lungworms both migrated and developed in the fascia, eventually penetrating into the body cavity of the host. Worms molted to adulthood inside the body cavity and subsequently penetrated into the host's lungs, where they fed on blood while becoming gravid. Adult lungworm survival varied among lungworm species, but, in general, snake lungworms were longer lived than anuran worms. Anuran lungworms were poorly suited for transmission via transport hosts, whereas snake lungworms were consistently capable of establishing infections using transport hosts. Overall, these observations suggest that snake and anuran lungworms have discrepant life cycles and life history strategies. PMID:19348516

  10. Filariopsis barretoi (travassos, 1921 (Nematoda: metastrongyloidea lung parasite of primates from South America - taxonomy, synonyms and pathology

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    A. Arandas Rego

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes and fragments of lungs from Cebus ssp., Callithrix jacchus (l. and Saimiri sciureus (L. were studied. The worms from Cebus and Callithrix must be called Filariopsis barretoi (Travassos, 1921. The names Filariopsis arator Chandler, 1931 and Filaroides cebi Gebauer, 1933 are synonymized to F. barretoi. The status of Filariopsis gordius (Travassos, 1921 remains uncertain. The pathology is described. The parasites are located in the pulmonary paranchyma, near the pleural surface, constituting nodules.Foram estudados os nematóides e fragmentos do pulmão, coletados de Cebus spp., Callithrix jacchus (L. e Saimiri sciureus (L.. O estudo morfológico, principalmente dos espículos de Cebus spp. e de Callithrix juacchus, mostrou tratar-se de uma só espécie, Filariopsis barretoi (Travassos, 1921; os nomes F. arator e F. cebi são sinônimos. É dada uma descrição pormenorizada das lesões provocadas por estes vermes no parênquima pulmonar dos macacos.

  11. Three new species of the genus Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasites of Enyalius spp. (Iguanidae from Brazil

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    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917 belonging to the sub-family Molineinae are described from the stomach and/or the small intestine of Enyalius spp. from Brazil. They belong to group 6 of Ben Slimane, Chabaud & Durette- Desset (1996. In this group they share along with O. peruensis Ben Slimane, Verhaag & Durette-Desset, 1995, a parasite of Iguanidae from Peru the followings linked characters: (i a caudal bursa of type II; (ii cervical alae present; (iii undulated cuticular ridges. The Peruvian species differs from the Brasilian species by the absence of a strut in the cervical alae, by a small number of cuticular ridges at mid-body and by a spicular fork with a ramified inner twig. Oswaldocruzia fredi n. sp., a parasite of the stomach and the small intestine of Enyalius iheringii, mainly differs from the two other species by the absence of the oesophageal ventral cuticular ridges. Oswaldocruzia benslimanei n. sp., a parasite of the small intestine of Enyalius bilineatus, differs from Oswaldocruzia burseyi n. sp., a parasite of the stomach of Enyalius perditus, by the division of the fork at 23.4 % of spicule length (versus 32 %, and the length of the blade longer than the fork. Oswaldocruzia subauricularis sensu Freitas, 1955 nec Rudolphi, 1819 and O. mazzai sensu Vicente, 1981 nec Travassos, 1935 should be considered as species inquirendae.

  12. Further description of Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1917 (Nematoda: Cruzidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, F A O; Anjos, D H S; Menezes-Oliveira, A; Lanfredi, R M

    2009-04-01

    Species of Cruzia are parasites of the large intestine of marsupials, reptiles, amphibians, and mammalians. Cruzia tentaculata specimens were collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Colombia (new geographical record) and from Brazil and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of males and females by light microscopy corroborated most of the previous description and the ultrastructure by scanning electron microscopy evidence: the topography of the cuticle, deirids, amphids, phasmids in both sexes, a pair of papillae near the vulva opening, and the number and location of male caudal papillae, adding new features for species identification only observed by this technique. PMID:19130086

  13. A New Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Sea Rocket from Spanish Mediterranean Coastal Dunes: Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares Rius, J E; Vovlas, N; Troccoli, A; Liébanas, G; Landa, B B; Castillo, P

    2007-06-01

    High infection rates of European sea rocket feeder roots by an unknown root-knot nematode were found in a coastal dune soil at Cullera (Valencia) in central eastern Spain. Morphometry, esterase and malate dehydrogenase electrophoretic phenotypes and phylogenetic trees demonstrated that this nematode species differs clearly from other previously described root-knot nematodes. Studies of host-parasite relationships showed a typical susceptible reaction in naturally infected European sea rocket plants and in artificially inoculated tomato (cv. Roma) and chickpea (cv. UC 27) plants. The species is herein described and illustrated and named as Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. The new root-knot nematode can be distinguished from other Meloidogyne spp. by: (i) perineal pattern rounded-oval, formed of numerous fine dorsal and ventral cuticle striae and ridges, lateral fields clearly visible; (ii) female excretory pore at the level of stylet knobs, EP/ST ratio 1.6; (iii) second-stage juveniles with hemizonid located 1 to 2 annuli anteriorly to excretory pore and long, narrow, tapering tail; and (iv) males with lateral fields composed of four incisures anteriorly and posteriorly, while six distinct incisures are observed for large part at mid-body. Phylogenetic trees derived from distance and maximum parsimony analyses based on 18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and D2-D3 of 28S rDNA showed that M. dunensis n. sp. can be differentiated from all described root-knot nematode species, and it is clearly separated from other species with resemblance in morphology, such as M. duytsi, M. maritima, M. mayaguensis and M. minor.

  14. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms. PMID:17918364

  15. A new species of Paracapillaria (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from the intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura) from the Malayan Peninsula.

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    Moravec, Frantisek; Modrý, David; Jirků, Miloslav

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode, Paracapillaria malayensis n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the small intestine of the toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus imported from the Malayan Peninsula to the Czech Republic. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Paracapillaria spratti, mainly in the shape and structure of the spicular proximal end (with a lobular rim), smaller eggs (45-51 x 21-24 microm), longer spicule (336 microm), and the number (37-38) of stichocytes in gravid females; whereas P. spratti parasitizes frogs of the Microhylidae in Papua New Guinea, P. malayensis is a parasite of Bufonidae in the Malayan Peninsula. Other Paracapillaria spp. are parasites of fishes, birds, or mammals and they mostly differ from P. malayensis in the structure of eggs and some other morphological features. PMID:17918374

  16. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Strongyluris calotis (Nematoda: Ascaridida: Heterakidae) in South East and East Asian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Binh Thi; Ong, An Vinh; Luc, Pham Van; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Strongyluris calotis is a heterakid nematode in the large intestine of agamid lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae) from the Oriental Region. The standard light microscopic definition of the species counts the "caudal papillae" as 10 pairs on male worms. However, previous work from our group using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the heterakid from agamid lizards in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore revealed that this counting contained a pair of phasmids and that two pairs of postcloacal papillae were completely fused to form a pair of united papillae, thus resulting in "10 pairs." In the present study, we examined S. calotis specimens from the Emma Gray's forest lizard, Calotes emma (Agamidae), living in the plain forest at low altitude, and the Vietnam false bloodsucker, Pseudocalotes brevipes (Agamidae), living in the mountainous forest at high altitude in the northern part of Vietnam. Using SEM, the arrangement of caudal papillae in male worms from an Emma Gray's forest lizard was found to be comparable to classical S. calotis specimens from agamid lizards collected in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. However, male worms from Vietnam false bloodsuckers did not have a pair of united papillae but had 10 pairs of independent caudal papillae with a pair of phasmids. Molecular genetic analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of worms of the classical S. calotis morphotype from Japan and Singapore and two S. calotis morphotypes from Vietnam demonstrated absolutely identical nucleotide sequences of partial 18S rDNA (at least 1764 base pairs (bp)) and 5.8S rDNA (158 bp). However, intraspecific differences were detected in other regions of the rDNA, related to the geographical distribution of hosts regardless of morphotype: 97.8-98.5 % identity (443-446 bp/453 bp) in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region, 96.6-98.0 % identity (425-431 bp/440 bp) in the ITS-2 region, and 99.6-99.7 % identity (1149-1151 bp/1154 bp) in the 28S rDNA. Thus, in the future, taxonomic relationships of S. calotis distributed widely in the Oriental Region as well as other nominal Oriental Strongyluris spp., currently six in number, need to be extensively explored based on molecular genetic analyses in addition to intensive morphological characterization. PMID:27041339

  17. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

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    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  18. Lungworm (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from Małopolska region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Nosal, Paweł; Basiaga, Marta; Wajdzik, Marek; Skalska, Marta; Wyrobisz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. The post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (Cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (Dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (Ovis aries) (14) and cattle (Bos taurus) (18). Some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. The faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red deer (36) and moose (Alces alces) (10) were collected from the environment, while from sheep (10) and goat (Capra hircus) (10)--per rectum. Based on the obtained results the following values were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and intensity range. The post mortem examination did not reveal pulmonary nematodes neither in domestic nor in wild ungulates, however, the larvae of aforementioned parasites were often stated in the stool samples taken from the environment. All wild species, except fallow deer were infected. Consequently, six species of lungworms have been identified. The first stage larvae of Varestrongylus capreoli occurred in 11 samples of roe deer and Varestrongylus alces in one moose. The larvae of Elaphostrongylus cervi were found in 19 red deer and Varestrongylus sagittatus in 3. Furthermore, Elaphostrongylus alces larvae were noted in 6 moose. Within domestic ruminants only one sheep and two goats were infected by Muellerius capillaris. PMID:27262959

  19. Species discovery and diversity in Lobocriconema (Criconematidae: Nematoda) and related plant-parasitic nematodes from North American ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Olson, S; Lodema, M; Matczyszyn, J; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2016-01-01

    There are many nematode species that, following formal description, are seldom mentioned again in the scientific literature. Lobocriconema thornei and L. incrassatum are two such species, described from North American forests, respectively 37 and 49 years ago. In the course of a 3-year nematode biodiversity survey of North American ecoregions, specimens resembling Lobocriconema species appeared in soil samples from both grassland and forested sites. Using a combination of molecular and morphological analyses, together with a set of species delimitation approaches, we have expanded the known range of these species, added to the species descriptions, and discovered a related group of species that form a monophyletic group with the two described species. In this study, 148 specimens potentially belonging to the genus Lobocriconema were isolated from soil, individually measured, digitally imaged, and DNA barcoded using a 721 bp region of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI). One-third of the specimens were also analyzed using amplified DNA from the 3' region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18SrDNA) and the adjacent first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Eighteen mitochondrial haplotype groups, falling into four major clades, were identified by well-supported nodes in Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and recognized as distinct lineages by species delimitation metrics. Discriminant function analysis of a set of morphological characters indicated that the major clades in the dataset possessed a strong morphological signal that decreased in comparisons of haplotype groups within clades. Evidence of biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns was apparent in the dataset. COI haplotype diversity was high in the southern Appalachian Mountains and Gulf Coast states and lessened in northern temperate forests. Lobocriconema distribution suggests the existence of phylogeographic patterns associated with recolonization of formerly glaciated regions by eastern deciduous forest, but definitive glacial refugia for this group of plant parasitic nematodes have yet to be identified. Unlike agricultural pest species of plant-parasitic nematodes, there is little evidence of long-distance dispersal in Lobocriconema as revealed by haplotype distribution. Most haplotype groups were characterized by low levels of intragroup genetic variation and large genetic distances between haplotype groups. The localization of nematode haplotypes together with their characteristic plant communities could provide insight into the historical formation of these belowground biotic communities. PMID:27394307

  20. Two new species of the genus Dorylaimopsis Ditlevsen, 1918 (Nematoda: Adenophora, Comesomatidae) from the Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhinan, Zhang

    1992-03-01

    Two nematode species of the genus Dorylaimopsis (Family Comesometidae) from the Bohai Sea are described. Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi n. sp. similar to D. punctata Ditlevsen, 1918 from which it can be separated by the small size, short and simple spicules without ventral apophyses or joint line. Dorylaimopsis turneri n. sp. differs from the closest species Dorylaimopsis angelae (Inglis, 1967) by its higher values of de Man ratio ‘a’, much shorter spicules and higher ratio of gubernacular to spicules length. A key to species of the genus based on the key by Jensen (1979) is given.

  1. Two new species of the genus Aporcelinus Andrássy, 2009 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Duong; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Aporcelinus from Vietnamese natural habitats are studied, described and illustrated, including line drawings and light microscope (LM) pictures. Aporcelinus paramamillatus sp. n. is characterized by its 1.71-2.14 mm long body, lip region 21-22 μm broad, odontostyle 22-24 μm long at its ventral side, neck 451-503 μm long, uterus tripartite and 71-94 µm long, V = 53-54, tail conical with finely rounded tip, ending in a short peg-like terminus, occasionally slightly re-curved dorsad (24-34 μm, c = 50-77, c' = 0.6-0.9) and unknown male. Aporcelinus paraseychellensis sp. n. is distinguished by its 1.20-1.46 mm long body, lip region 16-18 μm broad, odontostyle 20 μm long at its ventral side, neck 354-368 μm long, uterus tripartite and 176-241 µm long, V = 52-54, tail conical with acute tip and hardly re-curved dorsad, spicules 62 μm long, and 12 regularly spaced ventromedian supplements lacking hiatus. PMID:27394757

  2. Paraphyletic genus Ditylenchus Filipjev (Nematoda, Tylenchida), corresponding to the D. triformis-group and the D. dipsaci-group scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuejing; Yu, Qing; Badiss, Ahmed; Zaidi, Mohsin A; Ekaterina Ponomareva; Hu, Yuegao; Ye, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Ditylenchus has been divided into 2 groups: the Ditylenchus triformis-group, and the Ditylenchus dipsaci-group based on morphological and biological characters. A total of 18 populations belong to 5 species of Ditylenchus was studied: Ditylenchus africanus, Ditylenchus destructor, Ditylenchus myceliophagus and dipsaci, Ditylenchus weischeri, the first 3 belong to the Ditylenchus triformis-group, the last 2 the Ditylenchus dipsaci-group. The species of Ditylenchus triformis-group were cultured on fungi, while the species from Ditylenchus dispaci-group cultured on excised roots of plant hosts in petri dish. DNA sequences of regions of the nuclear ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and the small subunit 18S were PCR amplified, sequenced and the phylogenetic analyses also including the sequences of the closely related species from the GenBank. The randomly amplified polymorphisms of genomic DNA (RAPD) were also generated. Two clusters or clades corresponding to the 2 groups were consistently observed with significant statistical support from the 3 datasets. The phylogenetic analysis also revealed that the genus is paraphyletic, separating the 2 groups by species of Anguina and Subanguina. PMID:27103870

  3. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  4. Intimate sex-biased relationships between flies and nematodes in the Fergusonina-Fergusobia mutualism (Diptera: Fergusoninidae; Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    All known species of Fergusonina flies (Fergusoninidae) participate in an obligate mutualism with Fergusobia nematode worms (Neotylenchidae). From dissections, it is believed that all adult and late-instar larval female flies carry nematodes internally, while male adults and late-instar larvae do no...

  5. Observation of Early Cleavage in Animal Development: A Simple Technique for Obtaining the Eggs of Rhabditis (Nematoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the advantages of using the readily available eggs of the nematode Rhabditis in studying the early cleavage stages of animal development. Discusses the identification and life history of Rhabditis, how to culture and examine the organism, the cleavage stages and cell lineage, and sources of visual aids. (JR)

  6. Description of Cryptaphelenchus iranicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) recovered from bark samples of Pinus nigra from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Taheri, Zahra Majd; Fang, Yiwu; Li, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Cryptaphelenchus iranicus n. sp., recovered from bark and wood samples of a weakened Pinus nigra in Kermanshah Province, western Iran, is described. The new species has females with body length of 250-330 µm and males 230-275 µm long, lip region set-off from body contour, 7-8 μm long stylet with small basal swellings, excretory pore located at 1.5-2.0 body diam. posterior to median bulb, post-vulval uterine sac short, 7-10 µm long and conical female posterior body end (tail) ending to a pointed tip. Males of the new species have seven (1+2+2+2) caudal papillae and a short mucro at tail tip. Based on morphological characters, the new species is close to C. cirrus, C. latus and C. leptocaudus. Phylogenetic analyses using the D2/D3 fragment of 28S rDNA show the new species forming a clade with other Cryptaphelenchus species with maximal (1.00) Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) in Bayesian inference and 100% bootstrap value (BS) in the maximum likelihood method. The Cryptaphelenchus clade forms a monophyletic group with members of subfamily Ektaphelenchinae. PMID:27470789

  7. Two known and one new species of Draconematidae and Epsilonematida (Nematoda, Desmodorida) from the White Sea, North Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, Maria A; Neretina, Tatjana V; Konovalova, Olga P; Tchesunov, Alexei V

    2016-01-01

    Morphological descriptions of three "walking nematode" species found for the first time in the White Sea are presented. Draconema ophicephalum (Claparède, 1863) (Draconematidae) and Epsilonema steineri Chitwood, 1935 (Epsilonematidae), both known from insufficient material and females only, are re-described and problems of their taxonomic identification as well as species compositions of respective genera are discussed. The new species Prochaetosoma marisalbi sp. n. (Draconematidae) differs from other Prochaetosoma species except P. longicapitatum (Allgén, 1935) in that the pharyngeal bulb lumen is not cuticularised, from P. longicapitatum by shape of body and rostrum, greater number of cephalic adhesive tubes, and from P. maertensi Decraemer, 1989 by having a relatively longer tail, fewer anterior adhesive tubes and longer spicules, besides lacking cuticular thickening in the pharyngeal bulb. Draconema hoonsooi, D. youngeouni, P.rochaetosoma beomseomense, P. brevicaudatum, P. byungilli, P. cracense, P. saheungi, P. sujungi, P. supseomense erected by Rho & Min (2011) are considered as invalid species while Prochaetosoma arcticum, P. lugubre and Epsilonema cygnoides are assumed as species inquirenda. From a phylogenetic tree based on the 18S rRNA gene, all three White Sea species adjoin to unidentified species of their respective genera. PMID:27395231

  8. Description of Pratylenchoides batatae n. sp. ( Nematoda: Pratylenchidae )%拟短体线虫属一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍升; 章淑玲

    2003-01-01

    甘薯拟短体线虫新种(Pratylenchoides batatae n.sp.)根据采自河北省卢龙县前双庙的甘薯根部及根际土壤中的一个拟短体线虫种群进行描述和作图.新种的主要鉴别特征是:唇区有5个唇环,侧区4条侧线并有网格纹,尾呈圆柱形、有24~26个体环,尾端圆、具粗纵纹.食道腺末端覆盖于肠背面,2个亚腹食道腺核均在背食道腺核之后,一个亚腹食道腺核位于食道-肠瓣门前的腹面、另一个位于食道-肠瓣门稍后.近似种为齿尾拟短体线虫(P.crenicauda),该种与新种的主要区别是:唇区3~4个唇环,侧区有6条侧线、无网纹,亚腹食道腺核一个在背食道腺核前、另一个在背食道腺核后.新种为两性种.模式标本保存于福建农林大学植物保护学院植物线虫学实验室.

  9. Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new genus and species of cyst nematode parasitic on corn (Zea mays)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species of cyst nematode, Vittatidera zeaphila, is described from Tennessee. The new genus is superficially similar to Cactodera but is distinguished from other cyst-forming taxa in having a persistent lateral field in females and cysts, persistent vulval lips covering a circumfenes...

  10. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

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    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  11. Larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the threatened freshwater fish Sandelia capensis (Anabantidae) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Franti Ek; van Rensburg, Candice Jansen; Van As, Liesl L

    2016-08-01

    Third-stage larvae of the nematode genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 (Contracaecum sp.) were, for the first time, recorded from the abdominal cavity of the threatened endemic freshwater fish Sandelia capensis (Cuvier) in South Africa. The larval morphology indicated that they belong to a species of which the adults are parasitic in fish-eating birds. Although the nematode seems to be a common parasite of S. capensis in the locality under study (prevalence 23%), the low intensity of infection recorded (1 to 4) and the generally known low pathogenicity of Contracaecum larvae in fish indicate that this parasite probably does not represent a danger to the local population of this threatened fish species. PMID:27503922

  12. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile. PMID:27491056

  13. A new species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Robles, María Del Rosario

    2016-09-01

    In Mexico, four species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 have been recorded in wild rodents belonging to the family Heteromyidae. In the present paper, we describe a new species based on specimens collected from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Heteromyidae: Heteromyinae) in the tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Trichuris silviae n. sp. can be differentiated from the congeners described in North and South American rodents by morphological and morphometric features, such as the possession of a wide spicular tube, a thicker proximal cloacal tube, a shorter distal cloacal tube and a cylindrical spicular sheath. This is the first description of a Trichuris spp. from heteromyid rodents in Mexico and the fourth in North America. Despite the broad distribution of Heteromys spp., few cases of Trichuris infection have been reported. Further studies are necessary to verify if the new species is present in other heteromyid rodents in order to increase our knowledge about its geographical and host distribution. PMID:27522370

  14. Two new species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from anuran amphibians in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago de; Filho, Heriberto Figueira da Silva; Nascimento Dos Santos, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Two new lung-dwelling nematode species of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 were discovered in Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará state, Brazil. Rhabdias galactonoti sp. n. was found in a dendrobatid frog Adelphobates galactonotus (Steindachner). The species is characterised by the regularly folded inner surface of the anterior part of the buccal capsule seen in apical view, flask-shaped oesophageal bulb and narrow, elongated tail. Rhabdias stenocephala sp. n. from two species of leptodactylid frogs, Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti) (type host) and L. paraensis (Heyer), is characterised by a narrow anterior end that is separated from the remaining body by a constriction. Both species possess six small but distinct lips, a cuticle that is inflated along the whole body, a doliiform buccal capsule separated into a longer anterior and a shallow, ring-shaped posterior part, lateral pores in the body cuticle and zones of spermatogenesis in the syngonia. Rhabdias galactonoti sp. n. is the first species of the genus found in Dendrobatidae; R. stenocephala sp. n. is the second species described from Leptodactylidae in eastern Amazonia. PMID:27189518

  15. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules. PMID:27615928

  16. Two new species of Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina: Heligmonellidae from the grey leaf-eared mouse Graomys griseoflavus (Sigmodontinae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digiani M.C.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Nippostrongylinae, Hassalstrongylus puntanus n. sp., and Stilestrongylus franciscanus n. sp. are described from the intestine of the grey leaf-eared mouse Graomys griseoflavus (Waterhouse, 1837 (Sigmodontinae from the Province of San Luis, Argentina. Hassalstrongylus puntanus n. sp. is distinguished from the most closely related species H. dollfusi (Diaz-Ungria, 1963, a parasite of Mus musculus from Venezuela by longer rays 2, shorter rays 4, proximal half of the dorsal ray non-enlarged and a non-retractile female tail. Stilestrongylus franciscanus n. sp. is distinguished from the most closely related species S. flavescens Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991, a parasite of Oryzomys flavescens from Argentina, by rays 2 and 3 diverging separately from common trunk of rays 2 to 6, and by right ray 3 arising from this trunk more distally than ray 6. Stilestrongylus azarai Durette-Desset & Sutton, 1985, a parasite of Akodon azarae from Buenos Aires, Argentina, was also found parasitizing G. griseoflavus, representing new host and locality records. Some additional morphological data for this species are also provided.

  17. Determinants and effects of sinus worm Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidae) infestation in invasive American mink Neovison vison in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddergott, M; Pohl, D; Steinbach, P; Salazar, L Cantú; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2016-09-01

    Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7-62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5-10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals' body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host's defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite. PMID:27160332

  18. The genus Discolaimus in Southern Africa. I. Introduction and redescription of D. krugeri Furstenberg & Heyns, 1966 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida

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    J. Heyns

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the literature leads to the conclusion that males are rare or absent in about half of the known species of Discolaimus and probably seldom functional, except in two species where spermathecae are present in the female reproductive system, viz. D. krugeri and D. levinae. The structure of the female gonads and the location of the oesophageal gland nuclei are discussed. A redescription of D. krugeri is given, based on material from several localities in South Africa as well as a single male from Namibia.

  19. Ultrastructural immunogold localization of major sperm protein (MSP) in spermatogenic cells of the nematode Acrobeles complexus (Nematoda, Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushin, Vladimir V; Claeys, Myriam; Bert, Wim

    2016-10-01

    The nematode spermatozoa represent a highly modified (aberrant) type of male gametes that lack a flagellum but for which the process of spermatogenesis culminates in the production of a crawling spermatozoon on the basis of the cytoskeletal component known as "major sperm protein", or MSP. MSP is also known as an important hormone triggering oocyte maturation and ovulation in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where this protein was first identified. However, direct evidence of MSP localization and of its fate in nematode spermatogenic cells is rare. In this study, the spermatogenesis and sperm structure in the rhabditid nematode Acrobeles complexus (Rhabditida: Tylenchina: Cephalobomorpha: Cephaloboidea: Cephalobidae) has been examined with electron microscopy. Morphological observations were followed by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation which allows post-embedding immunogold localization of MSP in all stages of sperm development using antibodies raised for MSP of C. elegans. In spermatocytes, synthetic activity results in the development of specific cellular components, fibrous bodies (FB) and membranous organelles (MO), which appear as FB-MO complexes where the filamentous matter of FB has been MSP-labeled. The spermatids subdivide into a residual body with superfluous cytoplasm, and a main cell body which contains nucleus, mitochondria and FB-MO complexes. These complexes dissociate into individual components, MO and FB, with the MSP being localized in FB. Immature spermatozoa from testes are opaque cells where a centrally located nucleus is surrounded by mitochondria, MO and FB clustered together, the MSP still being localized only in FB. Cytoplasm of mature spermatozoa from spermatheca is segregated into external pseudopods lacking organelles and a central cluster of mitochondria with intact MO surrounding the central nucleus. The FB ultimately disappear, and the MSP labeling becomes concentrated in the filamentous content of pseudopods and cytoplasm of the main cell body. Although the spermatogenesis and sperm structure of A. complexus is similar to that of many other rhabditid nematodes, their intact MO makes the morphology of the mature spermatozoa distinct from the "rhabditid pattern" and may be considered as a synapomorphy. The MSP localization in spermatogenic cells of A. complexus also follows the "rhabditid pattern" described in C. elegans and Ascaris spp. Our results and techniques of MSP labeling of A. complexus spermatogeneous cells reveal new possibilities to elucidate different research questions on MSP localization in nematodes related to C. elegans. Furthermore, the laboratory-cultured A. complexus strains can be used as a new and fascinating model to study MO and MSP functions in nematode reproduction. PMID:27468638

  20. Occurrence of Terranova larval types (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Australian marine fish with comments on their specific identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoterranovosis is a well-known human disease caused by anisakid larvae belonging to the genus Pseudoterranova. Human infection occurs after consuming infected fish. Hence the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in the flesh of the fish can cause serious losses and problems for the seafood, fishing and fisheries industries. The accurate identification of Pseudoterranova larvae in fish is important, but challenging because the larval stages of a number of different genera, including Pseudoterranova, Terranova and Pulchrascaris, look similar and cannot be differentiated from each other using morphological criteria, hence they are all referred to as Terranova larval type. Given that Terranova larval types in seafood are not necessarily Pseudoterranova and may not be dangerous, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Terranova larval types in Australian marine fish and to determine their specific identity. A total of 137 fish belonging to 45 species were examined. Terranova larval types were found in 13 species, some of which were popular edible fish in Australia. The sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2 respectively) of the Terranova larvae in the present study showed a high degree of similarity suggesting that they all belong to the same species. Due to the lack of a comparable sequence data of a well identified adult in the GenBank database the specific identity of Terranova larval type in the present study remains unknown. The sequence of the ITS regions of the Terranova larval type in the present study and those of Pseudoterranova spp. available in GenBank are significantly different, suggesting that larvae found in the present study do not belong to the genus Pseudoterranova, which is zoonotic. This study does not rule out the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in Australian fish as Pseudoterranova decipiens E has been reported in adult form from seals in Antarctica and it is known that they have seasonal presence in Australian southern coasts. The genetic distinction of Terranova larval type in the present study from Pseudoterranova spp. along with the presence of more species of elasmobranchs in Australian waters (definitive hosts of Terranova spp. and Pulchrascaris spp.) than seals (definitive hosts of Pseudoterranova spp.) suggest that Terranova larval type in the present study belong to either genus Terranova or Pulchrascaris, which are not known to cause disease in humans. The present study provides essential information that could be helpful to identify Australian Terranova larval types in future studies. Examination and characterisation of further specimens, especially adults of Terranova and Pulchrascaris, is necessary to fully elucidate the identity of these larvae. PMID:27014510

  1. Paroctonchus nanjiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Nematoda, Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) from intertidal sediments in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Benze; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-01-01

    Paroctonchus nanjiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is described from a sand beach in the China Nanji Islands Natural Reserve in the East China Sea. Paroctonchus nanjiensis is distinct in the family Oncholaimidae in having more than three teeth, a character found otherwise only in the monotypic genera Octonchus and Patagonema. The new genus and species differs from Octonchus and Patagonema in the number and pattern of teeth, bearing three large teeth with the left ventrosublateral one the largest plus about 27 small teeth distributed on the wall of buccal cavity. By contrast, Octonchus possesses one large tooth plus eight small teeth, while Patagonema has three large teeth with the right ventrosublateral one the largest plus 12 small teeth on three mandibular ridges. Moreover, Paroctonchus nanjiensis differs from Octonchus also in position of the amphidial aperture (located in the middle portion of buccal cavity vs. at the base of buccal cavity), and from Patagonema in the absence of a demanian system (vs. present) and the presence of two subventral rows of wart-like precloacal supplements (vs. a ventral row of papillate supplements). We provide an improved diagnosis for the subfamily Octonchinae, and discuss the evolution of teeth in the family Oncholaimidae. PMID:27395574

  2. Neoparaseuratum travasssosi, n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Quimperiidae, a new parasite from thorny catfish Pterododas granulosus in Brazil

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    F. Moravec

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nematode genus and species. Neoparaseuratum travassosi n. g., n. sp., is described from the intestine of the freshwater thorny catfish, Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, from the Paraná River, Brazil. This seuratoid nematode species represents a new genus of the family Quimperiidae, being characterized mainly by the presence of numerous narrow longitudinal bands of inflated cuticle extending along the cephalic region of the body, small deirids, postoesophageal position of the excretory pore, relatively short (0.159-0.303 mm, equal spicules and a gubernaculum, the absence of caudal alae and preanal sucker in the male, and by some other features.

  3. Alteraciones histológicas en el intestino delgado en Tupinambis rufescens (Sauria: Teiidae causadas por Diaphanocephalus galestus (Nematoda: Diaphanocephalidae

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    Spinelli, C. Mónica

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological changes in the gut of the lizard T. rufescens due to the parasitic worm D. galeatus are described here. Superficial damage of the mucosae due to mechanical action of bucal capsule, without involving deeper layers; their implication in the metabolism and immunity of the host.

  4. Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Tissues of Intermediate and Definitive Hosts Infected by Protostrongylid Lungworms (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms involved in tissue responses to larval and adult lungworms (Protostrongylidae) were respectively explored through experimental and natural infections in molluscan intermediate (Xeropicta candacharica) and ruminant definitive hosts (Ovis aries). Reaction to develo...

  5. Morphometric and molecular characterization of populations of Pratylenchus kumamotoensis and P. pseudocoffeae (Nematoda, Pratylenchidae) newly recorded in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Chun, Jae-Yong; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2016-01-01

    At least 70 species of root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp., have been identified worldwide, many of which are serious pests of various agricultural crop plants. In Korea, only 14 species have been recorded in vegetable and fruit fields. Here, we report two new records of root-lesion nematode species in Korea based on morphometric and molecular methods. Soil samples were collected from chrysanthemum cultivars in various regions. Morphometric diagnosis showed that two new records for Korea: Pratylenchus kumamotoensis in Chilgok County and Pratylenchus pseudocoffeae in Geumsan County. In addition, molecular diagnosis using the two sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the D2-D3 region of ribosomal DNA showed that these two species were most similar with those from Japan, Costa Rica and USA. The similarities of the ITS and D2-D3 sequences were 99.85 and 99.74%, respectively, for Pratylenchus kumamotoensis and 99.99 with Costa Rica populations and 99.86% with USA populations, respectively, for Pratylenchus pseudocoffeae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of two species in Korea. PMID:27408596

  6. Revision of the genus Campylaimus (Diplopeltidae, Nematoda) with description of four new species from the Sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Four new Campylaimus species are described from the deep-sea sediments of the Sea of Japan at depths of about 500‒3400 m. Campylaimus orientalis sp. nov. is characterized by having a body of moderate length, clearly annulated cuticle, a small rhomboid mouth opening which is displaced on the dorsal side of body, a gap between the unequal limbs of the amphid, prominent narrow longitudinal alae and cephalated spicules. Campylaimus minutus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body, very weak annulations, amphids with a short dorsal limb (25-44% of pharynx length) and a ventral limb completely fused with lateral alae of equal width; and lateral alae extending from the base of the amphid to the tail tip. Campylaimus amphidialis sp. nov. is characterized by having the combination of a very long amphidial fovea occupying nearly the entire length of the pharynx; and a well defined boundary between the ventral amphid limb and lateral alae. The distinctive feature of Campylaimus pulcher sp. nov. is the elongated loop-shaped amphid with nearly equal parallel limbs and prominent narrow longitudinal alae; and cephalated spicules without a gubernaculum. The diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus is emended and an identification key to species, based mainly on form and length of amphidial fovea, width of lateral alae, and copulatory apparatus is given. The genus Campylaimus now includes nineteen valid species. Two species are considered as species inquirendae, mainly because of incomplete descriptions. PMID:27394815

  7. New Record of Schistorophus cirripedesmi (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from a Bar-Tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Hyun; Lim, Junsik; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Heejong; Kim, Youngjun; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-06-01

    In July 2014, a nematode species, Schistorophus cirripedesmi Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, was recovered from a bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri that was stored in a -20˚C freezer in the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center. The bird was collected in 2012 from the coastal region of Pyeongtaek-si (City), Gyeonggi-do (Province) in the Republic of Korea, although the exact date is not clear. At necropsy, 9 nematodes were found in the gizzard of the bird. The parasites had 4 horn-like cephalic cuticular ornamentations. After morphometric comparison and morphological observations, including scanning electron microscopy, the nematodes were identified as S. cirripedesmi. This is the first description of a nematode species in a shorebird in Korea. This is also the first time this genus and species have been found in Korea. PMID:27417093

  8. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Aphelenchoides fuchsi sp. n. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) Isolated from Pinus eldarica in Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Ziaie, Mozhgan; Gu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Aphelenchoides fuchsi sp. n. is described and illustrated from bark and wood samples of a weakened Mondell pine in Kermanshah Province, western Iran. The new species has body length of 332 to 400 µm (females) and 365 to 395 µm (males). Lip region set off from body contour. The cuticle is weakly annulated, and there are four lines in the lateral field. The stylet is 8 to 10 μm long and has small basal swellings. The excretory pore is located ca one body diam. posterior to metacorpus valve or 51 to 62 μm from the head. The postuterine sac well developed (60-90 µm). Spicules are relatively short (15-16 μm in dorsal limb) with apex and rostrum rounded, well developed, and the end of the dorsal limb clearly curved ventrad like a hook. The male tail has usual three pairs of caudal papillae (2+2+2) and a well-developed mucro. The female tail is conical, terminating in a complicated step-like projection, usually with many tiny nodular protuberances. The new species belongs to the Group 2 sensu Shahina, category of Aphelenchoides species. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit (SSU) and partial large subunit (LSU) sequences of rRNA supported the morphological results. PMID:27168651

  9. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-01

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:27334826

  10. Nonparasitic Nematoda provide evidence for a linear response of functionally important soil biota to increasing livestock density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Christian; Dijkstra, Jan B.; Setälä, Heikki

    2005-07-01

    Soil acidity, nutrient availability and livestock density have a major influence on the belowground ecological community. As fast decomposition rates are due mostly to bacterial-based pathways and slower decomposition rates mostly to fungal-based pathways, it is helpful to condense empirical information in the so-called Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR). The NCR is shown to be a good indicator of efficiency in soil decomposition processes. We argue that in intensive agroecosystems, other fungivore members of the decomposer food web may outcompete the hyphal-feeding nematodes. We demonstrate how the NCR can be used to set ecological standards for sustainable use of the soil in agroecosystems. To summarize the interactions between the microbial resources and the decomposer nematofauna according to increasing land management, we propose the use of the fifth percentile as proxy for a sustainable environmental quality of grasslands on sandy soils, and the NCR mean as the upper threshold for low-stocked farms.

  11. Redescrição de Litomosoides brasiliensis Almeida, 1936 (Nematoda: Filariidae Parasito de Anoura caudifera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

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    Mourão Elizabeth D

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.

  12. Systematic position of some nearctic Heligmosomoidea (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) from the U.S. National Parasite collection and their description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Digiani, Maria Celina

    2005-08-01

    The systematic position of some heligmosomoid nematodes from rodents, deposited in the U.S. National Parasite Collection (USNPC), is revised, mainly through the study of their synlophe, which in all cases was unknown or insufficiently described. The material was registered as different species of Longistriata Schulz, 1926, a genus whose representatives are only parasitic in Holarctic insectivores. Longistriata norvegica Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Rattus sp. becomes a synonym of Hassalstrongylus aduncus (Chandler, 1932). Specimens registered as Longistriata dalrymplei Dikmans, 1935, from Ondatra zibethicus, are confirmed to belong to Carolinensis (Travassos, 1937). Specimens registered as Longistriata noviberiae Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus alacer, were found to belong to Vexillata, and Vexillata noviberiae n. comb. is here proposed. This is the first record of a species of Vexillata in a lagomorph. Other specimens registered as Longistriata norvegica, parasitic in Geomys floridanus austrinus, were also found to be an undescribed species of Vexillata (Hall, 1916), which is named Vexillata chitwoodi n. sp. This is similar to Vexillata chabaudi Yoyotte-Vado, 1972, Vexillata petteri Durette-Desset, 1970, Vexillata scorzai Guerrero, 1984 and Vexillata tejerai Guerrero, 1984, all having the same number of cuticular ridges (4 dorsal, 5 ventral) and the division of the dorsal ray at its apex. The most related species is V. chabaudi, which is differentiated from the new species by rays 4 not curved distally, by thick rays 8, and by a dorsal ray enlarged at the level of the arising of rays 8.

  13. Three new species of the genus Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasites of Enyalius spp. (Iguanidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Alves Dos Anjos, L; Vrcibradic, D

    2006-06-01

    Three new species of the genus Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917 belonging to the sub-family Molineinae are described from the stomach and/or the small intestine of Enyalius spp. from Brazil. They belong to group 6 of Ben Slimane, Chabaud & Durette-Desset (1996). In this group they share along with O. peruensis Ben Slimane, Verhaag & Durette-Desset, 1995, a parasite of Iguanidae from Peru the followings linked characters: (i) a caudal bursa of type II; (ii) cervical alae present; (iii) undulated cuticular ridges. The Peruvian species differs from the Brasilian species by the absence of a strut in the cervical alae, by a small number of cuticular ridges at mid-body and by a spicular fork with a ramified inner twig. Oswaldocruzio fredi n. sp., a parasite of the stomach and the small intestine of Enyalius iheringii, mainly differs from the two other species by the absence of the oesophageal ventral cuticular ridges. Oswaldocruzia benslimanei n. sp., a parasite of the small intestine of Enyalius bilineatus, differs from Oswoldocruzia burseyi n. sp., a parasite of the stomach of Enyalius perditus, by the division of the fork at 23.4 % of spicule length (versus 32 %), and the length of the blade longer than the fork. Oswoldocruzia subauricularis sensu Freitas, 1955 nec Rudolphi, 1819 and O. mazzai sensu Vicente, 1981 nec Travassos, 1935 should be considered as species inquirendae.

  14. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneva, Vlada K; Lazarova, Stela S; Luca, Francesca De; Brown, Derek J F

    2013-01-01

    A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1-8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106-129 μm); lip region wide (21.5-24 μm) rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 μm); normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2-4 adanal pairs and a row of 11-13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 μm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar witha group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, and having similar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (code A45) and short tail (code H1) are provided. PMID:24146553

  15. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

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    Vlada Peneva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L. from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 µm; lip region wide (21.5–24 µm rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 µm; normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 µm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar with a group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, andsimilar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (codeA45 and short tail (codeH1 are provided.

  16. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Phasmarhabditis huizhouensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae, a New Rhabditid Nematode from South China.

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    Ren-E Huang

    Full Text Available The genus Phasmarhabditis is an economically important group of rhabditid nematodes, to which the well-known slug-parasite P. hermaphrodita belongs. Despite the commercial use of Phasmarhabditis species as an attractive and promising approach for pest control, the taxonomy and systematics of this group of rhabditids are poorly understood, largely because of the lack of diagnostic morphological features and DNA sequences for distinguishing species or inferring phylogenetic relationship. During a nematode sampling effort for identifying free-living relatives of Caenorhabditis elegans in Huizhou City, Guangdong, China, a novel species belonging to the genus Phasmarhabditis was isolated from rotting leaves. Detailed morphology of the gonochoristic P. huizhouensis sp. nov. was described and illustrated. The adult female has a robust body, a relatively short and wide buccal capsule conjoined by a rhabditiform pharynx. Females are characterized by a short cupola-shaped tail end bearing a slender pointed tip, with the junction flanked by a pair of 'rod-like' phasmids. Males have an open peloderan bursa that is supported by 9 pairs of genital papillae and 1 terminal pair of phasmids. P. huizhouensis sp. nov. is morphologically very similar to the type species Phasmarhabditis papillosa but is distinguishable by its male caudal traits. The new species is readily differentiated from other taxa in the genus by its female tail shape. Molecular phylogenetic inferences based on small subunit (SSU and the D2-D3 domain of large subunit (LSU ribosomal DNA genes reveal that P. huizhouensis sp. nov. forms a unique branch in both phylogenies which is genetically related to P. hermaphrodita and other parasites such as Angiostoma spp. The host associations of P. huizhouensis sp. nov. and its ability to parasitize slugs are unknown.

  17. The spiculum: an additional useful character for the identification of Ditylenchus dipsaci and D. destructor (Nematoda: Anguinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, G.; Willemsen, W.N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The quarantine nematodes Ditylenchus dipsaci and D. destructor are often routinely identified by morphology. This study identifies optimal conditions for specimen preparation of samples in order that the spiculum shape is clearly observable without distortion and allows the 2 species to be distingui

  18. Ascaridia nymphii n. sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the alimentary tract of a severely emaciated dead cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsuo, Kayoko; Makino, Ikuko

    2015-11-01

    This report describes Ascaridia nymphii n. sp., a new species isolated from the alimentary tract of cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus in Japan. More than 63 nematodes were found in the formalin-fixed small intestine, ventriculus, proventriculus and crop of a 48-day-old young cockatiel that died after exhibiting severe emaciation. No nematode eggs were observed in the faecal examination performed while the cockatiel was alive, but Cryptosporidium oocysts were found. The intestinal mucosa was damaged considerably. Male worms had two alate spicules, well-developed precloacal sucker and a tail with ventrolateral caudal alae and mainly 11 pairs of papillae. Nuclear partial (813 bp) 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA) sequences obtained from two female samples were mutually identical. They respectively showed 99.1 and 98.6% identities to those from Ascaridia numidae and Ascaridia galli. Phylogenetic analysis using this locus indicated the present nematode as Ascaridia species. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (nad2) sequences obtained for four samples were mutually identical. They respectively showed 98.7, 85.7 and 82.2% identities with those from Ascaridia columbae, Ascaridia sp. and A. galli. Combining the morphological and sequencing data from two loci, the present nematode was identified as A. nymphii n. sp., which is closely related with A. columbae. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Ascaridia species in captive parrots in Japan. This study also identified the trachea and cloaca, like Cryptosporidium baileyi, as the possible location of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in avian hosts. PMID:26276643

  19. A novel secretory poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP from Trichinella spiralis (Nematoda.

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    Georgi Radoslavov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis is an unusual parasitic intracellular nematode causing dedifferentiation of the host myofiber. Trichinella proteomic analyses have identified proteins that act at the interface between the parasite and the host and are probably important for the infection and pathogenesis. Many parasitic proteins, including a number of metalloproteins are unique for the nematodes and trichinellids and therefore present good targets for future therapeutic developments. Furthermore, detailed information on such proteins and their function in the nematode organism would provide better understanding of the parasite-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report the identification, biochemical characterization and localization of a novel poly-cysteine and histidine-tailed metalloprotein (Ts-PCHTP. The native Ts-PCHTP was purified from T. spiralis muscle larvae that were isolated from infected rats as a model system. The sequence analysis showed no homology with other proteins. Two unique poly-cysteine domains were found in the amino acid sequence of Ts-PCHTP. This protein is also the first reported natural histidine tailed protein. It was suggested that Ts-PCHTP has metal binding properties. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF assay revealed that it binds significant concentrations of iron, nickel and zinc at protein:metal ratio of about 1:2. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Ts-PCHTP is localized in the cuticle and in all tissues of the larvae, but that it is not excreted outside the parasite. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that Ts-PCHTP is the first described member of a novel nematode poly-cysteine protein family and its function could be metal storage and/or transport. Since this protein family is unique for parasites from Superfamily Trichinelloidea its potential applications in diagnostics and treatment could be exploited in future.

  20. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Comesomatidae (Nematoda: Araeolaimida) from coast of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given. PMID:24614487

  1. A new hedrurid species (Nematoda) from galaxiid fishes in Patagonia (Argentina) and infection of amphipods as intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2010-02-01

    During a parasite survey of galaxiid fishes (Galaxiidae) from Patagonian Andean lakes, a new species of nematode, Hedruris suttonae n. sp. was collected from the stomach of the native Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) and G. platei (Steindachner). Specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy, especially head morphology, female caudal prehensile structure, and distribution of spines. The new species is distinguished by body and tail size, morphology and size of spicules, the arrangement of caudal papillae in the male, the female caudal hook, and size of eggs. Hyalella patagonica (Ortmann), a Neotropical species of Amphipoda, is reported as its natural intermediate host. Data regarding prevalence and mean intensity in the intermediate and definitive hosts are included. The diet and habitat of the hosts, the percentage of gravid females, the high values of prevalence, and mean intensity in galaxiid fishes, as well as the wide distribution of H. suttonae , collectively indicate that, in these oligotrophic Andean lakes, G. maculatus and G. platei are true definitive hosts of this nematode. PMID:19737026

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. PMID:25882968

  3. First report of Litomosa spp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea from malagasy bats; review of the genus and relationships between species

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    Martin C.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the filarial genus Litomosa in Malagasy bats is demonstrated by the finding of L. goodmani n. sp. from Miniopterus gleni and Litomosa sp. (male unknown from M. manavi, both in the Special Reserve of Ankarana. These materials are compared to the 22 Litomosa species, including two Indian species originally placed in the genus Litomosoides, L. fotedari (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb. and L. tewarii (Gupta & Trivedi, 1989 n. comb., and the new taxon L. seurati n. sp. (= L. beaucournui Bain, 1966 pro parte, type-host Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, Algeria, distinguished by the narrow area rugosa and the female caudal extremity with two conspicuous points, instead of several small ones. The Malagasy material belongs to a group of species close to the type, L. filaria, which have a male area rugosa composed of cuticular bosses and microfilariae folded within the sheath, and which are parasitic in Vespertilionidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae from Africa and Europe. The two Malagasy species resemble L. seurati n. sp., L. beshkovi Jancev, 1971, L. chiropterum Ortlepp, 1932, L. adami Petit, 1980 and L. ottavianii Lagrange et Bettini, 1948, with the enlarged third segment of the buccal capsule. L. goodmani n. sp. is distinct with its small size and female caudal extremity with a single point, which is suppressed in old mature worms; the females of Litomosa sp. have two conical points. Relationships among Litomosa species appear to be dependent upon both the chiropteran host groups and the geographical region.

  4. Morphological variability and molecular identification of Uncinaria spp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from grizzly and black bears: new species or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; van Paridon, Bradley; Pagan, Christopher A; Wasmuth, James D; Tizzani, Paolo; Duignan, Pádraig J; Nadler, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    The hookworms Uncinaria rauschi Olsen, 1968 and Uncinaria yukonensis ( Wolfgang, 1956 ) were formally described from grizzly ( Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears ( Ursus americanus ) of North America. We analyzed the intestinal tracts of 4 grizzly and 9 black bears from Alberta and British Columbia, Canada and isolated Uncinaria specimens with anatomical traits never previously documented. We applied morphological and molecular techniques to investigate the taxonomy and phylogeny of these Uncinaria parasites. The morphological analysis supported polymorphism at the vulvar region for females of both U. rauschi and U. yukonensis. The hypothesis of morphological plasticity for U. rauschi and U. yukonensis was confirmed by genetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Two distinct genotypes were identified, differing at 5 fixed sites for ITS-1 (432 base pairs [bp]) and 7 for ITS-2 (274 bp). Morphometric data for U. rauschi revealed host-related size differences: adult U. rauschi were significantly larger in black bears than in grizzly bears. Interpretation of these results, considering the historical biogeography of North American bears, suggests a relatively recent host-switching event of U. rauschi from black bears to grizzly bears which likely occurred after the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Phylogenetic maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of the concatenated ITS-1 and ITS-2 datasets strongly supported monophyly of U. rauschi and U. yukonensis and their close relationship with Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884), the latter a parasite primarily of canids and felids. Relationships among species within this group, although resolved by ML, were unsupported by MP and bootstrap resampling. The clade of U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala was recovered as sister to the clade represented by Uncinaria spp. from otariid pinnipeds. These results support the absence of strict host-parasite co-phylogeny for Uncinaria spp. and their carnivore hosts. Phylogenetic relationships among Uncinaria spp. provided a framework to develop the hypothesis of similar transmission patterns for the closely related U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala.

  5. Description of a new species of Paracrobeles Heyns, 1968 (Nematoda, Rhabditida, Cephalobidae from Kelso Dunes, Mojave National Preserve, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Boström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Paracrobeles, P. kelsodunensis sp. nov. is described from the Kelso Dunes area, Mojave National Preserve, southern California. Paracrobeles kelsodunensis sp. nov. is particularly characterised by a body length of 469–626 μm in females and 463–569 μm in males; lateral field with four incisures, extending almost to tail terminus; three pairs of asymmetrical lips, separated by U-shaped primary axils with two long guarding processes, each lip usually with four tines along its margin; three long labial probolae, deeply bifurcated, with slender prongs without tines; metastegostom with a strong anteriorly directed dorsal tooth; pharyngeal corpus anteriorly spindle-shaped, posteriorly elongate bulbous with dilated lumen; spermatheca 24–87 μm long; postvulval uterine sac 60–133 μm long; vulva in a sunken area; spicules 33–38 μm long; and male tail with a 5–8 μm long mucro. The generic diagnosis is emended on the basis of recently described species and a key to the species of Paracrobeles is provided.

  6. Simuliid blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae and ceratopogonid midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in northern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Shelley

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively non pathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.

  7. Current profile of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in communities along the Ituxi river, Lábrea municipality, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Py-Daniel, Victor; Barbosa, Ulysses Carvalho; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the current status of Mansonella ozzardi prevalence among the inhabitants of 12 communities along the Ituxi river, in Lábrea municipality, state of Amazonas. The prevalence of M. ozzardi was determined using thick blood smears obtained by digital punctures. M. ozzardi was found in 30.23% of the samples collected (39/129), with similar prevalence between genders (males: 30.30%; females: 30.16%); the highest prevalence was found in homemakers (45.45%) followed by farmers (38.77%). Among age groups, males and females older than 48 exhibited the highest rates. These results show a significative increase in the prevalence when compared to a epidemiological study made 26 years ago in the same area as well as a different epidemiological profile (gender and occupation) in relation to other areas in Amazonas. PMID:18660999

  8. Current profile of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in communities along the Ituxi river, Lábrea municipality, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe the current status of Mansonella ozzardi prevalence among the inhabitants of 12 communities along the Ituxi river, in Lábrea municipality, state of Amazonas. The prevalence of M. ozzardi was determined using thick blood smears obtained by digital punctures. M. ozzardi was found in 30.23% of the samples collected (39/129, with similar prevalence between genders (males: 30.30%; females: 30.16%; the highest prevalence was found in homemakers (45.45% followed by farmers (38.77%. Among age groups, males and females older than 48 exhibited the highest rates. These results show a significative increase in the prevalence when compared to a epidemiological study made 26 years ago in the same area as well as a different epidemiological profile (gender and occupation in relation to other areas in Amazonas.

  9. [Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Py-Daniel, Victor; Barbosa, Ulysses Carvalho; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner

    2009-06-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282). The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97%) than women (22.22%), farmers (48.99%), and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%), 48-57 (66.66%), and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%). Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41 mf/40 microl), men (41.44 mf/40 microl), and farmers (49.94 mf/40 microl). Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%. PMID:19503972

  10. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia João P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is one of the world’s top twelve “megadiversity” hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899 filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar.

  11. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes. PMID:26739285

  12. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida for greenhouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Furtado Moreira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN. Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004, three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa, four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  13. 感染松萎蔫病的葡萄牙海岸松中内生细菌的分离%Endophytic bacteria isolated from pine wilt-affected Pinus pinaster trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vieira dos Santos M C; Proenca D A N; Fonseca L; Abrantes I M de O; Morais P V

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic rapid death of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, after infection by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, suggests the involvement of other organisms in pine wilt disease (PWD) . Endophytic bacteria are ubiquitous in nature and colonize a broad spectrum of plant species. They colonize plants internally without harming them and although they have been reported to promote plant growth and stimulate plant defence mechanisms. Although such bacteria may be involved in improving plant health, they have also been seen as a potential cause of the low regeneration capacity of mature trees. The bacteria carried out by the PWN throughout pine trees may also contribute to the rapid wilting of the maritime pine trees. This study was made to assess the endophytic microbial community structure of pine wilt affected and non-affected P. pinaster, based on culture isolates, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophorosis (DGGE) profiling, and to relate the results to a possible association between the characteristics and bacteria associated with the PWN. The microbial community from trees and PWNs included strains from Beta and Gammaproteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were only found in the endophytic community whereas Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were only found to be associated with the nematode. ARDRA and DGGE profiles showed differences in the diversity of the endophytic microbial community that may be related to the presence of the PWN. Those differences seem to be associated with the number of strains of the genera Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Luteibacter. Isolates belonging to the species Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum, P. lutea and Dyella yeojuensis were isolated from trees and were associated with the PWN. This research documents the presence of bacteria associated with the PWN by molecular methods and the impact of the nematode in the plant endophytic microbial

  14. 产挥发性杀线虫物质韦氏芽孢杆菌MC67菌株培养条件的优化%Optimization of the Culture Condition for Bacillus weihenstephanensis Strain MC67 Producing Nematicidal Volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志芳; 顾英琦; 莫明和; 何月秋

    2009-01-01

    采用液体培养,研究了18种碳源、18种氮源成分对韦氏芽孢杆菌Bacillus weihenstepha-nensis菌株MC67产挥发性物质杀线虫活性的影响.以单因素分析法,确定了MC67菌株杀线虫活性的最佳碳源和氮源分别为麦芽糖和酵母膏.采用Plackett-Burman设计法,对影响菌株MC67杀线虫活性的主要因素进行筛选,确定影响该菌株发酵液挥发物杀线虫活性的4个重要因子依次为麦芽糖、酵母膏、温度和pH值.采用响应曲面法研究4个显著因子的最佳水平,通过对二次多项回归方程求解得知,当麦芽糖10.6g/L、酵母膏0.66g/L、培养温度29.6℃、pH值6.6时,菌株发酵液挥发物杀线虫活性的预期值为99.1%.对模型培养基验证的结果表明,该菌株对松材线虫的杀线虫活性为98.2%,接近预期值.%In liquid culture,18 kinds of carbon and 18 kinds of nitrogen resources were selected for best nutritional agents. The effects of nutrition on the volatiles of Bacillus weihenstephanensis strain MC67 with highest nematicidal activity to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were determined by single factor analysis. The best carbon and nitrogen resources were maltose and yeast extract, respectively. Plackett-Burman design and response surface analysis were used to optimize the medium constituents and fermentation conditions of B. tueihenstephanensis. The important factors were determined as follows: maltose, yeast extract, pH value and temperature. In the second phase of the optimization process, a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the above critical factors, and to find out the optimal concentration levels and fermentation conditions. By solving the quadratic regression model equation using appropriate statistic methods, the optimal level of the variables were determined as: maltose 10.6 g/L, yeast extract 0.66 g/ L, culture temperature 29.6℃ and pH value 6.6. In the most suitable condition, the nematicidal activity of MC67 could

  15. Impact of the invasion of pinewood nematode and the following different removal disturbance intensities on the plant diversity of Masson pine community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO Youqing; SONG Jiying; YAN Xiaosu; JIANG Ping; WANG Yijiao

    2007-01-01

    Reported in this paper are our findings of the study on changes in species diversity of different Masson pine communities after the invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus(Steiner and Buhren)Nickle and subsequent and different removal disturbance management approaches.Based on the results,the species diversity indices for the arbor layers of the different communities can be arranged in the following order(from high to low):1)broad-leaved stand after the removal of all infected pine trees in the pure pine stand in Fuyang;2)lightly infected Masson pine and Schima superba mixed stand in Fuyang;3)uninfected stand mixture of Masson pine and Castanopsis fargesii as a control;4)lightly infested pure Masson pine stand in Fuyang;5)Quercus variables stand formed following the selective removal of infected pine trees from a mixed Masson pine and Q.variables stand in Zhoushan Islands;6)pure young Masson pine stand formed following the removal of all infected pine trees from a pure Masson pine stand;7)pure Liquidambarformosana stand after the removal of infected pine trees from a pure pine stand in Zhoushan Islands;8)a mixed stand consisting of Pinus thunbergii and the Masson pine in Zhoushan Island;and 9)moderately infected Masson pine stand in Zhoushan Islands.All the three diversity indices(R0=richness,H'=Shan-non-Wiener index,and E=evenness)for the shrub layer did not show any significant differences among the various communities except for the pure pine stand in ZhoushanIsland,which had the lowest diversity.The three indices for the herb layer of the pure young Masson pine,Q.variables stand,and L.formosana stand were higher than that of other stands.The integrated analysis showed that the Masson pine forest in different geographical situations and extent of damage had distinct disparity,just as in different disturbance degrees and restoring manners.We created the"index of disturbing intensity of stump and fallen woods"(IDISFW)to represent thedegree of disturbance of tree

  16. A survey of the Echinoderm Associates of the North-East Atlantic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barel, C.D.N.; Kramers, P.G.N.

    1977-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 3 Systematic list of associate records............. 6 Protozoa................... 7 Coelenterata.................. 31 Platyhelminthes................. 32 Mesozoa................... 41 Nematoda................... 42 Rotatoria................... 43 Entoprocta..

  17. РАЗНООБРАЗИЕ ПАРАЗИТОВ ХИЩНЫХ ЖИВОТНЫХ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ Г. ДНЕПРОПЕТРОВСК

    OpenAIRE

    Бойко, А.; Фалы, Л.; Бригадиренко, В.

    2011-01-01

    На территории г. Днепропетровск выявлено 10 видов возбудителей гельминтозов и кокцидиозов хищных: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata), Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata), Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata), Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata), Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata), Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata), Cystoisospora sp., Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia). В пробах почвы доминировали S. stercoralis и Un...

  18. Spatial distribution of the nematodes in the subtidal community of the Central West Coast of India with emphasis on Tershellingia longicaudata (Nematoda: Linhomoeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.; Chatterjee, T.

    , possibly due to lack of expertise. Meiofauna was investigated with emphasis on nematodes, which were the most dominant group and one species - Terschellingia longicaudata (De Man, 1907) - along the central west coast of India, stretching between Ratnagiri...

  19. Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) from the Egyptian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae), first identification on the basis of light and ultrastructural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Fol, Mona; Yehia, Salma

    2014-12-01

    Haemonchus longistipes is a gastrointestinal abomasal nematode which is one of the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites infesting the stomach of ruminants. On the basis of light and ultrastructural data, the objective of the present study was to introduce a first identification of the cameline haemonchosis caused by H. longistipes. Abomasa of 42 Egyptian camels Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae) were collected monthly from September 2013 to April 2014 from the main slaughter house of Cairo, Egypt. Adult male and female nematode worms were recovered from 26 (62%) specimens of the examined abomasa. The parasites were of yellow color; the body was filiform (slender) tapered towards the anterior end in male and towards both ends in female. Buccal capsules absent, the buccal cavity was small with a conspicuous dorsal lancet extended from dorsal wall. The cervical papillae were prominent and spine-like. The body length of the female worm was 16.6-20.5 (18.5 ± 0.3) mm. The anterior end to the cervical papillae was 3.19-4.30 (4.12 ± 0.5) mm. The vulva of the female had a linguiform process or flap, the tail is without a spine, and the anal pore at the posterior end of the body had a simple dorsal rim. The body of male was 10.4-14.7 (13.9 ± 2.0) mm in length. The male bursa had elongated lobes supported by long, slender rays. The small dorsal lobe was asymmetrical with Y-shaped dorsal rays. The spicules were long with a length of 0.52-0.54 (0.53 ± 0.05) mm, each provided with a small barb and pore near its extremity. Synlophe was bilaterally and dorsoventrally symmetrical; it extended from cephalic expansion over anterior 50% of prebursal or prevulvar body and consisted of a maximum of 42 ridges. The described species herein was compared with the three morphologically similar species Haemonchus mitchelli, Haemonchus okapiae, and H. longistipes with their synlophes consist of 42 ridges distributed over the anterior half of the body. These species can be separated by unique structural characteristics of their synlophes, spicules, and copulatory bursa. The most morphologically similar species to the recovered worm was H. longistipes. Also, some of the parameters with regard to morphology and morphometry of this parasite were described for the first time. PMID:25273629

  20. On the life cycle and morphology of development stages of Paraspiralatus sakeri Gibbons et al., 2004 (Nematoda: Spiroidea, Spirocercidae), a heteroxenic stomach parasite of falcons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf Karl; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kinne, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Pitted darkling beetles (Adesmia cancellata) were infected with nematode eggs found in the alimentary tract of a gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) naturally infected with Paraspiralatus sakeri. Third-stage larvae in numbers between 1 and 84 were removed from the beetles 5 weeks postinfection and were used for morphological studies as well as to infect domestic chicken, yellow-bellied geckos (Hemidactylus flaviviridis) and fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus schmidti). All experimental animals, necropsied 4-38 weeks later, were positive for spirally coiled nematode larvae located under the skin and in the interstitium of skeletal muscles. Despite similarities in general morphology, larvae from beetles and reptiles and chicken differed strikingly in the total body length and body width. Differences in length of the muscular oesophagus and distances of cervical papillae, nerve ring and excretory pore from the anterior end were less distinct. Morphology of these larvae matched with larvae found in subcutaneous cysts in naturally infected houbara bustards (Chlamydotis macqueeni) from Pakistan and UAE as well as with those detected in the muscles of an ocellated skink (Chalcides ocellatus). PMID:24652447

  1. Description of Meloidogyne minor n.sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode associated with yellow patch disease in golf courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, G.; Bolk, R.J.; Aelst, van A.C.; Beld, van den I.; Kox, L.F.F.; Korthals, G.W.; Molendijk, L.P.G.; Zijlstra, C.; Hoof, van R.A.; Cook, R.

    2004-01-01

    A relatively small root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor n. sp., is described and illustrated from tomato from the Netherlands. This new species is characterised by the following features: female with dorsally curved stylet, 14 Pm long, with transversely ovoid knobs slightly sloping backwards from t

  2. New biogeographical and morphological information on Physaloptera ngoci Le-Van-Hoa, 1961 (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) in South-east Asian rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Veciana, Marina; Chaisiri, Kittiponk; Morand, Serge; Miquel, Jordi; Ribas, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    During a study of the helminth fauna of 1,643 rodents trapped along the Mekong River (Thailand, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Cambodia) in 2008–2011, the spirurid nematode Physaloptera ngoci Le-Van-Hoa, 1961 was recovered with an overall prevalence of 2.8%. Based on the original description, it was identified in nine of 23 different Murinae host species and is here reported for the first time from these three countries. A scanning electron microscopy study provides additional morpholog...

  3. Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2003-09-01

    The first tylenchid parasite of ants, Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp., is described from a queen carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr in Western Oregon, USA. The new genus is characterised by the excretory pore anterior to the nerve-ring and rounded tails in the free-living adults, a stylet bearing basal thickenings in the free-living female, a smaller stylet lacking basal thickenings in the male and a short, crenulate leptoderan bursa. The mature parasitic female is light yellow and ovoviviparous. F. oregonensis n. sp. is closely related to members of Metaparasitylenchus Wachek, 1955, with species parasitising beetles living under bark or in rotten wood, a habitat similar to that of carpenter ants. However, males of Metaparasitylenchus are characterised by a fairly long tail with a broad peloderan bursa. It is suggested that this case of tylenchid parasitism in ants is an example of environmental host selection. A review of the described nematode parasites of ants is presented. PMID:12975624

  4. Redescription, synonymy, and new records of Vexillata noviberiae (Dikmans, 1935) (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina), a parasite of rabbits Sylvilagus spp. (Leporidae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiani, María Celina; Kinsella, John M; Kass, Thomas B; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude

    2007-08-01

    Vexillata noviberiae (Dikmans, 1935) (Trichostrongylina: Heligmosomoidea), originally described as a parasite of Sylvilagus floridanus from Louisiana, is redescribed from material collected from Sylvilagus palustris in Florida and from S. floridanus in Kansas. New morphometric and morphological data are provided. Stunkardionema halla Arnold, 1941, described from S. floridanus from Kansas and New York, is proposed as a junior synonym of V. noviberiae. These findings confirm the occurrence of V. noviberiae as a parasite of rabbits and its wide distribution range in North America. PMID:17918368

  5. Pathology and epizootiology of Dirofilaria scapiceps (Leidy, 1886) (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen) and Lepus americanus erxleben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, C M

    1984-07-01

    Dirofilaria scapiceps was found between the synovial sheath and tendons, i.e., within the tendon sheath, in the ankle region of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). In cottontail rabbits, tendons and sheaths appeared normal and all worms were adults. Only one (4%) of 24 infected rabbits contained dead worms. All female worms were gravid in rabbits killed in late winter or early spring. Microfilaremias in rabbits were high (approximately 30-100 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) and of long duration (at least 8-28 mo), and rabbits were considered normal hosts of D. scapiceps. In some snowshoe hares, tendons and sheaths also appeared normal; however, in other hares a chronic proliferative tenosynovitis, characterized by fibrinous exudate, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the intima and inflammatory cell (predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells) infiltration of the intimal and fibrous layers of the synovial sheath led to encapsulation of worms. Dead subadult, dead adult, and live adult worms were found in the ankles of hares; 86 (46%) of 186 infected hares contained some or only dead worms. Fibrosis commonly occurred around dead worms. Dead subadults were also found in subcutaneous connective tissues over the trunk of the body. Degenerate embryos and amorphous material were observed in uteri of some female worms in hares killed in late winter or early spring. Few (1-5 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) or no microfilariae were observed in the peripheral blood of hares and microfilaremias were of short duration (less than 8 mo). Microfilariae in hares are probably trapped and destroyed in the chronic inflammatory lesions in the tendon sheaths since normal, degenerate, and calcified microfilariae were observed in the capsules around adult worms. Some microfilariae might also be destroyed in lymph nodes. Although D. scapiceps can be maintained within snowshoe hare populations, hares are considered abnormal hosts of D. scapiceps. Dirofilaria scapiceps may have spread from cottontail rabbits to snowshoe hares relatively recently. PMID:6492321

  6. Checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974 (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Oncholaimidae) of the world: genera, species, distribution, and reference list for taxonomists and ecologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Adoncholaiminae is one of the seven subfamilies in the free-living aquatic nematode family Oncholaimidae. Nematodes in Adoncholaiminae are found from various water environment of the world. However, a checklist of all Adoncholaiminae species including full literature, especially information of experimental (not taxonomic) works, has not been updated for more than 40 years. New information A revised checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae of the world is provided. It contains 31 valid and 13 invalid species names in four genera with synonyms, collection records, and full literature from 1860's to 2015 for each species. A literature survey of total 477 previous papers was conducted in this work, and 362 of them are newly added to checklist. PMID:26929708

  7. Species of the genera Oxydirus, Dorylaimellus (Axodorylaimellus, Laimydorus and Rhabdolaimus from rivers in the Kruger National Park (Nematoda: Dorylaimida and Araeolaimida

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    Annelize Botha

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given oi'0.\\'vdirusgangeticusS\\c\\dic\\i, 1966, Laimydorus africanus spec. nov. and Rhaljclolainms terrestris De Man, 1880, recorded for the first time from South Africa. New distribution records are given for Dorylaimellus {Axodorylaimellus caffrae (Kruger, 1965. Additional information is given and morphometric data are tabulated and where appropriate, illustrations are also given.

  8. Freshwater nematodes of the genera Thornenema and Mesodorylaimus from the Kruger National Park with a diagnostic species compendium for South African species of the genus Mesodorylaimus (Nematoda: Dorylaimida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete descriptions are given of Mesodorylaimus potus Heyns, 1963, a new record for the Kruger National Park and M. aegypticus (Andrassy, 1958 recorded here for the first time from South Africa. Additional information and new distribution records are given for Mesodorylaimus sp. cf paralitoralis (Basson & Heyns, 1974 and Thornenema haldum (Thome, 1939. A compendium is also presented for the 17 recognized Mesodorylaimus species from South Africa.

  9. Turgida turgida (Nematoda: Physalopteridae parasitic in white-bellied opossum, Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Roberta M.P. Humberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turgida turgida have been largely reported parasitizing Didelphis species in North and South America based on light microscopy observation. However, the features that differentiate T. turgida from other physalopterid species should be observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. A female white-bellied opossum, Didelphis albiventris, arrived dead at the Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. During the necropsy, adult nematodes were collected from stomach and intestine. The nematodes were determined to be adult specimens and submitted to SEM for the species determination. This is the first report of T. turgida confirmed by SEM in the Neotropical region and the first report in an urban area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  10. Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956, first record of a representative of the suborder Bathyodontina (Nematoda, Mononchida in the Iberian fauna

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    Peña-Santiago, R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956 Hopper & Cairns, 1956, collected in sand dunes of SW Iberian peninsula, is studied. Description, measurements and illustrations (LM pictures are provided. Iberian specimens are briefly compared to other known populations of the species. And a compendium of Bathyodontus species, including a key to their identification, is also given. This is the first record of a representative of the nematode suborder Bathyodontina in the Iberian-Balearic range and in the Mediterranean region.Se estudia la especie Bathyodontus mirus (Andrássy, 1956 Hopper y Cairns, 1956, recolectada en dunas de arena en el suroeste peninsular. Se presentan una descripción, medidas e ilustraciones (fotografías con microscopía óptica. Los ejemplares ibéricos se comparan brevemente con otras poblaciones conocidas de la misma especie. Y se ofrece un compendio de las especies del género Bathyodontus, incluida una clave para su identification. Se trata de la primera cita de un miembro del suborden Bathyodontina en el ámbito Ibero-balear y en la región Mediterránea.

  11. Occurrence of ascaridoid nematodes in selected edible fish from the Persian Gulf and description of Hysterothylacium larval type XV and Hysterothylacium persicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Ghadam, Masoumeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Hoseinali; Soltani, Mehdi; Mirzargar, Saeed

    2016-11-01

    Despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in the Persian Gulf, there is still no study on the specific identification of these parasites or their genetic characterisation. In the present study, a total of 600 fish belonging to five popular species of fish in the region, including Otolithes ruber, Psettodes erumei, Saurida tumbil, Scomberomorus commerson and Sphyraena jello were examined for infection with nematode parasites. Detailed microscopy of nematodes found in the present study followed by characterisation of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) showed that they belong to five distinct taxa that could be potentially zoonotic. Anisakis type I was found in four species of fish, had identical ITS sequences as Anisakis typica previously reported in Australian waters and was different from those reported in the Nearctic. Hysterothylacium type VI in the present study was morphologically similar to those previously described from Australasian waters and ITS sequences were identical among Australian specimens and those found in the present study. Another Hysterothylacium larval type was also found in the present study which had identical ITS sequences and similar morphology to those previously reported and identified as H. amoyense in China Sea. Since no ITS sequence data from a well identified adult H. amoyense with an identifiable museum voucher number is yet available and due to some other issues discussed in the article we suggest assignment of this larval type from the China Sea and the Persian Gulf to H. amoyense is doubtful until future studies on a well identified male specimen of H. amoyense or other species reveals the specific identity of this larval type. We propose to refer to this larval type as Hysterothylacium larval type XV. In the present study we also describe a new species, Hysterothylacium persicum and discuss how to differentiate it from closely related species. We also found some adult females with distinct morphology and ITS sequence but due to lack of male specimens they have been referred as Hysterothylacium sp. in this paper. They had the same ITS sequence data as Hysterothylacium larval type VI. This study shows the presence of a relatively broad diversity of potentially zoonotic nematodes in edible fish of the Persian Gulf. Therefore educational campaigns for public and local health practitioners are suggested to protect consumers from becoming infected with these parasites.

  12. One new genus and three new species of deep-sea nematodes (Nematoda: Microlaimidae) from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel

    2016-02-11

    New deep-sea nematodes of the family Microlaimidae are described from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea. Microlaimus korari n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, round amphideal aperture slightly smaller than the cryptospiral amphideal fovea, spacious and heavily cuticularised buccal cavity with large dorsal tooth and right subventral tooth situated anteriorly relative to left subventral tooth, slender spicules 4.4 cloacal body diameters long, and gubernaculum 1.2 cloacal body diameters long with laterally curved distal end and swollen proximal end. Bolbolaimus tongaensis n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, oval amphideal aperture and cryptocircular amphideal fovea situated between cephalic setae and only partially surrounded by cuticle annulations, and short spicules cuticularised along dorsal edge and at proximal end and with swollen portion near proximal end. Maragnopsia n. gen. is characterised by a minute, non-cuticularised mouth cavity without teeth, an elongated posterior pharyngeal bulb more than twice as long as it is wide, a single outstretched testis, and a conico-cylindrical tail 13-16 anal body diameters long. A list of all 83 valid Microlaimus species is provided. The present study provides the first microlaimid species records from deep-sea habitats (> 200 m depth) in the Southwest Pacific and Ross Sea. The presence of M. korari n. sp. on both the continental slope of New Zealand and Ross Sea abyssal plain suggests that this species has a wide geographical and depth distribution. However, molecular analyses will be required to confirm the identity of these two geographically disparate populations.

  13. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-11-05

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed features that were not previously mentioned (e.g. presence of unpaired cloacal papilla, detailed morphology of cloacal lips), as well as negligible differences in morphometry and caudal papillae arrangement. Observations on the type material of C. carioca suggested affinities with the genus Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902; however, the poor preservation of these specimens does not allow further conclusions. Cucullanus rougetae is considered to be a species inquirenda.

  14. New deep-sea free-living marine nematodes from the Sea of Japan: the genera Siphonolaimus and Halichoanolaimus (Nematoda: Chromadorea) with keys to species identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zograf, Julia; Trebukhova, Yulia; Pavlyuk, Olga

    2015-01-16

    In deep-sea sediments from the Sea of Japan, two new species, Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp. n. and Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n., were found and described. Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n. is characterized by having short anterior sensillae, body length of 3670-4500 μm, buccal cavity with axial spear, and length of the spicules. Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp.n is characterized by the number of amphideal rings, long spicules, five precloacal supplements and by having a long cylindrical part of the tail. Keys to species level are provided. 

  15. Characterization of Xiphinema americanum group species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) and co-evolution of bacteria from the genus ‘Candidatus Xiphinematobacter’ with these nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Xiphinema americanum group contains over two-dozen different species of nematode. They are economically important because they vector nepoviruses, which cause damage to several crops. Taxonomic differentiation among species of the X. americanum complex is problematic because many of the species ...

  16. Effects of temperature on the life-history traits of Sancassania (Caloglyphus) berlesei (Acari: Astigmatina: Acaridae) feeding on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Osman, Mohamed Ali

    2014-11-01

    Sancassania (Caloglyphus) berlesei (Michael) is a cosmopolitan and free-living mite that inhabits soil as well as laboratory colonies of insects and fungi and may have a role as a biocontrol agent of nematodes. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature on the development, reproduction, and food consumption of S. berlesei fed egg masses of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., an important group of agricultural pests. Mites were reared at 20, 25 or 30 °C in the dark. The mites could feed on the nematode egg masses, and their developmental time decreased at higher temperatures. Time from the egg to adult was similar in females and males reared at the same temperature. Adult females lived longer than males at 25 °C, but not at 20 or 30 °C. Generally, females showed a higher rate of food consumption than males. Females laid the largest number of eggs at 20 and 25 °C (199.7 and 189.8 eggs/female, respectively), but the intrinsic rate of natural increase was highest at 30 °C (r m = 0.29). In comparing our data with previous reports, we noted that S. berlesei that fed on egg masses of root-knot nematodes showed a longer developmental time and a lower reproductive rate than Sancassania mites that fed on other diets. Nonetheless, the relatively high value of r m (e.g., at 25 and 30 °C) suggests that this mite may have certain advantages as a biocontrol agent of root-knot nematodes.

  17. Morphological and molecular characterisation, and phylogenetic position of X. browni sp. n., X. penevi sp. n. and two known species of Xiphinema americanum-group (Nematoda, Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada; Kumari, Shesh

    2016-01-01

    Using ribosomal (18S, ITS1, ITS2, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (partial cox1 and nad4) DNA markers in a study of several populations of Xiphinema americanum-group from Europe and Morocco, two cryptic species Xiphinema browni sp. n. (formerly reported as Xiphinema pachtaicum) and Xiphinema penevi sp. n. were revealed. The species are described, illustrated and their phylogenetic relationships discussed. The first species is most similar to Xiphinema parasimile and is a member of Xiphinema simile species complex. The phylogenetic reconstructions inferred from three molecular markers (18S, D2-D3 28S rDNA and cox1) showed that Xiphinema penevi sp. n. is part of Xiphinema pachtaicum-subgroup and is closely related to Xiphinema incertum, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Xiphinema parapachydermum, Xiphinema plesiopachtaicum, Xiphinema astaregiense and Xiphinema pachydermum. Also, a separate "Xiphinema simile-subgroup", outside the Xiphinema pachtaicum-subgroup and so far consisting only of the parthenogenetic species Xiphinema simile, Xiphinema parasimile, Xiphinema browni sp. n. and probably Xiphinema vallense was formed. New primers for amplification and sequencing of part of the nad4 mitochondrial gene were designed and used.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto (Nematoda: Enoplea): considerable economization in the length and structural features of encoded genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Jones, J; Armstrong, M; Lamberti, F; Moens, M

    2005-12-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the plant parasitic nematode Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto has been determined. At 12626bp it is the smallest metazoan mitochondrial genome reported to date. Genes are transcribed from both strands. Genes coding for 12 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 17 putative tRNAs (with the tRNA-C, I, N, S1, S2 missing) are predicted from the sequence. The arrangement of genes within the X. americanum mitochondrial genome is unique and includes gene overlaps. Comparisons with the mtDNA of other nematodes show that the small size of the X. americanum mtDNA is due to a combination of factors. The two mitochondrial rRNA genes are considerably smaller than those of other nematodes, with most of the protein encoding and tRNA genes also slightly smaller. In addition, five tRNAs genes are absent, lengthy noncoding regions are not present in the mtDNA, and several gene overlaps are present.

  19. The genus Xiphinema in South Africa. XXVI. New information on X. bolandium, with description of the four juvenile stages (Nematoda: Longidoridae

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    J. Heyns

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A population of Xiphinema bolandium from the Baviaanskloof Wilderness Area in the Eastern Cape Province was studied, and the four juvenile stages described and figured for the first time. New distribution records are listed from several localities in the Western Cape Province, mostly from vineyards and peach orchards, as well as from fynbos.

  20. In vitro anthelminthic efficacy of Dichrocephala integrifolia (Asteraceae) extracts on the gastro-intestinal nematode parasite of mice:Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda, Heligmosomatidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wabo Pon J; Payne V K; Mbogning Tayo Gertrude; Komtangi Marie Claire; Yondo Jeannette; Ngangout Alidou M; Mpoame Mbida; Bilong Bilong CF

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Dichrocephala integrifolia (D. integrifolia) against the eggs (fresh and embryonnated), the first and second larval stages of Heligmosomoides bakeri. In order to verify if this medicinal plant possesses active compounds capable of inhibiting the embryonation and hatching of eggs or to induce the mortality of larvae (L1 and L2). Methods:Dried extracts were diluted in distilled water to obtain five different concentrations: 625, 1 250, 2 500, 3 750 and 5 000 μg/mL. Fresh eggs obtained from artificially infected mice feces were exposed to these different concentrations for 48 h. Time of contact for embryonated eggs was 6 h while L1 and L2 larvae were exposed for 24 h. Distilled water (placebo) and 1.5% DMSO were used as negative controls. Results: Distilled water, and 1.5%DMSO had no effect on embryonation, hatching and larval survival. Aqueous extracts of D. integrifolia showed a weak activity against all stages of the parasite at all concentrations tested. On the contrary, the ethanolic extract of D. integrifolia inhibited the embryonation of 87.5%of fresh eggs, the hatching of 81.1%of embryonated eggs and induced the mortality of 98.1%and 98%of L1 and L2 larvae respectively at 5 000 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the ethanolic extracts of D. integrifolia contained compounds with ovicidal and larvicidal properties. In spite of these results, in vivo tests, studies on toxicity and mechanism of action of active compounds are also needed to validate the utilisation of this medicinal plant by population of Dschang-Cameroon to treat gastro-intestinal parasites.

  1. Taxonomic revision of the Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae) parasites of Muridae from the Australasian region. The genus Odilia Durette-Desset, 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Digiani, María Celina

    2015-01-01

    The species of the genus Odilia Durette-Desset, 1973 (Heligmonellidae, Nippostrongylinae) are re-distributed among eight genera of which five are new. This classification is mainly based on certain characters of the synlophe not previously taken into account at the supraspecific level. These characters mainly include the presence or absence of a careen, the relative size of the ridges forming the careen, the development and position of ridge 1’, the development of the left ridge and right ridge, and the distribution of the largest ridges. Eighteen of the 20 known species are rearranged in the following genera: Odilia sensu stricto Durette-Desset, 1973 with Odilia mackerrasae (Mawson, 1961) as type species, Chisholmia n. gen. with Chisholmia bainae (Beveridge & Durette-Desset, 1992) n. comb. as type species, Equilophos n. gen. with Equilophos polyrhabdote (Mawson, 1961) n. comb. as type species, Hasegawanema n. gen. with Hasegawanema mamasaense (Hasegawa, Miyata & Syafruddin, 1999) n. comb. as type species, Hughjonestrongylus Digiani & Durette-Desset, 2014 with Hughjonestrongylus ennisae (Smales & Heinrich, 2010) as type species, Lesleyella n. gen. with Lesleyella wauensis (Smales, 2010) n. comb. as type and sole species, Parasabanema szalayi Smales & Heinrich, 2010, and Sanduanensis n. gen. with Sanduanensis dividua (Smales, 2010) as type and sole species. Odilia uromyos Mawson, 1961 and Odilia carinatae Smales, 2008 are not included in the new classification. A key to the proposed genera is provided. The new generic arrangement follows a distribution more related to the biogeographical areas than to the host groups. PMID:26598025

  2. Differences in life-histories refute ecological equivalence of cryptic species and provide clues to the origin of bathyal Halomonhystera (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Derycke, Sofie; Moens, Tom; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of morphologically very similar but genetically distinct species complicates a proper understanding of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cryptic species have been frequently observed to co-occur and are thus expected to be ecological equivalent. The marine nematode Halomonhystera disjuncta contains five cryptic species (GD1-5) that co-occur in the Westerschelde estuary. In this study, we investigated the effect of three abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and sulphide) on life-history traits of three cryptic H. disjuncta species (GD1-3). Our results show that temperature had the most profound influence on all life-cycle parameters compared to a smaller effect of salinity. Life-history traits of closely related cryptic species were differentially affected by temperature, salinity and presence of sulphides which shows that cryptic H. disjuncta species are not ecologically equivalent. Our results further revealed that GD1 had the highest tolerance to a combination of sulphides, high salinities and low temperatures. The close phylogenetic position of GD1 to Halomonhystera hermesi, the dominant species in sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barent Sea, 1280 m depth), indicates that both species share a recent common ancestor. Differential life-history responses to environmental changes among cryptic species may have crucial consequences for our perception on ecosystem functioning and coexistence of cryptic species.

  3. Description of Rhabditis (Caenorhabditis) drosophilae n. sp. and R. (C.) sonorae n. sp. (Nematoda : Rhabditida) from saguaro cactus rot in Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Kiontke, K.

    1997-01-01

    Description est donnée de deux espèces gonochoriques, #Rhabditis$ (#Caenorhabditis$) #drosophilae$ n. sp. et #R.$ (#C.$) #sonorae$ n. sp., provenant de tissus de cactus "Saguaro" en décomposition en Arizona, Etats-Unis d'Amérique. Elles sont caractérisées par une bourse ouverte antérieurement et à marge lisse ; chez les deux espèces, les spicules, de forme complexe, ne sont pas pointus. Les dauerlarvae de #R. drosophilae$ n. sp. sont phorétiques sur la mouche #Drosophila nigrospiracula$ assoc...

  4. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea in soil and fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Jean-Francois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  5. Infrapopulations of Procamallanus elatensis Fusco & Overstreet, 1979 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, Mohammed O

    2012-09-01

    Factors regulating gastrointestinal nematode infrapopulations are to a great extent density-dependent. Here, 23 natural infrapopulations (41-281 individuals) of the viviparous nematode Procamallanus elatensis (Camallanidae) from the fish Siganus rivulatus were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (posterior 55% of the intestine). Immature worms were mostly found in the anterior third of this niche, while mature worms were found in aggregations posterior to them and followed by gravid females in the posterior 20% of the intestine. This distribution strongly suggests that worms migrate towards the posterior intestine while they mature, copulate and reproduce. In small infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly female-biased and the number of gravid females was low. In large infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly male-biased and the number of gravid females was high. However, the mean lengths of both immature males and females and mature females decreased dramatically as the infrapopulation size increased, while those of mature males increased significantly. These results strongly suggest intraspecific competition and density-dependent regulation of mean worm length, and the increase in the mean length of mature males strongly suggests intense sexual selection and competition between mature males. Production of larvae by female worms decreased significantly as the infrapopulation size increased, suggesting a density-dependent reduction in female worm fertility. The results are statistically significant and strongly suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which development of immature worms, infrapopulation size, sex ratio, sexual selection and carrying capacity of the fundamental niche play essential roles in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations.

  6. A new species of Trichosomoididae (Nematoda) from skin of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), on the Texas-Louisiana shelf, northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Ray, Candis L; Cook, Melissa; Grace, Mark A; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-04-01

    Eggs and larvae of Huffmanela oleumimica n. sp. infect red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860), were collected from the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (28°16'36.58″N, 93°03'51.08″W) and are herein described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs in skin comprised fields (1-5 × 1-12 mm; 250 eggs/mm(2)) of variously oriented eggs deposited in dense patches or in scribble-like tracks. Eggs had clear (larvae indistinct, principally vitelline material), amber (developing larvae present) or brown (fully developed larvae present; little, or no, vitelline material) shells and measured 46-54 μm (x = 50; SD ± 1.6; n = 213) long, 23-33 (27 ± 1.4; 213) wide, 2-3 (3 ± 0.5; 213) in eggshell thickness, 18-25 (21 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass width, and 36-42 (39 ± 1.1; 213) in vitelline mass length with protruding polar plugs 5-9 (7 ± 0.6; 213) long and 5-8 (6 ± 0.5; 213) wide. Fully developed larvae were 160-201 (176 ± 7.9) long and 7-8 (7 ± 0.5) wide, had transverse cuticular ridges, and were emerging from some eggs within and beneath epidermis. The new species differs from its congeners by having eggs 110 μm long with transverse cuticular ridges. The eggs lack a spindle-shaped envelope, polar filaments, and eggshell ridges. This is the first report of a species of Huffmanela from a snapper (Lutjanidae) or from the Gulf of Mexico. A table of egg and larval characteristics, hosts, and localities for Huffmanela spp. is provided.

  7. Molecular diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea by polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluids of patients

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    Praphathip Eamsobhana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from clinically diagnosed patients with detectable Angiostrongylus canto-nensis-specific antibodies (n = 10, patients with clinically suspected cases that tested negative for A. cantonensis-an-tibodies (n = 5 and patients with cerebral gnathostomiasis (n = 2 and neurocysticercosis (n = 2 were examined by a single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using the AC primers for the 66-kDa native protein gene. The PCR method detected A. cantonensis DNA in CSF samples from four of 10 serologically confirmed angiostrongyliasis cases. The PCR results were negative for the remaining CSF samples. The nucleotide sequences of three positive CSF-PCR samples shared 98.8-99.2% similarity with the reference sequence of A. cantonensis. These results indicate the potential application of this PCR assay with clinical CSF samples for additional support in the confirmation of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis.

  8. Differences in life-histories refute ecological equivalence of cryptic species and provide clues to the origin of bathyal Halomonhystera (Nematoda.

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    Jelle Van Campenhout

    Full Text Available The discovery of morphologically very similar but genetically distinct species complicates a proper understanding of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cryptic species have been frequently observed to co-occur and are thus expected to be ecological equivalent. The marine nematode Halomonhystera disjuncta contains five cryptic species (GD1-5 that co-occur in the Westerschelde estuary. In this study, we investigated the effect of three abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and sulphide on life-history traits of three cryptic H. disjuncta species (GD1-3. Our results show that temperature had the most profound influence on all life-cycle parameters compared to a smaller effect of salinity. Life-history traits of closely related cryptic species were differentially affected by temperature, salinity and presence of sulphides which shows that cryptic H. disjuncta species are not ecologically equivalent. Our results further revealed that GD1 had the highest tolerance to a combination of sulphides, high salinities and low temperatures. The close phylogenetic position of GD1 to Halomonhystera hermesi, the dominant species in sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barent Sea, 1280 m depth, indicates that both species share a recent common ancestor. Differential life-history responses to environmental changes among cryptic species may have crucial consequences for our perception on ecosystem functioning and coexistence of cryptic species.

  9. First description of the male and redescription of the female of Paratrichosoma recurvum (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a skin-invading parasite of crocodiles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Vargas-Vázquez, J

    1998-06-01

    The first description of the male and a redescription of the female of the nematode Paratrichosoma recurvum (Solger, 1877), a parasite of the abdominal skin of crocodiles, are presented on the basis of specimens collected from Crocodilus moreletii Duméril et Bibron from the Lagoon of Celestún, Yucatan, Mexico. The morphology of P. recurvum proved to be very similar to that of the only other congeneric species, P. crocodylus Ashford et Muller, 1978, but the former differed from the latter in having distinctly protruding polar plugs on eggs, reduced mesenchymal cells at the esophagointestinal junction, and a smooth spicular surface as well as in geographic distribution. The finding of P. recurvum in C. moreletii represents a new host record. Paratrichosoma spp. appear to be widely distributed in tropical countries of different continents and may be of economic importance for crocodile farms. PMID:9660141

  10. Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a non-cyst-forming parasitic nematode from the root of ramie Boehmeria nivea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, K; Wang, H H; Ye, W; Peng, D L; Liao, J L

    2014-12-01

    Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. is described from ramie (Boehmeria nivea) based on the morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA small subunit (SSU), D2D3 expansion domains of large subunit (LSU D2D3) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). This new species is characterized by oval females with a distinct subcrystalline layer and pronounced and protruding vulval lip, distinctly concave vulva-anus profile and a vulva-anus distance of 29.5-35.8 μm. Males possess two annuli in the lip region, a stylet 27-32.5 μm in length with round knobs sloping slightly posteriorly, lateral fields with three lines, spicules 20-28 μm long and the presence of a short cloacal tube. Second-stage juveniles possess three lip annuli, a stylet 28-31 μm in length with well-developed knobs projected anteriorly and three lines along the lateral field. The pointed tail, 52-65 μm long, possesses a mucro-like tip and a hyaline region, 24.5-35 μm long. Large phasmids with a lens-like structure are located 2-6 annuli posterior to the anus. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the species has unique SSU, LSU D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships of the three rDNA sequences of C. sinensis n. sp. and other cystoid/cyst nematodes are analysed together with a comparison of other species within the genus Cryphodera. PMID:23782683

  11. Description of Pratylenchus dunensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae), a root-lesion nematode associated with the dune grass Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña, de la E.; Moens, M.; Aelst, van A.C.; Karssen, G.

    2006-01-01

    A root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus dunensis sp. n., is described and illustrated from Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link, a grass occurring abundantly in coastal dunes of Atlantic Europe. The new species is characterised by medium sized (454-579 ¿ m) slender, vermiform, females and males having two lip

  12. Apratylenchus vietnamensis gen. n., sp. n. and A. binhi gen. n., sp. n., sedentary Pratylenchidae (Nematoda:Tylenchida) from coffee in Vietnam, with proposal of Apratylenchinae subfam. n.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, P.Q.; Waeyenberge, L.; Nguyen, C.N.; Baldwin, J.G.; Karssen, G.; Moens, M.

    2009-01-01

    Apratylenchinae subfam. n. is proposed within the Pratylenchidae to include Apratylenchus gen. n. and two new species, A. vietnamensis gen. n., sp. n. and A. binhi gen. n., sp. n., from coffee plantations in Vietnam. Apratylenchus gen. n. is distinguished by the presence of transverse rows of cuticu

  13. Parhadjelia cairinae n. sp. (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in the Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae), from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    A new species of Parahadjelia occurs in the muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species differs from Parhadjelia neglecta Lent and Freitas, 1939, in the body size, in the spicules shape and ratio of spicules, and in having 2 pairs of sessile papillae near the tail tip of the male. The characters exhibited by P. neglecta and the new species validate its generic status distinct from Hadjelia.

  14. Two species of Synhimantus (dispharynx) railliet, Henry and Sisoff, 1912 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae), in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-10-01

    Members of 2 species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) live under the lining of the gizzard in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) occurs in Thraupis episcopus, Turdus grayi, Caryothraustes poliogaster, Platyrinchus cancrominus, Ramphocaenus melanurus, Vermivora peregrina, and Geothlypis poliocephala. A single male, in Turdus grayi, apparently representing a new species, distinguishable from all other species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) by having similar shaped left and right spicules, is described but not named.

  15. Skrjabinura gnedina, 1933 (Nematoda: Seuratoidea: Seuratidae), in birds from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    Two species of Skrjabinura Gnedina, 1933, were collected in the intestines of birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica. Skrjabinura mesoamericana n. sp. inhabits Dendrocincla homochroa, Calocitta formosa, Dendrocolaptes certhia, Basileuterus rufifrons, and Chordeiles acutipennis. The new species differs from all species of the genus by having dissimilar spicules, the right having a distinctive thin and bent handle on the proximal end. The new species can be further distinguished from Skrjabinura pomatostomi and Skrjabinura brevicaudatum by having subequal versus equal spicules. Skrjabinura mesoamericana resembles S. brevicaudatum in the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae but differs in the vulva position and in having smaller eggs. The new species differs from S. potamostomi in having 6 versus 8 pairs of postcloacal papillae. Among those species having subequal spicules, the new species further differs from Skrjabinura spiralis in having 1 pair of paracloacal papillae and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae, versus no paracloacal papillae and 4 pairs of postcloacal papillae, and in the vulva position. The new species is perhaps most similar to Skrjabinura vali, from which it further differs by having 3 pairs of precloacal, 1 pair of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal versus 2 pairs of precloacal, 2 pairs of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae in the vulva position and in the shape of the eggs. Skrjabinura vali (Guerrero, 1971) Chabaud, 1978, originally described in Piaya cayana from Venezuela, occurs in the small intestine of P. cayana, as well as the new hosts, Crotophaga sulcirostris and Myiarchus tyrannulus, in the ACG, a new locality. Our specimens differ from the original description in the body length of the female, the numbers of postanal papillae of male tail, and the size of eggs.

  16. Procyrnea chabaud, 1958 (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, including descriptions of 3 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Four species of Procyrnea were collected in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Procyrnea brevicaudata n. sp. in Crypturellus cinnamomeus resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. ameerae, P. dollfusi, and P. aptera in lacking lateral alae but differs from all these species in having 2 longitudinal ridges on the left side of the body, in having a sinistral rather than ventral vulvar opening, and in having dorsally bent rather than straight female tails. Procyrnea mawsonae n. sp., in Buteo magnirostris, is similar to P. strialata in body size and in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but differs by having longer and differently shaped spicules, and by lacking a single preanal sessile papilla. Procyrnea mclennanae n. sp., in Heliomaster constantii, is similar to P. strialata (Zhang, 1991) and P. mawsonae n. sp. in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but it can be distinguished from P. strialata and P. mawsonae in having 4 rather than 3 small teeth on the interior border of the pseudolabia, in having unequal rather than equal lateral alae, and in having longer spicules. Procyrnea sp., on the basis of a single adult male in Campephilus guatemalensis, resembles P. suraiyae, P. tulostoma, and P. unilateralis in possessing a single and long lateral ala, but can be distinguished from P. suraiyae and P. tulostoma in the length of the left spicule, in the left spicule having a bifid distal end, the right spicule having a rounded distal end rather than both spicules having pointed distal ends, and in having the lateral ala beginning at the lip region instead of posterior to the cervical papillae. It differs from P. uncinipenis in having a spicule ratio of 1:3.5 rather than 1:2.5, in the left spicule having a bifid rather than alate distal end, and in the absence of a single preanal papilla.

  17. Torquatoides trogoni n. sp. and Excisa ramphastina n. sp. (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2004-06-01

    Two new species of habronematid nematodes are described in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Torquatoides trogoni n. sp., in Trogon massena, can be distinguished from T. torquata, T. bengalensis, and T. crotophaga in lacking lateral alae. Among species lacking lateral alae, the new species differs from T. balanocephala in having 14 versus 8-10 cephalic cuticular plaques, 21-22 versus 13-17 pairs of preanal papillae, and a beak-shaped versus U-shaped gubernaculum. The new species differs from T. singhi in body length, in having 21-22 versus 10 pairs of precloacal papillae, longer spicules, and larger eggs. The new species differs from T. crotophaga, the only other species known from Central America, in lacking lateral alae, and having 14 versus 6 cephalic cuticular plaques, 21-22 versus 17 pairs of precloacal and 3 versus 2 pairs of postcloacal papillae, and a gubernaculum. Excisa ramphastina n. sp., in Ramphastos sulfuratus, can be distinguished from E. excisa, E. biloba, E. buckleyi, E. dentifera, and E. khalili in having 1 lateral ala versus none, cervical papillae anterior versus posterior to the nerve ring, and asymmetrical caudal alae. Excisa ramphastina is similar to E. curvata in having cervical papillae anterior to the nerve ring but differs in having 1 lateral ala versus none, asymmetrical caudal alae, an average spicule ratio of 1:4.4 versus 1:3.3, and 4 versus 2 pairs of sessile papillae. The new species differs from E. columbi in having 1 versus 2 lateral alae, in the length of the spicules, in having a different spicule ratio, and in the numbers of sessile papillae.

  18. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

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    Vera Lucia M. Klein

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.

  19. Huffmanela markgracei sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from buccal cavity of Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico off Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    Eggs of Huffmanela markgracei sp. n. infected one of three Atlantic sharpnose sharks, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson) (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) captured by bottom long-line in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico off Padre Island, Texas. Eggs in the skin formed sinuous tracks (1-8 eggs wide; 1-4 eggs deep; 150 eggs/mm2) occupying a swath of the skin 22 cm x 2 cm on the tongue, branchial arches and the dorsal surface of the buccal cavity. Eggs had transverse eggshell ridges (branching and non-branching), had shells that were clear, amber or brown, and measured 90-113 microm (x = 102 +/- 4; n = 190) long, 38-54 microm (43 +/- 3; 190) wide, 3-5 microm (4 +/- 0; 190) in eggshell thickness with protruding polar plugs 8-12 microm (10 +/- 1; 190) wide. Apparently fully developed larvae in eggs were 255-335 microm (299 +/- 26; 30) long, 8-10 microm (9 +/- 1; 30) wide, and in-folded 5-6 (6 +/- 0; 30) times. Some of these larvae were emerging from eggs in the skin. The new species differs from congeners by the combination of having a large, spindle-shaped egg, transverse eggshell ridges, an envelope that is smooth, tightly-apposed to the eggshell and surrounds the entire eggshell inclusive of the polar plugs, and a large larva. This is the first report of a species of Huffmanela Moravec, 1987 from a chondrichthyan in the Gulf of Mexico and from a shark not assigned to Carcharhinus. PMID:24261136

  20. Contracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) infection in Magellanic penguins (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae) on the coast of Rio de Janeiro State

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina D.E. Campos; Bárbara Bianca N. Pereira; Salvatore Siciliano; Carlos Henrique C. Costa; Nádia R.P. Almosny; Beatriz Brener

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of infections and the disease induced by Contracaecum plagiaticium and Contracaecum pelagicum in Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster. 1781 (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae) were reported on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Parasites of the genus Contracaecum were present in all of the 11 studied animals. Co-infections by Csontracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium were observed in three hosts (27.27%). Gross lesions included hyperemia of the esophagus and/or stomach i...