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Sample records for bursal disease virus

  1. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  2. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

  3. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYan-Fei; WangWei; 等

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  4. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  6. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV) IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage...

  7. Inflammatory response of different chicken lines and B haplotypes to infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.;

    1998-01-01

    Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post...

  8. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... this section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  9. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  10. Serum Antibody Levels against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Nigerian Village Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chukwudi Okwor, Didacus Chukwuemeka Eze* and Kodi Okonkwo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The serum antibody levels against infectious bursal disease (IBD virus in unvaccinated village chickens (n=484 reared in and around Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria were studied using indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Result showed a high seroprevalence (88.4%. Therefore, there is need for government involvement in the control of this disease in village chickens through extension services and mass vaccination of poultry population.

  11. Reciprocal Antibody and Complement Responses of Two Chicken Breeds to Vaccine Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

    2006-01-01

    Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular c

  12. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Jingping Ge; Qi An; Shanshan Song; Dongni Gao; Wenxiang Ping

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the...

  13. Immunogenicity of formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine inactivated infectious bursal disease virus in broiler chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HABIB Mudasser; HUSSAIN Iftikhar; IRSHAD Hamid; YANG Zong-zhao; SHUAI Jiang-bing; CHEN Ning

    2006-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was inactivated by two different chemicals-formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine (BEI). Formaldehyde was used at 0.1% and 0.2%, while BEI was used at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L.These four vaccines were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of broiler chicks.Both BEI-inactivated vaccines gave relatively higher antibody titers and were almost twice as efficient as formaldehyde-inactivated ones.

  14. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

  15. Molecular Typing of Field Isolates from two outbreaks of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from Pakistan

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    Q. M. Khan and M. J. Arshed

    Full Text Available A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR/RFLP technique was used for the identification and characterization of Pakistani field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. A total of 8 bursa samples were collected from two outbreaks during September and October 2003 from Tehsil Sumandri, Dist. Faisalabad with 40-50% mortality in commercially reared broiler chicken flocks experiencing signs typical of infectious bursal disease (IBD. Four samples were found to contain IBDV genome by One Step RTPCR using VP2 gene specific primers. The assay amplified a 743 bp fragment from 701-1444 nucleotides. RT-PCR product was further subjected to restriction digestion using MboI and MvaI restriction enzymes. A third enzyme SspI was used to identify the very virulent phenotype. The RFLP profile was found similar for all four isolates with MvaI enzyme but different for one isolate when digested with MboI. All three MvaI-positive viruses were further found positive for SspI digestion and yielded RFLP profile similar to vvIBDV in Europe whereas one isolate was SspI negative and had a RFLP profile similar to classic IBDV strains. The clinical history of high mortality and SspI restriction enzyme positivity revealed that vvIBDV strains exist in Pakistan. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 297-300

  16. Isolation of novel variants of infectious bursal disease virus from different outbreaks in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India.

  17. Modifications of the 3 '-UTR stem-loop of infectious bursal disease virus are allowed without influencing replication or virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.

    2004-01-01

    Many questions regarding the initiation of replication and translation of the segmented, double-stranded RNA genome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remain to be solved. Computer analysis shows that the non-polyadenylated extreme 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the coding strand of both g

  18. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Mic

  19. Airborne virus sampling: Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger “AGI-30”, OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers’ physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. [b]Results.[/b] Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96% and the MD8 (100% were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%. Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23% was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01, indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log[sub]10[/sub] 50% egg infective dose (EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the AGI-30, 2.5 log[sub]10[/sub] EID50 m [sup]-3[/sup] for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log[sub]10[/sub] EID[sub]50[/sub] m [sup]-3[/sup] for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air

  20. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus-Host Interactions: Multifunctional Viral Proteins that Perform Multiple and Differing Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yao; Zheng, Shijun J.

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). The consequent immunosuppression increases susceptibility to other infectious diseases and the risk of subsequent vaccination failure as well. Since the genome of IBDV is relatively small, it has a limited number of proteins inhibiting the cellular antiviral responses and acting as destroyers to the host defense system. Thus, these virulence factors must be multifunctional in order to complete the viral replication cycle in a host cell. Insights into the roles of these viral proteins along with their multiple cellular targets in different pathways will give rise to a rational design for safer and effective vaccines. Here we summarize the recent findings that focus on the virus–cell interactions during IBDV infection at the protein level. PMID:28098808

  1. Inactivation of infectious bursal disease virus by binary ethylenimine and formalin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this experiment conducted to study the inactivation dynamics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by binary ethylenimine (BEI) in comparison with formalin, IBDV was isolated from the bursa of infected chickens and its confirmation was done by agar gel precipitation test. Viral suspensions were subjected to inactivation with BEI and formalin for pre-set time intervals. BEI was employed at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L while formalin was used at 0.1% and 0.2%. Sampling was done at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h of incubation and samples were tested for their inactivation status in 9-day-old embryonated eggs and 3-week-old broiler chickens. IBDV was completely inactivated by 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L BEI after 36 h of incubation at 37 ℃,whereas formalin at 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations inactivated IBDV in 24 h.

  2. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: Development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and histopath......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test...... vaccine strain widely used in the European poultry industry. The method, which is highly specific, fast and inexpensive, can be applied in all laboratories with basal PCR capabilities and equipment....

  3. Pathogenicity and immunosuppresive properties of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Murmu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effects of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 500 broiler chickens were vaccinated with the virus through oral route at 10 and 17 days of age (102-103 EID50/dose. Chickens were also vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (Hitchner B1 orally at 14 and 21 days old. Chickens were euthanized (at 12, 14, 16, 20, 23, 26 days of age after measuring body weight. Bursa of Fabricius was examined for any gross lesion, weighed and processed for histological investigations. Bursa to body weight ratio and bursal lesion scoring were made to evaluate pathogenicity of the virus. Blood samples were analyzed for antibody response to ND vaccine virus using HI test. Results showed that the GM-97 strain of IBDV induced mild to moderate depletion of lymphoid cells in the center of bursal follicles and non-significant difference in bursa to body weight ratio amongst vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. Chickens responded well to ND vaccine by mounting high level of serum NDV specific HI antibody titers. It can be concluded from the present study that GM-97 strain of IBDV has mild pathogenicity but is not immunosuppressive.

  4. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in vaccinated commercial broiler flocks in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia.

  5. Comparative Studies on Detection of Antibodies against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus with Test Strips and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinliang ZHANG; Wentong ZHANG; Sishun HU; Dingren BI; Xiliang WANG; Yuncai XIAO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to compare the detection results of antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus with test strips and agar gel immunodiffusion method. [Method] Antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus in chicken serum were detected using test strips developed in our laboratory, and the results were comparad~with that using traditional agar diffusion method. [Result] The comparative study of the two methods showed that the sensitivity of test strips was eight times over agar gel immunodiffusion; test strips showed higher detection rate in the deter- mination test of 216 clinical samples, with high specificity, easy preservation, and simple and rapid operation, thereby being more suitable for the monitoring of clinical antibodies. [Conclusion] Test strips could replace the existing serological methods, having great promotion and application value in antibody monitoring.

  6. Histamine levels in embryonic chicken livers infected with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinju; He, Lei; Cheng, Xiangchao; Li, Jing; Jia, Yanyan; Yang, Danfang

    2015-11-15

    Histamine is an endogenous nitrogenous compound with extensive effects on immunologic cells and involved in many physiological functions. The current aim was to determine histamine levels in embryonic liver and its association with the pathogenicity of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolate serially passaged in chicken embryos. A vvIBDV isolate and the passaged viruses were inoculated into SPF embryonated chicken eggs (0.2 ml per egg) via the chorioallantoic membrane. Embryonic livers were collected at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post-inoculation and histamine contents were quantified by fluorescence spectrophotometry analyses. Results showed that the histamine content in embryonic livers infected with the original vvIBDV isolate and the early passaged viruses significantly increased 48 h post-inoculation, as compared with the adapted IBDV isolate (phistamine content in dead embryos was markedly increased compared with live embryos (phistamine content in embryonic livers and an elevation in histidine decarboxylase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that an excess of histamine correlates with inflammatory responses during vvIBDV infection. This study provides an incremental step in the understanding of the pathogenesis of vvIBDV.

  7. Conformational analysis of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV derived cell penetrating peptide (CPP analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay G. Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to develop peptide analogs of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD virus VP5 protein segment having cell penetrating ability to improve their interaction with cargo molecule (Nucleic acid without affecting the backbone conformation. Materials and Methods: IBDV VP5 protein segment designated as RATH peptide were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and their solution conformation was elucidated using CD spectroscopy in polar (water and apolar (TFE solvents. Cell penetrating ability of RATH-CONH2 was observed using FITC labeled peptide internalization in to HeLa cells under fluorescent microscopy. The efficacy of RATH analog interactions with nucleic acids was evaluated using FITC labeled oligonucleotides by fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay. Results: CD spectra of RATH analogs in water and apolar trifluroethanol (TFE helped to compare their secondary structures which were almost similar with dominant beta conformations suggesting successful induction of positive charge in the analogs without affecting back bone conformation of CPP designed. Cell penetrating ability of RATH CONH2 in HeLa cell was more than 90%. The fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay demonstrated successful interaction of amide analogs with nucleic acid. Conclusion: Intentional changes made in IBDV derived peptide RATH COOH to RATH CONH2 did not showed major changes in backbone conformation and such modifications may help to improve the cationic charge in most CPPs to interact with nucleic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 307-312

  8. Study on Propagation of Chicken Infectious Bursal Disease Virus on Vero Cells Using Microcarriers in Fermentor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Gang; WANG Hong-jun; SUN Hui-ling

    2002-01-01

    It was in flask optimization tests proved that 2% serum, pH 7.0, 5:10 000 inoculation concentration of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and 108 hours cultivation for IBDV harvest after its inoculation were the optimal conditions when IBDV was propagated on Vero cells. 250 mi self-made spinner bottle and 5 L stirring fermentor tests proved that IBDV could maintain higher titers for a long time and the highest titers of IBDV in a spinner bottle and a fermentor were 8. 875 and 8.58 ( - lgTCID50/0.1 ml) respectively when IBDV was proliferated on Vero cells using 2 g/L microcarriers in a spinner bottle and a fermentor and was cultivated under the optimum conditions obtained from flask tests after Vero cells had developed a confluent monolayer on microcarriers, which were at least one titer higher than the highest titer in the traditional rolling bottle. All these results suggested that this technology could be applied to large scale production for IBDV.

  9. Molecular characterization of field infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagbo, Ijeoma O.; Shittu, Ismaila; Nwosuh, Chika I.; Ezeifeka, George O.; Odibo, Frederick J. C.; Michel, Linda O.; Jackwood, Daral J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from outbreaks in nine states in Nigeria through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis of portions of the VP2 and VP1 genes and to determine the presence or absence of reassortant viruses. Materials and Methods: A total of 377 bursa samples were collected from 201 suspected IBD outbreaks during 2009 to 2014 from nine states in Nigeria. Samples were subjected to RT-PCR using VP2 and VP1 gene specific primers, and the resulting PCR products were sequenced. Results: A total of 143 samples were positive for IBDV by RT-PCR. These assays amplified a 743 bp fragment from nt 701 to 1444 in the IBDV VP2 hypervariable region (hvVP2) of segment A and a 722 bp fragment from nt 168 to 889 in the VP1 gene of segment B. RT-PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared with reference IBDV sequences obtained from GenBank. All but one hvVP2 sequence showed similarity to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) reference strains, yet only 3 of the VP1 67 VP1 sequences showed similarity to the VP1 gene of vvIBDV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new lineage of Nigerian reassortant IBDV strains. Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of genome segment A and B of IBDV in Nigeria confirmed the existence of vvIBDV in Nigeria. In addition, we noted the existence of reassortant IBDV strains with novel triplet amino acid motifs at positions 145, 146 and 147 in the reassorted Nigerian IBDV. PMID:28096615

  10. Molecular characterization of field infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma O. Nwagbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV from outbreaks in nine states in Nigeria through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequence analysis of portions of the VP2 and VP1 genes and to determine the presence or absence of reassortant viruses. Materials and Methods: A total of 377 bursa samples were collected from 201 suspected IBD outbreaks during 2009 to 2014 from nine states in Nigeria. Samples were subjected to RT-PCR using VP2 and VP1 gene specific primers, and the resulting PCR products were sequenced. Results: A total of 143 samples were positive for IBDV by RT-PCR. These assays amplified a 743 bp fragment from nt 701 to 1444 in the IBDV VP2 hypervariable region (hvVP2 of segment A and a 722 bp fragment from nt 168 to 889 in the VP1 gene of segment B. RT-PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared with reference IBDV sequences obtained from GenBank. All but one hvVP2 sequence showed similarity to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV reference strains, yet only 3 of the VP1 67 VP1 sequences showed similarity to the VP1 gene of vvIBDV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new lineage of Nigerian reassortant IBDV strains. Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of genome segment A and B of IBDV in Nigeria confirmed the existence of vvIBDV in Nigeria. In addition, we noted the existence of reassortant IBDV strains with novel triplet amino acid motifs at positions 145, 146 and 147 in the reassorted Nigerian IBDV.

  11. Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on Erythrocyte Immune Adherence of Chickens Inoculated with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and forty specific pathogen free leghorn chickens were randomly divided into four groups and reared in isolated pens. The tested chickens were negative to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 25 d old. Group 1 was treated with saline, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 were inoculated with 0.3 mL IBDV suspension intranasally the next day.Groups 3 and 4 were also administered with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) intramuscularly twice daily at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 BW, respectively, until 31 d old. The erythrocyte-C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) and the erythrocyte-C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) were measured at 25, 29, 32, 35, and 38 d old. The results showed that IBDV significantly reduced E-C3bRR and E-ICRR when compared with the control group (P < 0.05), while simultaneous administration of APS with IBDV maintained E-C3bRR at similar levels to the control group (P> 0.05) and increased E-ICRR when compared with the control group and the group non-treated with APS (P < 0.05). APS treatment reduced the morbidity and mortality of chickens inoculated with IBDV (P < 0.05). The results suggest that APS may enhance the immune adherence of chickens erythrocytes by affecting the activity and/or the number of complement receptors on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings can be beneficial in providing an understanding of the basic mechanisms required for the rational application of APS in modern medicine.

  12. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens.

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    Jingping Ge

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%, and significantly higher than the control group (50%. The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases.

  13. Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit.

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    Marina Arnold

    Full Text Available Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis. Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. Both, subcutaneous as well as oral vaccination regiments with the heat-inactivated but otherwise untreated yeast induced IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in mice and chickens. A full protection against a subsequent IBDV infection was achieved by subcutaneous inoculation of only milligram amounts of yeast per chicken. Oral vaccination also generated protection: while mortality was observed in control animals after virus challenge, none of the vaccinees died and ca. one-tenth were protected as indicated by the absence of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Recombinant K. lactis was thus indicated as a potent tool for the induction of a protective immune response by different applications. Subcutaneously applied K. lactis that expresses the IBDV VP2 was shown to function as an efficacious anti-IBD subunit vaccine.

  14. Analysis of the function of D279N mutation of VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiao-le; GAO Hong-lei; GAO Yu-long; Nicolas Eterradossi; WANG Xiao-mei; LU Zhen; WANG Nian; CHEN Yu-ming; ZHANG Li-zhou; GAO Li; LI Kai; REN Xian-gang; WANG Yong-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is responsible for the highly contagious infectious bursal disease of chickens. Further understanding the gene-function is necessary to design the tailored vaccine. The amino acid residue 279, located on strand PF of VP2, is one of the three residues that have been reported to be involved in cel-tropism but with some inconsistency. In this study, to further clarify the amino acids involved in the cel tropism of IBDV, a series of mutations about residue 279 were introduced into the VP2 of vvIBDV Gx strain. With the reverse genetic system, we found single mutation of D279N, double mutations of D279N/A284T or Q253H/D279N were not enough to adapt IBDV to chicken embryo ifbroblast (CEF) cel. To evaluate whether residue 279 could inlfuence the replication and virulence of IBDV, the virus rGxHT-279 with three mutations (Q253H/D279N/A284T) was rescued and evaluated. Results showed that the mutation of residue 279 in VP2 had no efifcient effects on both the replication efifciencyin vitro and the virulence to SPF chickens of IBDV. In summary, the results demonstrated that residue 279 of VP2 did not contribute efifciently to cel tropism, replication efifciency, and virulence of IBDV at least in some strains. These ifndings provided further information for understanding the gene function of IBDV.

  15. Response of white leghorn chickens to infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J and infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Sellers, Holly S

    2012-03-01

    The effects of viral-induced immunosuppression on the infectious status (viremia and antibody) and shedding of avian leukosis virus (ALV) were studied. Experimental white leghorn chickens were inoculated with ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at day of hatch with the ALV-J ADOL prototype strain Hcl, the Lukert strain of IBDV, or both. Appropriate groups were exposed a second time with the Lukert strain at 2 wk of age. Serum samples were collected at 2 and 4 wk of age for IBDV antibody detection. Samples for ALV-J viremia, antibody detection, and cloacal shedding were collected at 4, 10, 18, and 30 wk of age. The experiment was terminated at 30 wk of age, and birds were necropsied and examined grossly for tumor development. Neoplasias detected included hemangiomas, bile duct carcinoma, and anaplastic sarcoma of the nerve. Control birds and IBDV-infected birds were negative for ALV-J-induced viremia, antibodies, and cloacal shedding throughout experiment. By 10 wk, ALV-J-infected groups began to develop antibodies to ALV-J. However, at 18 wk the incidence of virus isolation increased in both groups, with a simultaneous decrease in antibody levels. At 30 wk, 97% of birds in the ALV-J group were virus positive and 41% were antibody positive. In the ALV-J/IDBV group, 96% of the birds were virus positive at 30 wk, and 27% had antibodies to ALV-J. In this study, infection with a mild classic strain of IBDV did not influence ALV-J infection or antibody production.

  16. Adjuvant activity of chicken interleukin-12 co-administered with infectious bursal disease virus recombinant VP2 antigen in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bor Sheu; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Lin, Cheng Chung; Shien, Jui Hung; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-02-15

    A recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/VP2) expressing infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV) VP2 gene has been constructed. After purification and identification of rFPV/VP2, the adjuvant activity of the recombinant chicken IL-12 (rchIL-12), synthesized by our previous construct of rFPV/chIL-12, in rFPV/VP2-expressed rVP2 antigen was assessed in one-week-old specific-pathogen free chickens. The results indicated that rchIL-12 alone or rchIL-12 plus mineral oil (MO) co-administered with rVP2 antigen significantly enhanced the production of serum neutralization (SN) antibody against IBDV, compared to those with MO alone. The SN titers in groups receiving rVP2 antigen with MO alone were more inconsistent after vaccination. On the other hand, rchIL-12 significantly stimulated IFN-γ production in serum and in splenocyte cultured supernatant, suggesting that rchIL-12 alone or plus MO significantly induced a cell-mediated immune response. Finally, bursal lesion protection from very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) challenge in chickens receiving rVP2 antigen with rchIL-12 alone or plus MO was much more effective than that with MO alone at two weeks after boosting. Taken together, rchIL-12 alone augmented in vivo the induction of a primary and also a secondary SN antibody production and a cell-mediated immunity against IBDV rVP2 antigen, which conferred the enhancement of bursal lesion protective efficacy from vvIBDV challenge. These data indicated that a potential for chIL-12 as immunoadjuvant for chicken vaccine development such as IBDV rVP2 antigen.

  17. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  18. Impact of heterophil granulocyte depletion caused by 5-fluorouracil on infectious bursal disease virus infection in specific pathogen free chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Igyarto, Botond-Zoltan; Magyar, Attila

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the cytostatic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which causes depletion of heterophil granulocytes, on clinical symptoms and histological lesions during the progress of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV) infection in chickens. The aim...... was to disclose the mechanism behind the clinical disease symptoms. Three groups of specific pathogen free chickens were used for the experiment. Chickens in groups 1 and 3 were pretreated with 5-FU, while chickens in group 2 were treated with a placebo. After 5 days, the chickens in groups 2 and 3 were......-PCR results. In the 5-FU pretreated chickens, IBDV caused only mild clinical symptoms, even though histological alterations similar to alterations caused by IBDV were still observed. The 5-FU pretreatment resulted in severe heterophil granulocyte depletion by days 2 and 3 after infection (post inoculation...

  19. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains.Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2 gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST, Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium in 1987, Africa (Egypt around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba by 1995 and South America (Brazil around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection.To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  20. A one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection and discrimination of infectious bursal disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xiaole

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. It causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. The objective of this study is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the detection and discrimination of IBDV. Results In this study, we applied reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP to detect IBDV in one simple step and further identified the very virulent strain from non-vvIBDVs with a simply post-amplification restriction enzyme analysis. Based on sequence analysis, a set of two inner, two outer and two loop primers were designed to target the VP5 gene and they showed great specificity with no cross reaction to the other common avian pathogens. The detection limit determined by both color change inspection and agarose gel electrophoresis was 28 copies viral RNA, which was almost as sensitive as a real-time RT-PCR previous developed in our laboratory. We also identified a unique Tfi I restriction site located exclusively in non-vvIBDVs, so very virulent strain could be distinguished from current vaccine strains. By screening a panel of clinical specimens, results showed that this method is high feasible in clinical settings, and it obtained results 100% correlated with real-time RT-PCR. Conclusion RT-LAMP is a rapid, simple and sensitive assay. In combination with the Tfi I restriction analysis, this method holds great promises not only in laboratory detection and discrimination of IBDV but also in large scale field and clinical studies.

  1. Vaccination against Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Recombinant T4 Bacteriophage Displaying Viral Protein VP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Chang CAO; Quan-Cheng SHI; Jing-Yun MA; Qing-Mei XIE; Ying-Zuo BI

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop a desirable inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine against the very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV), we tried to take advantage of the emerging T4 bacteriophage surface protein display system. The major immunogen protein VP2 from the vvIBDV strain HK46 was fused to the nonessential T4 phage surface capsid protein, a small outer capsid (SOC) protein, resulting in the 49 kDa SOC-VP2 fusion protein, which was verified by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Immunoelectromicroscopy showed that the recombinant VP2 protein was successfully displayed on the surface of the T4 phage. The recombinant VP2 protein is antigenic and showed reactivities to various monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against IBDV, whereas the wild-type phage T4 could not react to any mAb. In addition, the recombinant VP2 protein is immunogenic and elicited specific antibodies in immunized specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. More significantly, immunization of SPF chickens with the recombinant T4-VP2 phage protected them from infection by the vvIBDV strain HK46. When challenged with the vvIBDV strain HK46 at a dose of 100 of 50% lethal dose (LD50) per chicken 4 weeks after the booster was given, the group vaccinated with the T4-VP2 recombinant phage showed no clinical signs of disease or death, wh ereas the unvaccinated group and the group vaccinated with the wild-type T4phage exhibited 100% clinical signs of disease and bursal damages, and 30%-40% mortality. Collectively,the data herein showed that the T4-displayed VP2 protein might be an inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine candidate against vvIBDV.

  2. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selegean, Mircea; Putz, Mihai V.; Rugea, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs) of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD) starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc) principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity. PMID:20111675

  3. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rugea

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.

  4. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  5. MDV-1 VP22 conjugated VP2 enhancing immune response against infectious bursal disease virus by DNA vaccination in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    VP22 of Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) could function in protein transduction. In this study, an infectious bursal disease virus VP2 gene was fused to the carboxyl termini of VP22. It showed that the fusion protein did not spread into the bystander cells from the cells transfected with pVP22-VP2, as the VP22 alone could. The VP22 proteins were found to be translocated into all the nuclei in the neighboring COS-1 cells, as analyzed by a fluorescence assay. Although mice were immunized with the recombinant DNAs mixed with polyethylenimine (PEI) at a dose of 1:2, it failed to enhance the antibody response against IBDV VP2, as measured by the indirect ELISA assay, yet the cell mediated immune response was significantly increased. The ratio of CD8+/CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in the immunized group with the fusion genes, compared with the group immunized with VP2 (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that VP22 indeed enhances the cell-mediated response in the fused VP2 in a mice model system, possibly due to the fact that the IBDV VP2 could be carried into the surrounding cells at a limited level under pressure from MDV VP22.

  6. Airborne virus sampling - Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhao, Yang; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Wang, Wei; Fabri, T.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection l

  7. The effect of infectious bursal disease virus induced immunosuppression on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the field, poultry are exposed to a variety of infectious agents, many of which are immunosuppressive. Co-infections between these agents are common, and these co-infections have effects on disease, immune response, and vaccine efficacy. The effect of co-infections in poultry between immunosupp...

  8. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne;

    2007-01-01

    or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day I post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8......In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...

  9. Genotypic characterization of Indian isolates of infectious bursal disease virus strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharsini, C V; Senthilkumar, T M A; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-03-01

    The reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is used for the differentiation of classical virulent (cv), virulent (v) and very virulent (vv) strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates from chicken bursal tissues in southern states of India. In the present study, six different isolates (MB11, HY12, PY12, BGE14, VCN14 and NKL14) of IBDV strains were subjected for genotyping along with vaccine virus (Georgia, intermediate strain) using RT-PCR for amplification of a 743 bp sequence in the hypervariable region of VP2 gene followed by restriction enzyme digestion with 5 different restriction enzymes (BspMI, SacI, HhaI, StuI and SspI). The RT-PCR products obtained from vvIBDV strains were digested by SspI enzyme except PY12, BGE14 and MB11 isolates. The SacI digested the isolate MB11, PY12 and the vaccine strain, but it did not cleave the very virulent isolates of IBDV. HhaI cleaved all the isolates with different restriction profile patterns. StuI digested all the vvIBDV isolates and BspMI was not able to differentiate field isolates from vaccine strain. Though RT-PCR combined with RFLP is a genotypic method, further confirmation of serotypes to distinguish the vvIBDV from cvIBDV has to be carried out using pathogenicity studies.

  10. The Oligomerization Domain of VP3, the Scaffolding Protein of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus, Plays a Critical Role in Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Antonio; Oña, Ana; Abaitua, Fernando; González, Dolores; Clemente, Roberto; Ruiz-Díaz, Jose A.; Castón, Jose R.; Pazos, Florencio; Rodriguez, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) capsids are formed by a single protein layer containing three polypeptides, pVP2, VP2, and VP3. Here, we show that the VP3 protein synthesized in insect cells, either after expression of the complete polyprotein or from a VP3 gene construct, is proteolytically degraded, leading to the accumulation of product lacking the 13 C-terminal residues. This finding led to identification of the VP3 oligomerization domain within a 24-amino-acid stretch near the C-terminal end of the polypeptide, partially overlapping the VP1 binding domain. Inactivation of the VP3 oligomerization domain, by either proteolysis or deletion of the polyprotein gene, abolishes viruslike particle formation. Formation of VP3-VP1 complexes in cells infected with a dual recombinant baculovirus simultaneously expressing the polyprotein and VP1 prevented VP3 proteolysis and led to efficient virus-like particle formation in insect cells. PMID:12743301

  11. Key points in the presentation of the infectious bursal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Jaimes-Olaya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bursal disease or Gumboro disease is an immunosuppressive pathology of birds, which has great importance in the poultry industry due to large economic losses that it produces not only for its direct effect, but because of the susceptibility to secondary infections, interference with commercial vaccines, reducing the effective use of them. The disease is produced by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, which is an RNA genome birnavirus, with high capacity for mutation, so the agent is continually evolving. The pathology has three types of clinical presentation: a subclinical form, a mild or moderate clinical form and a severe clinical form. However, the type of manifestation is determined mainly by three factors: the age of birds at the time of infection, the type of strain or acting or genetic variability of it, and the immunity degree. In this article, we discuss each of these factors and their importance in the presentation of the disease. These elements are vital in order to establish effective prevention and control programs.

  12. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Noda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 (­ 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a

  13. 鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒超强毒株HQ0806的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strain HQ0806

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利勃; 高慎阳

    2011-01-01

    为分离、鉴定鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒,通过对辽宁阜新近郊某鸡场数群15日龄左右的病鸡的临床症状、病理变化、病毒分离、纯化、动物回归、血清学检测、病毒形态观察等检测.结果显示:被检病毒效价达到10-5.8/0.2 mL,在动物回归试验中其引起发病率达100%,死亡率为83%,剖检可见法氏囊呈"紫葡萄样"外观,胸腺萎缩,骨髓脂肪化等病变,表现了超强毒株的致病特点.说明分离到一株鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒并命名为H00806%To isolate and identify an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).A series of detections, such as pathology, serological test, animal challenge and virus morphology, were applied on layer chicken died of suspected IBDV, which were found from some flocks with immune failure in Fuxin Shi suburb according to the clinical symptom,. The isolated virus was characterized as a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) because of its strong virulence pathogenicity characteristics observed in ELD50 (10-5.8/0.2 mL), animal challenge (mortality with 83% and morbidity with 100% in inoculated 4 weeks chicken), as well as pathological changes of purple grape in bursa of fabricius, thymus decrease and fatty marrow. Conclusion is: a new infectious bursal disease virus field strain, named HQ0806, was isolated and identified.

  14. Antiserum development for chicken infectious bursal disease virus%鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒抗血清的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占伟; 邵国青; 刘茂军; 冯志新; 王丽; 高云飞; 周开华; 尹秀凤

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]This research developed high performing and safe chicken infectious bursal disease (IBD) prevention and treatment products to ensure the high efficiency of chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) antiserum and to solve the safety and immunological stress problems at the same time. [ Method ] Using SPF chicken as the immune animal, the corresponding IBDV antiserum was prepared according to the requirements from《Veterinary Biological Products Technical Guidance and Principle Experimental Studies 》 and 《Veterinary Pharmacopoeia of P.R. China》(2010 Ed). After detoxification treatment, the semi-finished and finished antiserums underwent production inspections. [Result] For the antiserums obtained from IBDV NJ immunized SPF chickens at 4-weeks old, the serum titer before detoxification treatment was 5≥1:64, while the serum titer after detoxification treatment was 5≥1:32. From the test results of semi-finished and finished serums, the antiserum products after detoxification treatment were orange-hued, sterile, without mycoplas-ma, and without exogenous virus; the formaldehyde and thimerosal residues also did not exceed the prescribed standards, which were safe to use in mice, guinea pigs, and SPF chickens. [Conclusion]The IBDV antiserum products, developed according to the standards of (Veterinary Pharmacopoeia of P. R. China), could be used for emergency IBD prevention and early IBD treatment. The antiserum could also be listed as a formal sales product in the future to meet market demands.%[目的]确保鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)抗血清高效力的同时又彻底解决安全性和免疫应激问题,旨在研制出一种高效、安全的鸡传染性法氏囊病(IBD)预防和治疗制品.[方法]以SPF鸡为免疫动物,按照《兽用生物制品试验研究指导技术原则》和《中华人民共和国兽药典》(2010年版)的要求研制IBDV抗血清,经脱毒处理后,对其半成品及

  15. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek's disease virus ∆Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA.

  16. Mutations of residues 249 and 256 in VP2 are involved in the replication and virulence of infectious Bursal disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaole Qi

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV is a pathogen of worldwide significance to the poultry industry. Although the PDE and PFG domains of the capsid protein VP2 contribute significantly to virulence and fitness, the detailed molecular basis for the pathogenicity of IBDV is still not fully understood. Because residues 253 and 284 of VP2 are not the sole determinants of virulence, we hypothesized that other residues involved in virulence and fitness might exist in the PDE and PFG domains of VP2. To test this, five amino acid changes selected by sequence comparison of the PDE and PFG domains of VP2 were introduced individually using a reverse genetics system into the virulent strain (rGx-F9VP2. Then reverse mutations of the selected residues 249 and 256 were introduced individually into the attenuated strain (rGt. Seven modified viruses were generated and evaluated in vitro (CEF cells and in vivo (SPF chicken. For residue 249, Q249R could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q could reduce in vitro and elevate in vivo the replication of rGt; meanwhile Q249R reduced the virulence of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q increased the virulence of rGt, which indicated that residue 249 significantly contributed to the replication and virulence of IBDV. For residue 256, I256V could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while V256I could reduce in vitro but didn't change in vivo the replication of rGt; although V256I didn't increase the virulence of rGt, I256V obviously reduced the virulence of virulent IBDV. The present results demonstrate for the first time, to different extent, residues 249 and 256 of VP2 are involved in the replication efficiency and virulence of IBDV; this is not only beneficial to further understanding of pathogenic mechanism but also to the design of newly tailored vaccines against IBDV.

  17. Further observations on serotype 2 Marek's disease virus-induced enhancement of spontaneous avian leukosis virus-like bursal lymphomas in ALVA6 transgenic chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...

  18. 珍珠鸡源IBDV的分离鉴定及其卵黄抗体的制备%Isolation and Identification of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from Guinea Fowl and Preparation of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚萍; 曾祥伟; 李志军; 李梦溪

    2012-01-01

    从一群发病的珍珠鸡中分离到1株病毒,经鸡胚接种、琼脂扩散试验、PCR快速检测试验和病毒基因序列的测定,证实了所分离的病毒为IBDV。将该病毒制成灭活疫苗,接种开产的蛋鸡制备卵黄抗体。结果显示该卵黄抗体经免疫扩散试验测定抗体效价可达1∶256,符合无菌标准,对雏鸡也没有任何不良反应。临床试验表明:该卵黄抗体对该养殖场珍珠鸡的传染性法氏囊病的治疗有效率达91%、预防有效率达100%。%A field virus isolated from guinea fowl was identified to be an infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) by chicken embryo inoculation test,agar-gel diffusion test,PCR rapid detection test and virus gene sequencing.The egg laying chicken were immunized with inactivated oil emulsion vaccine developed with the infectious bursal disease virus isolated from guinea fowl to prepare egg yolk immunoglobulin.The result showed that the egg yolk immunoglobulin titer of IBDV determined by APG was 1∶256 and no bacteria were found in the egg yolk immunoglobulin and no any obvious adverse reaction to the chicken.The clinical trial showed that the effective rate of treatment was 91% and effective rate of prevention was 100% for the chicken.

  19. 一株传染性法氏囊病病毒强毒株的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of a virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维婷; 廖梦; 曹瑞兵

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) , caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) , is an important infectious disease. In the present study, the samples from a suspected chickcn farm in Jiangsu province were detected by RT-PCR using IBDV vp4 specific primers, combined with the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, SPF embryo inoculation test and agar diffusion test. IBDV infection was confirmed in this farm. According to the results of artificial challenge test and the VP4 gene sequence analysis, the IBDV isolate is a virulent strain with VP4 gene variation. The result provides a useful reference for the prevention and control of IBD in Jiangsu province.%鸡传染性法氏囊病是由传染性法氏囊病病毒引起的一种急性传染病.本研究从江苏某疑似发生传染性法氏囊病的鸡场采集病料,通过观察临床症状、病理变化、RT-PCR检测、基因测序、SPF鸡胚接种、琼脂扩散试验和雏鸡攻毒等试验,证实了该鸡群发生了传染性法氏囊病,且分离到一株传染性法氏囊病病毒(JSXY株),该病毒有较强的致病力,VP4基因比较分析发现其与变异株亲缘关系最近,序列同源性为95%.本研究为江苏地区传染性法氏囊病的防治提供了有益的参考.

  20. Caracterización molecular del virus de la enfermedad de Gumboro a través de la transcripción en reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa combinado con análisis de enzimas de restricción - Molecular characterization of the infection bursal disease virus through RT/PCR combined with restriction enzymes analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacrés Carina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste estudio buscó demostrar la presencia del virus de la enfermedadinfecciosa de la bursa (IBDV, en tres explotaciones avícolas del centro norte del Ecuador y caracterizar las cepas encontradas a través de técnicas moleculares RFLPs.SummaryThe aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of the infectious bursal disease virus in three farms of the north-central Ecuador and to characterize the strains found through the use of molecular techniques.

  1. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  2. Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size. Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s, in conjunction to inner lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle, respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV antigen. Advanced immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation (r=0.64623 was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring. Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC, and IHC staining is a precise

  3. Infectious bursal disease: evaluation of pathogenicity of commercial vaccines from Brazil in specific pathogen free chichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLS Moraes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD is a chicken disease economically important for the poultry industry in function of the immune depression that it causes. Disease control is made with different vaccines and vaccination programs. In present work, the pathogenicity of 3 intermediate vaccines (I1, I2 and I3, 2 intermediate more pathogenic (IP1 and IP2 and 3 vaccines containing strong virus (F1, F2 and F3 was evaluated. Birds vaccinated with IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3 showed significantly lower bursa size in relation to control animals and animals vaccinated with I1, I2 and I3. On the other hand, vaccines I1 and I3 induced antibody titers higher than the control and lower than I2, IP1, IP2, F1, F2 and F3. Histological scores showed that vaccines I1, I2 and I3 induced similar injury degree, although I2 and I3 were not different from the control, whereas I1 was slightly different. Strong vaccines induced more pronounced lesions than the other tested vaccines. These findings suggest that strong vaccines are able to cause severe bursal injuries. However, bursometry and relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius were considered inadequate to evaluate vaccine pathogenicity. Moreover, strong vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the other vaccines, although some intermediate vaccines induced similar titers.

  4. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  5. Identification and molecular analysis of infectious bursal disease in broiler farms in the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Oumed Gerjis M; Jackwood, Daral J

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The identification was done using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial sequencing of the VP2 gene. Pooled bursal samples were collected from commercial broiler farms located in the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) of Iraq. The genetic material of the IBDV was detected in 10 out of 29 field samples. Sequences of the hypervariable VP2 region were determined for 10 of these viruses. Molecular analysis of the VP2 gene of five IBDVs showed amino acid sequences consistent with the very virulent (vv) IBDV. Two samples were identified as classic vaccine viruses, and three samples were classic vaccine viruses that appear to have mutated during replication in the field. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all five field IBDV strains of the present study were closely related to each other. On the basis of nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, it is very likely that IBD-causing viruses in this part of Iraq are of the very virulent type. These IBDVs appear to be evolving relative to their type strains.

  6. Studies on naturally occurring infectious bursal disease viruses suggest that a single amino acid substitution at position 253 in VP2 increases pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, D J; Sreedevi, B; LeFever, L J; Sommer-Wagner, S E

    2008-07-20

    Three classic IBDV strains were previously isolated from commercial layer chicken flocks and shown to be phylogenetically related to vaccine strains but pathogenic in susceptible chickens. In this study, their viral genomes were sequenced and compared to sequences of vaccines being used in those flocks. The vaccine strains examined were sequenced directly from the manufacturer and had identical genome segment B sequences. Compared to these vaccines, the GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 isolates each had one silent mutation in the gene that encodes VP1. Compared to the two vaccines used at the time CS-2-35 was isolated, the segment A sequence of CS-2-35 contained numerous nucleotide and amino acid mutations suggesting the CS-2-35 virus was not closely related to these vaccines. This virus however did have amino acid mutations in VP2 that are reported to be necessary for replication in cell culture and lacked two of the three amino acid mutations previously shown to be necessary for virulence. These data suggest that CS-2-35 was a descendant from an attenuated strain of IBDV. When the segment A genomic sequences of the GA-1 and H-30 viruses were compared to the vaccines being used in those flocks they were most closely related to the attenuated D78 vaccine strain. In genome segment A, three nucleotide mutations in GA-1 and four in H-30 were observed compared to the D78 classic vaccine. These nucleotide mutations caused one amino acid (H253N) change in the GA-1 virus and two amino acids (H253Q and G259D) were different in the H-30 virus. In addition, both the GA-1 and H-30 viruses had the amino acid G76 in VP2 that appears to be unique to the vaccine D78. The data suggest that GA-1 and H-30 are genetically related and have a common ancestor even though they were isolated from geographically distant flocks. The evidence also suggests that GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 could be reversions from attenuated vaccine viruses or by coincidence genetically resemble classic IBDV vaccines. It

  7. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette;

    2005-01-01

    transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, including two recently developed strain-specific assays, were employed for detection of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three different IBDV strains in bursa tissue samples from experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens. The virus strains...

  8. Anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal e detecção do genoma viral em criações de frango de corte e galinhas de quintal no polo avícola da Bahia Antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease virus and viral genome detection in broilers and chickens backyard at Bahia's poultry production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência de anticorpos e detectar o genoma viral do vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal em criações de frangos de corte e em criações de subsistência localizadas em duas regiões do polo avícola da Bahia. Foram coletadas 758 amostras de soro de frangos de corte e 320 amostras de galinhas de quintal para avaliação da frequência de anticorpos utilizando ELISA indireto. Para a detecção e caracterização do vírus foram coletados 6 pools de bursas de Fabrícius em frangos de corte e 3 pools em criações de subsistência, analisados posteriormente com PCR/RFLP. Os resultados revelaram que não há proteção uniforme na criação comercial nas duas regiões estudadas, sugerindo falha na vacinação e desafio com vírus no ambiente. Também observaram-se altos títulos em galinhas de quintal não vacinadas, com variação nos títulos relacionada com desafios de campo. Nos testes moleculares, verificaram-se que três pools de frangos de corte eram positivos, sendo dois para cepa vacinal (G3 e um para cepa variante (G15. Nas criações de subsistência, houve uma amostra positiva para cepa variante (G15. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de monitoramento em ambas as criações.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease Virus as well as to detect the virus in broilers and chicken backyard, raised in two different regions at Bahia's poultry production area. A total of 758 serum samples were collected from broilers and 320 from chicken backyard, in order to assess the frequency of antibodies using an indirect ELISA. For virus detection and characterization it was collected 6 bursal pools from broilers and 3 from chicken backyard, which were further analyzed with PCR/RFLP. The results showed that there is no uniform protection in commercial flocks of the two different regions, suggesting that it may be occurring vaccination errors and

  9. Novel in-ovo chimeric recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine protects against both Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Qiulin; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Bu, Zhigao

    2014-03-14

    Development of a safe and efficient in-ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease (NDV) and very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) is of great importance. In this study, a chimeric NDV LaSota virus with the L gene of Clone-30 (rLaC30L) was used to generate a recombinant chimeric virus expressing the VP2 protein of vvIBDV (rLaC30L-VP2). The safety and efficacy of rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination was then evaluated in 18-day-old special pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos and commercial broiler embryos for prevention of NDV and vvIBDV. Hatchability and global survival rate of the hatched birds was not affected by in-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination. However, rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination induced significant anti-IBDV and anti-NDV antibodies in SPF birds and commercial broilers, and 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal NDV challenge. In-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination also provided resistance against vvIBDV challenge in a significant amount of animals. These results suggest that rLaC30L-VP2 is a safe and efficient bivalent live in-ovo vaccine against NDV and vvIBDV.

  10. Immune Response to Killed Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by Water-Catholyte-Anolyte in Specific-Pathogenic-Free Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the attenuated and inactivated Malaysian isolate of vvIBDV (UPM0081 in specific-pathogen-free (SPF chickens. The UPM0081T15 passage 15 and UPM0081T20 passage 20 of vvIBDV attenuated in Vero cells were inactivated using water-Catholyte-Anolyte (ECA. Complete inactivation of UPM0081T15 with titer of 106.7 TCID50/0.1 mL and UPM0081T20 with titer of 107.4 TCID50/0.1mL occurred after 24 hours. The inactivated virus suspension and an equal volume of Freund’s incomplete adjuvant were mixed together water-in-oil emulsion and injected subcutaneously into 42-day-old SPF chickens. Neither clinical signs nor gross lesions were observed in chickens before and after vvIBDV challenged. High and protective level of IBD antibody titer was recorded into 2 groups at 2 weeks post infection and 2 weeks post challenged. The study showed that both the inactivated UPM0081T15 and UPM0081T20 was safe and could provide 100% protection against vvIBDV challenged with titer of 107.8 EID50/ 0.1 mL

  11. Conventional and Molecular Detection of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ameer H. Zahid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare different diagnostic procedures for the detection of Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease in broilers and layers (during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 in the laboratory of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia (UPM .A total of 187 sick and dead chickens (63 broilers and 124 layers of different ages (1 week to >15 weeks were collected from 12 selective poultry farms (4 broilers and 8 layers. Clinically, 7 (14.89% of 63 affected broiler and 27 (30.68% of 124 affected layer chickens were diagnosed as Newcastle disease (ND whereas, 11 (23.4% of 63 affected broiler and 6 (4.82% of the 124 affected layer birds were diagnosed as IBD on the basis of clinical history, clinical signs and postmortem findings. Virus isolation from field samples was performed by inoculating each suspected sample into 10-day-old chicken embryos. Out of 34 ND suspected field samples, 26 (5 broilers and 21 layers were positive for NDV isolation and 11 (8 broilers and 3 layers of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive for IBDV isolation. For confirmatory diagnosis, virus detection was confirmed by serological tests (HI and AGID and RT-PCR assay. Out of 34 clinically diagnosed ND field samples, 20 (5 broiler and 15 layer were positive by RT-PCR assay and 15 (10 broiler and 5 layer of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay. Of the 26 HA positive NDV suspected AF, 19 (4 broilers and 15 layers were positive by both HI and RT-PCR assay whereas, 10 (7 broilers and 3 layers of 11 IBDV isolation positive tissue suspension were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay in the laboratory. Therefore, it may be concluded that serological (HI and AGIDT and molecular (RT-PCR techniques which allow rapid identification of most of samples are the reliable, sensitive, specific and more accurate methods to detect the

  12. Appraisal of experimental and commercial Marek's disease vaccines to induce bursal and thymic atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, several experimental Marek’s disease (MD) vaccines were developed that appear to protect equally or better than the best commercial vaccines. However, some of the experimental vaccines were reported to induce transient bursal and thymic atrophies. We will report on two promising experiment...

  13. Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens of North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kassa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in North Gondar and West Gojjam Administrative Zones from November 2009 to June 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease by using I-ELISA (Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 400 chickens raised in the back yard production system, 200 from each study area, were randomly selected and examined for the presence of anti-IBD (anti- infectious bursal disease antibody. Anti-IBD antibody was detected from 294 chickens and this gives an overall seroprevalence of 73.5% (294/400 for the entire study area, where the higher 75% (150/200 and the lower 72% (144/200 was recorded from samples collected in West Gojjam and North Gondar respectively. Even though, place of origin and sex was considered as potential risk factors, the study result shows that variation in place of origin and sex of chickens doesn’t have significant influence on the occurrence of IBD (Infectious bursal disease. Generally, the higher prevalence (73.5% reported in this study indicates that the disease is widely distributed and one of the potential threat for poultry production in the study areas.  

  14. 鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒 RT-PCR 检测方法的建立与应用%Development and Application of RT-PCR for Detecting Avian Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁; 阮周曦; 陶虹; 张彩虹; 刘建利; 花群义; 吕建强; 秦智锋; 卢体康; 曾少灵; 杨俊兴; 詹爱军; 林庆燕; 曹琛福; 陈兵; 廖立珊

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)is one of three severe acute diseases in China.IBDV had emerged worldwide and caused great loss to poultry production.And IBD is a quarantine disease in the avian and avian product trade.The rapid diagnosis is crucial to any control program of IBD.In order to construct a protocol of mo-lecular diagnostic detection technique(MDD)for IBDV,two conventional RT-PCR assays directed at the VP2 gene in fragment A with 604bp production and VP1 gene of in fragment B with 642 bp respectively were optimized with the universal primers and IBDV-specific 3′extremity primers respectively.A Taqman real-time reverse transcrip-tion-PCR test IBDV(IBDV-VP2-rRT-PCR)directed at the VP2 gene in fragment A was developed specifically with 5 strains.The sensitivities of three kinds of MDD assays were evaluated.The sensitivities of IBDV-VP2(604)-RT-PCR and IBDV-VP1(642)-RT-PCR were equal in 10-3 dilution of IBDV-BLEN vaccine,and the sensitivity of IB-DV-VP2-rRT-PCR was ten times superior to two conventional RT-PCR assays in 10-4 dilution .The specificity of three MDD assays developed had no cross reaction with others.These methods potentially allowed for more rapid, sensitive,and specific detection with 221 field samples for five years with monitoring and surveillance of IBDV.%鸡传染性法氏囊病(IBD)是危害我国养禽业的主要疫病之一,呈世界性分布,对养鸡业造成重大危害。在国际种禽贸易中,对 IBDV 检测是口岸检疫的主要对象之一。为了建立标准的鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒分子检测方法,采用世界动物卫生组织(OIE)推荐的带有通用引物和酶切位点的特异性引物,通过对6株不同毒株的反复试验,优化了针对 A 片段 VP2基因的常规反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测方法(IBDV-VP2(604)-RT-PCR)和针对 B 片段 VP1基因的 RT-PCR 检测方法(IBDV-VP1(642)-RT-PCR);针对 A 片段 VP2基因设计特异性引

  15. Prediction of optimal vaccination timing for infectious bursal disease based on chick weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziry, Asaad; Venne, Daniel; Frenette, Diane; Gingras, Sylvain; Silim, Amer

    2007-12-01

    Growth rate in broiler birds has increased substantially in the last decade due to improvement in genetics, feed formulation, cleaner environment, and vaccine formulations. As a result, it has become necessary to review and revise prediction method for vaccination in chicks. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of the rate of weight gain rather than age in predicting vaccination time. Two groups of 1-day-old broilers originating from old and young breeders, respectively, and with different levels of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were used in this study. The chicks were divided into four groups and subjected to two feed regiments: groups A1 and B1 were fed broiler feed for normal growth rate, and groups A2 and B2 were fed breeder feed for slower growth rate. At 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 29, and 36 days of age, 22 chicks in each group were weighed, and blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against IBDV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. Maternal antibody decline curves for each group were plotted according to chick age and chick weight. Fast-growing birds in groups A1 and B1 showed a faster rate of antibody decline, whereas slow-growing birds in groups A2 and B2 had a slower rate of antibody decline. Based on the effect of weight gain on maternal antibody decline, a new way of predicting vaccination time for IBDV based on measuring maternal antibody titers at 4 days of age was proposed and tested. The predicted antibody decline was shown to correspond to the real ELISA titers measured in our experiments (R = 0.9889), whereas a lower correlation (R = 0.8355) was detected between real ELISA titers and the titers predicted by the current method using age-based Deventer formula.

  16. Cell culture attenuation eliminates rMd5deltaMeq-induced bursal and thymic atrophy and renders the mutant virus as an effective and safe vaccine against Marek's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine zipper oncoprotein, meq, which structurally resembles jun/fos family of transcriptional activators. It has been clearly demonstrated that deletion of meq results in loss of transformation and oncogenic capacity of MDV. The rMd5'meq virus provided s...

  17. Insertion of a Reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR into the Marek's disease virus genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) had previously been co-cultivated in culture with Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). During co-cultivation, a long terminal repeat (LTR) from REV was inserted into the MDV genome. The resulting MDV, designated RM1, was attenuated but still induced severe thymic and bursal...

  18. Distribution of Lymphocytes in the Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT of Naturally Occurring Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.

  19. Rapid detection method preliminary establishment of infectious bursal disease virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification%鸡传染性法氏囊病毒反转录环媒恒温检测方法的初步建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨作丰; 石霖; 邓文超; 郭炎; 董娜; 王竹; 赵培; 张鑫; 张雅为

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Six primers were designed to amplify the VP1 gene of IBDV using PrimerExplor-er V4. The optimal reaction condition of the current RT-LAMP for IBDV was 65 ℃ for 60 mins. It was capable of detecting IBDV from clinical samples and differentiating IBDV from other avain vi-ruses, and does not require an additional expensive equipment. The minimum detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 10-6, making this assay approximately 100-fold higher than that of one-step RT-PCR. The assay were evaluated by comparison with RT-PCR, by 93.8% consistence. The specificity and simplicity of the assay could make it a useful method for the detection of IBDV infection.%本研究利用Primer Explorer V4软件设计了针对鸡传染性法氏囊病毒(IBDV)VP1基因保守区6个特异性部位的4条引物,建立了IBDV的反转录环媒恒温检测方法。该方法反应体系在恒温水浴锅中作用1 h即可得到其特有的阶梯状条带,加入荧光素后肉眼可直接观察结果。本方法特异性高,对IBDV的最低检出量为10-6稀释倍数,敏感性是普通RT-PCR的100倍。反转录环媒恒温检测方法和普通RT-PCR方法检测临床样品的符合率为93.8%。因此该方法可以作为IBDV的综合防治和疾病诊断的实用方法。

  20. INCIDENCE OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE AMONG BIRDS SUBMITTED TO A DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY IN NWFP, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, F.R. Durrani, S. Faisal, A. Asghar1 and A. Khurshid

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of infectious bursal disease (IBD in poultry birds amongst the cases submitted to Divisional Diagnostic Laboratory, Dhodial, Mansehra, NWFP, Pakistan during the years 1994 through 1996 was investigated. Overall incidence of IBD was 3.05+0.04%. Flock size, bird type and vaccination had a significant effect (P<0.01 on the incidence of IBD. Disease incidence was higher (P<0.05 in farms (6.53+0.008% maintaining flock size of less than one thousand birds. Incidenc~ of IBD was higher (P

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment alters performance and immune response in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroufyan Elham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5 using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens.

  2. Evaluation of the suitability of six host genes as internal control in real-time RT-PCR assays in chicken embryo cell cultures infected with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Bang, Dang Duong; Handberg, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    -time RT-PCR is needed to a suitable internal control. We thus investigated the expression pattern of six chicken genes, including P-actin, 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, glyceral dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and beta-2-microglobulin, in chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures...... and GAPDH had a lower expression level in CE cell cultures. Also, beta-actin showed no significant variation in both normalized and non-normalized assays and virus dose-independent of inoculation, while other genes did. beta-Actin was further successfully used as an internal control to quantitate Bursine-2...... virus-specific RNA load in CE cell cultures. Thus, beta-actin was suggested as a suitable internal control in studying gene expression as well as virus-specific RNA load in CE cell after IBDV infection....

  3. Risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease among Danish broiler chickens in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... experienced acute clinical IBD (cases), 169 were unexposed (controls). The study was carried out using a case-control design. Cases were defined as the first flock on each premises to experience acute clinical IBD, and these were compared with non-diseased, non-IBD-vaccinated control flocks chosen randomly...

  4. Marek’s disease virus induces transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by an immunosupperessive alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include bursal/thymic atrophy and neurological disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the largest lymphoid aggregates of avia...

  5. Marek’s disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal/th...

  6. 传染性法氏囊病病毒感染细胞内源性microRNA表达差异分析%Profiles of host-cellular microRNAs induced by infectious bursal disease virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳伟; 王永山; 王永强; 王笑梅; 朱向东; 毕振威; 范红结

    2012-01-01

    细胞内源性microRNA(miRNA)在宿主与病原相互作用过程中发挥着重要的调节功能。为了分析细胞内源性miRNA与传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)的相互作用,用IBDV弱毒和强毒分别感染鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)和SPF鸡,24h后,取感染CEF和法氏囊组织,提取细胞总RNA,用Hy3/Hy5双色荧光标记,与miRNA芯片杂交,进行芯片内标准化、芯片间标准化、表达差异比较以及聚类分析。结果显示:在IBDV弱毒感染的CEF中,有17个细胞内源性miRNA表达上调,17个miRNA表达下调;在IBDV强毒感染的鸡法氏囊组织细胞中,有30个细胞内源性miRNA表达上调,18个miRNA表达下调。根据表达差异显著的miRNA序列设计引物,用荧光定量RT-PCR方法验证芯片检测结果,2种方法的检测结果一致。结果表明,IBDV感染可诱导细胞内源性miRNA表达变化,这些上调或下调的miRNA能调控细胞内多种代谢和信号传导途径发生异常,引起细胞及组织器官发生病理学变化。%Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mark a new paradigm of RNA-directed gene expression regulation in a wide spectrum of biological systems. These small non-coding RNAs can contribute to the repertoire of host-pathogen interactions during viral infection. This interplay has important consequences, both for the virus and the host. There have been reported evidences of host-cellular miRNAs modulating the expression of various viral genes,thereby playing a pivotal role in the host-pathogen interaction network. To explore the function of the host-cellular miRNA in the chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) and specific pathogen free(SPF)chicken infected with IBDV respectively,we compared the miRNA expression profiles in normal CEF and CEF infected with low virulent IBDV after 24 hours, and normal SPF chicken and SPF chicken infected with highly virulent IBDV after 24 hours respectively, using a microrray containing more than 1 700 capture probes,covering all

  7. Marek’s disease virus induced transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bursal and thymic atrophy associated with Marek’s disease (MD) is well established and characterized, the effect of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection on lymphoid aggregates within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is not known. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the two largest lympho...

  8. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek's disease virus alters its pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-cultivation of strain JM/102W of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the generation of a recombinant MDV containing REV long terminal repeat (LTR) named RM1 strain of MDV; a strain that was highly attenuated for oncogenicity, but induced severe bursal an...

  9. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  10. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marburg virus outbreaks: Ebola and Marburg virus disease epidemics: preparedness, alert, control, and evaluation When an outbreak ... Offices WHO African Region WHO Region of the Americas WHO South-East Asia Region WHO European Region ...

  11. Analysis of Newcastle disease virus quasispecies and factors affecting the emergence of virulent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenbelt, Jacqueline A; Stevens, Matthew P; Selleck, Paul W; Gould, Allan R

    2010-10-01

    Genome sequence analysis of a number of avirulent field isolates of Newcastle disease virus revealed the presence of viruses (within their quasispecies) that contained virulent F0 sequences. Detection of these virulent sequences below the ~1% level, using standard cloning and sequence analysis, proved difficult, and thus a more sensitive reverse-transcription real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect both virulent and avirulent NDV F0 sequences. Reverse-transcription real-time PCR analysis of the quasispecies of a number of Newcastle disease virus field isolates, revealed variable ratios (approximately 1:4-1:4,000) of virulent to avirulent viral F0 sequences. Since the ratios of these sequences generally remained constant in the quasispecies population during replication, factors that could affect the balance of virulent to avirulent sequences during viral infection of birds were investigated. It was shown both in vitro and in vivo that virulent virus present in the quasispecies did not emerge from the "avirulent background" unless a direct selection pressure was placed on the quasispecies, either by growth conditions or by transient immunosuppression. The effect of a prior infection of the host by infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus on the subsequent emergence of virulent Newcastle disease virus was examined.

  12. A cross sectional study of Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease in poultry in Narsingdi district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: IBD and ND are highly prevalent in the study area. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective control measures to reduce the prevalence of these diseases. This study can help in designing appropriate control measures considering risk factors of these diseases. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 406-412

  13. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  14. Identification and molecular characterization of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV from an outbreak in a broiler flock in midwestern Brazil Identificação e caracterização molecular do vírus da doença infecciosa da bolsa cloacal de um surto em lotes de frangos no centro-oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify and characterize the agent of a suggestive clinical case of Gumboro disease (GD that affected a 34-day-old broiler flock in Buriti Alegre (Goias State, Midwestern Brazil in the year 2001, we carried out a combination of classic and modern virological methods. Histopathological analysis of the bursa revealed necrosis, presence of depleted follicles, some infiltration of heterophils, edema and formation of cystic cavities that are compatible with lesions observed in GD. Inoculation of embryonated eggs of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens with macerated bursa suspension resulted in embryo mortality and lesions which were also compatible with those caused by IBDV. A sample of bursa was submitted to a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR procedure to amplify the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene. The amplicon that was obtained from this sample (BR-GO was digested with the restriction enzymes TaqI, StyI and SspI, but not with SacI, a pattern similar to that observed with very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains. Furthermore, nucleotide sequence analysis revealed alanine, isoleucine, and isoleucine at amino acid positions 222, 256, and 294, respectively, which are also found in vvIBDV strains. Finally, phylogenetic analysis grouped BR-GO isolate with other vvIBDV strains.Para identificar e caracterizar o agente causador de um quadro clínico sugestivo de doença de Gumboro (DG que afetou um plantel de frangos de corte com 34 dias de idade, em Buriti Alegre (estado de Goiás, centro-oeste do Brasil, no ano de 2001, procedeu-se uma combinação de métodos virológicos clássicos e modernos. Análises histopatológicas de bursas revelaram necrose, depleção de folículos linfóides, infiltração de heterófilos, edema e formação de cistos, lesões compatíveis com DG. A inoculação em ovos embrionados de galinhas SPF (specific pathogen-free de uma suspensão de macerado de amostras de bursas resultou em

  15. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    -host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...

  16. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  17. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases.

  18. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitoring of People Being Evaluated for Ebola Virus Disease Prevention Cleaning and Decontamination Guidance for the U.S. Residence ... updated: July 22, 2015 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  20. Increased virulence of Marek's disease virus field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R L

    1997-01-01

    The continuation of an apparent evolutionary trend of Marek's disease virus (MDV) towards greater virulence may explain recent increased losses from Marek's disease (MD) in vaccinated flocks. To address this question, the virulence of 31 isolates of serotype 1 MDV obtained from layer or broiler flocks between 1987 and 1995 were characterized. Each isolate was cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts for four to six passages, and ascertained to be free from contamination with avian retroviruses, chicken anemia virus, and MDVs of other serotypes. The viruses, along with prototype viruses JM/102W and Md5, were tested for virulence by inoculation at 6 days of age into laboratory strain 15I5 x 7(1) chickens of three types: nonvaccinated, vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and bivalent (HVT + SB-1)-vaccinated. The results showed that three isolates did not differ from JM/102W and were classified in the virulent (vMDV) pathotype. Twenty-one isolates produced significantly higher levels of MD in HVT-vaccinated chickens than did the JM/102W control and were classified in the very virulent (vvMDV) pathotype. Seven isolates, five of which were isolated in 1994 or 1995, produced significantly higher levels of MD in bivalent-vaccinated chickens than did the Md5 (vvMDV) control. These isolates, provisionally designated as the vv+MDV pathotype, appeared to be at the high end of a virulence continuum. Several MD response parameters, including lymphoma mortality, early mortality with bursal/thymic atrophy, and frequency of visceral lymphomas or ocular lesions in nonvaccinated chickens were positively correlated with virulence. These findings support the continued evolution of MDV towards greater virulence.

  1. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Updated January 2016 1. What is Ebola virus disease? Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever) ... are the typical signs and symptoms of Ebola virus infection? Ebola symptoms vary but sudden onset of fever, intense ...

  2. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  3. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Azodo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understanding of roles of viruses in periodontal diseases will facilitate the provision of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment.

  4. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community.

  5. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek's disease virus alters its pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Kim, Taejoong; Fadly, Aly

    2012-01-01

    Co-cultivation of the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the generation of a recombinant MDV containing the REV long terminal repeat (LTR) named the RM1 strain of MDV, a strain that was highly attenuated for oncogenicity but induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy. We hypothesize that the phenotypic changes were solely due to the LTR insertion. Furthermore, we hypothesize that insertion of REV LTR into an analogous location in a different MDV would result in a similar phenotypic change. To test these hypotheses, we inserted the REV LTR into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of MDV, Md5, and designated the virus rMd5-RM1-LTR. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus and the rMd5 virus were passaged in duck embryo fibroblast cells for up to 40 passages before pathogenicity studies. Susceptible chickens were inoculated intra-abdominally at hatch with the viruses rMd5-RM1-LTR, rMd5 BAC parental virus, wild-type strain Md5, or strain RM1 of MDV. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus was attenuated at cell culture passage 40, whereas the rMd5 BAC without RM1 LTR retained its pathogenicity at cell culture passage 40. Using polymerase chain analysis, the RM1 LTR insert was detected in MDV isolated from buffy coat cells collected from chickens inoculated with rMd5-RM1-LTR, but only at 1 week post inoculation. The data suggest that the presence of the RM1 LTR insert within MDV genome for 1 week post inoculation with virus at hatch is sufficient to cause a reduction in pathogenicity of strain Md5 of MDV.

  6. Apoptose e expressão de VP2 e GAPDH na infecção precoce pelo vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius em pintos SPF Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove pintos SPF de um dia foram inoculados com o vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius (VDIB para avaliar a ocorrência precoce de apoptose e a expressão da proteína viral 2 (VP2 e da enzima gliceraldeído fosfato dehidrogenase (GAPDH. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: 1-controle; e 2 a 5- com 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas pós-inoculação, respectivamente. Fragmentos da bursa de Fabricius foram colhidos para processamento histológico e extração de RNA. Lâminas coradas em HE e TUNEL (marcação in situ da fragmentação do genoma com transferase terminal de deoxinucleotídeo foram utilizadas na morfometria do índice apoptótico. Amostras de mRNA foram testadas para a expressão dos genes VP2 e GAPDH utilizando-se transcrição reversa e RT-PCR. Utilizou-se um kit SYBR GREEN PCR, e a reação foi desenvolvida em ABI Prism 7000 SDS. Os índices apoptóticos cresceram progressivamente indicando uma relação na atrofia bursal causada pelo VDIB. Paralelamente, os resultados da PCR em tempo real demonstraram queda da carga viral nas células linfóides da bursa nos diferentes intervalos de tempo do experimento. Esses resultados sugerem um papel protetor da apoptose na diminuição da replicação viral.Twenty-nine SPF 1-day-old chicks were inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV to evaluate early apoptosis and the expression of viral protein 2 (VP2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GAPDH. Five groups were formed: G1-control -and G2 to G5, - 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation, respectively. Half of each BF was fixed and processed by routine techniques. To quantify apoptosis, 5µm-thick sections were stained with HE and submitted to TUNEL (terminal transferase UDP nick end labeling technique. mRNA was extracted from pooled samples of 3 animals/group and used for the expression of VP2 and GADPH genes using the reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A SYBR

  7. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  8. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation.

  9. Isolation, antiproliferation on tumor cell and immunomodulatory activity of BSP-I, a novel bursal peptide from chicken humoral immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiuli; Liu, Taoqing; Wang, Fangquan; Cao, Ruibing; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Xiang; Chen, Puyan; Zhang, Hui

    2011-06-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is acknowledged as central humoral immune organ unique to birds. Our purpose was to identify the potential function of a novel bursal-derived bioactive peptide. A bursal septpeptide (BSP-I), EPASGMM, first isolated from BF, reduced MCF and Hela tumor cells proliferation, and enhanced antitumor factor p53 luciferase activity and protein expression. Further, we found the significantly immune inducing function of BSP-I on antigen-specific immune response in BALB/c mice intraperitoneally immunized with inactivated avian influence virus (AIV, H(9)N(2) subtype) vaccine, including of enhancing the antibody (IgG, the isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a) production, and stimulating cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ level, and inducing T cell immunophenotyping and lymphocyte proliferation. These results suggested that as the bioactive peptide from avian humoral immune system, various biological function of BSP-I may have far-reaching implication on immune system significance, which might provide novel insight on linking between humoral immune system and development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treating human cancers diseases.

  10. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  11. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  12. Artificially inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taejoong; Mays, Jody; Fadly, Aly; Silva, Robert F

    2011-06-01

    Researchers reported that co-cultivating the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in an REV long terminal repeat (LTR) being inserted into the internal repeat short (IRS) region of JM/102W. When the resulting recombinant virus was serially passed in cell culture, the initial LTR was duplicated and a second LTR spontaneously appeared in the terminal repeat short (TRS) region of the MDV genome. The virus, designated RM1, was significantly attenuated but still induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy (Isfort et al. PNAS 89:991-995). To determine whether the altered phenotype was due solely to the LTR, we cloned the LTR from the RM1 IRS region and inserted it into the IRS region of a very virulent bacterial artificial clone (BAC) of the Md5 strain of MDV, which we designated rMd5-RM1-LTR. During blind passage in duck embryo fibroblast cultures, the initial LTR in the rMd5-RM1-LTR was also duplicated, with LTRs appearing in both IRS and TRS regions of the MDV genome. The inserted LTR sequences and transcripts associated with the MDV open reading frames MDV085, MDV086, SORF2, US1, and US10 were molecularly characterized. The parental Md5 BAC contains a family of transcripts of 3, 2, and 1 kb that all terminate at the end of the US10 gene. The rMd5-RM1-LTR and RM1 viruses both express an additional 4 kb transcript that originates in the LTR and also terminates after US10. Collectively, the data suggest that our engineered rMd5-RM1-LTR virus very closely resembles the RM1 virus in its structure and transcription patterns.

  13. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  15. Virulence Determinants of Newcastle Disease Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Newcastle disease is one of the most serious diseases of birds, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1). The disease is distributed world-wide and may cause large economic losses in the poultry industry. The severity of the disease varies depending

  16. Development of slide ELISA (SELISA) for detection of four poultry viral pathogens by direct heat fixation of viruses on glass slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, P A; Singh, S D; Dhama, K; Kumar, O R Vinodh; Singh, R; Singh, R K

    2014-12-01

    The development of an easy and simpler method of slide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SELISA) for the diagnosis of four economically important poultry viruses viz., Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and egg drop syndrome 76 virus (EDS 76) and the use of SELISA for semi quantitation of NDV are described. The positive signals for viral aggregates were detected under light microscope. This is the first report regarding the development of SELISA based on heat fixation for the diagnosis of viral pathogens.

  17. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  18. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease:Ebola Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  19. Structural Basis for the Development of Avian Virus Capsids That Display Influenza Virus Proteins and Induce Protective Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Elena; Mata, Carlos P.; Gómez-Blanco, Josué; Moreno, Noelia; Bárcena, Juan; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez-Frandsen, Ariel; Nieto, Amelia; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioengineering of viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) is a well-established approach in the development of new and improved vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. We report here that the capsid of a major avian pathogen, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), can accommodate heterologous proteins to induce protective immunity. The structural units of the ∼70-nm-diameter T=13 IBDV capsid are trimers of VP2, which is made as a precursor (pVP2). The pVP2 C-terminal domain has an am...

  20. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  1. Virus Pathogenity of Newcastle Disease in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the highly infectious diseases in poultry industry. Newcastle disease causes high morbidity and mortality in birds, then it causes significant loss for poultry industry. This disease is caused by Avian paramyxovirus-1, included in the genus of Avulavirus and family of Paramyxoviridae. This virus has six prior proteins and two non structural proteins that evolving its genom. Those proteins are Nucleocapsid protein (N, Phosphoprotein (P, Matrix protein (M, Fusion protein (F, Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN and Large polymerase protein (L and two non structural proteins iVe and W protein which are produced during the transcriptation process of P gen on editing process. Each of the protein has a specific role that responsible for the virulence of the virus. The previous result showed that HN and F proteins have significant contribution in the virulence and spreading of ND virus in the hosts. Virulence of ND virus primarily is determined by the cleavage site of F protein, but the recent research showed that the cleavage site motiv of F0 protein is not the only factor to determine the virulence of ND virus. Besides F protein, other proteins also contribute patern to the virulence of ND virus. ND virus can infect more than 200 species of birds, but the severity level of the disease varies depending on the host and strain of ND virus. Chicken has the highest pathogenicity index compared to other birds. Generally, the immunity system in chicken against infection of ND virus is similar to the immunity system of other birds. Cell mediated and humoral immunity responses play an important role in overcome ND virus.

  2. The Genome of the Chicken DT40 Bursal Lymphoma Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, Janos; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya

    2014-01-01

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell...... chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  4. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  5. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harish; Rajak; Deepak; Kumar; Jain; Avineesh; Singh; Ajay; Kumar; Sharma; Anshuman; Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate(up to 90%) accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever(EHF) is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, C?te d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  6. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Rajak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  7. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  8. "Bursal reactions" in rotator cuff tearing, the impingement syndrome, and calcifying tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, H; Brunet, J A; Welsh, R P; Uhthoff, H K

    1997-01-01

    Subacromial bursal specimens from 63 patients undergoing surgery for rotator cuff tearing (n = 43), the impingement syndrome (n = 14), and calcifying tendinitis n = 6) were studied to characterize the reactions that develop at the tendinopathy "lesional" sites. Intensity of the bursal reactions and production of type III collagen vary considerably, with the highest incidence of both seen in patients with rotator cuff tears. The intensity of bursal reactions correlated with the degree of formation of perivascular new collagen and type III collagen expression. In 22 of the 63 patients the bursal reaction distant to the tendon lesion was also studied. It was minimal and did not correlate to the lesional bursal findings. A strong correlation, however, existed between surgical appearance and histologic grading. The term "localized bursal reaction" as opposed to bursitis more correctly describes bursal involvement. Resection of bursal tissues should be limited to the lesional tissue that interferes with subacromial motion.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies and Vitiligo Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jadali

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by depigmented patches due to selective destruction of melanocytes. The etiology of this disease is unknown. A number of hypotheses including viral theory have been proposed to explain the etiology. To determine the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus infection in vitiligo patients, the present study was performed. Third generation ELISA test was used for detection of antibodies to HCV in human sera. All normal controls were anti-HCV negative whereas only one patient was positive for anti-HCV and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of anti-HCV between patients and controls. These results indicate that hepatitis C virus has not a direct causal role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, however, this does not rul out a "hit and run" virus induced disease.

  10. Relationship between the immunosuppressive potential and the pathotype of Marek's disease virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnek, B W; Harris, R W; Buscaglia, C; Schat, K A; Lucio, B

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of Marek's disease virus (MDV) representing three pathotypes of differing virulence were compared for relative immunosuppressive properties in genetically susceptible P2a-strain and genetically resistant N2a-strain chickens. Criteria of immunosuppression were 1) persistence of early cytolytic infection (i.e., a delay or failure to enter latency) in lymphoid organs, 2) atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus as measured by organ weight proportional to body weight at 8 and 14 days postinfection (DPI), and 3) histopathologic evidence of necrosis and atrophy in lymphoid organs. No significant differences in infection level were observed among the pathotypes during the early (4-5 DPI) period of infection. However, the extent of persistent cytolytic infection at 7-8 DPI, based on numbers of tissues positive and mean scores in immunofluorescence tests, was greater (P Md5) classified in the intermediate very virulent pathotype (very virulent MDV [vvMDV]) fell between those from the other two pathotypes. Similarly, there was a stepwise effect of viral pathotype in which the vv + MDV isolates caused the most severe damage to lymphoid organs in terms of atrophy (relative organ weights) and histopathologic changes. Organs from chickens infected with vv + MDVs showed little recovery between 8 and 14 DPI. The vMDV isolates caused the least severe damage, and lymphoid organs showed a significant return toward normal by 14 DPI; vvMDV isolates induced intermediate degrees of atrophy and recovery. The same pattern of relationship between virulence pathotype and degree of bursal and thymic atrophy was also observed in genetically resistant N2a chickens. These results suggest that the degree of immunosuppression is linked to virulence and that a simple measure of atrophic changes (relative organ weights) in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus might be useful in determining the pathotype classification of new MDV isolates. The basis for differences in immunosuppressive

  11. Ebola Virus Disease: A Review of Its Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus, the virus responsible for Ebola virus disease, has spawned several epidemics during the past 38 years. In 2014, an Ebola epidemic spread from Africa to other continents, becoming a pandemic. The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its spread, and the lack of an effective treatment captured the world's attention. This article provides a brief review of the known history of Ebola virus disease, its etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology and a review of the limited information on managing patients with Ebola virus disease.

  12. Development of Recombinant Vaccine Using Herpesvirus of Turkey (Hvt as Vector for Several Viral Diseases in Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.

  13. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  15. Dobrava-Belgrade virus: phylogeny, epidemiology, disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is an Old World hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. With a case fatality rate up to 12%, DOBV infection is the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. The virus was initially identified in the Balkans, but the discovery of new endemic foci have expanded its recognized geographic range. The recent description of novel genetic variants with different degrees of pathogenicity have complicated its taxonomic analysis. The original rodent host of DOBV is Apodemus flavicollis, however additional Apodemus species, such Apodemus agrarius and Apodemus ponticus, have been found to serve as hosts of the various DOBV genotypes. The complex evolution and genetic diversity of the virus are still under investigation. The present review aims to provide an update on the phylogeny of DOBV and the epidemiology of infection in rodents and humans; to describe the clinical characteristics of the disease; to present current knowledge about laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention; discuss the current state of the art in antiviral drug and vaccine development.

  16. Types of Maize Virus Diseases and Progress in Virus Identification Techniques in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yu; Zhang Ai-hong; Ren Ai-jun; Miao Hong-qin

    2014-01-01

    There are a total of more than 40 reported maize viral diseases worldwide. Five of them have reportedly occurred in China. They are maize rough dwarf disease, maize dwarf mosaic disease, maize streak dwarf disease, maize crimson leaf disease, maize wallaby ear disease and corn lethal necrosis disease. This paper reviewed their occurrence and distribution as well as virus identification techniques in order to provide a basis for virus identification and diagnosis in corn production.

  17. Ebola virus disease:a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirokazu Kimura; Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi; Akihide Ryo; Yoshiroh Oda; Toshinobu Kawabata; Takashi Majima; Kunihisa Kozawa; Masayuki Shimojima

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30%to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.

  18. Autoimmune Diseases Co-Existing with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Jadali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity and viral infections are closely associated fields, and viruses have been proposed as a likely aetiological, contributory or triggering factors of systemic autoimmune diseases. Hepatitis C virus seems to be the virus usually associated with the appearance of autoimmune diseases, and the relationship between chronic hepatitis C virus infection and some autoimmune disease has been studied. For some of these disorders their association with hepatitis C virus infection is well recognized while for others it remains probable or weak. Examples of autoimmune phenomena observed in chronic hepatitis C virus infection include rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, cryoglobulinaemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus and sjogren syndrome. To date, the etiological role and the pathogenetic involvement of the hepatitis C infection remains unknown.The aim of this study is to assess the presence of different autoimmune manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection reported in literature.

  19. Major histocompatibility complex-linked immune response of young chickens vaccinated with an attenuated live infectious bursal disease virus vaccine followed by an infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle; Nielsen, O.L.; Krogh-Maibom, T.;

    2002-01-01

    further contains the BW1 haplotype isolated from a Red jungle Fowl. Line 131 further contains the B131 haplotype isolated from a meat-type chicken, Finally, Line 21 further contains the international B21 haplotype. The chickens were vaccinated with live attenuated commercial IBDV vaccine at 3 wk of age...... Jungle Fowl genes, was clearly differentiated from the other two investigated lines. These results suggest an MHC II restricted T-cell dependent secondary antibody response against IBDV....

  20. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

  1. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or

  2. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  3. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  4. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  5. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  6. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) was first isolated in 1994, from a disease outbreak involving at least 21 horses and two humans in the Brisbane suburb of Hendra, Australia. The affected horses and humans all developed a severe but unidentified respiratory disease that resulted in the deaths of one of the human...... cases and the deaths or putting down of 14 of the horses. The virus, isolated by culture from a horse and the kidney of the fatal human case, was initially characterised as a new member of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Comparative sequence analysis of part of the matrix protein...... gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  7. The Helper Activities of Different Avian Viruses for Propagation of Recombinant Avian Adeno-Associated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-ping; SUN Huai-chang; WANG Jian-ye; WANG Yong-juan; YUAN Wei-feng

    2007-01-01

    To compare the helper activities of different avian viruses for propagation of recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV), AAV-293 cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector pAITR-GFP containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, the AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC expressing the rep and cap genes, and the adenovirus helper vector pHelper expressing Ad5 E2A, E4, and VA-RNA genes. Chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) or chicken embryonic liver (CEL) cells were cotransfected with the AAAV vector and the AAAV helper vector, followed by infection with Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian adenovirus, chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Infectious rAAAV particles generated by the two strategies were harvested and titrated on CEF and CEL cells. A significantly higher viral titer was obtained with the helper activity provided by the pHelper vector than by MDV or CELO virus. Further experiments showed that rAAAV-mediated green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was overtly enhanced by MDV or CELO virus super infection or treatment with sodium butyric acid, but not by IBDV super infection. These data demonstrated that MDV and CELO viruses could provide weak helper activity for propagation of rAAAV, and rAAAV-mediated transgene expression could be enhanced by super infection with the helper viruses.

  8. Preparedness for Zika Virus Disease - New York City, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madad, Syra S; Masci, Joseph; Cagliuso, Nicholas V; Allen, Machelle

    2016-10-28

    The rapid spread of Zika virus across the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas has had a direct effect on the U.S. health care delivery system. Hospitals in New York City (NYC) have been implementing prevention and response efforts consistent with CDC guidance. As of September 21, 2016, a total of 715 cases of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease had been diagnosed in New York state among travelers who returned from affected areas, their sexual contacts, or infants infected in utero. This represents the highest number of reported cases in any state to date, and underscores the importance of health care systems preparing to care for patients with possible Zika virus disease (1). Building upon a framework that was established in 2014 to screen patients for possible exposure to Ebola virus disease (Ebola), NYC Health + Hospitals,* the largest municipal health care delivery system in the United States, implemented a Zika Preparedness and Response Action Plan(†) (Zika Action Plan) to address the threat from Zika and ensure appropriate patient care. The plan developed by NYC Health + Hospitals includes universal travel screening, signage depicting areas with active Zika virus transmission, clinical and epidemiologic evaluation for possible Zika virus exposure, diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and linking of infected patients to appropriate specialists, and education on Zika virus disease and preventive measures (e.g., avoiding travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission).

  9. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  10. Carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Schrijver, R.

    2000-01-01

    This review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. In particular, knowledge about the carrier state,

  11. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  12. Viruses, Autophagy Genes, and Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Hubbard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of the intestinal disease Crohn’s disease involves genetic factors as well as ill-defined environmental agents. Several genetic variants linked to this disease are associated with autophagy, a process that is critical for proper responses to viral infections. While a role for viruses in this disease remains speculative, accumulating evidence indicate that this possibility requires serious consideration. In this review, we will examine the three-way relationship between viruses, autophagy genes, and Crohn’s disease and discuss how host-pathogen interactions can mediate complex inflammatory disorders.

  13. Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of avian leukosis virus p27 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Li, Delong; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Wen; Qin, Liting; Liu, Zaisi; Wu, Guan; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2013-02-01

    An antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against p27 was developed for the detection of the avian leukosis virus (ALV). The specificity of the optimized AC-ELISA was evaluated using avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A), avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Fowlpox virus (FPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian reovirus (ARV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli. The only specimens that yielded a strong signal were ALV-J, ALV-A and ALV-B, indicating that this assay is suitable for the detection of ALV. The limit of detection of this assay was 1.25 ng/ml of rp27 protein and 10(1.79)TCID(50) units of HLJ09MDJ-1 (ALV-J). Moreover, this AC-ELISA can detect ALV in cloacal swabs of chickens experimentally infected as early as 12 days post-infection. The AC-ELISA detected the virus in the albumin and cloacal swabs of naturally infected chickens, and the results were confirmed by PCR, indicating that the AC-ELISA was a suitable method for the detection of ALV. This test is rapid and sensitive and could be convenient for epidemiological studies and eradication programs.

  14. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Slivac; V Gaurina Srček; K Radošević; I Kmetič; Z Kniewald

    2006-09-01

    A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of BHK 21 C13 cells in the wave bioreactor during 3-day period were determined. At the end of the 3-day culture period and cell density of 1.82 × 106 cells ml–1, the reactor was inoculated with 9 ml of gE- Bartha K-61 strain ADV suspension (105.9 TCID50) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01. After a 144 h incubation period, 400 ml of ADV harvest was obtained with titre of 107.0 TCID50 ml–1, which corresponds to 40,000 doses of vaccine against AD. In conclusion, the results obtained with the wave bioreactor using BHK 21 C13 cells showed that this system can be considered as suitable for ADV or BHK 21 C13 cell biomass production.

  15. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are...

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  17. The genome of the chicken DT40 bursal lymphoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, János; Póti, Ádám; Pipek, Orsolya; Krzystanek, Marcin; Kanu, Nnennaya; Swanton, Charles; Tusnády, Gábor E; Szallasi, Zoltan; Csabai, István; Szüts, Dávid

    2014-09-15

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell line using whole genome shotgun sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array hybridization. The results indicate that wild-type DT40 has a relatively normal karyotype, except for whole chromosome copy number gains, and no karyotype variability within stocks. In a comparison to two domestic chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations inactivating the PIK3R1 and ATRX genes likely contributed to the oncogenic transformation. In addition to a known avian leukosis virus integration in the MYC gene, we detected further integration sites that are likely to de-regulate gene expression. The new findings support the hypothesis that DT40 is a typical transformed cell line with a relatively intact genome; therefore, it is well-suited to the role of a model system for DNA repair and related processes. The sequence data generated by this study, including a searchable de novo genome assembly and annotated lists of mutated genes, will support future research using this cell line.

  18. Influence of serotype and virus strain on synergism between Marek's disease vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R L

    1992-12-01

    The enhanced protective effect (synergism) when certain Marek's disease (MD) vaccine viruses are combined has been widely used in the development of improved vaccines, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To better characterize the basis for synergism among MD vaccine viruses, three vaccine viruses from each of the three MD viral serotypes were evaluated alone and in various combinations for protection against early challenge with very virulent MD viruses in four replicate trials. Synergism seemed to be influenced by viral serotype because significant enhancement occurred frequently between viruses of serotypes 2 and 3 (five of nine bivalent vaccines positive), but rarely between viruses of serotypes 1 and 3 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive) and 1 and 2 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive), and was not detectable between viruses of the same serotype (none of nine bivalent vaccines positive). With some exceptions, the degree of synergism tended to vary inversely with the mean protective efficacy of the most protective component virus. Little effect of virus dose, virus dose ratio or type and route of viral challenge was noted. The combination of strains 281MI/1 (serotype 2) and WTHV-1/1 (serotype 3), both poorly protective as monovalent vaccines, consistently demonstrated high levels of synergism (over 300%) in antibody-positive chickens challenged 5 days post-vaccination with Md5 virus. This protocol may be a useful model system for further studies on mechanisms of synergism. However, mixtures that optimize synergism are not necessarily as protective as commercial vaccines.

  19. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  20. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.

  1. Viruses and disease: emerging concepts for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease.

  2. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.

  3. Zika virus: A rapidly emerging infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Roy A

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted to humans via the bite of infected mosquitoes. A recent outbreak in Brazil has spread to several surrounding countries, and the virus also has been reported in the United States. The virus is associated with microcephaly among newborns whose mothers were infected. Because no vaccine or treatment is available, efforts have focused on preventing mosquito bites and advising pregnant women and women trying to get pregnant to avoid active areas of Zika virus transmission. Clinicians should understand the infection, its diagnosis and testing, and monitor pregnant women for travel history to outbreak regions and for the presence of clinical symptoms. Patient education on preventive measures offers the best option to avoid Zika virus infection.

  4. Travel to tropical areas: Zika virus disease

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2016-01-01

    Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America.   Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.

  5. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  6. Control of pome and stone fruit virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Marina; Ilardi, Vincenza; Pasquini, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    Many different systemic pathogens, including viruses, affect pome and stone fruits causing diseases with adverse effects in orchards worldwide. The significance of diseases caused by these pathogens on tree health and fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of control measures both nationally and internationally. Control measures depend on the identification of diseases and their etiological agents. Diagnosis is the most important aspect of controlling fruit plant viruses. Early detection of viruses in fruit trees or in the propagative material is a prerequisite for their control and to guarantee a sustainable agriculture. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce spread of viruses among countries during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Also certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of "quarantine" organisms under the national legislation but also of important "nonquarantine" pathogens. The control of insect vectors plays an important role in the systemic diseases management, but it must be used together with other control measures as eradication of infected plants and use of certified propagation material. Apart from the control of the virus vector and the use of virus-free material, the development of virus-resistant cultivars appears to be the most effective approach to achieve control of plant viruses, especially for perennial crops that are more exposed to infection during their long life span. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars and/or rootstocks could be potentially the most important aspect of virus disease management, especially in areas in which virus infections are endemic. The

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  8. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications.

  9. Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this stud...

  10. Newcastle disease virus from domestic mink, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Sun, Lingshuang; Sun, Xiao; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Wen; Pulscher, Laura A; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.

  11. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  12. Possible roles of Epstein-Barr virus in Castleman disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hung-Chang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete resection seemed to be curative in patients with Castleman disease of any location but the disease is likely to be reactive in its pathogenesis. The relation between Epstein-Barr virus and Castleman disease has not been elucidated. We tried to define the role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Castleman disease. Methods 20 cases of Castleman disease were retrospectively reviewed from 1993 to 2006. At least 2 to 4 representative sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from each patient were obtained to examine the presence of EBV and its localization by hematoxylin-eosin stain, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and In-situ hybridization Results Hyaline-vascular type was diagnosed in 18 cases, plasma cell type in 1 and mixed type in 1 case. All of them were positive for Epstein-Barr virus confirmed by PCR. For tumors that EBER(Epstein-Barr early region signals mainly localized in the germinal centers have increased vascularity than cases with EBER detected in inter-follicular areas. Conclusion There is a strong association between Castleman disease and Epstein-Barr virus. EBV may have a potential role in angiogenesis of Castleman disease. For smaller lesion with high activity of angiogenesis but not amenable for curative resection, anti-angiogenesis medications may have a potential role to control the disease.

  13. The role of viruses in neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sajjad; Mirza, Zeenat; Kamal, Mohammad A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Azhar, Esam I; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Ahmad, Fahim; Gan, Siew H; Sohrab, Sayed S

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases may be caused by chronic and neuropathic viral infections and may result in a loss of neurons and axons in the central nervous system that increases with age. To date, there is evidence of systemic viral infections that occur with some neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorders, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. With increasing lifespan, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases increases consistently. Neurodegenerative diseases affect approximately 37 million people worldwide and are an important cause of mortality. In addition to established non-viral-induced reasons for neurodegenerative diseases, neuropathic infections and viruses associated with neurodegenerative diseases have been proposed. Neuronal degeneration can be either directly or indirectly affected by viral infection. Viruses that attack the human immune system can also affect the nervous system and interfere with classical pathways of neurodegenerative diseases. Viruses can enter the central nervous system, but the exact mechanism cannot be understood well. Various studies have supported viral- and non-viral-mediated neurodegeneration at the cellular, molecular, genomic and proteomic levels. The main focus of this review is to illustrate the association between viral infections and both neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases, so that the possible mechanism and pathway of neurodegenerative diseases can be better explained. This information will strengthen new concepts and ideas for neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral disease treatment.

  14. Vaccination of hens decreases virus contamination in eggs after challenge with the virulent Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.J.; Kim, L.M.; Ip, H.S.; Afonso, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  16. 鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗对SPF鸡和商品肉鸡的免疫效果观察%The immune effect of duplex inactivated vaccines of newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease on SPF chicken and commercial broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹先强

    2016-01-01

    1, 7, 14 days of age SPF chicken are respectively vaccinated with a new, efficient inactivated vaccine of infectious bursal disease, and group 1 of chicken immune at 1 day-age, blood collecting at 25 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to15.5log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10; group 2 of chicken immune at 7 days-age, blood collecting at 30 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to 14.8log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10; group 3 of chicken immune at 14 days-age, blood collecting at 35 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to 15.4log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10.At 50 days-age of three groups chickenˊs neutralizing antibody are respectively up to16log2,16.1log2 and15.9log2, and poison attack protection all reaches 10/10. A new, effi-cient inactivated vaccine immune 1, 7, 14 days old commercial broilers with maternal antibody, after 25 days, sera-neutralizing anti-bodies are respectively up to 12.4log2, 15log2 and 14.2log2, poison attack protection respectively reach 8/10, 10/10 and 9/10; Three groups commercial broilers at the age of 50 days,their neutralizing antibody titers are respectively up to16.2log2,15.7log2,15.5log2, and poison attack protection reaches all 10/10.%用鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗(La Sota+HQ株)分别免疫1、7、14日龄SPF雏鸡,1日龄免疫组于25日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为15.5log2,攻毒保护10/10;7日龄免疫组于30日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为14.8log2,攻毒保护10/10;14日龄免疫组于35日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为15.4log2,攻毒保护10/10。3组在50日龄时法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值依次为16log2、16.1log2、15.9log2,攻毒保护均为10/10。用鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗(La Sota+HQ株)免疫带有母源抗体的1、7、14日龄商品肉鸡,免后25 d血清法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值分别为12

  17. Zika virus disease: a new look at a well-known disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shestakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the domestic medical literature presents a deep review about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory knowledge of Zika virus disease, based mainly on the publications of foreign authors and leading international organizations from 1947 to March 2016. Analyzed the essence of the problem, treatment of patients with Zika virus disease and infected pregnant women, indicated the unresolved question. For the first time were systematic sources of contemporary information about Zika virus disease for professionals and patients.

  18. Histopathological Observation of Lymphocystis Disease and Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Detection in Cultured Diseased Sebastes schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70-80nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70-80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.

  19. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Green, Richard; Sekine, Aimee; Voss, Kathleen M.; Mooney, Michael; Choonoo, Gabrielle; Miller, Darla R.; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Gale, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013)F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans. PMID:27806117

  20. B-cell differentiation in the chicken: expression of immunoglobulin genes in the bursal and peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, A; Veromaa, T; Vainio, O; Toivanen, P

    1989-03-01

    We have studied the expression of immunoglobulin genes in the chicken B-cell precursors, and of a B-cell surface marker (Bu-1) on the bursal and peripheral B cells during normal ontogeny. Since there is no way of distinguishing the precursor cells from the more mature bursal lymphocytes on the basis of surface markers, we chose to study the total bursal lymphocyte population at ages when the numbers of the various precursor cells (bursal, early post-bursal, and post-bursal stem cells) in the bursa are estimated to be at their highest. Thereafter, comparisons with the more mature lymphocytes in the peripheral organs were made. As a result, levels of the lambda and mu transcripts and expression of Bu-1 antigen in the chicken B-cell precursors were found to be unchanged during the post-hatching period. In the light of these experiments, the later events of B-cell differentiation, i.e. the development from the bursal to post-bursal B lymphocytes, occurs without the lambda, mu, and Bu-1 gene loci involved. On the other hand, the higher level of lambda and mu expression in the splenic B lymphocytes indicates that the post-bursal stem cells mature into highly active plasma cells after seeding to the peripheral organs.

  1. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  2. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  4. Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of international concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Kelly

    The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.

  5. Expressing foreign genes by Newcastle disease virus for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interesting aspect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the ability to selectively replicate in tumor cells. Recently, using reverse genetics technology to enhance the oncolytic properties and therapeutic potential of NDV for tumor therapy has become popular in immunocompetent carcinoma tumor mod...

  6. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  7. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  8. Virulence of Newcastle disease virus: what is known so far?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Koch, G.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Peeters, B.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade many studies have been performed on the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This is mainly due to the development of reverse genetics systems which made it possible to genetically modify NDV and to investigate the contribution of individual genes and genome regions to its

  9. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B;

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes...

  10. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  11. Is herpes simplex virus associated with peptic ulcer disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Löhr, J M; Nelson, J. A.; Oldstone, M B

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) may be associated with peptic ulcer disease, we examined ulcerative lesions of the distal stomach and proximal duodenum for the presence of nucleic acids and antibodies specific for HSV-1. Utilizing in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction with sequencing, gastric or duodenal tissues from 4 of 22 patients (18%) with documented peptic ulcer disease demonstrated the presence of both specific HSV-1 n...

  12. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Ferreira Sá Antunes

    Full Text Available Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV. In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2 were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.

  13. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  14. Control methods of virus diseases in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignus, Yehezkel

    2012-01-01

    Viral pathogens form an important group of obligatory parasites of plants. About 977 plant viruses have been described and classified in 14 families and 70 genera. This group of pathogens has complex interactions with their host plants and vectors due to their integration in the molecular mechanisms of living cells, interfering with our ability to manage the malfunctions of virus infected plants by curing means. These constraints led to the perception that the best protection from virus diseases is by prevention. Many cultural procedures used for virus control are aimed at eradicating or altering one or more of the primary participants in the transmission process (vector, virus source plants, and the crop) or preventing their coming together. Part of these control measures were devised to reduce to a minimum, the number of inoculative vector individuals that are active in the crop or interfere with the transmission process at any of its phases, thereby arresting virus spread. Advances in plant virology and a better understanding of plant vector interactions provide strategies based on the formation of mechanical and optical barriers that interfere with the ability of the viral pathogen or its vector to reach the plant and initiate an epidemic.

  15. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  16. Respiratory viruses in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate

  17. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

  18. Glomerular Diseases Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Sara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal diseases associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection are a significant problem for clinicians and diagnostic pathologists. A wide variety of disorders, including a spectrum of immune-complex glomerulonephritides, has been reported in association with hepatitis and cirrhosis caused by HCV. For some of these diseases, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I and cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis, plausible links between HCV and the glomerular pathology have been proposed. In other cases, the role of the virus in the pathogenesis of the renal disease is less certain. This communication catalogues the renal manifestations of HCV infection, providing clinical and pathological descriptions of the most prevalent disorders. Where available, evidence implicating HCV in the causation of the disorders is also discussed.

  19. Humoral immune responses to inactivated oil-emulsified Marek's disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L F; Witter, R L

    1991-01-01

    When inactivated Md11/75C vaccine was inoculated into 1-day-old chickens, it stimulated antibodies detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at a titer of 6400) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (at a titer of 640), but lacking virus-neutralizing activity. Chickens passively inoculated with these antibodies were protected against bursal atrophy, weight loss, and early mortality when challenged with the virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). That led to the conclusion that virus-neutralizing activity is not a prerequisite for protection. In another experiment, antibody titers of adult chickens previously primed by exposure to live turkey herpesvirus and MDV did not increase after immunization with inactivated oil-emulsion MDV vaccines. This result provides little hope that Marek's disease can be controlled in progeny chickens by maternal immunity derived from hyperimmunized parents.

  20. OUTBREAK OF ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Tsankova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus from Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Like most of the viruses which belong to the Flavivirus genus, it replicates in and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Unlike other arbovirus infections including dengue and chikungunya, Zika virus causes a relatively mild disease. The most common symptoms of ZIKV are mild fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, asthenia, abdominal pain, oedema, lymphadenopathy, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous maculopapular rash, which last for several days to a week. Although 80% of the cases with ZIKV are asymptomatic, severe complications such as microcephalia and GBS may be observed. This explains why ZIKV is more dangerous that it was thought to be and why it rapidly evolves in unexpected challenge for the international and national public health authorities.

  1. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.

  2. Protection against Marek's disease by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the glycoprotein B of Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazerian, K; Lee, L F; Yanagida, N; Ogawa, R

    1992-03-01

    Fowlpox virus (FPV) recombinants expressing the glycoprotein B and the phosphorylated protein (pp38) of the GA strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) were assayed for their ability to protect chickens against challenge with virulent MDV. The recombinant FPV expressing the glycoprotein B gene elicited neutralizing antibodies against MDV, significantly reduced the level of cell-associated viremia, and, similar to the conventional herpesvirus of turkeys, protected chickens against challenge with the GA strain and the highly virulent RB1B and Md5 strains of MDV. The recombinant FPV expressing the pp38 gene failed to either elicit neutralizing antibodies against MDV or protect the vaccinated chickens against challenge with MDV.

  3. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.

  4. [Zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus.

  5. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.

  6. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  7. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Course Is Predicted by the Extent of Virus Replication during Primary Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staprans, Silvija I.; Dailey, Peter J.; Rosenthal, Ann; Horton, Chris; Grant, Robert M.; Lerche, Nicholas; Feinberg, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between early viral infection events and immunodeficiency virus disease progression, quantitative-competitive and branched-DNA methods of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA quantitation were cross-validated and used to measure viremia following infection of rhesus macaques with the pathogenic SIVmac251 virus isolate. Excellent correlation between the methods suggests that both accurately approximate SIV copy number. Plasma viremia was evident 4 days postinfection, and rapid viral expansion led to peak viremia levels of 107 to 109 SIV RNA copies/ml by days 8 to 17. Limited resolution of primary viremia was accompanied by relatively short, though variable, times to the development of AIDS (81 to 630 days). The persistent high-level viremia observed following intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 explains the aggressive disease course in this model. Survival analyses demonstrated that the disease course is established 8 to 17 days postinfection, when peak viremia is observed. The most significant predictor of disease progression was the extent of viral decline following peak viremia; larger decrements in viremia were associated with both lower steady-state viremia (P = 0.0005) and a reduced hazard of AIDS (P = 0.004). The data also unexpectedly suggested that following SIVmac251 infection, animals with the highest peak viremia were better able to control virus replication rather than more rapidly developing disease. Analysis of early viral replication dynamics should help define host responses that protect from disease progression and should provide quantitative measures to assess the extent to which protective responses may be induced by prophylactic vaccination. PMID:10233944

  8. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette;

    2012-01-01

    The surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. Hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. In the present study we...... B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region. Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected...

  9. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  10. Development of a blocking latex agglutination test for the detection of antibodies to chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Dai Quang; Ogawa, Haruko; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Nguyen, Tham Thi Hong; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Kizito, Mugimba Kahoza; AboElkhair, Mohammed; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2015-09-01

    A blocking latex agglutination test (b-LAT) developed in this study was evaluated for the detection of antibodies against chicken anemia virus (CAV) in chickens. Polystyrene latex beads were coupled with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CAV (mAb-beads). When mAb-beads were mixed with antigens prepared from the lysate of MDCC-MSB1 cells infected with CAV, agglutination occurred. A short pre-incubation of CAV antigens with CAV-specific antiserum inhibited the agglutination of mAb-beads. The test results were obtained within 5min. The specificity of b-LAT was evaluated using sera from specific pathogen-free chickens and sera containing antibodies to avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Marek's disease virus; nonspecific agglutination and cross-reactivity with antibodies to unrelated viruses were not observed. The examination of 94 serum samples collected from commercial breeder chickens of various ages (17-63 weeks) revealed good agreement (93.6%, Kappa value=0.82) between b-LAT and a virus neutralization test, known to be most sensitive and specific in the detection of antibodies to CAV. These results indicate that b-LAT, a simple and rapid test, is a useful and reliable tool in CAV serology.

  11. Immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus vectors expressing Norwalk virus capsid protein in the presence or absence of VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y; Samal, Siba K

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans.

  12. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  13. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  14. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  15. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

  16. Fibre Optic Biosensor Assay of Newcastle Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    A fluorometric sandwich immunoassay for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed using a fibre optic biosensor. Antibodies directed against NDV...and low baseline variation. These and other properties of the fibre optic biosensor indicate that it has the potential to serve as an on-line...continuous monitoring device of an automated or semiautomated detection system. As a part of the fibre optic biosensor development, the surface coverage of

  17. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy.

  18. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  19. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, John R; Padmanabhan, Sriranjani P; Greenough, Thomas C; Sacra, Richard; Ellison, Richard T; Madoff, Lawrence C; Droms, Rebecca J; Hinkle, David M; Asdourian, George K; Finberg, Robert W; Stroher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cerón, Olga M

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.

  20. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Progress and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjuan Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD represents one of the deadliest diseases in the world, with a fatality rate of over 70% and absence of effective vaccine and treatment. Rapid and specific diagnosis of EVD is essential for isolation, treatment of patients, and prevention of outbreak spread. Although many assays for EVD diagnosis have been reported, there is still an urgent requirement for practical assays for use in resource-limited areas, like Africa. Here we summarize the progresses of EVD diagnostic techniques.

  1. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  2. Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in Some Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163761.html Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in ... THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A common virus may make some women more susceptible to both ...

  3. Proteomic analysis of purified Newcastle disease virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiangpeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle disease virus (NDV is an enveloped RNA virus, bearing severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Previous virion proteomic studies have shown that enveloped viruses carry multiple host cellular proteins both internally and externally during their life cycle. To address whether it also occurred during NDV infection, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of highly purified NDV La Sota strain particles. Results In addition to five viral structural proteins, we detected thirty cellular proteins associated with purified NDV La Sota particles. The identified cellular proteins comprised several functional categories, including cytoskeleton proteins, annexins, molecular chaperones, chromatin modifying proteins, enzymes-binding proteins, calcium-binding proteins and signal transduction-associated proteins. Among these, three host proteins have not been previously reported in virions of other virus families, including two signal transduction-associated proteins (syntenin and Ras small GTPase and one tumor-associated protein (tumor protein D52. The presence of five selected cellular proteins (i.e., β-actin, tubulin, annexin A2, heat shock protein Hsp90 and ezrin associated with the purified NDV particles was validated by Western blot or immunogold labeling assays. Conclusions The current study presented the first standard proteomic profile of NDV. The results demonstrated the incorporation of cellular proteins in NDV particles, which provides valuable information for elucidating viral infection and pathogenesis.

  4. Zika virus disease: a new look at a well-known disease

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Shestakova

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in the domestic medical literature presents a deep review about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory knowledge of Zika virus disease, based mainly on the publications of foreign authors and leading international organizations from 1947 to March 2016. Analyzed the essence of the problem, treatment of patients with Zika virus disease and infected pregnant women, indicated the unresolved question. For the first time were systematic sources of contemporary information abou...

  5. An evolutionary insight into Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñora, Martin; Moreno, Pilar; Echeverría, Natalia; Fischer, Sabrina; Comas, Victoria; Fajardo, Alvaro; Cristina, Juan

    2015-08-01

    The disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a severe threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, NDV has been isolated in the Antarctic region. Detailed studies on the mode of evolution of NDV strains isolated worldwide are relevant for our understanding of the evolutionary history of NDV. For this reason, we have performed Bayesian coalescent analysis of NDV strains isolated in Antarctica to study evolutionary rates, population dynamics, and patterns of evolution. Analysis of F protein cleavage-site sequences of NDV isolates from Antarctica suggested that these strains are lentogenic. Strains isolated in Antarctica and genotype I reference strain Ulster/67 diverged from ancestors that existed around 1958. The time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was established to be around 1883 for all class II viruses. A mean rate of evolution of 1.78 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) was obtained for the F gene sequences of NDV strains examined in this study. A Bayesian skyline plot indicated a decline in NDV population size in the last 25 years. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of Antarctica in emerging or re-emerging viruses and the evolution of NDV populations worldwide.

  6. Analysis of the dengue disease model with two virus strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aini, A. N.; Ridwan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are the disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted to the human by infected female mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in more than 100 countries over the world. Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes which are closely related to each other antigenically. A person who infected by the dengue virus will never be infected again by the same serotype, but he looses immunity from the three other serotypes. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protective immunity against to others. Here we assume that there are two serotypes exist in the population. Someone who has recovered from one serotype become susceptible to the other serotype and can be reinfected. In this paper we analyze the model of dengue fever with two infections from the different serotype by linear analysis. Then we study the effect of vaccination to the model. In numerical simulation, we use Runge-Kutta order 4 to integrate the solution of the system.

  7. Prevalence of Hepatitis G Virus in Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Takagi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV in liver disease of non-A, -B, -C viral hepatitis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C was determined. Two of 44 patients (4.5% with liver injury without any hepatitis A, B or C marker were positive for HGV. One of five cases of hepatocellular carcinoma was positive for HGV. One of three cases with fulminant hepatitis was positive for HGV. This case was negative at the onset of fulminant hepatitis and became positive after plasmapheresis. No patient with acute (n=8 or chronic (n=5 hepatitis or liver cirrhosis (n=8 was positive for HGV in non-A, -B, -C liver disease. One of 30 patients with various HBV-positive liver diseases and nine (17.3 of 52 patients with type C liver disease were positive for HGV. In patients with hepatitis C, four (28.6% of 14 HGV-co-infected patients were complicated with diabetes mellitus compared with four (10.5% of 38 single hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients (not significant. In 12 HGV-positive patients, eight of 10 (80% had a history of blood transfusion. In HCV-positive patients, co-infection with HGV was not a risk factor in patients with diabetes mellitus as a complication. HGV appeared to cause non-A, -B, -C hepatitis rarely, and its main route of infection was blood transfusion.

  8. Molecular and biological characterization of a Marek's disease virus field strain with reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhizhong; Zhuang, Guoqin; Xu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Aijun; Su, Shuai

    2010-04-01

    A Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strain designated GX0101 was isolated from a layer flock and confirmed to be a recombinant virus with an insert of a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). A chimeric molecule containing an REV-LTR insert of 539 bp and its flanking sequences from MDV was amplified and sequenced. An REV-LTR downstream from the Internal Repeat Short (IRS) region has 77.4-98.6% homology to seven REV field strains isolated from different avian species in different parts of the world. The insertion site is located downstream of SORF 1 and upstream of SORF2 in the IRS region near the junction with the Unique Short (US) region in the MDV serotype 1 genome. Chicken experiments were conducted to determine the oncogenicity of the recombinant GX0101 virus and its transmissibility to contact chickens. Dot blot hybridization was used to detect the presence of the pp38 gene in feather tips from GX0101 or Md5 infected and contact birds. The pp38 was detected in GX0101 contact birds about 1-2 weeks earlier than in Md5 birds when both groups were vaccinated with HVT vaccine. Long term pathogenicity tests in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens reveal that the recombinant GX0101 has a higher virulence than GA, but less virulence than Md5, the very virulent pathotype of MDV. This is the first report on an oncogenic serotype 1 MDV field strain with LTR insert and its pathogenicity.

  9. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-09-08

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976-2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past.

  10. Control strategies for sweet potato virus disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Richard W; Aritua, Valentine; Byamukama, Emmanuel; Mpembe, Isaac; Kayongo, James

    2004-03-01

    Sweet potato virus disease (SPVD), caused by dual infection with the whitefly-borne Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and the aphid-borne Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), is the most serious disease of sweet potato in Africa. SPVD has been known there since at least the 1940s, although it took several decades to elucidate its aetiology. It occurs throughout Africa and is particularly prevalent in the Great Lakes region. Production of sweet potato is largely by resource-poor farmers, growing mostly local landraces and for home consumption and so control strategies need to be appropriate to these circumstances. Most high yielding and/or early maturing landraces in Uganda are susceptible to SPVD and most resistant landraces are low-yielding, forcing farmers to compromise between the conflicting requirements of large and/or early yields, and food security. Accordingly, two strategies were tested to avoid the disadvantages associated with such compromises. These were deploying high-yielding SPVD-resistant cultivars and phytosanitation practices to enable susceptible landraces to be grown successfully. In on-farm trials in Masaka and Rakai Districts of Uganda, some SPVD-resistant cultivars bred at Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Research Station (NAARI), in Wakiso District, out-yielded local landraces. Other trials at NAARI and at nearby farms showed that roguing diseased cuttings within 1 month of planting and isolation from diseased crops, even by as little as 15m, can considerably decrease spread of SPVD to susceptible cultivars. This indicates that phytosanitation can protect desirable susceptible cultivars, even if adopted only locally. A dual approach of deploying both resistant varieties and phytosanitation provides farmers with a valuable increase in their choice of control strategies for SPVD.

  11. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  12. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  13. Ebola virus disease in Africa: epidemiology and nosocomial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, P; O'Dempsey, T J D

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. There have been 20 significant outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to the 2014 outbreak, the largest being that in Uganda in 2000, with 425 cases and a mortality of 53%. Since the first outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire in 1976, transmission within health facilities has been of major concern, affecting healthcare workers and acting as amplifiers of spread into the community. The lack of resources for infection control and personal protective equipment are the main reasons for nosocomial transmission. Local strategies to improve infection control, and a greater understanding of local community views on the disease, have helped to bring outbreaks under control. Recommendations from previous outbreaks include improved disease surveillance to enable more rapid health responses, the wider availability of personal protective equipment, and greater international preparedness.

  14. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD and Women's Health Care in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus, type species Zaire ebolavirus, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF or Ebola is a disease of human and other primates, caused by an Ebola virüs(1-5. These agents cause a severe, unrelenting viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality(1. EVD was first recognized in 1976, when two unrelated epidemics occurred in northern Zaire and southern Sudan(1-5. The largest outbreaks to date are the ongoing 2014 west African. Ebola outbreaks, which is affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria(2-5. Transmission Ebola virus may be acquired upon contact with blood or bodily fluids of an infected animal. Spreading the air has not been documented in the natural environment. Fruit bats are believed to be a carrier and may spread the virus without being affected(1-2. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people as well(2. Symptoms Clinical appearance is starts in 2 days to 3 weeks after contacting the virus, with fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches(1-5. Treatment A number of experimental treatment are being studied. The FDA has allowed two drugs, Zmapp and TKM-Ebola(2. Treatment is primarily supportive in natüre(1-5. The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 50% and 90% of those infected with the virüs(1-5, in conclusion No specific treatment for the disease is yet available. Prevention Includes decreasing the spread of disease from infected animals to humans(2. Prevention of epidemics rates on early recognition and initial cases and promp institution of barrier nursing. At the community level, properly sterilized injection equipment, protection from body fluid and skin during preparation of the dead, and routine barrier nursing precaution are probably adequate in most care(1-2. During the EHF epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo the number of infected women was slightly higher than the man(6-7. Sex protection Saliva, breast milk, and semen, austerity from

  15. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  16. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  17. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  18. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tissue distribution of mannan-binding lectin in non-infected and virus-infected chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Hedemand, J.;

    1998-01-01

    This-paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non......-infected chickens, MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of a few hepatocytes and in the germinal centres of the caecal tonsils, whereas sections of kidney, heart muscle, spleen, cerebrum, thymus, adrenal gland, bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow and trachea were without staining. In the ILTV-infected chickens, an intense...... staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes and on the surface of, and inside, ILTV-infected cells. Also in the IBDV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. No staining was seen in the follicles of the bursa...

  19. Protective efficacy of a recombinant BAC clone of Marek's disease virus containing REV-LTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long-terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV), Md5 (Kim et al, 2011) rendered the resultant recombinant virus termed rMd5 REV-LTR BAC fully attenuated at passa...

  20. Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, K W; Lorence, R M; Cascino, C J; Peeples, M E; Walter, R J; Fernando, M B; Reyes, H M; Greager, J A

    1992-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of NDV to replicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm's tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested as well as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques did not form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. Titers remained near zero in normal fibroblast supernatants. In vivo tumoricidal activity was evaluated in athymic nude Balb-c mice by subcutaneous injection of 9 x 10(6) tumor cells followed by intralesional injection of either live or heat-killed NDV (1.0 x 10(6) plaque forming units [PFU]), or medium. After live NDV treatment, tumor regression occurred in 10 out of 11 mice bearing KB8-5-11 tumors, 8 out of 8 with HT-1080 tumors, and 6 out of 7 with IMR-32 tumors. After treatment with heat-killed NDV no regression occurred (P less than 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Nontumor-bearing mice injected with 1.0 x 10(8) PFU of NDV remained healthy. These results indicate that NDV efficiently and selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells, but not normal cells, and that intralesional NDV causes complete tumor regression in athymic mice with a high therapeutic index.

  1. Infective viruses produced from full-length complementary DNA of swine vesicular disease viruses HK/70 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Haixue; FENG Xia; YIN Shuanghui; GUO Jianhong; CONG Guozheng; LIU Zaixin; CHANG Huiyun; MA Junwu; XIE Qingge; LIU Xiangtao; SHANG Youjun; WU Jinyan; BAI Xingwen; JIN Ye; SUN Shiqi; GUO Huichen; TIAN Hong

    2006-01-01

    The full-length cDNA clone of swine vesicular disease virus HK/70 strain named pSVOK12 was constructed in order to study the antigenicity, replication, maturation and pathogenicity of swine vesicular disease virus. In vitro transcription RNA from pSVOK12 transfected IBRS-2 cells and the recovered virus RNA were isolated and sequenced, then indirect hemagglutination test, indirect immunofluorescence assays, eleectron microscope test, 50% tissue culture infecting dose (TCID50) assays and mouse virulence studies were performed to study the antigenicity and virulence of the recovered virus. The result showed that the infectious clones we obtained and the virus derived from pSVOK12 had the same biological properties as the parental strain HK/70. The full-length infectious cDNA clone, pSVOK12, will be very useful in studies of the antigenicity, virulence, pathogenesis, maturation and replication of SVDV.

  2. Isolation of recombinant field strains of Marek's disease virus integrated with reticuloendotheliosis virus genome fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Zhi; CUI; Zhizhong

    2005-01-01

    Two Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strains were isolated from chickens with tumors independently from Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, and it was confirmed that there were no co-infections with reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REV) in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF) in indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFA) with REV-specific monoclonal antibodies. By dot blot hybridization and PCR of genomic DNA of MDV-infected CEF, it was indicated that LTR fragments of REV genome were integrated into genome of these two MDV field strains. To amplify and clone the integrated REV LTR with MDV sequence at the junction, 4 primers from REV LTR and 7 primers from MDV genome fragment with REV LTR insertion hot points were synthesized and 28 (4x7) pairs of primers (one from REV and another from MDV for each pair) were used in PCR while using the genomic DNA of both strains as the templates. The sequence data demonstrated that both recombinant field strains contained the same REV LTR inserted into MDV at the identical sites in US fragment of the genomes. From the above, it was speculated that both recombinant field MDVs were originated from a same recombinant virus and spread among chicken flocks in two provinces.

  3. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with Brincidofovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jake; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Antierens, Annick; Whitehead, John; Ciglenecki, Iza; Carson, Gail; Kanapathipillai, Rupa; Castle, Lyndsey; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Pardinaz-Solis, Raul; Grove, Jennifer; Scott, Janet; Lang, Trudie; Olliaro, Piero; Horby, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The nucleotide analogue brincidofovir was developed to prevent and treat infections caused by double-stranded DNA viruses. Based on in vitro data suggesting an antiviral effect against Ebola virus, brincidofovir was included in the World Health Organisation list of agents that should be prioritised for clinical evaluation in patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the West African epidemic. Methods and Findings In this single-arm phase 2 trial conducted in Liberia, patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD (two months of age or older, enrolment bodyweight ≥50 kg) received oral brincidofovir 200 mg as a loading dose on day 0, followed by 100 mg brincidofovir on days 3, 7, 10, and 14. Bodyweight-adjusted dosing was used for patients weighing <50 kg at enrolment. The primary outcome was survival at Day 14 after the first dose of brincidofovir. Four patients were enrolled between 01 January 2015 and 31 January 2015. The trial was stopped following the decision by the manufacturer to terminate their program of development of brincidofovir for EVD. No Serious Adverse Reactions or Suspected Unexpected Serious Adverse Reactions were identified. All enrolled subjects died of an illness consistent with EVD. Conclusions Due to the small sample size it was not possible to determine the efficacy of brincidofovir for the treatment of EVD. The premature termination of the trial highlights the need to establish better practices for preclinical in-vitro and animal screening of therapeutics for potentially emerging epidemic infectious diseases prior to their use in patients. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201411000939962 PMID:27611077

  4. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M;

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...... and (ii) increasing efficacy and treatment rate. This analysis suggests that successful diagnosis and treatment of a small proportion of patients can contribute significantly to the reduction of disease burden in the countries studied. The largest reduction in HCV-related morbidity and mortality occurs...... when increased treatment is combined with higher efficacy therapies, generally in combination with increased diagnosis. With a treatment rate of approximately 10%, this analysis suggests it is possible to achieve elimination of HCV (defined as a >90% decline in total infections by 2030). However...

  5. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Holck Draborg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus in systemic autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Duus, Karen; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a group of connective tissue diseases with diverse, yet overlapping, symptoms and autoantibody development. The etiology behind SADs is not fully elucidated, but a number of genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the incidence of SADs. Recent findings link dysregulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with SAD development. EBV causes a persistent infection with a tight latency programme in memory B-cells, which enables evasion of the immune defence. A number of immune escape mechanisms and immune-modulating proteins have been described for EBV. These immune modulating functions make EBV a good candidate for initiation of autoimmune diseases and exacerbation of disease progression. This review focuses on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and sum up the existing data linking EBV with these diseases including elevated titres of EBV antibodies, reduced T-cell defence against EBV, and elevated EBV viral load. Together, these data suggest that uncontrolled EBV infection can develop diverse autoreactivities in genetic susceptible individuals with different manifestations depending on the genetic background and the site of reactivation.

  8. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review.

  9. Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; El Attrache, John; Dorsey, Kristi M; Courtney, Sean C; Guo, Zijing; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2013-12-01

    Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by classes I and II, with class II being further divided into sixteen genotypes. Although all NDV are members of APMV-1 and are of one serotype, antigenic and genetic diversity is observed between the different genotypes. Reports of vaccine failure from many countries and reports by our lab on the reduced ability of classical vaccines to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding have created renewed interest in developing vaccines formulated with genotypes homologous to the virulent NDV (vNDV) circulating in the field. We assessed how the amount and specificity of humoral antibodies induced by inactivated vaccines affected viral replication, clinical protection and evaluated how non-homologous (heterologous) antibody levels induced by live NDV vaccines relate to transmission of vNDV. In an experimental setting, all inactivated NDV vaccines protected birds from morbidity and mortality, but higher and more specific levels of antibodies were required to significantly decrease viral replication. It was possible to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding with high levels of antibodies and those levels could be more easily reached with vaccines formulated with NDV of the same genotype as the challenge viruses. However, when the levels of heterologous antibodies were sufficiently high, it was possible to prevent transmission. As the level of humoral antibodies increase in vaccinated birds, the number of infected birds and the amount of vNDV shed decreased. Thus, in an experimental setting the effective levels of humoral antibodies could be increased by (1) increasing the homology of the vaccine to the challenge virus, or (2) allowing optimal time for the development of the immune response.

  10. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  11. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  12. Demonstration of Aleutian disease virus-specific lymphocyte response in mink with progressive Aleutian disease: comparison of sapphire and pastel mink infected with different virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E

    1983-09-01

    Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.

  13. Prognostic Analysis of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. However, factors affecting the survival of the disease remain unclear. Here, we investigated the prognostic factors of Ebola virus disease (EVD through various statistical models.Sixty three laboratory-confirmed EVD patients with relatively complete clinical profiles were included in the study. All the patients were recruited at Jui Government Hospital, Sierra Leone between October 1st, 2014 and January 18th, 2015. We first investigated whether a single clinical presentation would be correlated with the survival of EVD. Log-rank test demonstrated that patients with viral load higher than 10(6 copies/ml presented significantly shorter survival time than those whose viral load were lower than 10(6 copies/ml (P = 0.005. Also, using Pearson chi-square test, we identified that chest pain, coma, and viral load (>10(6 copies/ml were significantly associated with poor survival of EVD patients. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of multiple variables on the survival of EVD by Cox proportional hazards model. Interestingly, results revealed that patient's age, symptom of confusion, and viral load were the significantly associated with the survival of EVD cases (P = 0.017, P = 0.002, and P = 0.027, respectively.These results suggest that age, chest pain, coma, confusion and viral load are associated with the prognosis of EVD, in which viral load could be one of the most important factors for the survival of the disease.

  14. Review of Newcastle disease virus with particular references to immunity and vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Garib, S.O.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Gruys, E.; Koch, G.

    2003-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease. The present paper deals with classification of ND virus (NDV), clinical signs and pathology, virus strain classification and molecular backgrounds for the pathogenicity. Major emphasis is reviewing immunity and vaccination. Clinical forms of the

  15. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen;

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  16. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  17. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Jacobs, B P; Iaquinto, G;

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses cause the majority of liver diseases. Randomised clinical trials have assessed whether extracts of milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertneri, have any effect in patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases....

  18. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha;

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission....

  19. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters.

  20. Humanized Mouse Model of Ebola Virus Disease Mimics the Immune Responses in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Spengler, Jessica R; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Khristova, Marina L; Sealy, Tara K; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Dodd, Kimberly A; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Sanders, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-03-01

    Animal models recapitulating human Ebola virus disease (EVD) are critical for insights into virus pathogenesis. Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates derived directly from human specimens do not, without adaptation, cause disease in immunocompetent adult rodents. Here, we describe EVD in mice engrafted with human immune cells (hu-BLT). hu-BLT mice developed EVD following wild-type EBOV infection. Infection with high-dose EBOV resulted in rapid, lethal EVD with high viral loads, alterations in key human antiviral immune cytokines and chemokines, and severe histopathologic findings similar to those shown in the limited human postmortem data available. A dose- and donor-dependent clinical course was observed in hu-BLT mice infected with lower doses of either Mayinga (1976) or Makona (2014) isolates derived from human EBOV cases. Engraftment of the human cellular immune system appeared to be essential for the observed virulence, as nonengrafted mice did not support productive EBOV replication or develop lethal disease. hu-BLT mice offer a unique model for investigating the human immune response in EVD and an alternative animal model for EVD pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening.

  1. Multidistrict Outbreak of Marburg Virus Disease-Uganda, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Schafer, Ilana J; Wamala, Joseph; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Okot, Charles; Shoemaker, Trevor; Dodd, Kimberly; Gibbons, Aridth; Balinandi, Stephen; Tumusiime, Alex; Campbell, Shelley; Newman, Edmund; Lasry, Estrella; DeClerck, Hilde; Boum, Yap; Makumbi, Issa; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E

    2015-10-01

    In October 2012, a cluster of illnesses and deaths was reported in Uganda and was confirmed to be an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Patients meeting the case criteria were interviewed using a standard investigation form, and blood specimens were tested for evidence of acute or recent Marburg virus infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total count of confirmed and probable MVD cases was 26, of which 15 (58%) were fatal. Four of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases (27%) were fatal. Case patients were located in 4 different districts in Uganda, although all chains of transmission originated in Ibanda District, and the earliest case detected had an onset in July 2012. No zoonotic exposures were identified. Symptoms significantly associated with being a MVD case included hiccups, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. Contact with a case patient and attending a funeral were also significantly associated with being a case. Average RT-PCR cycle threshold values for fatal cases during the acute phase of illness were significantly lower than those for nonfatal cases. Following the institution of contact tracing, active case surveillance, care of patients with isolation precautions, community mobilization, and rapid diagnostic testing, the outbreak was successfully contained 14 days after its initial detection.

  2.  Association between hepatitis B virus and chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Donato, Francesca M; Messa, Piergiorgio

     Background. Hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease are prevalent and remain a major public health problem worldwide. It remains unclear how infection with hepatitis B virus impacts on the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.

  3. Sensitivity of sf9 Cells to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus%sf9细胞对传染性法氏囊病病毒的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有根; 聂峰光; 戚艺华

    2000-01-01

    对sf9细胞进行了温度和pH驯化,研究了sf9细胞对传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)的敏感性及稳定性.结果表明:sf9细胞可进行pH和温度驯化;IBDV可对sf9细胞造成产毒性的持续感染,但不具有传代稳定性;驯化条件下IBDV的增殖优于非驯化条件.

  4. Implications of Ebola virus disease on wildlife conservation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Sonibare, Adekayode Olanrewaju; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Jayeola, Omotola Abiola; Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in some West African countries spanning from late 2013 and currently on as of 13th March, 2015 is the most widespread and fatal with human mortality that has surpassed all previous outbreaks. The outbreak has had its toll on conservation of endangered species. This portends danger for the wild fauna of the country if proactive measures are not taken to prepare grounds for evidence-based assertions concerning the involvement of wild species. To this end, there is an urgent need for sweeping census of reserves, national parks and wetlands. As well as the creation of a system involving reportage by sectors like the industries (extractive and construction) including persons and organisations involved with wildlife related activities. This documentation of die offs and unusual events to collaborating institutions, will help in monitoring trends which hitherto would have gone unnoticed. The importance of bats and primates in agriculture and public health via consumption of vermin insects and seed dispersal cannot be over-emphasized. There is the need for caution on the tendencies to destroy indicator species which could be silent pointers to emerging or re-emerging health and environmental issues. Wildlife resources are still reliably useful and caution is advised in the use of blanket destructive policies like fumigation of caves, indiscriminate culling and poisoned baits to destroy supposedly Ebola Disease Virus wildlife reservoirs. This paper highlights the immediate conservation problems and likely future implications of Ebola saga in Nigeria. It tries to identify the gaps in wildlife researches and makes recommendations for probable workable conservation strategies.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Kadanali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A growing pile of evidence supports the notion that pulmonary involvement is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and vice versa.Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed: 1. A prevalence study of HCV infection among patients with COPD; 2. A prevalence study of COPD among patients with chronic HCV infection. COPD was diagnosed according to ATS/ERS guidelines. The prevalence of HCV infection in COPD group was compared with the result of a previous study which determined the prevalence of HCV infection in general population. Prevalence of COPD in patients with chronic HCV infection was also compared to those with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection.Results: The study included 108 patients with COPD, 68 patients with chronic HCV infection, and 60 patients with chronic HBV infection. HCV infection was observed in 8.3% of patients with COPD, and 1.2% of the control subjects (P= 0.000. The prevalence of COPD among patients with chronic HCV and HBV infection was 17.6%, and 5%, respectively (P=0.03. Comparing COPD-positive and -negative chronic HCV patients for risk factors for COPD revealed that only the mean age was higher in COPD-positive patients (60.8±9.1 years vs. 46.5±11.5 years, P=0.000. In multivariate analysis, age was found to be the only independent predictor of COPD in HCV group.Conclusions: Patients with COPD have increased prevalence of HCV infection, and patients with HCV infection, have increased prevalence of COPD. COPD may be an extrahepatic disease associated with HCV infection.

  6. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  7. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Adokiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design: This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015 were collated from each district. Results: In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons, inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47 of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion: EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains

  8. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector.

  9. Unusual resistance to ionizing radiation of the viruses of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Latarjet, R

    1978-01-01

    The titers of several preparations of kuru. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and scrapie viruses were reduced by only 1/10th or less by high doses of gamma radiation of 50 kGy and by only 1/10th-1/1000th or less for 200 kGy. This unusual radiation resistance of the two human viruses further links them with the scrapie virus and suggests that the genetic information of all three viruses is considerably smaller than that of any other known viruses of mammals. PMID:104301

  10. Nuevos virus asociados con gastroenteritis New viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un resumen de las características comunes y específicas de los diversos virus asociados con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con énfasis en la importancia que tienen en la génesis de este síndrome y en el hecho de que la mayoría de los casos, aunque sean severos, pueden ser manejados adecuadamente mediante el reemplazo de líquidos y electrolitos.

    A synopsis of the common and specific features of the various viruses associated with acute diarrheal disease is presented; emphasis Is made on their importance as etiologic agents of this syndrome and on the fact that most cases, even If they are severe, can be appropriately treated by fluid and electrolyte replacement.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique (2011-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapaco, Lourenço P; Monjane, Iolanda V A; Nhamusso, Antonieta E; Viljoen, Gerrit J; Dundon, William G; Achá, Sara J

    2016-10-01

    The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from 11 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all 11 isolates was (112)RRRKRF(117) indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994, 1995 and 2005. The identification of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique.

  12. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  13. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  14. Incidence of Alpha-Herpes virus induced ocular disease in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhin, Malti R; Grunberg, Meritha G; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel

    2012-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the corneal stroma is the most prominent cause of scar formation impairing visual acuity and HSV keratitis is the leading cause of corneal opacity throughout the world. Suriname lacked test systems for microbial causes of ocular disease, therefore a polymerase chain reaction-based Herpes virus assay was introduced, enabling prompt recognition, and timely treatment, preventing progressive eye damage. The incidence and epidemiology of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in ocular disease in Suriname was assessed. In a cross-sectional prospective study, ocular swabs were collected from 91 patients with a presumptive α-Herpes virus ocular infection attending the Academic Hospital between November 2008 and August 2010 and were tested by a PCR-based α-Herpes virus assay. Alpha-Herpes virus ophthalmic infections were caused predominantly by HSV-1 with a prevalence of 31%. The prevalences of VZV, HSV-2, and a mixed HSV-1/HSV-2 infection were 4%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The first reported annual incidence of herpetic induced ocular disease in Suriname was estimated at 11.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 4.8-18.1). No clear age, ethnic or gender dependent difference in incidence was observed. The information obtained on α-Herpes virus positive ocular infections and the distribution of subtypes provided the first insight in the South American situation of α-Herpes virus induced ocular disease.

  15. IFNγ Influences Type I Interferon Response and Susceptibility to Theiler's Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Jenna L.; Olson, Julie K.

    2013-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice that has similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), which promotes the development of demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV infection of resistant C57BL6 mice results in viral clearance without development of demyelinating disease....

  16. High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in tonsillar tissues from children with chronic adenotonsillar disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena

    Full Text Available Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05, and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05 in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  17. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection in Argentina: Burden of chronic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezequiel; Ridruejo; Fernando; Bessone; Jorge; R; Daruich; Chris; Estes; Adrián; C; Gadano; Homie; Razavi; Federico; G; Villamil; Marcelo; O; Silva

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the progression of the hepatitis C virus(HCV) epidemic and measure the burden of HCVrelated morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Age- and gender-defined cohorts were used to follow the viremic population in Argentina and estimate HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. The relative impact of two scenarios on HCV-related outcomes was assessed:(1) increased sustained virologic response(SVR); and(2) increased SVR and treatment.RESULTS: Under scenario 1, SVR raised to 85%-95% in 2016. Compared to the base case scenario, there was a 0.3% reduction in prevalent cases and liverrelated deaths by 2030. Given low treatment rates, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis decreased < 1%, in contrast to the base case in 2030. Under scenario 2, the same increases in SVR were modeled, with gradual increases in the annual diagnosed and treated populations. This scenario decreased prevalent infections 45%, liver-related deaths 55%, liver cancer cases 60%, and decompensated cirrhosis 55%, as compared to the base case by 2030. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, cases of end stage liver disease and liver-related deaths due to HCV are still growing, while its prevalence is decreasing. Increasing in SVR rates is not enough, and increasing in the number of patients diagnosed and candidates for treatment is needed to reduce the HCV disease burden. Based on this scenario, strategies to increase diagnosis and treatment uptake must be developed to reduce HCV burden in Argentina.

  19. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Venteo, A.;

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological...... immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule...

  20. Tropical food legumes: virus diseases of economic importance and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Masarapu; Sreenivasulu, Pothur; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Kumar, P Lava; Reddy, Dodla V R

    2014-01-01

    Diverse array of food legume crops (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) have been adopted worldwide for their protein-rich seed. Choice of legumes and their importance vary in different parts of the world. The economically important legumes are severely affected by a range of virus diseases causing significant economic losses due to reduction in grain production, poor quality seed, and costs incurred in phytosanitation and disease control. The majority of the viruses infecting legumes are vectored by insects, and several of them are also seed transmitted, thus assuming importance in the quarantine and in the epidemiology. This review is focused on the economically important viruses of soybean, groundnut, common bean, cowpea, pigeonpea, mungbean, urdbean, chickpea, pea, faba bean, and lentil and begomovirus diseases of three minor tropical food legumes (hyacinth bean, horse gram, and lima bean). Aspects included are geographic distribution, impact on crop growth and yields, virus characteristics, diagnosis of causal viruses, disease epidemiology, and options for control. Effectiveness of selection and planting with virus-free seed, phytosanitation, manipulation of crop cultural and agronomic practices, control of virus vectors and host plant resistance, and potential of transgenic resistance for legume virus disease control are discussed.

  1. The genome of a very virulent Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulman, E R; Afonso, C L; Lu, Z; Zsak, L; Rock, D L; Kutish, G F

    2000-09-01

    Here we present the first complete genomic sequence, with analysis, of a very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1), Md5. The genome is 177,874 bp and is predicted to encode 103 proteins. MDV1 is colinear with the prototypic alphaherpesvirus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) within the unique long (UL) region, and it is most similar at the amino acid level to MDV2, herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT), and nonavian herpesviruses equine herpesviruses 1 and 4. MDV1 encodes 55 HSV-1 UL homologues together with 6 additional UL proteins that are absent in nonavian herpesviruses. The unique short (US) region is colinear with and has greater than 99% nucleotide identity to that of MDV1 strain GA; however, an extra nucleotide sequence at the Md5 US/short terminal repeat boundary results in a shorter US region and the presence of a second gene (encoding MDV097) similar to the SORF2 gene. MD5, like HVT, encodes an ICP4 homologue that contains a 900-amino-acid amino-terminal extension not found in other herpesviruses. Putative virulence and host range gene products include the oncoprotein MEQ, oncogenicity-associated phosphoproteins pp38 and pp24, a lipase homologue, a CxC chemokine, and unique proteins of unknown function MDV087 and MDV097 (SORF2 homologues) and MDV093 (SORF4). Consistent with its virulent phenotype, Md5 contains only two copies of the 132-bp repeat which has previously been associated with viral attenuation and loss of oncogenicity.

  2. Viruses: are they really culprits for periodontal disease? A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambili, Ranjith; Preeja, Chandran; Archana, Vilasan; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Reejamol, Mohammed Khasim

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, and many etiological agents are suggested to play a role in their etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors are also suggested to influence the progression of periodontal disease. Until recently, specific bacteria were considered the major pathogens for the disease. However, the occurrence of periodontal disease in some patient groups is still poorly understood, and the role of other initiating agents is being investigated. Evidence strongly suggests the presence of many strains of viruses in the periodontal environment, and possible mechanisms have also been suggested. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for other systemic diseases can also be better explained based on this viral etiology. In this review, we critically analyze the role of viruses in different periodontal diseases, and provide a categorical description of the underlying mechanisms. Clinical implications and future directions are also discussed. Evidence of a causal role of herpes viruses in periodontitis might revolutionize existing strategies to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease.

  3. Nested PCR for rapid detection of mumps virus in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, G P; Rodriguez, C; Cisterna, D; Freire, M C; Cello, J

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a reverse transcription (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR) for the detection of mumps virus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurological infections. A specific 112-bp fragment was amplified by this method with primers from the nucleoprotein of the mumps virus genome. The mumps virus RT-n-PCR was capable of detecting 0.001 PFU/ml and 0.005 50% tissue culture infective dose/ml. This method was found to be specific, since no PCR product was detected in each of the CSF samples from patients with proven non-mumps virus-related meningitis or encephalitis. Mumps virus RNA was detected in all 18 CSF samples confirmed by culture to be infected with mumps virus. Positive PCR results were obtained for the CSF of 26 of 28 patients that were positive for signs of mumps virus infection (i.e., cultivable virus from urine or oropharyngeal samples or positivity for anti-mumps virus immunoglobulin M) but without cultivable virus in their CSF. Overall, mumps virus RNA was detected in CSF of 96% of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) disease and confirmed mumps virus infection, while mumps virus was isolated in CSF of only 39% of the patients. Furthermore, in a retrospective study, we were able to detect mumps virus RNA in 25 of 55 (46%) CSF samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS disease and negative laboratory evidence of viral infection including mumps virus infection. The 25 patients represent 12% of the 236 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of viral CNS infections and whose CSF was examined at our laboratory for a 2-year period. The findings confirm the importance of mumps virus as a causative agent of CNS infections in countries with low vaccine coverage rates. In summary, our study demonstrates the usefulness of the mumps virus RT-n-PCR for the diagnosis of mumps virus CNS disease and suggests that this assay may soon become the "gold standard" test

  4. Influence of the Leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsham, Graham J

    2013-07-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding sequence is lethal for the virus, whereas loss of the Lb coding sequence results in a virus that is viable in BHK cells. In addition, it is now shown that deletion of the 'spacer' region between these two initiation codons can be tolerated. Growth of the virus precisely lacking just the Lb coding sequence resulted in a previously undetected accumulation of frameshift mutations within the 'spacer' region. These mutations block the inappropriate fusion of amino acid sequences to the amino-terminus of the capsid protein precursor. Modification, by site-directed mutagenesis, of the Lab initiation codon, in the context of the virus lacking the Lb coding region, was also tolerated by the virus within BHK cells. However, precise loss of the Lb coding sequence alone blocked FMDV replication in primary bovine thyroid cells. Thus, the requirement for the Leader protein coding sequences is highly dependent on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production.

  5. Ebola Virus Disease: Ethics and Emergency Medical Response Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting.

  6. Influence of the Leader protein coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus on virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Leader (L) protein is produced in two forms, Lab and Lb, differing only at their amino-termini, due to the use of separate initiation codons, usually 84 nt apart. It has been shown previously, and confirmed here, that precise deletion of the Lab coding......, in the context of the virus lacking the Lb coding region, was also tolerated by the virus within BHK cells. However, precise loss of the Lb coding sequence alone blocked FMDV replication in primary bovine thyroid cells. Thus, the requirement for the Leader protein coding sequences is highly dependent...... on the nature and extent of the residual Leader protein sequences and on the host cell system used. FMDVs precisely lacking Lb and with the Lab initiation codon modified may represent safer seed viruses for vaccine production....

  7. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  8. Control of plant virus diseases in cool-season grain legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G; van Leur, Joop A G; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    Cool-season grain legume crops become infected with a wide range of viruses, many of which cause serious diseases and major yield losses. This review starts by discussing which viruses are important in the principal cool-season grain legume crops in different parts of the world, the losses they cause and their economic impacts in relation to control. It then describes the main types of control measures available: host resistance, phytosanitary measures, cultural measures, chemical control, and biological control. Examples are provided of successful deployment of the different types of measures to control virus epidemics in cool-season grain legume crops. Next it emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to control because single control measures used alone rarely suffice to adequately reduce virus-induced yield losses in these crops. Development of effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies depends on an interdisciplinary team approach to (i) understand the ecological and climatic factors which lead to damaging virus epidemics and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of individual control measures. In addition to using virus-resistant cultivars, other IDM components include sowing virus-tested seed stocks, selecting cultivars with low seed transmission rates, using diverse phytosanitary or cultural practices that minimize the virus source or reduce its spread, and using selective pesticides in an environmentally responsible way. The review finishes by briefly discussing the implications of climate change in increasing problems associated with control and the opportunities to control virus diseases more effectively through new technologies.

  9. Youtube as a source of information on Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Pathak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD, which began from Guinea in December 2013, has been the longest and deadliest Ebola outbreak to date. With the propagation of the internet, public health officials must now compete with other official and unofficial sources of information to get their message out. Aims: This study aimed at critically appraising videos available on one popular internet video site (YouTube as a source of information for Ebola virus disease (EVD. Materials and Methods: Videos were searched in YouTube (http://www.youtube.com using the keyword "Ebola outbreak" from inception to November 1, 2014 with the default "relevance" filter. Only videos in English language under 10 min duration within first 10 pages of search were included. Duplicates were removed and the rest were classified as useful or misleading by two independent reviewers. Video sources were categorized by source. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated with kappa coefficient. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed using the Student t-test and Chi-squared test, respectively. Results: One hundred and eighteen out of 198 videos were evaluated. Thirty-one (26.27% videos were classified as misleading and 87 (73.73% videos were classified as useful. The kappa coefficient of agreement regarding the usefulness of the videos was 0.68 (P < 0.001. Independent users were more likely to post misleading videos (93.55% vs 29.89%, OR = 34.02, 95% CI = 7.55-153.12, P < 0.001 whereas news agencies were most likely to post useful videos (65.52% vs 3.23%, OR = 57.00, 95% CI = 7.40-438.74, P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that majority of the internet videos about Ebola on YouTube were characterized as useful. Although YouTube seems to generally be a useful source of information on the current outbreak, increased efforts to disseminate scientifically correct information is desired to prevent unnecessary panic among the among

  10. [Several issues on the epidemiology of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guiyang; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus belongs to Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus. In response to the current cluster of congenital malformations (microcephaly) and other neurological complications (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) that could be linked to Zika virus infection, WHO declares that Zika virus is of global public health importance. Data sources were from peer review articles and WHO documents. The sources of Zika virus infection would include patients, people with asymptomatic infections and primates. The infectious period of Zika virus remains unclear. However, according to the period that RNA of Zika virus can be positively detected in blood, saliva, urine or semen, we can presume that the communicable period may last for 2 months or even longer. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Presumptive vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission have been reported. More evidence indicated the existence of a cause-effect relationship between Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly/Guillain-Barre syndrome. Strategies include successful control the amount of mosquitoes and minimize the contacts between mosquitoes and human beings could effectively prevent the Zika virus transmission. Other preventive measures as cutting off vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission should also be adopted. The epidemiology of Zika virus remains uncertain which calls for further research.

  11. Deletion of Marek's disease virus large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase impairs virus growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aijun; Lee, Lucy F; Khan, Owais A; Heidari, Mohammad; Zhang, Huanmin; Lupiani, Blanca; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2013-06-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic alphaherpesvirus, is the causative agent of a neoplastic disease in domestic chickens called Marek's disease (MD). In the unique long (UL) region of the MDV genome, open reading frames UL39 and UL40 encode the large and small subunits of the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) enzyme, named RR1 and RR2, respectively. MDV RR is distinguishable from that present in chicken and duck cells by monoclonal antibody T81. Using recombinant DNA technology we have generated a mutant MDV (Md5deltaRR1) in which RR1 was deleted. PCR amplification of the RR gene in Md5deltaRR1-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) confirmed the deletion of the 2.4 kb RR1 gene with a resultant amplicon of a 640-bp fragment. Restriction enzyme digests with SalI confirmed a UL39 deletion and the absence of gross rearrangement. The biologic characteristics of Md5deltaRR1 virus were studied in vitro and in vivo. The Md5deltaRR1 replicated in DEF, but significantly slower than parental Md5-BAC, suggesting that RR is important but not essential for replication in fibroblasts. In vivo studies, however, showed that the RR1 deletion virus was impaired for its ability to replicate in chickens. Inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with Md5deltaRR1 showed the mutant virus is nonpathogenic and does not induce MD in birds. A revertant virus, Md5deltaRR1/R, was generated with the restored phenotype of the parental Md5-BAC in vivo, indicating that RR is essential for replication of the virus in chickens. Protection studies in SPF chickens indicated that the Md5deltaRR1 virus is not a candidate vaccine against MD.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced RNA polymerase is associated with Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S H

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.

  13. POTENSI VIRUS NEWCASTLE DISEASE SEBAGAI AGEN ANTI-KANKER PADA MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus Newcastle Disease (NDV menimbulkan penyakit yang hebat pada beberapa spesies unggas dan mengakibatkan kerugian ekonomi yang besar pada industri peternakan unggas di seluruh dunia. Genomnya terdiri atas RNA berserat tunggal dan berpolaritas negatif dengan panjang 15,186Kb. Genom virus ND menyandi enam

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus Lymphoproliferative Disease Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Prediction and Early Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.J. van Esser (Joost)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of both infectious and malignant human diseases. These viruses are characterized by (B-cell) lymphotropism, their ability to establish latent infection in host cells and to induce proliferation of these latently infected cells.

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  16. Protein Organization in Newcastle Disease Virus as Revealed by Perturbant Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of Newcastle disease virus with lithium diiodosalicylate differentially elutes the internally disposed proteins, M and NP, showing that these proteins are extrinsic, i.e., not associated with the lipid hydrophobic core. This selective elution requires disruption of the viral envelope, a process that is maximal at low temperature and influenced by the lipid composition of the virus envelope.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Border Disease Virus Genotype 3 Strain Gifhorn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the genotype 3 border disease virus strain Gifhorn has been determined; this strain was originally isolated from pigs. This represents the consensus sequence for the virus used to produce the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cDNA clone pBeloGif3, which yields...

  18. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom;

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closes...

  19. Genetic susceptibility to and presence of endogenous avian leukosis viruses impose no significant impact on survival days of chickens challenged with very virulent plus Marek's disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicks of distinct genotypes at the tumor virus B locus (TVB) in combination with presence or absence of endogenous avian leukosis virus ev21 gene in their genomes were examined for survival day patterns after challenge with very virulent plus Marek’s disease virus (vv+MDV) in three consecutive tria...

  20. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into CVI988 strain of Marek’s disease virus results in enhanced growth and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been reported that co-cultivation of a JM/102W strain, a virulent strain of Marek’s disease virus (MDV), with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the integration of REV long terminal repeat (LTR) into the MDV repeat region. The resulting virus, RM1, was unable to transform T-cells ...

  1. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  2. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus replicon particles can induce rapid protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that swine pretreated with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (Ad5) containing the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-alpha/Beta) are sterilely protected when challenged one day later with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), but the dose required is relativ...

  3. Construction and applications of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus replicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Zhe, Mingjia; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Meng, Chunchun; Zhang, Miaotao; Liu, Guangqing

    2013-01-01

    The study of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has long been hindered by the absence of an in vitro culture system. In this study, using RHDV as a model, a series of DNA-based reporter replicons were constructed in which the firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene was fused in-frame with the open reading frame of the replicon. In this construct, the Fluc gene was inserted where the coding region of viral structural protein was deleted and was under the control of a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter. Fluc activity analysis showed that these reporter replicons replicate efficiently in mammalian cells. On the basis of the replicon, 5'non-coding regions (5'NCR) and genome-linked protein (VPg) were deleted, and the effect on the expression of replicon was analyzed. The results showed that the expression level of Fluc was reduced in the absence of 5'NCR and VPg, suggesting that the 5'NCR and VPg may play an important role in replication and/or translation of RHDV. To further verify the speculation, we also constructed a replication deficient mutant (pRHDV-luc/Δ3D), and the impact of 5'NCR and VPg deletion on viral translation efficiency was analyzed, our results indicated that both VPg and 5'NCR were involved in RHDV translation.

  4. Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camacho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo. By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92–2.11 in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus association with peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD. However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129, and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5, while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1. Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD. PMID:26199856

  8. Epstein–Barr virus is associated with periodontal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zilong; Lv, Juan; Wang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some controversies still exist between the detection of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)'s DNA and risks of periodontal diseases. Hence, a comprehensive meta-analysis on all available literatures was performed to clarify the relationship between EBV and preidontitis. A comprehensive search was conducted within the PUBMED, EMBASE, and WANFANG databases up to October 10th, 2016 according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and finally 21 case–control literatures were obtained. The outcomes including odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Publication bias was determined by Begg or Egger test. Sensitivity analysis was used to investigate reliability and stability of the results. According to the data from included trials, the association between overall increased risks of periodontitis and the detection of EBV was significant (OR = 6.199, 95% CI = 3.119–12.319, P periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis were 6.586 (95% CI = 3.042–14.262, P periodontitis in Asians, Europeans, and Americans (P periodontal pockets were easier than in ≤3-mm sites (P = 0.023). This meta-analysis indicates that high frequent detection of EBV correlates with increased risk of periodontal diseases. SgP and tissue are available for detecting EBV in patients of periodontitis. At last, our results suggest that detecting EBV of samples in =5 (6) mm sites of periodontal pockets are more sensitive than in ≤3-mm sites. PMID:28178139

  9. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  10. Delayed Newcastle disease virus replication using RNA interference to target the nucleoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year millions of chickens die from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) worldwide, leading to economic and food losses. Current vaccination campaigns have limitations including cost, administration, and thermostability. These problems are heightened in the developing world where constraints are more...

  11. Novel tubular and crystalline structures in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowans, E J; McNulty, M S

    1979-01-01

    Hitherto undescribed tubular and crystalline structures were detected by negative contrast electron microscopy in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. It is suggested that these are viral in origin and are composed of aggregates of viral glycoprotein.

  12. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with Newcastle Disease Virus and human Respiratory Syncytial Virus by a two-dimensional virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguera, Javier; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel

    2014-10-13

    Although it is well documented that the initial attachment receptors for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are sialic acid-containing molecules and glycosaminoglycans respectively, the exact nature of the receptors for both viruses remains to be deciphered. Moreover, additional molecules at the host cell surface might be involved in the entry mechanism. With the aim of identifying the cellular proteins that interact with NDV and RSV at the cell surface, we performed a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA). Cell membrane lysates were separated by two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and electrotransferred to PVDF membranes, after which they were probed with high viral concentrations. NDV interacted with a Protein Disulfide Isomerase from chicken fibroblasts. In the case of RSV, we detected 15 reactive spots, which were identified as six different proteins, of which nucleolin was outstanding. We discuss the possible role of PDI and nucleolin in NDV and RSV entry, respectively.

  13. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease.

  14. Pathogenesis of new sub-genotypes of Newcastle disease virus strains from Israel and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). New genotypes and sub-genotypes of NDV frequently emerge. In the past few years, NDV strains belonging to sub-genotype VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asi...

  15. Development of a Liquid Chip Technique to Simultaneously Detect Taura Syndrome Virus( TSV) and Yellow Head Disease Virus( YHDV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin; Weili; Zhang; Sihua; Yue; Zhiqin; Zheng; Xiaolong; Liu; Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to develop a liquid chip technique to detect Taura syndrome virus( TSV) and yellow head disease virus( YHDV) on Penaeus orientalis simultaneously. The CP2 gene of TSV and N gene of YHDV in Gen Bank was analysed by using the software DNAStar 7. 0 to design the TSV-and YHDV-specific primers. The primers were labeled with biotin and subjected to amination modification. They were then coupled with fluorescence-coded microspheres and then used for hybridization with RT- PCR products of TSV and YHDV. The liquid chip detection technique for detection of TSV and YHDV was established by using BD FACSArray to detect fluorescence signal in the reaction system. This assay system had a high sensitivity to TSV and YHDV,with the detection of limit of 100 pg. Moreover,the assay was specific for the detection of TSV,YHDV and was not susceptible to cross with other viruses,including white spot syndrome virus( WSSV),spring viremia of carp virus( SVCV),infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus( IHNV). In conclusion,the liquid chip assay technique established in this study is highly sensitive and specific to TSV and YHDV detection. Moreover,it provides a novel,convenient and rapid approach for the detection of TSV and YHDV.

  16. Hepatitis C virus viremia increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Lundgren, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.......Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined....

  17. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Gontán Quintana; Alain Soto Ugalde; Elena Idaisy Otero Salabarría

    2013-01-01

    Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was c...

  18. Canine distemper virus epithelial cell infection is required for clinical disease but not for immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Hinkelmann, Sarah; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2012-04-01

    To characterize the importance of infection of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) in ferrets. To obtain a CDV that was unable to enter epithelial cells but retained the ability to enter immune cells, we transferred to its attachment (H) protein two mutations shown to interfere with the interaction of measles virus H with its epithelial receptor, human nectin-4. As expected for an epithelial receptor (EpR)-blind CDV, this virus infected dog and ferret epithelial cells inefficiently and did not cause cell fusion or syncytium formation. On the other hand, the EpR-blind CDV replicated in cells expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), the morbillivirus immune cell receptor, with similar kinetics to those of wild-type CDV. While ferrets infected with wild-type CDV died within 12 days after infection, after developing severe rash and fever, animals infected with the EpR-blind virus showed no clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, both viruses spread rapidly and efficiently in immune cells, causing similar levels of leukopenia and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation activity, two indicators of morbillivirus immunosuppression. Infection was documented for airway epithelia of ferrets infected with wild-type CDV but not for those of animals infected with the EpR-blind virus, and only animals infected with wild-type CDV shed virus. Thus, epithelial cell infection is necessary for clinical disease and efficient virus shedding but not for immunosuppression.

  19. Hepatitis C virus: risk factors and disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grady, B.P.X.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and was first identified in 1989 as a cause for transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. Transmission of HCV occurs predominantly via blood-to-blood contact. After acute infection about 75% of those infected progress to a persistent infect

  20. Ebola virus disease control in West Africa: an ecological, one health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Fagbo, Shamsudeen

    2015-01-01

    The 2013-2015 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa had similar nuances with the 1976 outbreaks in Central Africa; both were caused by the Zaire Ebola Virus strain and originated from rural forested communities. The definitive reservoir host of Ebola virus still remains unknown till date. However, from ecological perspective, it is known that the virus first emerged from forest ecotypes interfacing with human activities. As at March 2015, the outbreak has claimed over 9000 lives, which is unprecedented. Though it remains unproved, the primary sources of infection for past and present outbreaks are forest dwelling, human-hunted fauna. Understanding the ecological factors at play in these forest ecotypes where wild fauna interface with human and causing pathogen spill over is important. A broad based One Health approach incorporating these ecological concepts in the control of Ebola Virus Disease can effectively ameliorate or forestall infection now and in the future.

  1. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  2. Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanga, C J; Wadsworth, J; Mpelumbe-Ngeleja, C A R; Sallu, R; Kivaria, F; Wambura, P N; Yongolo, M G S; Rweyemamu, M M; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. These analyses showed that Tanzanian type O viruses fell into the EAST AFRICA 2 (EA-2) topotype, type A viruses fell into the AFRICA topotype (genotype I), type SAT 1 viruses into topotype I and type SAT 2 viruses into topotype IV. Taken together, these findings reveal that serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 that caused FMD outbreaks in Tanzania were genetically related to lineages and topotypes occurring in the East African region. The close genetic relationship of viruses in Tanzania to those from other countries suggests that animal movements can contribute to virus dispersal in sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first molecular description of viruses circulating in Tanzania and highlights the need for further sampling of representative viruses from the region so as to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Pathobiology and subgroup specificity of disease induced by Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.Y.

    1983-01-01

    When Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7) was injected intravenously into 10-day old chicken embryos, a disease syndrome developed which was characterized by stunting, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperinsulinemia. Stocks of RAV-7, a subgroup C avian leukosis virus, were obtained by end-point purification on chick embryo fibroblast cells. The size of the viral RNA was 8.2 kb and the protein banding pattern on polyacrylamide gels was typical of avian leukosis viruses. These results indicated that RAV-7 was a non-defective avian leukosis virus and no sarcoma or defective leukemia viruses were present in the RAV-7 stock. RAV-7 induced a unique disease syndrome although infection by three other subgroup C avian leukosis viruses (tdB77, tdPrC, and RAV-49) resulted in an identical lymphoblastoid infiltration of the thyroid and pancreas. An examination of disease induced by avian leukosis viruses from subgroups A, B, D, and F showed that infection by any of these subgroups did not result in the typical RAV-7 disease syndrome.

  4. Zika Virus Disease in Travelers Returning to the United States, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Morgan J; Fischer, Marc; Panella, Amanda J; Kosoy, Olga I; Laven, Janeen J; Lanciotti, Robert S; Staples, J Erin

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that typically causes a mild febrile illness with rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis. Zika virus has recently caused large outbreaks of disease in southeast Asia, Pacific Ocean Islands, and the Americas. We identified all positive Zika virus test results performed at U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2010 to 2014. For persons with test results indicating a recent infection with Zika virus, we collected information on demographics, travel history, and clinical features. Eleven Zika virus disease cases were identified among travelers returning to the United States. The median age of cases was 50 years (range: 29-74 years) and six (55%) were male. Nine (82%) cases had their illness onset from January to April. All cases reported a travel history to islands in the Pacific Ocean during the days preceding illness onset, and all cases were potentially viremic while in the United States. Public health prevention messages about decreasing mosquito exposure, preventing sexual exposure, and preventing infection in pregnant women should be targeted to individuals traveling to or living in areas with Zika virus activity. Health-care providers and public health officials should be educated about the recognition, diagnosis, and prevention of Zika virus disease.

  5. Isolation of a virulent Newcastle disease virus from confiscated LaSota vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole L; Killian, Mary Lea; Predgen, Ann S; Schmitt, Beverly J

    2013-06-01

    Vials of Newcastle disease vaccine labeled as LaSota were confiscated by the Arizona Division of Customs and Border Protection officials. Two different avian type 1 paramyxoviruses were isolated from all three vials of vaccine submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The LaSota strain of avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from all three vials and analyzed by nucleotide sequence analysis. A virulent Newcastle disease virus was also present in all three vials, but in low concentration. The virulence of the Newcastle disease virus was characterized by the intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index chicken inoculation assay but could not be determined by nucleotide sequence analysis from the virus isolated from embryonating chicken eggs. The intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index value for the isolated Newcastle disease virus was 1.55. Strains of Newcastle disease virus with intracerebral pathogenicity indexes significantly above 1.0 have been found to selectively kill many types of cancer cells while not affecting normal nonneoplastic cells and are considered to be a viable option for cancer treatment in humans by alternative medical researchers; however, the treatment is not approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration. Customs and Border Protection officials have been notified of an increased risk of Newcastle disease virus entering the United States for use as a nonapproved cancer treatment. Illegal importation of Newcastle disease vaccine for vaccination of backyard poultry is also a threat. This case report emphasizes the importance of conducting chicken inoculation for complete virus pathotyping and demonstrates the need for stringent security procedures at U.S. borders to detect known livestock pathogens that may be smuggled in for use in animal agriculture and reasons unrelated to animal agriculture.

  6. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Shepherd, Eric; Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2015-09-23

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide and produce co-infections especially in areas of the world where both viruses are endemic; but little is known about the interactions between these two viruses. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV affects HPAIV replication in chickens. Only infections with virulent NDV strains (mesogenic Pigeon/1984 or velogenic CA/2002), and not a lentogenic NDV strain (LaSota), interfered with the replication of HPAIV A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) when the H5N2 was given at a high dose (10(6.9) EID50) two days after the NDV inoculation, but despite this interference, mortality was still observed. However, chickens infected with the less virulent mesogenic NDV Pigeon/1984 strain three days prior to being infected with a lower dose (10(5.3-5.5) EID50) of the same or a different HPAIV, A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA-12283-12/2012 (H7N3), had reduced HPAIV replication and increased survival rates. In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can reduce HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV, and the timing of the infections. The information obtained from these studies helps to understand the possible interactions and outcomes of infection (disease and virus shedding) when HPAIV and NDV co-infect chickens in the field.

  7. Role of endogenous avian leukosis virus and serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus in enhancement of spontaneous lymphoid-leukosis-like tumors in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of endogenous subgroup E avian Leukosis virus (ALV-E) and strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV) on the enhancement of spontaneous lymphoid leukosis (LL)-like tumors was studied in chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line named 0.TVB*S1, or RFS. This...

  8. Spontaenous Avian Leukosis Virus-like lymphomas in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated with serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickens of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) line alv6, known to develop spontaneous avian leukosis virus (ALV)-like lymphomas at two years of age or older, were inoculated either in-ovo, or at 1 day of age with strain SB-1 of serotype 2 Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Inoculated and uninoc...

  9. Complete genome sequence of Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus, a putative cytorhabdovirus infecting taro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Colleen M; Bejerman, Nicolas; Li, Ming; James, Anthony P; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Pearson, Michael N; Revill, Peter A; Harding, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    We report the first genome sequence of a Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV) derived from bobone-affected taro [Colocasia esculenta L. Schott] from Solomon Islands. The negative-strand RNA genome is 12,193 nt long, with six major open reading frames (ORFs) with the arrangement 3'-N-P-P3-M-G-L-5'. Typical of all rhabdoviruses, the 3' leader and 5' trailer sequences show complementarity to each other. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CBDaV is a member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, supporting previous reports of virus particles within the cytoplasm of bobone-infected taro cells. The availability of the CBDaV genome sequence now makes it possible to assess the role of this virus in bobone, and possibly alomae disease of taro and confirm that this sequence is that of Colocasia bobone disease virus (CBDV).

  10. Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy: a review and management considerations for filovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebell, Lisa M; Riley, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    The largest-ever recorded outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever is ongoing. As a result of the epidemic and rural nature of outbreaks, little is published about the Filovirus infections Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy. This review of viral hemorrhagic fever focusing on Marburg and Ebola uses knowledge of disease in nonpregnant individuals and pregnancy-specific data to inform management for pregnant women. Filovirus infection presentation is similar between pregnant and nonpregnant patients, although infections may be more severe in pregnancy. Although labeled as hemorrhagic fevers, Marburg and Ebola do not commonly cause gross bleeding and should be conceptualized as diseases of high gastrointestinal losses. Early, aggressive supportive care is the mainstay of Filovirus infection management with massive fluid resuscitation as the key management principle. Patients often require 5-10 L or more per day of intravenous or oral fluid to maintain circulating blood volume in the setting of ongoing gastrointestinal loss. Fluid shifts warrant aggressive monitoring and correction of potassium levels and acid-base disturbances to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias and metabolic complications. Regardless of maternal survival, fetal loss rates are nearly 100% in Filovirus infection, likely resulting from unchecked transplacental and hematogenous viral spread. High fetal loss rates support the placenta as a difficult-to-eradicate Filovirus infection reservoir. In conclusion, the management of Filovirus infection in pregnancy should focus on stabilizing the mother with intensive monitoring and aggressive fluid and electrolyte repletion as well as maintaining strict infection control to minimize transmission to others.

  11. Inactivation of avian influenza virus, newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus using solution of nano-sized scallop shell powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Satoh, Keisuke; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2014-09-01

    Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process - the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) - was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms.

  12. Antibodies against analogous heptad repeat peptide HR212 of Newcastle Disease Virus inhibit virus-cell membrane fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; TIEN Po

    2007-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key step in enveloped virus entry. Highly conserved heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) are critical functional domains for viral membrane fusion. They display different conformations in the membrane fusion states and are viewed as candidate targets for neutralizing antibody responses. We previously reported that an analog of heptad repeat peptides HR2-HR1-HR2(HR212) and HR2 could inhibit NDV induced cell-cell membrane fusion. Here, we show that HR212 can induce the production of highly potent antibody in immunized rabbits, which could recognize full length peptides of both HR1 and HR2, and inhibit NDV hemagglutination and NDV entry. These suggest that either HR212 or its antibody could be an inhibitor of virus-induced cell-cell membrane fusion.

  13. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Sakkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus (′Dengue-like syndrome′. The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  14. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  15. Characteristics of Children Aged Zika Virus Disease Acquired Postnatally - U.S. States, January 2015-July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyson B; Dziuban, Eric J; Powell, Krista; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Langley, Gayle; Lindsey, Nicole; Franks, Jessica L; Russell, Kate; Dasgupta, Sharoda; Barfield, Wanda D; Odom, Erika; Kahn, Emily; Martin, Stacey; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that typically causes an asymptomatic infection or mild illness, although infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic complications can occur in adults after Zika virus infection. However, there are few published reports describing postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children. During January 2015-July 2016, a total of 158 cases of confirmed or probable postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children aged Zika virus disease in children who have an epidemiologic risk factor and clinically compatible illness, and should report cases to their state or local health department.

  16. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  17. Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus as treatment for pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.R.A. Buijs (Pascal)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract In this thesis, experiments are presented that were undertaken to develop oncolytic NDV for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Oncolytic viruses (OVs), reported first halfway the previous century, have undergone a tremendous evolution from anecdotal experimental an

  18. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Q&As on Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audio Infographics & Illustrations Factsheets Posters Virus Ecology Graphic ... has been detected in blood and many body fluids. Body fluids include saliva, mucus, vomit, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine, semen, and vaginal fluids. What does ...

  19. [Oncolytic viruses as a new way of treatment of neoplastic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Urszula; Chronowska, Justyna; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-08-01

    Despite the unceasing progression in chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, neoplasms are still the second, after cardiovascular diseases, cause of death in the world. The creation of oncolytic viruses gives hope for increase of anticancer therapy effectiveness. Oncolytic viruses are the type of viruses that selectively infect and cause the lyse of tumor cells excluding normal cells. This mechanism allows to avoid the consequences of the possible replication of the virus, which having entered to the organism, replicates in organism's cells by using the DNA of host cells. The development of genetic engineering and molecular biology has enabled the creation of this kind of genetically modified viruses, which deprive them of their virulence. Currently, there are many clinical trials in progress including the use of oncolytic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, melanoma and glioblastoma multiforme treatment. There are parallel studies in animals using the subsequent viruses. Oncolytic viruses treatment is generally well tolerated, without significant side effects. It is worth to point out that this method combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy allows to reduce the use of therapeutic doses, which significantly reduces the toxicity of conventional treatment. Further clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of oncolytic viruses will develop more effective and better tolerated therapeutic protocols in the future.

  20. Immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagoudanavar, S H; Hosamani, M; Tamil, R P; Sreenivasa, B P; Chandrasekhar, B K; Venkataramanan, R

    2015-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. Development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. There is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (VLPs), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. The VLPs are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. The objective of the present study was to express the VLPs of FMD virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1 (IND 63/72), using baculovirus system and characterize them for antigenic structure. The VLPs expressed in insect cells showed immunoreactivity similar to inactivated cell culture FMDV. Further they possess similar sensitivity to trypsin as the inactivated cell culture FMDV, suggesting that trypsin-sensitive antigenic sites could be similarly arranged. Our findings suggest that the FMD VLPs have similar antigenic conformational feature like the wild type virus, thus supporting their utility in development of non-infectious FMD vaccines and/or diagnostic assays.

  1. Zika Virus Disease Cases - 50 States and the District of Columbia, January 1-July 31, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William L; Lindsey, Nicole P; Lehman, Jennifer A; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Rabe, Ingrid B; Hills, Susan L; Martin, Stacey W; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2016-09-16

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections have also been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-5). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic (1,6). Clinical illness, when it occurs, is generally mild and characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause adverse outcomes such as fetal loss, and microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies (1-3). Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare autoimmune condition affecting the peripheral nervous system, also has been associated with Zika virus infection (1). Following the identification of local transmission of Zika virus in Brazil in May 2015, the virus has continued to spread throughout the Region of the Americas, and travel-associated cases have increased (7). In 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (8). As of September 3, 2016, a total of 2,382 confirmed and probable cases of Zika virus disease with symptom onset during January 1-July 31, 2016, had been reported from 48 of 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Most cases (2,354; 99%) were travel-associated, with either direct travel or an epidemiologic link to a traveler to a Zika virus-affected area. Twenty-eight (1%) cases were reported as locally acquired, including 26 associated with mosquito-borne transmission, one acquired in a laboratory, and one with an unknown mode of transmission. Zika virus disease should be considered in patients with compatible clinical signs or symptoms who traveled to or reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission or who had unprotected sex with someone who traveled to those areas. Health

  2. Genetic characterization and pathogenicity assessment of Newcastle disease virus isolated from wild peacock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-12-01

    The continued spread and occurrence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed potential threat to domestic poultry industry around the globe. Mainly, wild avian species has always been implicated for the natural reservoir for virus and spread of the disease. In the present study, we report the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV/Peacock/India/2012) in necropsy brain tissue sample of wild peacock from North India. Complete genome of the virus was found to be 15,186 nucleotides (nts) with six genes in order of 3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5', which was limited by 55-nts leader region at the 3' end and a 114-nts trailer sequence at 5' end. Sequence analysis of fusion protein revealed the dibasic amino acid cleavage site (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117), a characteristic motif of virulent virus. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II of Newcastle disease virus showing the lowest mean percent divergence (6 %) with other genotype II counterparts. The isolate was characterized as mesogenic (intermediate pathotype) based on the mean death time (63 h) in embryonated chicken eggs and the intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (1.40) in day-old chicks. The report emphasizes the dynamic ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host during the outbreak of 2012 in North India. Further the genotypic and pathotypical characterizations of the isolate could help in development of homologous vaccine against NDV strain circulating in avian population.

  3. Mucosal disease-like lesions in sheep infected with Border disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monies, R J; Paton, D J; Vilcek, S

    2004-12-11

    An enteric disease characterised by diarrhoea and ill thrift affected 12 of a flock of 700 six- to 12-month-old ewe lambs in Cornwall between December 1996 and September 1997. The affected lambs were undersized, became thin and suffered an unremitting diarrhoea until they died. The illness lasted for three to 14 days, although, with hindsight, the owner considered that the lambs had been below average size before the enteric signs developed. The outbreak ceased only as a result of the dispersal sale of the flock as breeding ewes. The flock had been purchased from different sources, but 11 of the cases occurred in a group of 40 purchased from one source. Postmortem, the alimentary changes resembled mucosal disease in cattle, and immunostaining of histological sections of the affected tissues revealed pestiviral antigen. Non-cytopathic pestiviruses were isolated from the lesions of two of the affected lambs and from the blood of several clinically normal ewe lambs from the same group. All the pestivirus isolates were typed as Border disease virus.

  4. Outbreak detection algorithms for seasonal disease data: a case study using ross river virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatton Michelle L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of outbreaks is an important part of disease surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed for detecting outbreaks, few have been specifically assessed against diseases that have distinct seasonal incidence patterns, such as those caused by vector-borne pathogens. Methods We applied five previously reported outbreak detection algorithms to Ross River virus (RRV disease data (1991-2007 for the four local government areas (LGAs of Brisbane, Emerald, Redland and Townsville in Queensland, Australia. The methods used were the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS C1, C2 and C3 methods, negative binomial cusum (NBC, historical limits method (HLM, Poisson outbreak detection (POD method and the purely temporal SaTScan analysis. Seasonally-adjusted variants of the NBC and SaTScan methods were developed. Some of the algorithms were applied using a range of parameter values, resulting in 17 variants of the five algorithms. Results The 9,188 RRV disease notifications that occurred in the four selected regions over the study period showed marked seasonality, which adversely affected the performance of some of the outbreak detection algorithms. Most of the methods examined were able to detect the same major events. The exception was the seasonally-adjusted NBC methods that detected an excess of short signals. The NBC, POD and temporal SaTScan algorithms were the only methods that consistently had high true positive rates and low false positive and false negative rates across the four study areas. The timeliness of outbreak signals generated by each method was also compared but there was no consistency across outbreaks and LGAs. Conclusions This study has highlighted several issues associated with applying outbreak detection algorithms to seasonal disease data. In lieu of a true gold standard, a quantitative comparison is difficult and caution should be taken when interpreting the true positives, false positives

  5. Newcastle disease viruses causing recent outbreaks worldwide show unexpectedly high genetic similarity with historical virulent isolates from the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII throug...

  6. Effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms in FMDV-infected animals appear within 2 to 3 days of exposure. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses agai...

  7. Genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, I D; Vlasak, R; Nowotny, N; Rodak, L; Carter, M J

    1992-05-15

    Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from those determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.

  8. Fifty Years of Clinical Application of Newcastle Disease Virus: Time to Celebrate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Schirrmacher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile. This is due among others to the strong virus-induced type I interferon response. Other viral characteristics are lack of interaction with host cell DNA, lack of genetic recombination and independence of virus replication from cell proliferation. In this millennium, new recombinant strains of viruses are being produced with improved therapeutic properties. Clinical applications include single case observations, case series studies and Phase I to III studies.

  9. Papel etiológico de los virus en la enfermedad periodontal Etiologic role of virus in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Echeverría

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar la evidencia disponible que relaciona la infección por virus con el desarrollo de periodontitis. Esta relación se ha visto con los virus de la familia herpes, sobretodo el citomegalovirus humano (CMV y el virus Epstein-Barr (VEB, así como con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV. Las infecciones por herpesvirus generalmente sucede en dos fases, durante la primoinfección la clínica suele ser leve o asintomática y a esta le sigue una fase asintomática en la que el virus se encuentra en estado de latencia. Dicho estado se verá interrumpido esporádicamente por periodos de activación en los que se produce una replicación viral y posiblemente se dé una manifestación de la enfermedad que explicaría, en parte, el progreso en episodios de la enfermedad periodontal. De hecho, algunas de las causas que llevan a la reactivación del virus también se consideran factores de riesgo de la enfermedad periodontal y podrían relacionar a ambas patologías.The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the hypothesis that viral infection plays a role in the development of periodontitis. This relationship has been found mainly with the herpesvirus family, especially with human cytomegalovirus (CMV and with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, but also with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The herpesvirus infection generally involves a mild or asymptomatic primary phase followed by an asymptomatic latent phase interrupted sporadically by periods of activation, where viral replication and possibly clinical disease become manifest and which will in part, explain the episodic progressive nature of human periodontitis. In fact, herpesvirus reactivation is triggered by a number of immunosuppressing factors, some of which have also been shown to be risk indicators of periodontal disease and which could relate both patologies.

  10. BK polyoma virus infection and renal disease in non-renal solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppachi, Sarat; Kaur, Deepkamal; Holanda, Danniele G; Thomas, Christie P

    2016-04-01

    BK virus (BKV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family that causes an interstitial nephritis in immunosuppressed patients. BKV nephropathy is now a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and early allograft failure following kidney transplantation. It is also known to cause renal disease with a progressive decline in kidney function in non-renal solid organ transplant (NRSOT) recipients, although the disease may not be recognized nor its impact appreciated in this patient population. In this report, we review the existing literature to highlight our current understanding of its incidence in NRSOT populations, the approaches to diagnosis and the potential treatment options.

  11. [A new virus of rabbit. III. Study on morphological superstructure and antigenicity of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L; Li, T; Song, B; Sun, F

    1992-10-01

    In the spring 1986, an acute infectious disease occurred in Wuhan Second Producing Medical Manufactory, and the rabbit almost died. We tested the mortal symptom and confirmed rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) as same as Huang Yinyao report. Hubei Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute appear this RHD also. After we purified virus of above two source by low speed, high speed and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, they can react with antiserum of RHDV from Nanjing Agricultural University in agar gel immunodiffusion tests. These results proved that they belong to the same serotype. Data indicate RHDV have difference morphological superstructure, viral polypeptides and especially RHDV can't react with antiserum of standard Parvovirus of rabbit and so on, so we suggest RHDV is a new virus.

  12. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eight cases described herein represent the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in wild turkeys and the first identification of LPDV in North America. Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was presumably the cause of morbidity and mortality in five of the eight turk...

  13. Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Surveillance Case Definitions for Zika Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hanley; Win, Mar-Kyaw; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated performance of 5 case definitions for Zika virus disease surveillance in a human cohort during an outbreak in Singapore, August 26–September 5, 2016. Because laboratory tests are largely inaccessible, use of case definitions that include rash as a required clinical feature are useful in identifying this disease. PMID:28117032

  14. Development of a novel thermostable Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to control Newcastle disease (ND) for village flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. To explore the potential use of the thermostable NDV as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of the...

  15. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from pigeons in the territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...

  16. Quantification of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Transmission Rates Using Published Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, N.E.; Eble, P.L.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Clercq, K.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an extremely infectious and devastating disease affecting all species of cloven-hoofed animals. To understand the epidemiology of the causative virus and predict viral transmission dynamics, quantified transmission parameters are essential to decision makers and modellers a

  17. Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Biomarker Correlates of Survival in Pediatric Patients with Ebola Virus Disease.  Created: 8/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/19/2014.

  18. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden...

  19. Hepatitis C virus as a multifaceted disease: a simple and updated approach for extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Mahmoud Aboelneen; Eslam, Mohammed; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is an emerging disease and a public health problem in the world. There are accumulating data regarding extra hepatic manifestation of HCV, such as rheumatologic manifestations, endocrine, hematologic, dermatologic, renal, neurologic, and systemic manifestations. The therapy of them needs more attention to some exacerbations of extra hepatic manifestation and in some situation it needs different approaches. In this review we tried to provide latest evidence for extra hepatic manifestation and management of them.

  20. Temporal replication of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus in royal pastel mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1985-09-01

    Information was sought on the temporal replication of Aleutian disease virus in 27 royal pastel mink. Groups of three were examined 8 to 126 days after they were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(3) 50% lethal doses of the Pullman strain. Much individual variation was noted in the onset of infection, occurrence of viremia, and extent of virus replication in the tissues. Thus, virus was detected in lymph nodes regional to the site of inoculation in only some mink during the first 14 days after inoculation. During this period, virus was often present as well in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen. First detected on day 10, viremia was present in all mink examined on day 28 but occurred irregularly thereafter, even when virus was widespread in the tissues. Except in five mink succumbing to the disease, the tissue distribution of virus after day 28 tended to be more limited, and the titers were generally lower than they had been earlier. Even though present in the lymph nodes and spleen, virus was often absent from the kidney, liver, and intestine after day 28. Specific antibody was detected on day 28 and was present in all mink thereafter, ostensibly without any adverse effect on virus replication. In most mink, the infection was considered subclinical, for it was usually not accompanied by a rise in serum gamma globulin or by morphologic evidence of the disease. The virologic findings in this study have a bearing on the relationship of subclinical infections to both horizontal and vertical transmission of the virus.

  1. Structural polymorphism of the major capsid protein of a double-stranded RNA virus: an amphipathic alpha helix as a molecular switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugar, Irene; Luque, Daniel; Oña, Ana; Rodríguez, José F; Carrascosa, José L; Trus, Benes L; Castón, José R

    2005-07-01

    The infectious bursal disease virus T=13 viral particle is composed of two major proteins, VP2 and VP3. Here, we show that the molecular basis of the conformational flexibility of the major capsid protein precursor, pVP2, is an amphipatic alpha helix formed by the sequence GFKDIIRAIR. VP2 containing this alpha helix is able to assemble into the T=13 capsid only when expressed as a chimeric protein with an N-terminal His tag. An amphiphilic alpha helix, which acts as a conformational switch, is thus responsible for the inherent structural polymorphism of VP2. The His tag mimics the VP3 C-terminal region closely and acts as a molecular triggering factor. Using cryo-electron microscopy difference imaging, both polypeptide elements were detected on the capsid inner surface. We propose that electrostatic interactions between these two morphogenic elements are transmitted to VP2 to acquire the competent conformations for capsid assembly.

  2. Development of a highly immunogenic Newcastle disease virus chicken vaccine strain of duck origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.

  3. Necrolytic acral erythema: a rare skin disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Luciane Francisca Fernandes; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Necrolytic acral erythema is a rare skin disease associated with hepatitis C virus infection. We report a case of a 31-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus infection and decreased zinc serum level. Physical examination revealed scaly, lichenified plaques, well-demarcated with an erythematous peripheral rim located on the lower limbs. After blood transfusion and oral zinc supplementation the patient presented an improvement of lesions. PMID:27828642

  4. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Sánchez; Rosana Pelayo; Luis Alberto Medina; Eduardo Vadillo; Rogelio Sánchez; Luis Núñez; Gabriela Cesarman-Maus; Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic s...

  5. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hercules Sakkas; Vangelis Economou; Chrissanthy Papadopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymp...

  6. Persistence of foot-and mouth disease virus in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Belsham, Graham; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    animals, with intermittent excretion of live virus, whilst remaining animals clear the infection effectively. Previous experiments have indicated that the site of persistent viral replication is located in pharyngeal lymphoid tissue, as well as the basal epithelia of the dorsal soft palate...... In these locations, FMDV is capable of persistent replication, without being detected by the host cellular immune response, which would normally be expected to clear virus infected cells. In an ongoing series of experiments, animals of 4-5 moths of age are infected with FMD O UKG 34/2001, either through subepidermo......-lingual injection or direct contact with inoculated animals. Animals are kept for approximately 2 to 4 months, and the progression of infection is monitored through samples of oropharyngeal fluid (probang samples) and serum, which are analysed for presence of live virus and development of antibodies. During...

  7. Protection by attenuated and polyvalent vaccines against highly virulent strains of Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R L

    1982-01-01

    Tests confirmed that turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine protected chickens poorly against challenge with the highly virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease (MD) virus, especially in chickens with homologous HVT antibodies. The naturally avirulent SB-1 vaccine virus was likewise poorly protective against challenge with the Md5 strain. Homologous antibodies reduced the protective efficacy of both vaccines, but SB-1 was not affected by HVT antibodies. In order to provide better protection against strains of MD virus poorly protected against by HVT, such as Md5, the Md11 strain of MD virus was attenuated by 75 cell culture passages and evaluated for protective efficacy. This vaccine virus, designated Mdl 1/75C, provided good protection against challenge with Md5 and most other highly virulent MD viruses tested, but was less efficacious against challenge with the JM/102W strain, a prototype MD virus protected against well by HVT and SB-1 vaccines. Furthermore, its efficacy was consistently lower in chicks with HVT antibody. Thus, although HVT, SB-1, and Md11/75C were all efficacious against certain MD viruses, none of these vaccines protected optimally against all MD challenge viruses in all chickens. A polyvalent vaccine composed of Md11/75C, HVT and SB-1 viruses protected chickens better against a battery of five highly virulent MD challenge viruses, including three strains poorly protected against by HVT, than any single vaccine and was not influenced by HVT antibody. These data suggest that vaccinal immunity may be partially viral strain specific.

  8. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  9. A colorimetric bioassay for high-througput and cost-effectively assessing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious animal viruses and has a devastating effect on livestock industries if an outbreaks occurs, especially in FMD-free countries. The virus is very sensitive to inhibition by type I interferons. Currently, a reported assay to measure FM...

  10. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains.

  11. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  12. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. RESULTS The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively (P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. CONCLUSION The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans. PMID:27895431

  13. Molecular characterisation of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different geographical regions in Mozambique in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fringe, Raul; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Ebersohn, Karen; Bisschop, Shahn; Abolnik, Celia; Venter, Estelle

    2012-08-31

    Newcastle disease (ND) is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F) protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28), as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in Mozambique.

  14. Molecular characterisation of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different geographical regions in Mozambique in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Fringe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28, as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in

  15. Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease from Exotic Infection to Global Health Priority, Liberia, Mid-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Arwady, M. Allison; Bawo, Luke; Hunter, Jennifer C.; Massaquoi, Moses; Matanock, Almea; Dahn, Bernice; Ayscue, Patrick; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Forrester, Joseph D; Hensley, Lisa E.; Monroe, Benjamin; Schoepp, Randal J.; Chen, Tai-Ho; Schaecher, Kurt E.; George, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Over the span of a few weeks during July and August 2014, events in West Africa changed perceptions of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from an exotic tropical disease to a priority for global health security. We describe observations during that time of a field team from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and personnel of the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. We outline the early epidemiology of EVD within Liberia, including the practical limitations on surveillance and th...

  16. Tropical Diseases Screening in Immigrant Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Latent parasitic infections can reactivate because of immunosuppression. We conducted a prospective observational study of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected immigrants who visited the Infectious Diseases Department of the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain, during June 2010–May 2011. Screening of the most prevalent tropical diseases (intestinal parasitosis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis) was performed according t...

  17. Generation of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing the Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoprotein gB or gD as Dual Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry. The NDV LaSota strain, a naturally occurring low-virulence NDV strain, has been routinely used as a live vaccine throughout the world. This chapter describes the generation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing glycoprotein B (gB) or glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV as dual vaccines against ND and ILT using reverse genetics technology.

  18. Replication of the resident Marek's Disease virus genome in synchronized nonproducer MKT-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, R Y; Nonoyama, M

    1980-02-01

    MKT-1, a virus nonproducer lymphoblastoid cell line established from a Marek's disease tumor, was synchronized by double thymidine block to determine the sequence of events in the synthesis of cellular and latent marek's disease virus DNA. Cellular DNA synthesis was measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine, whereas viral DNA synthesis was determined by DNA-DNA reassociation kinetics. The results of these studies indicate that the resident Marek's disease viral DNA in MKT-1 cells replicates during the early S phase of the cell cycle, before the onset of active cellular DNA synthesis. This observation is similar to that seen in the replication of resident Epstein-Barr virus DNA in synchronized Raji cells.

  19. Detection Rate and Clinical Impact of Respiratory Viruses in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hye Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to survey the detection rate of respiratory viruses in children with Kawasaki disease (KD by using multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and to investigate the clinical implications of the prevalence of respiratory viruses during the acute phase of KD. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; RT-PCR assays were carried out to screen for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus A and B, adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1 to 4, influenza virus A and B, metapneumovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus OC43/229E and NL63, and enterovirus in nasopharyngeal secretions of 55 KD patients and 78 control subjects. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Virus detection rates in KD patients and control subjects were 32.7% and 30.8%, respectively (P=0.811. However, there was no significant association between the presence of any of the 15 viruses and the incidence of KD. Comparisons between the 18 patients with positive RT-PCR results and the other 37 KD patients revealed no significant differences in terms of clinical findings (including the prevalence of incomplete presentation of the disease and coronary artery diameter. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; A positive RT-PCR for currently epidemic respiratory viruses should not be used as an evidence against the diagnosis of KD. These viruses were not associated with the incomplete presentation of KD and coronary artery dilatation.

  20. Comparison of Test Results for Zika Virus RNA in Urine, Serum, and Saliva Specimens from Persons with Travel-Associated Zika Virus Disease - Florida, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Cone, Marshall; Mock, Valerie; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Stanek, Danielle; Blackmore, Carina; Likos, Anna

    2016-05-13

    In May 2015, Zika virus was reported to be circulating in Brazil. This was the first identified introduction of the virus in the Region of the Americas. Since that time, Zika virus has rapidly spread throughout the region. As of April 20, 2016, the Florida Department of Health Bureau of Public Health Laboratories (BPHL) has tested specimens from 913 persons who met state criteria for Zika virus testing. Among these 913 persons, 91 met confirmed or probable Zika virus disease case criteria and all cases were travel-associated (1). On the basis of previous small case studies reporting real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of Zika virus RNA in urine, saliva, and semen (2-6), the Florida Department of Health collected multiple specimen types from persons with suspected Zika virus disease. Test results were evaluated by specimen type and number of days after symptom onset to determine the most sensitive and efficient testing algorithm for acute Zika virus disease. Urine specimens were collected from 70 patients with suspected Zika virus disease from zero to 20 days after symptom onset. Of these, 65 (93%) tested positive for Zika virus RNA by RT-PCR. Results for 95% (52/55) of urine specimens collected from persons within 5 days of symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; only 56% (31/55) of serum specimens collected on the same date tested positive by RT-PCR. Results for 82% (9/11) of urine specimens collected >5 days after symptom onset tested positive by RT-PCR; none of the RT-PCR tests for serum specimens were positive. No cases had results that were exclusively positive by RT-PCR testing of saliva. BPHL testing results suggest urine might be the preferred specimen type to identify acute Zika virus disease.

  1. Enhancement or attenuation of disease by deletion of genes from Citrus tristeza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Dawson, William O

    2012-08-01

    Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas of the stem in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport, resulting in reduced plant growth and yield. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a phloem-limited closterovirus, induces economically important stem-pitting diseases of citrus. CTV has three nonconserved genes (p33, p18, and p13) that are not related to genes of other viruses and that are not required for systemic infection of some species of citrus, which allowed us to examine the effect of deletions of these genes on symptom phenotypes. In the most susceptible experimental host, Citrus macrophylla, the full-length virus causes only very mild stem-pitting symptoms. Surprisingly, we found that certain deletion combinations (p33 and p18 and/or p13) induced greatly increased stem-pitting symptoms, while other combinations (p13 or p13 plus p18) resulted in reduced stem pitting. These results suggest that the stem-pitting phenotype, which is one of more economically important disease phenotypes, can result not from a specific sequence or protein but from a balance between the expression of different viral genes. Unexpectedly, using green fluorescent protein-tagged full-length virus and deletion mutants (CTV9Δp33 and CTV9Δp33Δp18Δp13), the virus was found at pitted areas in abnormal locations outside the normal ring of phloem. Thus, increased stem pitting was associated not only with a prevention of xylem production but also with a proliferation of cells that supported viral replication, suggesting that at random areas of stems the virus can elicit changes in cellular differentiation and development.

  2. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Gontán Quintana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.

  3. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-04

    Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous microorganisms in the world causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic infection, which emerges and re-emerges in human populations. The 2014 outbreak was caused by the Zaire strain, which has a kill rate of up to 90%, though 40% was recorded in the current outbreak. The 2014 outbreak is larger than all 20 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976, when the virus was first discovered. It is the first time that the virus was sustained in urban centers and spread beyond Africa into Europe and USA. Thus far, over 22,000 cases have been reported with about 50% mortality in one year. There are currently no approved therapeutics and preventive vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Responding to the devastating effe1cts of the 2014 outbreak and the potential risk of global spread, has spurred research for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review is therefore aimed at presenting the progress of vaccine development. Results showed that conventional inactivated vaccines produced from EBOV by heat, formalin or gamma irradiation appear to be ineffective. However, novel vaccines production techniques have emerged leading to the production of candidate vaccines that have been demonstrated to be effective in preclinical trials using small animal and non-human primates (NHP) models. Some of the promising vaccines have undergone phase 1 clinical trials, which demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Many of the candidate vaccines are vector based such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Rabies Virus (RABV), Adenovirus (Ad), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Other platforms include virus like particle (VLP), DNA and subunit vaccines.

  4. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Willy W; Uddin, Muhammad J; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A; Bowen, Richard A; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-07-14

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  5. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy W. Suen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp., were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  6. Artifically inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was inserted into the very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) Md5 bacterial artificial chromosome clone. The insertion site was nearly identical to the REV LTR that was naturally inserted into the JM/102W strain of MDV fo...

  7. Effect of Infection with a Mesogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus on Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinic...

  8. Predicting antigenic sites on the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid of the South African Territories (SAT) types using virus neutralization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outer capsid proteins 1B, 1C and 1D contribute to the virus serotype distribution and antigenic variants that exist within each of the seven serotypes. This study presents a phylogenetic, genetic and antigenic analysis of the South African Territories (SAT) seroty...

  9. Construction and anti-tumor effects of recombinant fowlpox virus expressing Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuramidinase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao; JIN Ningyi; LIAN Hai; GUAN Goufang; SUN Lili; LI Xuemei; ZHENG Hongling

    2006-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-neuramidinase (HN), aNewcastle disease virus-derived protein, not only mediates receptor recognition but also possesses neuraminidase (NA) activity, the ability to cleave a component of those receptors, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NAcneu, sialic acid). It is known that this protein in mammalian species, including human beings, has interesting anti-neoplastic as well as immune stimulating properties. To explore the use of the HN gene in cancer gene therapy, we constructed a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing the HN protein (vFV-HN) and compared the anti-tumor activity of the recombinant virus with that of wild-type fowlpox virus (FPV) in vivo and in vitro. Here we found that although B16 cells were somewhat resistant to the basal cytotoxic effect of wild-type fowlpox virus, infection with vFV-HN caused a pronounced cytotoxic effect and, the survival of tumor-bearing mice immunized with vFV-HN was significantly increased compared with the survival of mice immunized with the FPV alone. Furthermore, the immunization of mice with vFV-HN elicited a B16 tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and clonal expansion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in vivo. In addition, T cells from lymph nodes of mice vaccinated with vFV-HN secreted high levels of the Th1 cytokine IL-2 and IFN-y, indicating that the regression of tumor cells is related to a Th1-type dominant immune response. These results demonstrate that vaccination with vFV-HN may be a potential strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  10. Complete genome sequence of a recombinant Marek's disease virus field strain with one reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuai; Cui, Ning; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Dong, Xuan

    2012-12-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) Chinese strain GX0101, isolated in 2001 from a vaccinated flock of layer chickens with severe tumors, was the first reported recombinant MDV field strain with one reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) insert. GX0101 belongs to very virulent MDV (vvMDV) but has higher horizontal transmission ability than the vvMDV strain Md5. The complete genome sequence of GX0101 is 178,101 nucleotides (nt) and contains only one REV-LTR insert at a site 267 nt upstream of the sorf2 gene. Moreover, GX0101 has 5 repeats of a 217-nt fragment in its terminal repeat short (TRS) region and 3 repeats in internal repeat short (IRS) region, compared to the other 10 strains with only 1 or 2 repeats in both TRS and IRS.

  11. Persistence of DNA sequences of BK virus and JC virus in normal human tissues and in diseased tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, P M; Heritage, J; McCance, D J

    1983-04-01

    Available evidence suggests that BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) persist in the kidneys of healthy individuals after primary infection and may reactivate when the host's immune response is impaired. Data supporting this hypothesis are presented. A previous study had shown BKV to be present in the kidneys of eight (57%) of 14 subjects. In the present study, which extended the investigation to a total of 30 subjects, BKV DNA was found in the renal tissues of 10 (33%) subjects, and JCV DNA was found in the renal tissues of three (10%) subjects. The viral DNA detected appeared not to be integrated with host DNA and to be isolated in foci. Investigation of normal and diseased brain tissue, including tissue from six subjects with multiple sclerosis, failed to reveal the presence of either JCV DNA or BKV DNA.

  12. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  13. General introduction into the Ebola virus biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilińska, Barbara; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic of Ebola hemorrhagic fever which appeared in the countries of West Africa in 2014, is the largest outbreak which occurred so far. The virus causing this epidemic, Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV), along with four other species of Ebolaviruses is classified to the genus Ebolavirus in the family Filoviridae. ZEBOV is one of the most virulent pathogens among the viral haemorrhagic fevers, and case fatality rates up to 90% have been reported. Mortality is the result of multi-organ failure and severe bleeding complications. The aim of this review is to present the general characteristics of the virus and its biological properties, pathogenicity and epidemiology, with a focus on laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of these infections.

  14. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-09-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink.

  15. Plant Resistance to Virus Diseases through Genetic Engineering: Can a Similar Approach Control Plant-parasitic Nematodes?

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann-Philipp, Ulrich; Beachy, Roger N.

    1993-01-01

    Genetically engineered resistance against plant virus diseases has been achieved by transforming plants with gene constructs that encode viral sequences. Several successful field trials of virus-resistant transgenic plants have been carried out. Specific features of virus infection make it possible to interfere with different steps of the infection and disease cycle by accumulating products of chimeric genes introduced into transgenic plants. In this paper we describe the most common methods ...

  16. Effect of diluting Marek's disease vaccines on the outcomes of Marek's disease virus infection when challenged with highly virulent Marek's disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Montiel, Enrique R; Lemiere, Stephane; Pandiri, Arun K R

    2011-06-01

    Dilution of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines is a common practice in the field to reduce the cost associated with vaccination. In this study we have evaluated the effect of diluting MD vaccines on the protection against MD, vaccine and challenge MD virus (MDV) kinetics, and body weight when challenged with strains Md5 (very virulent MDV) and 648A (very virulent plus MDV) by contact at day of age. The following four vaccination protocols were evaluated in meat-type chickens: turkey herpesvirus (HVT) at manufacturer-recommended full dose; HVT diluted 1:10; HVT + SB-1 at the manufacturer-recommended full dose; and HVT + SB-1 diluted 1:10 for HVT and 1:5 for SB-1. Vaccine was administered at hatch subcutaneously. One-day-old chickens were placed in floor pens and housed together with ten 15-day-old chickens that had been previously inoculated with 500 PFU of either Md5 or 648A MDV strains. Chickens were individually identified with wing bands, and for each chicken samples of feather pulp and blood were collected at 1, 3, and 8 wk posthatch. Body weights were recorded at 8 wk for every chicken. Viral DNA load of wild-type MDV, SB-1, and HVT were evaluated by real time-PCR. Our results showed that dilution of MD vaccines can lead to reduced MD protection, reduced relative body weights, reduced vaccine DNA during the first 3 wk, and increased MDV DNA load. The detrimental effect of vaccine dilution was more evident in females than in males and was more evident when the challenge virus was 648A. However, lower relative body weights and higher MDV DNA load could be detected in chickens challenged with strain Md5, even in the absence of obvious differences in protection.

  17. The effect of transmission route on plant virus epidemic development and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeger, Michael J; Madden, Laurence V; van den Bosch, Frank

    2009-05-21

    A model for indirect vector transmission and epidemic development of plant viruses is extended to consider direct transmission through vector mating. A basic reproduction number is derived which is the sum of the R(0) values specific for three transmission routes. We analyse the model to determine the effect of direct transmission on plant disease control directed against indirect transmission. Increasing the rate of horizontal sexual transmission means that vector control rate or indirect transmission rate must be increased/decreased substantially to maintain R(0) at a value less than 1. By contrast, proportionately increasing the probability of transovarial transmission has little effect. Expressions are derived for the steady-state values of the viruliferous vector population. There is clear advantage for an insect virus in indirect transmission to plants, especially where the sexual and transovarial transmission rates are low; however information on virulence-transmissibility relationships is required to explain the evolution of a plant virus from an insect virus.

  18. Structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Abhay; Seago, Julian; Scott, Katherine; Burman, Alison; Loureiro, Silvia; Ren, Jingshan; Porta, Claudine; Ginn, Helen M; Jackson, Terry; Perez-Martin, Eva; Siebert, C Alistair; Paul, Guntram; Huiskonen, Juha T; Jones, Ian M; Esnouf, Robert M; Fry, Elizabeth E; Maree, Francois F; Charleston, Bryan; Stuart, David I

    2015-10-01

    Virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. Chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. Here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein-protein interfaces and used it to design improved candidate vaccines for two poorly stable, but globally important, serotypes of FMDV: O and SAT2. We used a restrained molecular dynamics strategy to rank mutations predicted to strengthen the pentamer interfaces and applied the results to produce stabilized capsids. Structural analyses and stability assays confirmed the predictions, and vaccinated animals generated improved neutralizing-antibody responses to stabilized particles compared to parental viruses and wild-type capsids.

  19. Notes from The Field: Ebola Virus Disease Cluster - Northern Sierra Leone, January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpren, Charles; Sloan, Michelle; Boegler, Karen A; Martin, Daniel W; Ervin, Elizabeth; Washburn, Faith; Rickert, Regan; Singh, Tushar; Redd, John T

    2016-07-08

    On January 14, 2016, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation was notified that a buccal swab collected on January 12 from a deceased female aged 22 years (patient A) in Tonkolili District had tested positive for Ebola virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The most recent case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Sierra Leone had been reported 4 months earlier on September 13, 2015 (1), and the World Health Organization had declared the end of Ebola virus transmission in Sierra Leone on November 7, 2015 (2). The Government of Sierra Leone launched a response to prevent further transmission of Ebola virus by identifying contacts of the decedent and monitoring them for Ebola signs and symptoms, ensuring timely treatment for anyone with Ebola, and conducting an epidemiologic investigation to identify the source of infection.

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Juleff

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is one of the most contagious viruses of animals and is recognised as the most important constraint to international trade in animals and animal products. Two fundamental problems remain to be understood before more effective control measures can be put in place. These problems are the FMDV "carrier state" and the short duration of immunity after vaccination which contrasts with prolonged immunity after natural infection. Here we show by laser capture microdissection in combination with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis and corroborate by in situ hybridization that FMDV locates rapidly to, and is maintained in, the light zone of germinal centres following primary infection of naïve cattle. We propose that maintenance of non-replicating FMDV in these sites represents a source of persisting infectious virus and also contributes to the generation of long-lasting antibody responses against neutralising epitopes of the virus.

  1. Royal pastel mink respond variously to inoculation with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1984-04-01

    Information was sought on the varied responses of royal pastel mink (a non-Aleutian genotype) to Aleutian disease virus of low virulence. Thus, of 20 yearling female pastel mink inoculated subcutaneously with a large amount of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus, only 3 succumbed to the disease. Of the other 17 mink, 3 had neither viremia nor a rise in level of serum gamma globulin during the 24 weeks after inoculation. The other 14 mink were viremic for variable periods during the first 12 weeks. In only five mink was the viremia accompanied by elevated levels of serum gamma globulin, usually from week 8 on. Of the 16 subclinically infected mink that did not succumb to intercurrent disease and otherwise remained healthy, 9 were examined at 19 to 31 months for persisting virus. In only one mink, small amounts were detected in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen nearly 28 months after inoculation. The other seven mink that survived the infection were not protected when challenged 31 months later with a small amount of the highly virulent Utah-1 strain. Even though still poorly understood, these varied responses of the royal pastel mink to infection with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence have important pathogenetic and epidemiological implications.

  2. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  3. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 2C Is a Hexameric AAA+ Protein with a Coordinated ATP Hydrolysis Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Trevor; Cisnetto, Valentina; Bose, Daniel;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. Like other picornaviruses, FMDV has a conserved 2C protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of AAA+ ATPases that has a predicted N...

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A; Marquez, Miguel A; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-08-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.

  5. [Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease and of other highly contagious, life-threatening diseases with low incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlkes, L; Kreuels, B; Schwarz, N G; May, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola, Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in 2002/2003 is another pathogen with significant epidemic potential. Typical for these diseases is a natural circulation between reservoir animals in remote areas. Sporadic transmission to humans can occur through contact with an infected animal. Subsequent human-to-human transmission can lead to epidemics, such as the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

  6. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  7. Protective efficacy of a recombinant bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek’s disease virus containing a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in poultry characterized by T-cell lymphomas, nerve lesions and mortality. Vaccination is used worldwide to control MD, but increasingly virulent field strains can overcome this protection, d...

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Newcastle Disease in Mexico and the Potential Spillover of Viruses from Poultry into Wild Bird Species

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A.; Marquez, Miguel A.; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissi...

  9. Genomic analysis reveals Nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both Africa, and in India in the form of the Ganjam virus variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Vincent, Martin J; Khristova, Marina; Kale, Charuta; Nichol, Stuart T; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T

    2011-07-01

    Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in East and Central Africa. The closely related Ganjam virus found in India is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. The complete S, M and L segment sequences of Ganjam and NSD virus and partial sequence analysis of Ganjam viral RNA genome S, M and L segments encoding regions (396 bp, 701 bp and 425 bp) of the viral nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and L polymerase (L) proteins, respectively, was carried out for multiple Ganjam virus isolates obtained from 1954 to 2002 and from various regions of India. M segments of NSD and Ganjam virus encode a large ORF for the glycoprotein precursor (GPC), (1627 and 1624 amino acids in length, respectively) and their L segments encode a very large L polymerase (3991 amino acids). The complete S, M and L segments of NSD and Ganjam viruses were more closely related to one another than to other characterized nairoviruses, and no evidence of reassortment was found. However, the NSD and Ganjam virus complete M segment differed by 22.90% and 14.70%, for nucleotide and amino acid respectively, and the complete L segment nucleotide and protein differing by 9.90% and 2.70%, respectively among themselves. Ganjam and NSD virus, complete S segment differed by 9.40-10.40% and 3.2-4.10 for nucleotide and proteins while among Ganjam viruses 0.0-6.20% and 0.0-1.4%, variation was found for nucleotide and amino acids. Ganjam virus isolates differed by up to 17% and 11% at the nucleotide level for the partial S and L gene fragments, respectively, with less variation observed at the deduced amino acid level (10.5 and 2%, S and L, respectively). However, the virus partial M gene fragment (which encodes the hypervariable mucin-like domain) of these viruses differed by as much as 56% at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic

  10. Construction of recombinant baculovirus vaccines for Newcastle disease virus and an assessment of their immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingping; Liu, Ying; Jin, Liying; Gao, Dongni; Bai, Chengle; Ping, Wenxiang

    2016-08-10

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-GED), (2) woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of adeno-associated virus (AAV Serotype II), and (4) the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To test the in vivo efficacy of the viruses, we vaccinated chickens with each construct and characterized the cellular and humoral immune response to challenge with virulent NDV (F48E9). All of the vaccine constructs provided some level of protection (62.5-100% protection). The F-series of vaccines provided a greater degree of protection (87.5-100%) than the HN-series (62.5-87.5%). While all of the vaccines elicited a robust cellular and humoral response subtle differences in efficacy were observed. The combination of the WPRE and VSV-GED regulatory elements enhanced the immune response and increased antigen expression. The ITRs effectively increased the length of time IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 were expressed in the plasma. The F-series elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibody and NDV-specific IgG. The baculovirus system is a promising platform for NDV vaccine development that combines the immunostimulatory benefits of a recombinant virus vector with the non-replicating benefits of a DNA vaccine.

  11. There is the second virus that causes tobacco leaf curl disease (not TbLCV-CHI) in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sequence analysis of virus isolation DNA of tobacco leaf curl disease shows that there is the second geminivirus (not Chinese Tobacco Leaf Curl Virus, TbLCV-CHI) that causes tobacco leaf curl disease in the field in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. This virus DNA-A contains 2 734 nt. Large intergenic region (LIR) contains 269 nt, the virus sense strand contains 2 open reading frames (ORFs): AV1 (115 aa) and AV2 (coat protein gene, CP, 256 aa), and the complementary sense strand contains 4 ORFs: AC1 (replicase gene, 361 aa), AC2 (transactivator, 134 aa), AC3 (134 aa) and AC4 (97 aa). The virus belongs to one kind of subgroup Ⅲ gemini- viruses from old world, and could be the Chinese tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-CHI).

  12. Hepatitis B and C infection and liver disease trends among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan E Buskin; Elizabeth A Barash; John D Scott; David M Aboulafia; Robert W Wood

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine trends in and correlates of liver disease and viral hepatitis in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cohort.METHODS: The multi-site adult/adolescent spectrum of HIV-related diseases (ASD) followed 29 490 HIVinfected individuals receiving medical care in 11 U.S.metropolitan areas for an average of 2.4 years, and a total of 69 487 person-years, between 1998 and 2004.ASD collected data on the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of HIV, including liver disease, hepatitis screening, and hepatitis diagnoses.RESULTS: Incident liver disease, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were diagnosed in 0.9, 1.8, and 4.7 per 100 person-years.HBV and HCV screening increased from fewer than 20% to over 60% during this period of observation (P < 0.001).Deaths occurred in 57% of those diagnosed with liver disease relative to 15% overall (P < 0.001).Overall 10% of deaths occurred among individuals with a diagnosis of liver disease.Despite care guidelines promoting screening and vaccination for HBV and screening for HCV, screening and vaccination were not universally conducted or, if conducted, not documented.CONCLUSION: Due to high rates of incident liver disease, viral hepatitis screening, vaccination, and treatment among HIV-infected individuals should be a priority.

  13. Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: What Can the World Learn and Not Learn from West Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available WITH over 4,500 deaths and counting, and new cases identified in two developed countries that are struggling and faltering in their handling of the epidemic, the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD epidemic is unlike any of its kind ever encountered. The ability of some poor, resource-limited, developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa to efficiently handle the epidemic within their shores provides some lessons learned for the global health community. Among others, the 2014 EVD epidemic teaches us that it is time to put the “P” back in public and population health around the world. The global health community must support a sustainable strategy to mitigate Ebola virus and other epidemics both within and outside their shores, even after the cameras are gone. Ebola virus must not be called the disease of the poor and developing world.

  14. Dynamic Pathology and Antigen Location Study on Broiler Breeders with Coinfection of Marek's Disease Virus and Reticuloendotheliosis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Xiu-guo; ZHU Guo; CHENG Zi-qiang,; WANG Gui-hua; MENG Xiang-kai; GAO Ting-ting; CUI Zhi-zhong

    2008-01-01

    To further understand the generation and development of coinfection of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in broiler breeders, and then find the method and optimal time of differential diagnosis for complex clinic multiple infection, the authors studied the pathohistological changes, apoptosis, immunohistochemistry (immunofluorescence), and ultrastrueture of tumor tissues of broiler breeders inoculated with MDV and REV. The study showed that proliferation of small lymphocytes was seen in the main organs at the age of 1 week, then immature lymphocytes, all kinds of lymphocytes, primitive reticulum cells, and Marek's disease cells (MDCs) were observed at 2-9 weeks. Apoptosis of lymphocytes could not be seen until the age of 10 weeks in the immune system. Immunohistochemistry detection showed that the positive signs of MDV and REV antigen were observed in the main organs at 2 weeks of age. Multi-morphology lymphocytes, MDV, and REV, mitotic figures and apoptosis of lymphocytes were observed with the help of transmission electron microscopy. MDV cooperating with REV promotes the course of disease of coinfection. Differential diagnosis can be done by immunohistochemistry in the early stage (before 2 weeks), and histopathology in the late stage (post 4 weeks). MDCs, primitive reticulum cells, immature lymphocytes, and two kinds of virions can serve as a basis for histopathology differential diagnosis.

  15. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitteler, Marcelo A; Fernández, Ignacio; Schabes, Erika; Krimer, Alejandro; Régulier, Emmanuel G; Guinzburg, Mariela; Smitsaart, Eliana; Levy, M Susana

    2011-09-22

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. The recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140S quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. We developed a method to quantify FMDV particles during the vaccine manufacturing process that is based on separation of components by size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of virus by absorption at 254nm. The method is linear in the 5-70μg/mL range, it is applicable to different FMDV strains, and has a good correlation with the 140S test. The proposed method uses standard chromatographic media and it is amenable to automation. The method has potential as a process analytical technology and for control of final product by manufacturers, international vaccine banks and regulatory agencies.

  16. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs...... from the O/UKG/34/2001 or A/Turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the O1K B64 cDNA, and viable viruses (O1K/O-UKG and O1K/A-Tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in each case. These viruses grew well in primary bovine thyroid cells but grew less efficiently in BHK...

  17. Borna disease virus infection perturbs energy metabolites and amino acids in cultured human oligodendroglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzhong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Borna disease virus is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic virus that has been widely employed in neuroscientific research. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with Borna disease viral infection. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying its mode of action remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: Human oligodendroglia cells infected with the human strain Borna disease virus Hu-H1 and non-infected matched control cells were cultured in vitro. At day 14 post-infection, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 28 independent intracellular samples from Borna disease virus-infected cells (n = 14 and matched control cells (n = 14. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the whole metabonomic patterns enabled discrimination between the two groups, and further statistical testing was applied to determine which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between the two groups. FINDINGS: Metabonomic profiling revealed perturbations in 23 metabolites, 19 of which were deemed individually significant: nine energy metabolites (α-glucose, acetate, choline, creatine, formate, myo-inositol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyruvate, succinate and ten amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine. Partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the whole metabolic patterns enabled statistical discrimination between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Borna disease viral infection perturbs the metabonomic profiles of several metabolites in human oligodendroglia cells cultured in vitro. The findings suggest that Borna disease virus manipulates the host cell's metabolic network to support viral replication and proliferation.

  18. Particle-to-PFU Ratio of Ebola Virus Influences Disease Course and Survival in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J.; Avena, Laura E.; Beadles, Michael W.; Staples, Hilary; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Ticer, Anysha; Dick, Edward J.; Owston, Michael A.; Reed, Christopher; Patterson, Jean L.; Carrion, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study addresses the role of Ebola virus (EBOV) specific infectivity in virulence. Filoviruses are highly lethal, enveloped, single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fever. No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, and infectious virus must be handled in maximum containment. Efficacy testing of countermeasures, in addition to investigations of pathogenicity and immune response, often requires a well-characterized animal model. For EBOV, an obstacle in performing accurate disease modeling is a poor understanding of what constitutes an infectious dose in animal models. One well-recognized consequence of viral passage in cell culture is a change in specific infectivity, often measured as a particle-to-PFU ratio. Here, we report that serial passages of EBOV in cell culture resulted in a decrease in particle-to-PFU ratio. Notably, this correlated with decreased potency in a lethal cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of infection; animals were infected with the same viral dose as determined by plaque assay, but animals that received more virus particles exhibited increased disease. This suggests that some particles are unable to form a plaque in a cell culture assay but are able to result in lethal disease in vivo. These results have a significant impact on how future studies are designed to model EBOV disease and test countermeasures. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with a high case-fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Specific infectivity can be considered the total number of viral particles per PFU, and its impact on disease is poorly understood. In stocks of most mammalian viruses, there are particles that are unable to complete an infectious cycle or unable to cause cell pathology in cultured cells. We asked if these particles cause disease in nonhuman primates by infecting monkeys with equal infectious doses of genetically

  19. The clinical response of West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Shimoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG treatment is effective in patients with West Nile Virus (WNV neuroinvasive disease. We contacted hospital based infectious disease experts in Israeli hospitals to identify patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease who were treated with IVIG. The main outcome measure was neurological response after treatment. There were 12 patients who received IVIG and four improved within 48 h. Three patients died, 6 had partial recovery, and 3 recovered completely. Eleven of the 12 patients were infected with Israeli genotypes that are highly homologous to Europe/Africa viruses. The rapid response in some patients suggests that IVIG is effective, and might be used to treat patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease with IVIG.

  20. Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy for Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenhorn, Lisa M.; Tipper, Christopher H.; Stoica, Lorelei; Geraghty, Deborah S.; Wright, Teresa L.; Clark, K. Reed; Wadsworth, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    The field of adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy has progressed rapidly over the past decade, with the advent of novel capsid serotype and organ-specific promoters, and an increasing understanding of the immune response to AAV administration. In particular, liver-directed therapy has made remarkable strides, with a number of clinical trials currently planned and ongoing in hemophilia A and B, as well as other liver disorders. This review focuses on liver-directed AAV gene therapy, including historic context, current challenges, and future developments. PMID:27897038

  1. Vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. Since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against FMD could re

  2. Uncovering the genetic basis of attenuation in Marek’s disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    While in vitro serial passage of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a proven method to attenuate MDV strains, the underlying genetic changes responsible for attenuation remains unknown. To identify candidate genes and mutations, a virulent MDV generated from an Md5-containing BAC clone was serially pass...

  3. Identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a genotype XIV Newcastle disease virus from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a m...

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from recent outbreaks in eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otim, Maxwell O.; Christensen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2004-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus isolates from chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001 were found to be velogenic by fusion protein cleavage site sequence analysis and biological characterization; the intracerebral pathogenicity index was 1.8. Analysis of their hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene sequences...

  5. An influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine r...

  6. Recombinant immunomodulating lentogenic or mesogenic oncolytic newcastle disease virus for treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.R.A. Buijs (Pascal); S. van Nieuwkoop (Stefan); Vaes, V. (Vincent); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractOncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) might be a promising new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated recombinant NDVs (rNDVs) expressing interferon (rNDV-hIFNβ-F0) or an IFN antagonistic protein (rNDV-NS1-F0), as well as rNDV with

  7. The estimated future disease burden of hepatitis C virus in the Netherlands with different treatment paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, S. B.; Razavi-Shearer, D.; Zuure, F. R.; Veldhuijzen, I. K.; Croes, E. A.; van der Meer, A. J.; van Santen, D. K.; de Vree, J. M.; de Knegt, R. J.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Reesink, H. W.; Prins, M.; Razavi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims: Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Netherlands is low (anti-HCV prevalence 0.22%). All-oral treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is tolerable and effective but expensive. Our analysis projected the future HCV-related disease burden in the Netherlands

  8. Presence of vaccine-derived newcastle disease viruses in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcast...

  9. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.;

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...

  10. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus affects livestock worldwide. There are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. Some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. The objective o...

  11. Chronic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital malformations as risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Hjuler, Thomas; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how chronic conditions other than prematurity, heart disease, and Down syndrome affect the risk and severity of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We assess the risk and severity of RSV hospitalization in children with chronic conditions in this register...

  12. Induction of foot-and-mouth disease virus specific cytotoxic T cell killing by vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus which infects cloven-hoofed animals including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine strategies are...

  13. Social Pathways for Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Sierra Leone, and Some Implications for Containment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.; Amara, J.; Ferme, M.C.; Kamara, P.; Mokuwa, E.; Sheriff, A.I.; Suluku, R.; Voors, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through humanto- human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, bu

  14. Clinical management of ebola virus disease in the United States and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyeki, Timothy M.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Davey, Richard T.; Liddell, Allison M.; Wolf, Timo; Vetter, Pauline; Schmiedel, Stefan; Grünewald, Thomas; Jacobs, Michael; Arribas, Jose R.; Evans, Laura; Hewlett, Angela L.; Brantsaeter, Arne B.; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rapp, Christophe; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Gutman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Available data on the characteristics of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and clinical management of EVD in settings outside West Africa, as well as the complications observed in those patients, are limited. METHODS We reviewed available clinical, laboratory, and virologic data fro

  15. The Macroeconomic Impact of Ebola Virus Disease (Evd: A Contribution to the Empirics of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obukohwo Oba Efayena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addressed the formulation of a macro model to capture the macroeconomic impact of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD. Previous studies has adopted various models such as the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model, endogenous model and the LINKAGE model, but there is dire need to generate a step-by-step model which will comprehensively capture how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD impacts on macroeconomic variables. Adopting the traditional neoclassical growth model, the model aggregated the various macroeconomic variables as well as captured the epidemic’s strain on each of these variables. The paper also empirically shows that the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has direct, indirect and deferred indirect cost implications for the economy. Using case studies of countries in Africa, the study evaluated how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has affected the macroeconomic status of selected economies. The findings imply that there is dire need to control the spread of the deadly plague. The paper contribute immensely to empirical studies in the field of macroeconomics.

  16. Epidemiological features and trends of Ebola virus disease in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligui Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a World Health Organization report, the epidemiological features of Ebola virus disease (EVD have changed significantly in West Africa. In this study, the new epidemiological features and prevalence trends for EVD in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are described. It was predicted that the Ebola outbreak would end in June 2015.

  17. Complete genome sequence of a recent panzootic virulent Newcastle disease virus from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Lahore-611/2013) is reported. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15192 nucleotides in length and is classified as sub-genotype V...

  18. Presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sites where virulent Newcastle disease virus persists in endemic countries are unknown. Evidence presented here shows that the same strain that caused a previous outbreak was present in both apparently healthy and sick vaccinated birds from multiple farms that had high average specific antibody...

  19. Full genome sequencing of the Newcastle disease viruses VS/GA and clone 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of the Villegas-Glisson/University of Georgia (VG/GA) strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and of a plaque purified clone (clone 5) exhibiting a different phenotype were sequenced and analyzed. The VG/GA strain, isolated from the intestine of healthy turkeys replicat...

  20. Modelling the atmospheric dispersion of foot-and-mouth disease virus for emergency preparedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.H.; Jensen, C.O.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model system for simulating airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is described. The system includes a virus production model and the local- and mesoscale atmospheric dispersion model RIMPUFF linked to the LINCOM local-scale Row model. LINCOM is used to calculate the sub-grid scale Row...

  1. Providing nursing care to Ebola virus disease patients: China Ebola Treatment Unit experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Principle of “Extreme Caution” is never to be underestimated in order to reach the “Zero Infection” goal among medical and nursing staff. Ebola virus disease is not a “horrible monsters” if medical and nursing staff strictly follow personal protection principles.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

  3. Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesh, R B; Watts, D M; Russell, K L; Damodaran, C; Calampa, C; Cabezas, C; Ramirez, G; Vasquez, B; Hayes, C G; Rossi, C A; Powers, A M; Hice, C L; Chandler, L J; Cropp, B C; Karabatsos, N; Roehrig, J T; Gubler, D J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.

  4. Nosocomial infection Childhood:he importance of respiratory viruses as agents of these diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Mary Gurgel Dias FlorÃncio

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections (NI) are a serious public health problem. Knowledge about the etiology of NI is important for the development of control measures, prevention and treatment. Viruses are important etiologic agent of NI has been studied in populations considered at risk as premature, heart disease, lung disease, and immunosuppressed. Respiratory hospital infection (RHI) generate discomfort to patients, postponing medical interventions, postoperative complications, use more drugs and, in so...

  5. Physical Factors Affecting in Vitro Replication of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Serotype “O”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taslim Ghori*, Khushi Muhammad and Masood Rabbani1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of physical factors (temperature, pH and UV light on replicating ability of “O” type of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD virus on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cell line was determined. The freshly grown FMD virus containing 106 units of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50 was divided into aliquots. Each of the 9 virus aliquots was exposed to 37, 57 or 77C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes, respectively. Each of the 5 virus aliquots was mixed with MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11. Similarly, each of the 3 aliquots having 1 mm depth of the medium was exposed to ultraviolet light (252.7 nm wavelength: one foot distance for 15, 30 or 45 minutes. Each of the virus aliquot exposed to either of the temperature, pH or ultraviolet light (UV for either of the interaction time was inoculated to 8 wells of the 96-well cell culture plate containing complete monolayer of BHK cell line. One row of 8 wells served as virus control and other row of 8 wells served as control for monolayer of the BHK-21 cell line. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. It was observed that temperature of 57 and 77C inactivated the virus within 15 minutes. The virus when admixed in the MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 9 or 11, of the medium inactivated the virus while pH 7 did not show any detrimental effect on its survival. The ultraviolet light for 15, 30 or 45 minutes showed undetectable effect on survival of the virus as either of the virus aliquot exposed to the UV light for either of the interaction time showed cytopathogenic effects (CPE. It was concluded that the temperature of 57°C or higher for 15 minutes, acidic pH (below 5 or basic pH (more than 9 may inactivate the FMD virus.

  6. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van M.; Bouma, A.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Katsma, E.; Hartog, L.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock.

  8. Phylogenetic characterization and virulence of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from wild birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijin; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Pengpeng; Chen, Shengli; Mu, Guohui; Duan, Xuji; Hao, Huafang; Du, Enqi; Wang, Xinglong; Yang, Zengqi

    2013-12-01

    Wild birds are considered as a natural reservoir of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). However, there is no information about genotype IX NDV from wild birds, especially from Columbiformes. In this study, two genotype IX NDV viruses were isolated from wild birds. One was from Eurasian Blackbird, while the other was from Spotted-necked dove. After purification by plaque technique, complete genomes of both viruses were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of partial fusion (F) gene and complete genome indicated both strains belonged to genotype IX. Based on intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the virus from Eurasian Blackbird was velogenic virus, while the strain from Spotted-necked dove was lentogenic virus. However, both strains showed one of velogenic cleavage sites. In addition, the strain from Eurasian Blackbird showed greater replication ability and generated larger fusion foci in vitro than that of strain from Spotted-necked dove. Comparing all the corresponding protein sequences of both strains, there were only 9 different amino acid residues between them. Furthermore, after analysis of these differences, the information about lentogenic NDV with multi-basic cleavage site was presented.

  9. An electron microscopic study of MDBK cells persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Gowans, E J; Louza, A C; Fraser, G

    1977-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of a line of MDBK cells persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus (MDBKpi cells) revealed the presence of cytoplasmic aggregates of both smooth and granular nucleocapsids. Only granular nucleocapsids aligned under modified areas of plasma membrane and were incorporated into virus particles. On the grounds of morphogenesis, there was no apparent explanation for the persistent, not-cytocidal nature of the infection. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates of smooth nucleocapsids were present in MDBKpi cells which had been held without subculture for between 40 and 130 days (aged MDBKpi cells). Modified areas of plasma membrane with associated alignment of nucleocapsids were not present in aged MDBKpi cells, and neither budding nor released virus particles were observed, indicating a block in virus maturation. It is suggested that the granular material coating granular nucleocapsids allows them to interact with modified areas of plasma membrane, thereby inducing virus budding. A deficiency of this material, as apparently occurs in aged MDBKpi cells, would therefore cause a block in virus maturation. The nature of this granular material is discussed, and we suggest that it consists of M protein.

  10. Molecular evolution of American field strains of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Jasperson, Dane C; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Chase, Christopher L; Ruder, Mark G; Stallknecht, David E

    2015-01-01

    Recent Orbivirus occurrences in the Americas have been investigated using whole genome amplification and sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. The bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) whole genomes were amplified without prior sequence knowledge and deep sequenced. This technology was applied to evaluate BTV‑3 isolates spanning 4 decades from Florida, Arkansas, Mississippi, South Dakota, Central America, and the Caribbean basin. The results of the dataset analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that these viruses were introduced into the United States from Central America and the Caribbean basin. A similar analysis has been performed on a recent BTV‑2 isolate from California. It indicates that the BTV‑2 strain was likely introduced into Florida and then moved South to the Caribbean and West to California. A historical (1955‑2012) molecular characterisation of EHDV strains was also completed, and subsequently used as reference sequence for comparison of genomes from recent 2012 cattle isolates associated with clinical disease. Finally, this analysis was performed on BTV‑11 isolated from 2 canine cases and demonstrated that the genome sequences of the virus isolates from these cases were almost identical. These studies indicate the value of this technology in understanding virus epidemiology and ecology.

  11. Emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT 2 in Egypt during 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H A; Salem, S A H; Habashi, A R; Arafa, A A; Aggour, M G A; Salem, G H; Gaber, A S; Selem, O; Abdelkader, S H; Knowles, N J; Madi, M; Valdazo-González, B; Wadsworth, J; Hutchings, G H; Mioulet, V; Hammond, J M; King, D P

    2012-12-01

    The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North Africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic FMD viruses (FMDV), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. This report describes the molecular characterization of SAT 2 FMD viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of FMD in Egypt during February and March 2012. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within the SAT 2 topotype VII, which were distinct from a contemporary SAT 2 lineage of the same toptype from Libya. These were the first FMD outbreaks due to this serotype in Egypt since 1950 and required the development of a tailored real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay that can be used in the laboratory to distinguish FMD viruses of these lineages from other endemic FMD viruses that might be present in North Africa. These data highlight the ease by which FMDV can cross international boundaries and emphasize the importance of deploying systems to continuously monitor the global epidemiology of this disease.

  12. Treating the host response to emerging virus diseases: lessons learned from sepsis, pneumonia, influenza and Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedson, David S

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing threat of epidemic or pandemic diseases that could be caused by influenza, Ebola or other emerging viruses. It will be difficult and costly to develop new drugs that target each of these viruses. Statins and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been effective in treating patients with sepsis, pneumonia and influenza, and a statin/ARB combination appeared to dramatically reduce mortality during the recent Ebola outbreak. These drugs target (among other things) the endothelial dysfunction found in all of these diseases. Most scientists work on new drugs that target viruses, and few accept the idea of treating the host response with generic drugs. A great deal of research will be needed to show conclusively that these drugs work, and this will require the support of public agencies and foundations. Investigators in developing countries should take an active role in this research. If the next Public Health Emergency of International Concern is caused by an emerging virus, a "top down" approach to developing specific new drug treatments is unlikely to be effective. However, a "bottom up" approach to treatment that targets the host response to these viruses by using widely available and inexpensive generic drugs could reduce mortality in any country with a basic health care system. In doing so, it would make an immeasurable contribution to global equity and global security.

  13. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Ramey, Andrew M; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  14. Construction and characterization of 3A-epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Sun, Pu; Bai, Xingwen; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Fu, Yuanfang; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2015-04-01

    Nonstructural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids (aa) in most FMDVs examined to date. Specific deletion in the FMDV 3A protein has been associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in primary bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. However, the aa residues playing key roles in these processes are poorly understood. In this study, we constructed epitope-tagged FMDVs containing an 8 aa FLAG epitope, a 9 aa haemagglutinin (HA) epitope, and a 10 aa c-Myc epitope to substitute residues 94-101, 93-101, and 93-102 of 3A protein, respectively, using a recently developed O/SEA/Mya-98 FMDV infectious cDNA clone. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blot and sequence analysis showed that the epitope-tagged viruses stably maintained and expressed the foreign epitopes even after 10 serial passages in BHK-21 cells. The epitope-tagged viruses displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in BHK-21 cells. However, the epitope-tagged viruses exhibited lower growth rates and smaller plaque size phenotypes than those of the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, but similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes to those of the recombinant viruses harboring 93-102 deletion in 3A. These results demonstrate that the decreased ability of FMDV to replicate in primary bovine cells was not associated with the length of 3A, and the genetic determinant thought to play key role in decreased ability to replicate in primary bovine cells could be reduced from 93-102 residues to 8 aa residues at positions 94-101 in 3A protein.

  15. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  16. Zika virus and Zika virus disease%Zika病毒与Zika病毒病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿涤

    2016-01-01

    Zika病毒(Zika virus,ZIKV)是一种新现虫媒病毒,属于黄病毒科黄病毒属.其感染后临床表现为轻症发热,因病重住院者罕见.流行病学数据显示Zika病毒病的流行与自身免疫性神经性疾病格林-巴利综合征及先天性小头畸形有关,引起了专家和公众的关注,但具体机制有待深入研究.

  17. Transmission dynamics of rabies virus in Thailand: Implications for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puanghat Apirom

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thailand, rabies remains a neglected disease with authorities continuing to rely on human death statistics while ignoring the financial burden resulting from an enormous increase in post-exposure prophylaxis. Past attempts to conduct a mass dog vaccination and sterilization program have been limited to Bangkok city and have not been successful. We have used molecular epidemiology to define geographic localization of rabies virus phylogroups and their pattern of spread in Thailand. Methods We analyzed 239 nucleoprotein gene sequences from animal and human brain samples collected from all over Thailand between 1998 and 2002. We then reconstructed a phylogenetic tree correlating these data with geographical information. Results All sequences formed a monophyletic tree of 2 distinct phylogroups, TH1 and TH2. Three subgroups were identified in the TH1 subgroup and were distributed in the middle region of the country. Eight subgroups of TH2 viruses were identified widely distributed throughout the country overlapping the TH1 territory. There was a correlation between human-dependent transportation routes and the distribution of virus. Conclusion Inter-regional migration paths of the viruses might be correlated with translocation of dogs associated with humans. Interconnecting factors between human socioeconomic and population density might determine the transmission dynamics of virus in a rural-to-urban polarity. The presence of 2 or more rabies virus groups in a location might be indicative of a gene flow, reflecting a translocation of dogs within such region and adjacent areas. Different approaches may be required for rabies control based on the homo- or heterogeneity of the virus. Areas containing homogeneous virus populations should be targeted first. Control of dog movement associated with humans is essential.

  18. IFNγ influences type I interferon response and susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jenna L; Olson, Julie K

    2013-08-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice that has similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), which promotes the development of demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV infection of resistant C57BL6 mice results in viral clearance without development of demyelinating disease. Interestingly, TMEV infection of resistant mice deficient in IFNγ leads to a persistent virus infection in the CNS and development of demyelinating disease. We have previously shown that the innate immune response affects development of TMEV- induced demyelinating disease, thus we wanted to determine the role of IFNγ during the innate immune response. TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice had an altered innate immune response, including reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, especially type I interferons. Administration of type I interferons, IFNα and IFNß, to TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response restored the expression of innate immune cytokines. Most importantly, administration of type I interferons to IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response decreased the virus load in the CNS and decreased development of demyelinating disease. Microglia are the CNS resident immune cells that express innate immune receptors. In TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice, microglia had reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, and administration of type I interferons to these mice restored the innate immune response by microglia. In the absence of IFNγ, microglia from TMEV-infected mice had reduced expression of some innate immune receptors and signaling molecules, especially IRF1. These results suggest that IFNγ plays an important role in the innate immune response to TMEV by enhancing the expression of innate immune cytokines

  19. Identification of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with potential panzootic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J; Haddas, Ruth; Simanov, Luba; Lublin, Avishay; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Khan, Taseer Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir; Setiyaningsih, Surachmi; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from new sub-genotypes within genotype VII are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) characterized by significant illness and mortality in poultry, suggesting the existence of a fifth panzootic. These viruses, which belong to the new sub-genotypes VIIh and VIIi, have epizootic characteristics and do not appear to have originated directly from other genotype VII NDV isolates that are currently circulating elsewhere, but are related to the present and past Indonesian NDV viruses isolated from wild birds since the 80s. Viruses from sub-genotype VIIh were isolated in Indonesia (2009-2010), Malaysia (2011), China (2011), and Cambodia (2011-2012) and are closely related to the Indonesian NDV isolated in 2007, APMV1/Chicken/Karangasem, Indonesia (Bali-01)/2007. Since 2011 and during 2012 highly related NDV isolates from sub-genotype VIIi have been isolated from poultry production facilities and occasionally from pet birds, throughout Indonesia, Pakistan and Israel. In Pakistan, the viruses of sub-genotype VIIi have replaced NDV isolates of genotype XIII, which were commonly isolated in 2009-2011, and they have become the predominant sub-genotype causing ND outbreaks since 2012. In a similar fashion, the numbers of viruses of sub-genotype VIIi isolated in Israel increased in 2012, and isolates from this sub-genotype are now found more frequently than viruses from the previously predominant sub-genotypes VIId and VIIb, from 2009 to 2012. All NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIIi are approximately 99% identical to each other and are more closely related to Indonesian viruses isolated from 1983 through 1990 than to those of genotype VII, still circulating in the region. Similarly, in addition to the Pakistani NDV isolates of the original genotype XIII (now called sub-genotype XIIIa), there is an additional sub-genotype (XIIIb) that was initially detected in India and Iran

  20. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  1. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  2. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  3. Newcastle disease virus fusion protein is the major contributor to protective immunity of genotype-matched vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Wanasen, Nanchaya; Paldurai, Anandan; Xiao, Sa; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2013-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease. To produce genotype-matched vaccines, a full-genome reverse genetics system has been used to generate a recombinant virus in which the F protein cleavage site has been changed to that of avirulent vaccine virus. In the other strategy, the vaccines have been generated by replacing the F and HN genes of a commercial vaccine strain with those from a genotype-matched virus. However, the protective efficacy of a chimeric virus vaccine has not been directly compared with that of a full-genome virus vaccine developed by reverse genetics. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of genotype VII matched chimeric vaccines by generating three recombinant viruses based on avirulent LaSota (genotype II) strain in which the open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the F and HN proteins were replaced, individually or together, with those of the circulating and highly virulent Indonesian NDV strain Ban/010. The cleavage site of the Ban/010 F protein was mutated to the avirulent motif found in strain LaSota. In vitro growth characteristics and a pathogenicity test indicated that all three chimeric viruses retained the highly attenuated phenotype of the parental viruses. Immunization of chickens with chimeric and full-length genome VII vaccines followed by challenge with virulent Ban/010 or Texas GB (genotype II) virus demonstrated protection against clinical disease and death. However, only those chickens immunized with chimeric rLaSota expressing the F or F plus HN proteins of the Indonesian strain were efficiently protected against shedding of Ban/010 virus. Our findings showed that genotype-matched vaccines can provide protection to chickens by efficiently preventing spread of virus, primarily due to the F protein.

  4. Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG. Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory.

  5. Dendritic Cells, Viruses, and the Development of Atopic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Tam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are important residents of the lung environment. They have been associated with asthma and other inflammatory diseases of the airways. In addition to their antigen-presenting functions, dendritic cells have the ability to modulate the lung environment to promote atopic disease. While it has long been known that respiratory viral infections associate with the development and exacerbation of atopic diseases, the exact mechanisms have been unclear. Recent studies have begun to show the critical importance of the dendritic cell in this process. This paper focuses on these data demonstrating how different populations of dendritic cells are capable of bridging the adaptive and innate immune systems, ultimately leading to the translation of viral illness into atopic disease.

  6. A recombinant field strain of Marek's disease (MD) virus with reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat insert lacking the meq gene as a vaccine against MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuai; Cui, Ning; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Zimeng; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Wang, Yixin; Duan, Luntao; Cui, Zhizhong

    2015-01-29

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) GX0101, which is a field strain with a naturally occurring insertion of the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) fragment, shows distinct biological activities. Deletion of the meq gene in GX0101 contributes to its complete loss of pathogenicity and oncogenicity in SPF chickens, but this virus has a kanamycin resistance gene (kan(r)) residual at the site of meq gene. In the present study, the kan(r) was knocked out and a meq-null virus with a good replicative ability termed SC9-1 was selected. In vivo studies showed that SC9-1 had no pathogenicity or tumorigenicity to chickens. There were no obvious impacts on chicken weight, immune organ index or antibody levels induced by avian influenza virus (AIV)/newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines compared with the control group. The SC9-1 virus provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens vaccine in both SPF chickens and Hy-line brown chickens when challenged with a very virulent MDV (rMd5 strain). There was no obvious change in SC9-1 protection against MDV rMd5 in SPF chickens after 20 passages in chicken embryonic fibroblast cells (CEFs). In conclusion, SC9-1 is a safe and effective vaccine candidate for the prevention of Marek's disease.

  7. A new genotype of border disease virus with implications for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletto, Simone; Caruso, Claudio; Cerutti, Francesco; Modesto, Paola; Zoppi, Simona; Dondo, Alessandro; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Masoero, Loretta

    2016-02-01

    Border disease virus (BDV) is a (+) single-stranded RNA pestivirus affecting mainly sheep and goats worldwide. Genetic typing of BDV has led to the identification of at least seven major genotypes. This study reports the detection of a BDV strain from a goat in northwestern Italy during routine investigations. Sequence analysis revealed mutations in the 5'-UTR of the virus with implications for BDV molecular diagnostics. Moreover, subsequent phylogenetic analysis based on the combined 5'-UTR and Npro/partial C genes, showed divergence from known BDV genotypes, revealing the detection of a novel pestivirus group, for which we propose the name BDV genotype 8.

  8. Recombinant phosphoprotein based single serum dilution ELISA for rapid serological detection of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moushumee; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in avian species. All strains of NDV belong to avian paramyxovirus serotype-1. The disease is endemic in different parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect birds from NDV infection. The virus non-structural phosphoprotein (P) is the second most abundant protein and a major modulator of viral replication. Although P protein shows lesser evolutionary divergence among NDV isolates, it is known to be highly divergent among different avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In the present study, a recombinant P protein based single serum dilution ELISA was developed which showed better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as compared to conventional methods for NDV detection. The recombinant P protein based ELISA could be an alternative to existing diagnostics against NDV infection in chickens.

  9. Assessment of a Novel Vaccine Against Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacho, Sonsoles; Dahdouh, Elias; Merino, Javier; Suárez, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb) is the new variant of the classical RHDV, a virulent pathogen responsible for an acute disease in young rabbits. The virus invades internal organs, especially the liver, spleen, kidneys, and gut; prevents coagulation; and causes liver necrosis. This eventually leads to quick death of the animal because of hemorrhage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a new vaccine against RHDVb in rabbits at a young age, after experimental infection using four different viral isolates. Our findings show that the vaccine had a protective effect with survival rates reaching 80-100% against the different isolates. These results suggest that this vaccine, when applied to young animals, is an effective tool to protect against the disease caused by RHDVb in rabbitries.

  10. Border Disease Virus: An Exceptional Driver of Chamois Populations Among Other Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Emmanuel; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Garel, Mathieu; Cabezón, Oscar; Velarde, Roser; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rosell, Rosa; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2015-01-01

    Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations. PMID:26733943

  11. Border Disease Virus: an exceptional driver of chamois populations among other threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eSerrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4 caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange and BDV outbreaks. BDV-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations.

  12. Relationship of lymphoid lesions to disease course in mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus type C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, L A; Hoover, E A

    2000-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection typically has a prolonged and variable disease course in cats, which can limit its usefulness as a model for human immunodeficiency virus infection. A clade C FIV isolate (FIV-C) has been associated with high viral burdens and rapidly progressive disease in cats. FIV-C was transmissible via oral-nasal, vaginal, or rectal mucosal exposure, and infection resulted in one of three disease courses: rapid, conventional/slow, or regressive. The severity of the pathologic changes paralleled the disease course. Thymic depletion was an early lesion and was correlated with detection of FIV RNA in thymocytes by in situ hybridization. The major changes in thymic cell populations were depletion of p55+/S100+ dendritic cells, CD3- cells, CD4+/CD8- cells, and CD4+/CD8+ cells and increases in apoptosis, CD45R+ B cells, and lymphoid follicles. In contrast to thymic depletion, peripheral lymphoid tissues often were hyperplastic. Mucosally transmitted FIV-C is thymotropic and induces a spectrum of lymphoid lesions and disease mirroring that seen with the human and simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope characteristics associated with disease progression differ in family members infected with genetically similar viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Elly; van der Sluis, Renée M; Bakker, Margreet E; Bekker, Vincent; Pajkrt, Dasja; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kuijpers, Taco W; Berkhout, Ben; Wolthers, Katja C; Paxton, William A; Pollakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein provides the primary contact between the virus and host, and is the main target of the adaptive humoral immune response. The length of gp120 variable loops and the number of N-linked glycosylation events are key determinants for virus infectivity and immune escape, while the V3 loop overall positive charge is known to affect co-receptor tropism. We selected two families in which both parents and two children had been infected with HIV-1 for nearly 10 years, but who demonstrated variable parameters of disease progression. We analysed the gp120 envelope sequence and compared individuals that progressed to those that did not in order to decipher evolutionary alterations that are associated with disease progression when individuals are infected with genetically related virus strains. The analysis of the V3-positive charge demonstrated an association between higher V3-positive charges with disease progression. The ratio between the amino acid length and the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites was also shown to be associated with disease progression with the healthier family members having a lower ratio. In conclusion in individuals initially infected with genetically linked virus strains the V3-positive charges and N-linked glycosylation are associated with HIV-1 disease progression and follow varied evolutionary paths for individuals with varied disease progression.

  14. Genetic variation in V gene of class II Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Liu, Peng; Ren, Shanhui; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2016-01-01

    The genetic variation and molecular evolution of the V gene of the class II Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates with genotypes I-XVIII were determined using bioinformatics. Results indicated that low homology existed in different genotype viruses, whereas high homology often for the same genotypes, exception may be existed within genotypes I, V, VI, and XII. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic variation of V protein was consistent with virus genotype, and specific signatures on the V protein for nine genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the phylogenetic trees were highly consistent between the V and F genes, with slight discrepancies in the sub-genotypes. Evolutionary rate analyses based on V and F genes revealed the evolution rates varied in genotypes. These data indicate that the genetic variation of V protein is genotype-related and will help in elucidating the molecular evolution of NDV.

  15. Comparative analysis of sialidase protein in velogenic and lentogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelizad, M; Ashtiani, M P

    2015-06-01

    The sialidase protein is a  major part of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is an important multifunctional envelope protein. This protein plays key roles in virus attachment to cells and virus-cell fusion. In this study, we compared the sialidase protein of Iranian virulent velogenic field strains with that of avirulent lentogenic strains. Six of seventeen variations in amino acid 395, 523, 550 432, 479 and 540 were observed near the catalytic and glycosylation sites in the sialidase protein. The obtained results showed fundamental differences in various biological parameters such as post-translational modification, antigenic index and electrostatic potential of tertiary structure of the sialidase protein. We suggest these six amino acids might play an effective role in the pathogenesis of NDV.

  16. Signifiance of Arginine 20 in the 2A protease for swine vesicular disease virus pathogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Toru; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Leyuan;

    2007-01-01

    of the 2A protease is particularly significant. Inoculation of pigs with mutant viruses containing single amino acid substitutions at this residue leads to the appearance of revertants, often containing an arginine at this position encoded by an AGA codon, one of six codons for this residue. The properties...... in pigs of two chimeric viruses, each with an arginine residue at this position but encoded by different codons, have been investigated in parallel with the parental pathogenic and attenuated strains. Presence of the arginine residue, but not of the AGA codon, is essential for induction of high viraemia......Pathogenic and attenuated strains of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), an enterovirus, have been characterized previously and, by using chimeric infectious cDNA clones, the key determinants of pathogenicity in pigs have been mapped to the coding region for 1D–2A. Within this region, residue 20...

  17. Promising MS2 mediated virus-like particle vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-mei; Zhang, Guo-guang; Huang, Xiao-jun; Chen, Liang; Chen, Hao-tai

    2015-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has caused severe economic losses to millions of farmers worldwide. In this work, the coding genes of 141-160 epitope peptide (EP141-160) of VP1 were inserted into the coat protein (CP) genes of MS2 in prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLP). Results showed that the CP-EP141-160 VLP had a strong immunoreaction with the FMD virus (FMDV) antigen in vitro, and also had an effective immune response in mice. Further virus challenge tests were carried out on guinea pigs and swine, high-titer neutralizing antibodies were produced and the CP-EP141-160 VLP vaccine could protect most of the animals against FMDV.

  18. Role of Borna Disease Virus in neuropsychiatric illnesses : Are we inching closer ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological cause of psychiatric illnesses continues to be under intense scrutiny. Among the various neurotropic viruses, Borna disease virus (BDV is another virus that preferentially targets the neurons of the limbic system and has been shown to be associated with behavioural abnormalities. Presence of various BDV markers, including viral RNA, in patients with affective and mood disorders have triggered ongoing debate worldwide regarding its aetiopathogenic relationship. This article analyses its current state of knowledge and recent advances in diagnosis in order to prove or refute the association of BDV in causation of human neuropsychiatric disorders. This emerging viral causative association of behavioural disorders, which seems to be inching closer, has implication not only for a paradigm shift in the treatment and management of neuropsychiatric illnesses but also has an important impact on the public health systems.

  19. Detecting Newcastle disease virus in combination of RT-PCR with red blood cell absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengqian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has limited sensitivity when treating complicated samples, such as feces, waste-water in farms, and nucleic acids, protein rich tissue samples, all the factors may interfere with the sensitivity of PCR test or generate false results. In this study, we developed a sensitive RT-PCR, combination of red blood cell adsorption, for detecting Newcastle disease virus (NDV. One pair of primers which was highly homologous to three NDV pathotypes was designed according to the consensus nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. To eliminate the interfere of microbes and toxic substances, we concentrated and purified NDV from varied samples utilizing the ability of NDV binding red blood cells (RBCs. The RT-PCR coupled with red blood cell adsorption was much more sensitive in comparison with regular RT-PCR. The approach could also be used to detect other viruses with the property of hemagglutination, such as influenza viruses.

  20. Development of clinical disease in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, R V; Nelson, P; Johnson, C M; Nasisse, M; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    1994-09-01

    Cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) develop an AIDS-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. To investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and 12 random-source (RS) cats were infected with FIV. Over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mitogen responses compared with controls. Beginning 18-24 months after infection, 10 RS cats developed chronic clinical disease typical of feline AIDS, including stomatitis and recurrent upper respiratory disease; 4 SPF cats also developed chronic clinical disease, 2 with neurologic disease and 2 with B cell lymphomas. Thus, immunologic background is important in the type of disease that develops in cats infected with FIV, and FIV represents a promising animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in humans.

  1. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer )and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly...

  2. Travel-Associated Zika Virus Disease Cases Among U.S. Residents--United States, January 2015-February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Paige; Hennessey, Morgan; Adams, Monica; Cherry, Cara; Chiu, Sophia; Harrist, Alexia; Kwit, Natalie; Lewis, Lillianne; McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Oduyebo, Titilope; Russell, Kate; Talley, Pamela; Tanner, Mary; Williams, Charnetta

    2016-03-25

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus disease in the Pacific Islands and the Region of the Americas have identified new modes of transmission and clinical manifestations, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, data on the epidemiology and clinical findings of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease remain limited. During January 1, 2015-February 26, 2016, a total of 116 residents of 33 U.S. states and the District of Columbia had laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection based on testing performed at CDC. Cases include one congenital infection and 115 persons who reported recent travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission (n = 110) or sexual contact with such a traveler (n = 5). All 115 patients had clinical illness, with the most common signs and symptoms being rash (98%; n = 113), fever (82%; 94), and arthralgia (66%; 76). Health care providers should educate patients, particularly pregnant women, about the risks for, and measures to prevent, infection with Zika virus and other mosquito-borne viruses. Zika virus disease should be considered in patients with acute onset of fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis, who traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html) or who had unprotected sex with a person who traveled to one of those areas and developed compatible symptoms within 2 weeks of returning.

  3. Travel-Associated Zika Virus Disease Cases Among U.S. Residents - United States, January 2015–February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Paige; Hennessey, Morgan; Adams, Monica; Cherry, Cara; Chiu, Sophia; Harrist, Alexia; Kwit, Natalie; Lewis, Lillianne; McGuire, Dana Olzenak; Oduyebo, Titilope; Russell, Kate; Talley, Pamela; Tanner, Mary; Williams, Charnetta

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus disease in the Pacific Islands and the Region of the Americas have identified new modes of transmission and clinical manifestations, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, data on the epidemiology and clinical findings of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease remain limited. During January 1, 2015–February 26, 2016, a total of 116 residents of 33 U.S. states and the District of Columbia had laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection based on testing performed at CDC. Cases included one congenital infection and 115 persons who reported recent travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission (n = 110) or sexual contact with such a traveler (n = 5). All 115 patients had clinical illness, with the most common signs and symptoms being rash (98%; n = 113), fever (82%; 94), and arthralgia (66%; 76). Health care providers should educate patients, particularly pregnant women, about the risks for, and measures to prevent, infection with Zika virus and other mosquito-borne viruses. Zika virus disease should be considered in patients with acute onset of fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis, who traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission (http:// www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html) or who had unprotected sex with a person who traveled to one of those areas and developed compatible symptoms within 2 weeks of returning.

  4. Emergence of new virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M; Al-Hammadi, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013. These strains clustered into two genetically distinct genogroups related to year of isolation (G2 and G3). All new Saudi Arabia viruses clustered with the European strains, while the old strains clustered with strains from China and America. Based on amino acids and nucleotide sequences, the Saudi Arabia strains (RHD/1/SA/2012, RHD/2/SA/2012, and RHD/3/SA /2013) had high identity with Mexico89, Ca11-ITA, and 00-13,FRA virus; on the other hand, there was a relatively high identity with Bahrain strain. The evolutionary relationship of Saudi RHDVs strains revealed significant nucleotides and amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region E, suggesting the emergence of new RHDVs circulating in Saudi Arabia rabbitries. These antigenic changes represented by the antigenic index might be a potential cause of vaccination failure and raises the need to review the vaccination strategies against RHD.

  5. Genotypic and pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from racing pigeons in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengda; Qu, Yajin; Wang, Fangkun; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Honglei

    2015-07-01

    A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from an outbreak in racing pigeons in China was characterized in this study. Complete gene of the NDV isolate was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis. Pathogenicity experiment was carried out in pigeons, chickens, and ducks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered with the Class II viruses, has highly phylogenetically similar to NDV strains isolated from pigeons in China, but was distant from the viruses prevalence in chickens and vaccine strains used in China. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the virulent motif (112)RRQKRF(117) at the cleavage site, but it caused no appearance disease in chickens and ducks. However, the isolate had virulence in pigeons, resulting in severe nervous signs and highly mortality. Pigeons were considered as a potential source of NDV infection and disease for commercial poultry flocks. Therefore, new vaccines to prevent the NDV infection in the pigeon flocks should be developed as soon as possible, and strict biosecurity measures should be taken to reduce the risk of pigeon Newcastle disease outbreaks.

  6. Hepatitis B virus and microRNAs: Complex interactions affecting hepatitis B virus replication and hepatitis B virus-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Jason; Steel, Laura F; Bouchard, Michael J

    2015-06-28

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With nearly 750000 deaths yearly, hepatocellular carcinoma is the second highest cause of cancer-related death in the world. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of HBV-associated HCC remain incompletely understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small non-coding RNAs that play a role primarily in post-transcriptional gene regulation, have been recognized as important regulators of cellular homeostasis, and altered regulation of miRNA expression has been suggested to play a significant role in virus-associated diseases and the development of many cancers. With this in mind, many groups have begun to investigate the relationship between miRNAs and HBV replication and HBV-associated disease. Multiple findings suggest that some miRNAs, such as miR-122, and miR-125 and miR-199 family members, are playing a role in HBV replication and HBV-associated disease, including the development of HBV-associated HCC. In this review, we discuss the current state of our understanding of the relationship between HBV and miRNAs, including how HBV affects cellular miRNAs, how these miRNAs impact HBV replication, and the relationship between HBV-mediated miRNA regulation and HCC development. We also address the impact of challenges in studying HBV, such as the lack of an effective model system for infectivity and a reliance on transformed cell lines, on our understanding of the relationship between HBV and miRNAs, and propose potential applications of miRNA-related techniques that could enhance our understanding of the role miRNAs play in HBV replication and HBV-associated disease, ultimately leading to new therapeutic options and improved patient outcomes.

  7. Natural Infection with Avian Hepatitis E Virus and Marek's Disease Virus in Brown Layer Chickens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuqing; Wang, Liyuan; Sun, Shuhong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and serotype-1 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV-1) were detected from a flock of 27-wk-old brown layer hens in China, accompanied by an average daily mortality of 0.44%. Postmortem examination of 25 sick hens and five apparently healthy hens selected randomly from the flock showed significant pathologic changes consistent with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), including hepatomegaly, peritoneal fluid, and hepatic subcapsular hemorrhages. Microscopic examination of these livers showed multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and mild lymphocytic infiltration. These liver samples were investigated for HEV by reverse-transcription PCR. The overall detection rate of HEV RNA in samples of sick chickens was about 56% (14/25), while in samples from apparently healthy hens, it was 80% (4/5). Sequencing analysis of three 242-base-pair fragments of the helicase gene revealed 95.5% to 97.9% nucleotide identity compared with published avian HEV genotype 3, whereas identities demonstrated only 77.3% to 86.0% similarity when compared with genotypes 1, 2, and 4. Unexpectedly, the MDV meq gene was detected in livers from both apparently healthy chickens (2/5) and sick chickens (12/25) by PCR analysis. The meq gene (396 base pairs) was determined to belong to MDV-1 by further sequencing. The co-infection rate of avian HEV and MDV in this flock was 30% (9/30). This is the first report of dual infection of a nonenvelope RNA virus (HEV) with a herpesvirus (MDV) in chickens in China.

  8. Hepatitis C virus liver disease in women infected with contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is carried out by detection of antibodies to the virus (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA)) with confirmation by identification of HCV RNA genome in serum (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)). We describe the histological features on liver biopsy in 88 women with chronic HCV infection (serum positive on ELISA, RIBA and PCR) acquired from virus contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. For the majority of these patients the time interval from virus infection to presentation was between 17 and 18 years. We separately assessed necroinflammatory disease activity and architectural features on liver biopsy and applied a scoring system which permitted semi-quantitative documentation of abnormal features. Only three women showed liver biopsies within normal limits (+\\/-focal steatosis). The remaining 85 cases showed a predominantly mild or moderate degree of disease activity with interface hepatitis (56.8% of cases), spotty necrosis, apoptosis and focal inflammation (88.6% of cases) and portal inflammation (90.9% of cases). Confluent necrosis was an uncommon finding (2.3% of cases). Assessment of architectural features showed normal appearance in 35.2% of biopsies. The predominant architectural abnormality noted was portal tract fibrosis. Ten per cent of cases, however, showed significant fibrous band and\\/or nodule formation.

  9. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein impairs the developmental program controlling neurogenesis and reduces human GABAergic neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Scordel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that persistent viral infection may impair cellular function of specialized cells without overt damage. This concept, when applied to neurotropic viruses, may help to understand certain neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Borna disease virus (BDV is an excellent example of a persistent virus that targets the brain, impairs neural functions without cell lysis, and ultimately results in neurobehavioral disturbances. Recently, we have shown that BDV infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs and impairs neurogenesis, revealing a new mechanism by which BDV may interfere with brain function. Here, we sought to identify the viral proteins and molecular pathways that are involved. Using lentiviral vectors for expression of the bdv-p and bdv-x viral genes, we demonstrate that the phosphoprotein P, but not the X protein, diminishes human neurogenesis and, more particularly, GABAergic neurogenesis. We further reveal a decrease in pro-neuronal factors known to be involved in neuronal differentiation (ApoE, Noggin, TH and Scg10/Stathmin2, demonstrating that cellular dysfunction is associated with impairment of specific components of the molecular program that controls neurogenesis. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that a viral protein impairs GABAergic human neurogenesis, a process that is dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. They improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which a persistent virus may interfere with brain development and function in the adult.

  10. 5-fluorouracil in lethal mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Rubén; Arias, Armando; Domingo, Esteban

    2009-06-01

    5-fluorouracil (FU) is a pyrimidine analogue extensively used in cancer chemotherapy. FU can be metabolized into 5-fluorouridine-triphosphate, which can be used as substrate for viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. This results in the incorporation of mutations into viral RNA. Accumulation of mutations may lead to loss of virus infectivity, in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. RNA virus pathogens are particularly difficult to control because they are highly mutable, and mutants resistant to antiviral agents are readily selected. Here, we review the basic principles of lethal mutagenesis as an antiviral approach, and the participation of FU in its development. Recent studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus indicate that FU can act both as an inhibitor and as a mutagen during foot-and-mouth disease virus replication. This dual activity renders FU an adequate drug for lethal mutagenesis. We suggest that structural and biochemical studies can contribute to the lead to new design of base or nucleoside analogues targeted specifically to viral polymerases.

  11. The VP3 factor from viruses of Birnaviridae family suppresses RNA silencing by binding both long and small RNA duplexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Valli

    Full Text Available RNA silencing is directly involved in antiviral defense in a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, fungi, invertebrates, and presumably vertebrate animals. The study of RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defences in vertebrates is hampered by the overlap with other antiviral mechanisms; thus, heterologous systems are often used to study the interplay between RNA silencing and vertebrate-infecting viruses. In this report we show that the VP3 protein of the avian birnavirus Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV displays, in addition to its capacity to bind long double-stranded RNA, the ability to interact with double-stranded small RNA molecules. We also demonstrate that IBDV VP3 prevents the silencing mediated degradation of a reporter mRNA, and that this silencing suppression activity depends on its RNA binding ability. Furthermore, we find that the anti-silencing activity of IBDV VP3 is shared with the homologous proteins expressed by both insect- and fish-infecting birnaviruses. Finally, we show that IBDV VP3 can functionally replace the well-characterized HCPro silencing suppressor of Plum pox virus, a potyvirus that is unable to infect plants in the absence of an active silencing suppressor. Altogether, our results support the idea that VP3 protects the viral genome from host sentinels, including those of the RNA silencing machinery.

  12. Heparan Sulfate-Binding Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Enters Cells Via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus which is virulent for susceptible animals infects cells via four members of the alpha V subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some...

  13. Newcastle disease virus vectored infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines protect commercial broiler chickens in the presence of maternally derived antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins B and D have previously been demonstrated to confer complete clinical protection against virulent ILTV and NDV challenges in naive chickens. We extended this study to assess whether mate...

  14. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease is influenced by hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigen...

  15. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  16. Visualization of Marek’s disease virus in vitro using enhanced green fluorescent protein fused with US10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a strictly cell-associated avian alphaherpesvirus. Although its replication was supported in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) or duck embryo fibroblasts, identification of MDV-infected cell is quite cumbersome especially in the early stage of virus replication. To visu...

  17. Assembly and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid particles expressed within mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Muszynski, Bartosz; Organtini, Lindsey J.;

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro) into the capsid proteins VP0, VP1 and VP3 (and 2A). In some systems, it is difficult to produce large amounts of these processed capsid proteins since 3Cpro can be toxic...

  18. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  19. Epstein-Barr virus myelitis and Castleman's disease in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balderacchi Jasminka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few cases of Epstein-Barr virus myelitis have been described in the literature. Multi-centric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that is well known for its associations with the human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, and Kaposi's sarcoma. The concurrent presentation of these two diseases in a patient at the same time is extremely unusual. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who presented with fever, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathy, and was diagnosed with multi-centric Castleman's disease. He presented three weeks later with lower extremity weakness and urinary retention, at which time cerebrospinal fluid contained lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical and thoracic segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Our patient was ultimately diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus myelitis, as Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multi-centric Castleman's disease followed by acute Epstein-Barr virus myelitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians caring for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients should be vigilant about monitoring patients with increasing lymphadenopathy, prompting thorough diagnostic investigations when necessary.

  20. A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects against lethal disease in a new ferret model of acute nipah virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N Bossart

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a broadly tropic and highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus whose natural reservoirs are several species of Pteropus fruit bats. Nipah virus has repeatedly caused outbreaks over the past decade associated with a severe and often fatal disease in humans and animals. Here, a new ferret model of Nipah virus pathogenesis is described where both respiratory and neurological disease are present in infected animals. Severe disease occurs with viral doses as low as 500 TCID(50 within 6 to 10 days following infection. The underlying pathology seen in the ferret closely resembles that seen in Nipah virus infected humans, characterized as a widespread multisystemic vasculitis, with virus replicating in highly vascular tissues including lung, spleen and brain, with recoverable virus from a variety of tissues. Using this ferret model a cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, m102.4, targeting the henipavirus G glycoprotein was evaluated in vivo as a potential therapeutic agent. All ferrets that received m102.4 ten hours following a high dose oral-nasal Nipah virus challenge were protected from disease while all controls died. This study is the first successful post-exposure passive antibody therapy for Nipah virus using a human monoclonal antibody.