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Sample records for bursal disease vaccination

  1. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus...-five 1-day-old bursal disease susceptible chickens (vaccinates) shall be injected subcutaneously...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  3. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses detected in vaccinated commercial broiler flocks in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia.

  4. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

  5. Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Arnold

    Full Text Available Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis. Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. Both, subcutaneous as well as oral vaccination regiments with the heat-inactivated but otherwise untreated yeast induced IBDV-neutralizing antibodies in mice and chickens. A full protection against a subsequent IBDV infection was achieved by subcutaneous inoculation of only milligram amounts of yeast per chicken. Oral vaccination also generated protection: while mortality was observed in control animals after virus challenge, none of the vaccinees died and ca. one-tenth were protected as indicated by the absence of lesions in the bursa of Fabricius. Recombinant K. lactis was thus indicated as a potent tool for the induction of a protective immune response by different applications. Subcutaneously applied K. lactis that expresses the IBDV VP2 was shown to function as an efficacious anti-IBD subunit vaccine.

  6. Major histocompatibility complex-linked immune response of young chickens vaccinated with an attenuated live infectious bursal disease virus vaccine followed by an infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle; Nielsen, O.L.; Krogh-Maibom, T.;

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the MHC on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine response in chickens was investigated in three different chicken lines containing four different MHC haplotypes. Two MHC haplotypes were present in all three lines with one haplotype (1319) shared between the lines. Line I...... Jungle Fowl genes, was clearly differentiated from the other two investigated lines. These results suggest an MHC II restricted T-cell dependent secondary antibody response against IBDV....

  7. Development and Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Novel Marek's Disease Virus Rispens Vector Vaccines Against Infectious Bursal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yukari; Esaki, Motoyuki; Saitoh, Shuji; Sato, Takanori; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a major disease affecting the poultry industry and is caused by infection with IBD virus (IBDV). To develop a novel vaccine to prevent IBD in chickens, recombinant Marek's disease virus Rispens viruses carrying the VP2 gene of IBDV driven by five different promoters (Rispens/IBD) were constructed using homologous recombination and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Rispens/IBD driven by the chicken beta-actin (Bac) promoter (Rispens/Bac-IBD), Rous sarcoma virus promoter, or simian virus 40 promoter were administered to 1-day-old SPF chicks, and the protective efficacy against IBDV was evaluated by challenging chicks with virulent IBDV. As a result, Rispens/Bac-IBD showed the best protection (87%). Next, we constructed the virus driven by the Bac-derived Coa5 promoter (Rispens/Coa5-IBD) for a secondary in vivo trial using commercial layer chickens since Rispens/Bac-IBD was thought to be genetically unstable. Rispens/Coa5-IBD showed stability in vitro and exhibited better antibody production and protection during challenge against virulent IBDV at both 5 (95%) and 7 wk of age (91%) compared with that of Rispens/Bac-IBD (90% at 5 wk of age and 84% at 7 wk of age). Thus, Rispens/Coa5-IBD may be a novel promising vaccine against IBD and virulent Marek's disease. PMID:27610721

  8. Vaccination against Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Recombinant T4 Bacteriophage Displaying Viral Protein VP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Chang CAO; Quan-Cheng SHI; Jing-Yun MA; Qing-Mei XIE; Ying-Zuo BI

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop a desirable inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine against the very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV), we tried to take advantage of the emerging T4 bacteriophage surface protein display system. The major immunogen protein VP2 from the vvIBDV strain HK46 was fused to the nonessential T4 phage surface capsid protein, a small outer capsid (SOC) protein, resulting in the 49 kDa SOC-VP2 fusion protein, which was verified by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Immunoelectromicroscopy showed that the recombinant VP2 protein was successfully displayed on the surface of the T4 phage. The recombinant VP2 protein is antigenic and showed reactivities to various monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against IBDV, whereas the wild-type phage T4 could not react to any mAb. In addition, the recombinant VP2 protein is immunogenic and elicited specific antibodies in immunized specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. More significantly, immunization of SPF chickens with the recombinant T4-VP2 phage protected them from infection by the vvIBDV strain HK46. When challenged with the vvIBDV strain HK46 at a dose of 100 of 50% lethal dose (LD50) per chicken 4 weeks after the booster was given, the group vaccinated with the T4-VP2 recombinant phage showed no clinical signs of disease or death, wh ereas the unvaccinated group and the group vaccinated with the wild-type T4phage exhibited 100% clinical signs of disease and bursal damages, and 30%-40% mortality. Collectively,the data herein showed that the T4-displayed VP2 protein might be an inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine candidate against vvIBDV.

  9. Expression and characterization of infectious bursal disease virus protein for poultry vaccine development and application in nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Taghavian, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is a causative agent of infectious bursal disease in young chickens causing significant losses to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study the gene encoding the viral capsid protein (VP2, IR01 strain) with self-assembly capability was cloned into a plant expression pTRAkc vector and expressed in tobacco. Recombinant protein levels in tobacco leaves reached to 260 µg/g and 160 µg/g fresh leaf weights (FLW) in apoplastic and cytosolic protein accumulation, r...

  10. Studies on comparative immune response of broiler chicken to different imported live infectious bursal disease vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the comparative efficacy of different vaccines was carried out. These include Gumbokal. Vaccine, IBA-Vac and IBD, Vac. The vaccines were evaluated on the basis of immure response developed by using indirect haemaggtutination (IHA) test in all the birds the presence of material antibodies on day first of their age by IHA. The titre varied from 1:4 to 1:6. All the vaccinated group and control group was examined for their immune response on the 7th and then gradual increase in titre occurred on day 15th and highest values were observed on 30th day post vaccination. All the three vaccines gave identical results as far as their efficacy against IBDV infection was concerned. (author)

  11. A field study on the significance of vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at the optimal time point in broiler flocks with maternally derived IBDV antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Hermann; Meyer-Block, Karen; Rebeski, Dierk E; Scharr, Heike; de Wit, Sjaak; Rohn, Karl; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2007-10-01

    The right strategy for infectious bursal disease (IBD) control and its success rate under field conditions depends on hygiene management, IBD field pressure, level and variation in maternally derived IBD antibodies, and the IBD vaccine strains to be used. Usually, standard vaccination programmes are used, which are not always adapted to the specific conditions on the farm and to the immune status of chickens. Employing the "Deventer formula" may help to estimate the optimal time for vaccination for a specific flock based on the maternally derived antibody level, its variation, the genetic background of the chicken, and the IBD vaccine strain. Two field studies with 16 or 20 commercial broiler flocks were conducted, applying an intermediate IBD vaccine before, at the best, and after the estimated optimal vaccination time estimated by the "Deventer formula". These studies showed that flocks IBD-vaccinated between 1 day before, at, or up to 3 days after the estimated optimal time point developed detectable humoral immunity up to 14 days post vaccination. If birds had been vaccinated more than 1 day before the calculated optimal vaccination date, the humoral immune response was delayed or non-detectable until slaughter. The induction of humoral immunity correlated with the incidence of bursa lesions and IBDV detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. As indicated in this study, under field conditions bursa lesions may develop later than predicted based on experimental experiences. The late incidence of bursa lesions after vaccination may be confused with field virus-induced lesions, in which case sequencing may offer a valuable tool for differentiation. PMID:17899465

  12. MDV-1 VP22 conjugated VP2 enhancing immune response against infectious bursal disease virus by DNA vaccination in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    VP22 of Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) could function in protein transduction. In this study, an infectious bursal disease virus VP2 gene was fused to the carboxyl termini of VP22. It showed that the fusion protein did not spread into the bystander cells from the cells transfected with pVP22-VP2, as the VP22 alone could. The VP22 proteins were found to be translocated into all the nuclei in the neighboring COS-1 cells, as analyzed by a fluorescence assay. Although mice were immunized with the recombinant DNAs mixed with polyethylenimine (PEI) at a dose of 1:2, it failed to enhance the antibody response against IBDV VP2, as measured by the indirect ELISA assay, yet the cell mediated immune response was significantly increased. The ratio of CD8+/CD4+ T cells was significantly increased in the immunized group with the fusion genes, compared with the group immunized with VP2 (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that VP22 indeed enhances the cell-mediated response in the fused VP2 in a mice model system, possibly due to the fact that the IBDV VP2 could be carried into the surrounding cells at a limited level under pressure from MDV VP22.

  13. Chimeric infectious bursal disease virus-like particles as potent vaccines for eradication of established HPV-16 E7-dependent tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martin Caballero

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is caused by persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and represents the second most frequent gynecological malignancy in the world. The HPV-16 type accounts for up to 55% of all cervical cancers. The HPV-16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 are necessary for induction and maintenance of malignant transformation and represent tumor-specific antigens for targeted cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immunotherapy. Therapeutic cancer vaccines have become a challenging area of oncology research in recent decades. Among current cancer immunotherapy strategies, virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccines have emerged as a potent and safe approach. We generated a vaccine (VLP-E7 incorporating a long C-terminal fragment of HPV-16 E7 protein into the infectious bursal disease virus VLP and tested its therapeutic potential in HLA-A2 humanized transgenic mice grafted with TC1/A2 tumor cells. We performed a series of tumor challenge experiments demonstrating a strong immune response against already-formed tumors (complete eradication. Remarkably, therapeutic efficacy was obtained with a single dose without adjuvant and against two injections of tumor cells, indicating a potent and long-lasting immune response.

  14. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of infectious bursal disease in chickens and causes a significant economic loss for the poultry industry. Little is understood about the mechanism involved in the host responses to IBDV infection. For better understanding the IBDV......-host interaction, we measured steady-state levels of transcripts from 28 cellular genes of chicken embryo (CE) cell cultures infected with IBDV vaccine stain Bursine-2 during a 7-day infection course by use of the quantitative real-time RT-PCR SYBR green method. Of the genes tested, 21 genes (IRF-1, IFN 1...

  15. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  16. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek's disease virus ∆Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA. PMID:25968878

  17. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek's disease virus ∆Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Evin; Dunn, John R; Cheng, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD), characterized by immunosuppression, paralysis, nerve enlargement and induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessitating the development of new and more protective MD vaccines. The ∆Meq virus, a recombinant Md5 strain MDV lacking the viral oncogene Meq, is one candidate MD vaccine with great potential but unfortunately it also causes bursal-thymic atrophy (BTA) in maternal antibody negative chickens, raising concerns that impede commercial use as a vaccine. Previously, we identified a point mutation within UL5 that reduced in vivo replication in attenuated viruses. We proposed that introduction of the UL5 point mutation into the ∆Meq virus would reduce in vivo replication and eliminate BTA yet potentially retain high protective abilities. In birds, the ∆Meq+UL5 recombinant MDV had reduced replication compared to the original ∆Meq virus, while weights of lymphoid organs indicated that ∆Meq+UL5 did not induce BTA, supporting the hypothesis that reduction of in vivo replication would also abolish BTA. Vaccine trials of the ∆Meq+UL5 virus compared to other ∆Meq-based viruses and commercial vaccines show that, while the ∆Meq+UL5 does provide vaccinal protection, this protection was also reduced compared to the original ∆Meq virus. Therefore, it appears that a very delicate balance is required between levels of replication able to induce high vaccinal protection, yet not so high as to induce BTA.

  18. Serum Antibody Levels against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Nigerian Village Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chukwudi Okwor, Didacus Chukwuemeka Eze* and Kodi Okonkwo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The serum antibody levels against infectious bursal disease (IBD virus in unvaccinated village chickens (n=484 reared in and around Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria were studied using indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Result showed a high seroprevalence (88.4%. Therefore, there is need for government involvement in the control of this disease in village chickens through extension services and mass vaccination of poultry population.

  19. Immunogenicity of formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine inactivated infectious bursal disease virus in broiler chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HABIB Mudasser; HUSSAIN Iftikhar; IRSHAD Hamid; YANG Zong-zhao; SHUAI Jiang-bing; CHEN Ning

    2006-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was inactivated by two different chemicals-formaldehyde and binary ethylenimine (BEI). Formaldehyde was used at 0.1% and 0.2%, while BEI was used at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.002 mol/L.These four vaccines were tested for their efficiency in generating humoral immune response in different groups of broiler chicks.Both BEI-inactivated vaccines gave relatively higher antibody titers and were almost twice as efficient as formaldehyde-inactivated ones.

  20. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: Development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and histopath......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and...... histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...

  1. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette;

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a worldwide distributed immunosuppressive viral disease in young chickens, controlled by vaccination. Emergence of several strains of IBD virus (IBDV) has created a demand for strain-specific diagnostic tools. In the present experiment, five different reverse...

  2. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYan-Fei; WangWei; 等

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  3. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  4. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rugea

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.

  5. [Immunogenicity of recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus in chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongli; Hou, Shenda; Wang, Song; Wang, Yupeng; LuanI, Yunyan; Hou, Xilin

    2014-11-01

    In order to determine immunogenicity and protective effect in chickens, we used the IBDV (Infectious bursal disease virus)-Vp2/Lactobacillus casei as antigen transfer system. First, the immunized and control chickens were challenged by IBDV/DQ at lethal dose to determine the protective ratio. Second, chickens were orallyand intranasally vaccinated twice with 10(9) CFU/mL pLA-VP2/L. casei, pLA/L. casei and PBS as negativecontrol and commercial vaccine as positive control. The bursa injury and the lesion score wererecorded post challenge. The level of specific IgG and sIgA in pLA-VP2/L. casei and positive control groups was significantly higher than that in negativecontrol groups. The protection efficacy in pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was higher than that inintranasal group. The SI. of pLA-VP2/L. casei oral group was significant higher than other groups. The lesion score indicated the pLA-VP2/L. casei was safer than commercial vaccine for bursa. Collectively, the pLA-VP2/L. casei could be a vaccine candidate for IBDV. PMID:25985519

  6. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

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    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  7. Addition of a UL5 helicase-primase subunit point mutation eliminates bursal-thymic atrophy of Marek’s disease virus delta-Meq recombinant virus but reduces vaccinal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Marek’s disease (MD), a T-cell lymphoma of chickens. Despite widespread usage of vaccines since the 1970’s to control MD, more virulent field strains of MDV have emerged that overcome vaccinal protection, necessi...

  8. Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus transmission using bioceramic derived from chicken feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-06-01

    Bioceramic powder (BCX), at pH 13.0, derived from chicken feces, was evaluated for its efficacy to inactivate virus and inhibit virus horizontal transmission by fecal-oral route, using infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine strain D78 as a challenge virus. Three 1-week-old SPF chicks were vaccinated per os and used as seeder birds. Six hours later, 3 sentinel 1-week-old SPF chicks were introduced into the same cage. Results revealed that BCX had excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV within 3 min. Treating IBDV contaminated litter in the cage with BCX could prevent transmission of IBDV to new sensitive chicks completely. Further, transmission of IBDV to the sentinel chicks was significantly inhibited by adding BCX to litter and chicken feed. These data suggest that BCX at pH 13, derived from chicken feces, has excellent efficacy to inactivate IBDV, which can be applied in bedding materials for preventing viral transmission during production round. It is a good material that can effectively be used for enhancing biosecurity system in poultry farms. PMID:25892716

  9. Circulating strains of variant infectious bursal disease virus may pose a challenge for antibiotic-free chicken farming in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulsuriya, Shanika; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Ojkic, Davor; Gunawardana, Thushari; Gupta, Ashish; Goonewardene, Kalhari; Karunaratne, Ruwani; Popowich, Shelly; Willson, Philip; Tikoo, Suresh K; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotic-free and safe animal products are most desirable among consumers. However, ensuring safe poultry products is a challenging task when the chicken immune system is compromised. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression and predisposes chickens to secondary infections. Breeder vaccination against IBDV is routinely practiced for producing chicks with maternally-derived antibody (MAb) to prevent infection in newly hatched chicks. The majority of IBDV circulating in Canadian farms are variant strains (vIBDV). Whether circulating vIBDV strains are immunosuppressive in chicks or are amenable to current vaccine regimens has not previously been tested through challenge studies. In this study, one-day-old broiler chicks (n=240) carrying MAb were obtained from broiler breeders vaccinated with commercial IBDV vaccines. In the first set of experiments (n=40/group), at six days post-hatch, one group was challenged with a Canadian field isolate, vIBDV (strain-SK09) (3×10(3) EID50). The second and the third groups (controls) were inoculated with non-immunosuppressive IBDV D-78 (10×10(3) TCID50) and saline, respectively. Histopathological examination on days 14 and 30 post-challenge revealed that despite the high level of MAb, vIBDV (SK09) caused severe bursal damage in chicks. Another set of experiments with treatment groups as above, demonstrated that pre-exposure of chicks with vIBDV (SK09) caused immunosuppression resulting in significantly higher mortality and disease severity in chicks challenged with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Our data provide evidence that IBDV strains circulating in Canada are immunosuppressive, not amenable to current anti-IBDV vaccination strategy, and a potential threat to antibiotic-free chicken farming. PMID:27663370

  10. Inflammatory response of different chicken lines and B haplotypes to infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.;

    1998-01-01

    Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post...

  11. Molecular diagnosis and adaptation of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus on chicken embryo fibroblast cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogender Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To collect Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV infected bursae based on postmortem findings of clinical samples followed by molecular confirmation and adaptation on chicken embryo fibroblast cell. Material and Methods: Enlarged bursae were processed to make 10% suspension in phosphate buffer saline and were used for viral RNA isolation to carryout VP2 gene fragment amplification using RT-PCR technique. Suspension was also used for adaptation of IBDV on chicken embryo fibroblast cells prepared from 11 day old chicken embryos. Infective titer of virus was calculated using Reed and Muench method. Results: Fifteen dead birds suspected of IBD infection were collected from different local poultry farms of Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh. After post-mortem, twelve enlarged bursae sample were used for total RNA isolation which was used for amplification of VP2 gene. Out of twelve, eleven were found positive for VP2 gene amplification. Virological characterization of PCR positive sample was done on chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture and various cytopathic effects like rounding of cells, cellular detachment and vacuolation were shown by five IBD field isolates after 48 hours on 4th passage. TCID50 per ml of the adapted virus on 4th passage at 48 hours after infection was 1.46 x 107 . Conclusion: VP2 gene amplification using RT-PCR technique is a specific target for IBDV detection. Passaging of highly virulent IBDV field isolates in cell culture leads to attenuation of virus which can be exploited as a cell culture adapted vaccine candidate.

  12. Analysis of the function of D279N mutation of VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiao-le; GAO Hong-lei; GAO Yu-long; Nicolas Eterradossi; WANG Xiao-mei; LU Zhen; WANG Nian; CHEN Yu-ming; ZHANG Li-zhou; GAO Li; LI Kai; REN Xian-gang; WANG Yong-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is responsible for the highly contagious infectious bursal disease of chickens. Further understanding the gene-function is necessary to design the tailored vaccine. The amino acid residue 279, located on strand PF of VP2, is one of the three residues that have been reported to be involved in cel-tropism but with some inconsistency. In this study, to further clarify the amino acids involved in the cel tropism of IBDV, a series of mutations about residue 279 were introduced into the VP2 of vvIBDV Gx strain. With the reverse genetic system, we found single mutation of D279N, double mutations of D279N/A284T or Q253H/D279N were not enough to adapt IBDV to chicken embryo ifbroblast (CEF) cel. To evaluate whether residue 279 could inlfuence the replication and virulence of IBDV, the virus rGxHT-279 with three mutations (Q253H/D279N/A284T) was rescued and evaluated. Results showed that the mutation of residue 279 in VP2 had no efifcient effects on both the replication efifciencyin vitro and the virulence to SPF chickens of IBDV. In summary, the results demonstrated that residue 279 of VP2 did not contribute efifciently to cel tropism, replication efifciency, and virulence of IBDV at least in some strains. These ifndings provided further information for understanding the gene function of IBDV.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chicken Embryo Fibroblast-Adapted Attenuated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolate from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, T M A; Priyadharsini, C V; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus is an avian pathogen that causes huge morbidity and mortality in the poultry sector all over the world. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence of an Indian strain, MB11/ABT/MVC/2016, isolated from a commercial broiler flock. This is a first report of a complete genome sequence of infectious bursal disease virus from India. PMID:27174268

  14. A one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection and discrimination of infectious bursal disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xiaole

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. It causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. The objective of this study is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the detection and discrimination of IBDV. Results In this study, we applied reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP to detect IBDV in one simple step and further identified the very virulent strain from non-vvIBDVs with a simply post-amplification restriction enzyme analysis. Based on sequence analysis, a set of two inner, two outer and two loop primers were designed to target the VP5 gene and they showed great specificity with no cross reaction to the other common avian pathogens. The detection limit determined by both color change inspection and agarose gel electrophoresis was 28 copies viral RNA, which was almost as sensitive as a real-time RT-PCR previous developed in our laboratory. We also identified a unique Tfi I restriction site located exclusively in non-vvIBDVs, so very virulent strain could be distinguished from current vaccine strains. By screening a panel of clinical specimens, results showed that this method is high feasible in clinical settings, and it obtained results 100% correlated with real-time RT-PCR. Conclusion RT-LAMP is a rapid, simple and sensitive assay. In combination with the Tfi I restriction analysis, this method holds great promises not only in laboratory detection and discrimination of IBDV but also in large scale field and clinical studies.

  15. Cell culture attenuation eliminates rMd5ΔMeq-induced bursal and thymic atrophy and renders the mutant virus as an effective and safe vaccine against Marek's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy F; Heidari, Mohammad; Zhang, Huanmin; Lupiani, Blanca; Reddy, Sanjay M; Fadly, Aly

    2012-07-20

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine zipper oncoprotein, Meq, which structurally resembles jun/fos family of transcriptional activators. It has been clearly demonstrated that deletion of Meq results in loss of transformation and oncogenic capacity of MDV. The rMd5ΔMeq virus provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens vaccine in 15×7 chickens when challenged with a very virulent plus (vv+) strain of MDV, 648A. The rMd5ΔMeq construct was also shown to be an effective vaccine in commercial chickens that were challenged under field conditions by exposure to seeder chicken inoculated with MDV strain 686, a vv+ and arguably the most pathogenic strain of MDV. Although deletion of Meq gene renders the virus non-oncogenic, it still induces lymphoid organ atrophy like that of the parental rMd5, in highly susceptible MDV maternal antibody negative (MAb-) chickens. We have generated 50 cell culture passages of attenuated rMd5ΔMeq viruses and found no significant lymphoid organ atrophy beginning at 40(th) passage onward when compared with the normal control chickens. The protective ability of these attenuated Meq null viruses against challenge with vv+ MDV strain 686 is similar to the original virus at 19(th) passage in maternal antibody negative chickens. The data indicate that attenuation of these Meq null viruses has no influence on their protective efficacy, but eliminated lymphoid organ atrophy and rendered them safe to use even in MAb- chickens, a characteristic that should facilitate commercialization and licensing by vaccine manufacturers. PMID:22687760

  16. Genotypic characterization of Indian isolates of infectious bursal disease virus strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharsini, C V; Senthilkumar, T M A; Raja, P; Kumanan, K

    2016-03-01

    The reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is used for the differentiation of classical virulent (cv), virulent (v) and very virulent (vv) strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates from chicken bursal tissues in southern states of India. In the present study, six different isolates (MB11, HY12, PY12, BGE14, VCN14 and NKL14) of IBDV strains were subjected for genotyping along with vaccine virus (Georgia, intermediate strain) using RT-PCR for amplification of a 743 bp sequence in the hypervariable region of VP2 gene followed by restriction enzyme digestion with 5 different restriction enzymes (BspMI, SacI, HhaI, StuI and SspI). The RT-PCR products obtained from vvIBDV strains were digested by SspI enzyme except PY12, BGE14 and MB11 isolates. The SacI digested the isolate MB11, PY12 and the vaccine strain, but it did not cleave the very virulent isolates of IBDV. HhaI cleaved all the isolates with different restriction profile patterns. StuI digested all the vvIBDV isolates and BspMI was not able to differentiate field isolates from vaccine strain. Though RT-PCR combined with RFLP is a genotypic method, further confirmation of serotypes to distinguish the vvIBDV from cvIBDV has to be carried out using pathogenicity studies.

  17. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  18. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, H B; Sa'idu, L; Jamilu, A; Andamin, A D; Akpavie, S O

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  19. Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size. Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s, in conjunction to inner lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle, respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV antigen. Advanced immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation (r=0.64623 was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring. Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC, and IHC staining is a precise

  20. Tracking the molecular epidemiology of Brazilian Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda M F; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Myrrha, Luciana W; Fietto, Juliana L R; Silva, Abelardo; Almeida, Márcia R

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Genome segment A encodes the capsid protein (VP2), while segment B encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). In the present study, we trace the molecular epidemiology of IBDV in Brazil by analyzing 29 isolates collected in the major regions of poultry production. To genetically characterize the isolates, phylogenetic and population dynamic analyses were conducted using 68 VP1 (2634 nt) and 102 VP2 (1356 nt) coding sequences from IBDV isolates from different regions of the world. Furthermore, the evolution of IBDV was analyzed by characterizing the selective forces that operated during the diversification of viral isolates. We show that IBDV isolates were introduced into Brazil mainly from the Netherlands and the USA. These introductions were associated with all Brazilian poultry production regions analyzed in this work. In addition, we show that the evolution of IBDV has been shaped by a combination of very low recombination rates and relatively high rates of nucleotide substitution (2.988×10(-4) for VP1 and 3.2937×10(-4) for VP2), which themselves are a function of purifying selection operating on VP1 and VP2. Furthermore, our extended Bayesian skyline plot suggests that the increase in the effective population size of isolates of IBDV is consistent with its epidemiological history, with a large increase during the emergence of acute outbreaks of IBD in the 1980s.

  1. Inactivation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Through Composting of Litter from Poultry Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rocio; Badcoe, Lyndon M; Williams, Cheryl; Bary, Andrew I

    2016-06-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was diagnosed in a pullet farm in Washington in 2014. Infectious bursal disease virus is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. There have been conflicting reports as to whether composting can destroy vvIBDV in the manure. This project investigated the composting of litter from the affected house using an aerated static pile to inactivate the virus. Two weeks before the affected pullet flocks were moved to the layer house, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were placed in the barns. Ten days after they were placed, three SPF birds died and were positive for vvIBDV. Thirty percent of the SPF birds were positive for vvIBDV. After the pullets were moved, at 20 wk of age, the litter in the house was composted using the aerated static pile method. The pile was maintained at above 55 C for 4 wk. After this time, 30 additional SPF birds were placed on the composted material. Two weeks later, the birds were healthy and there was no evidence of vvIBDV. The subsequent pullet flock did not break with vvIBDV. These results demonstrate that this composting method can be used to decontaminate the litter from vvIBDV and help prevent the spread of vvIBDV. PMID:27309296

  2. Molecular Typing of Field Isolates from two outbreaks of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. M. Khan and M. J. Arshed

    Full Text Available A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR/RFLP technique was used for the identification and characterization of Pakistani field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. A total of 8 bursa samples were collected from two outbreaks during September and October 2003 from Tehsil Sumandri, Dist. Faisalabad with 40-50% mortality in commercially reared broiler chicken flocks experiencing signs typical of infectious bursal disease (IBD. Four samples were found to contain IBDV genome by One Step RTPCR using VP2 gene specific primers. The assay amplified a 743 bp fragment from 701-1444 nucleotides. RT-PCR product was further subjected to restriction digestion using MboI and MvaI restriction enzymes. A third enzyme SspI was used to identify the very virulent phenotype. The RFLP profile was found similar for all four isolates with MvaI enzyme but different for one isolate when digested with MboI. All three MvaI-positive viruses were further found positive for SspI digestion and yielded RFLP profile similar to vvIBDV in Europe whereas one isolate was SspI negative and had a RFLP profile similar to classic IBDV strains. The clinical history of high mortality and SspI restriction enzyme positivity revealed that vvIBDV strains exist in Pakistan. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 297-300

  3. The enhanced virulence of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus is partly determined by its B-segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Gielkens, A.L.J.

    2005-01-01

    There is a remarkable difference in virulence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains ranging from sub-clinical infections for serotype 2 and cell culture adapted serotype 1 strains, to 100% mortality for very virulent serotype 1 strains in young SPF chickens. It is known that cell culture

  4. Modifications of the 3 '-UTR stem-loop of infectious bursal disease virus are allowed without influencing replication or virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.

    2004-01-01

    Many questions regarding the initiation of replication and translation of the segmented, double-stranded RNA genome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remain to be solved. Computer analysis shows that the non-polyadenylated extreme 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the coding strand of both g

  5. Risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease among Danish broiler chickens in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks ha...

  6. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.

  7. Growth and Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in the DF-1 Cell Line and Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyaperumal Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To determine a suitable cell line for IBDV infection, replication, and growth kinetics of the virus, DF-1 cells and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF were used. The population doubling per day (Pd/D was found to be higher in DF-1 as compared to CEF cells. A suitable time of infection (TOI was established for increased production of virus and greater infectivity titers. The DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be susceptible to infection by producing marked cytopathic effects (CPEs, and the growth curves of IBDV in DF-1 and CEF cells were evaluated by infectivity assay using tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50. The cytopathic effects of the virus in DF-1 and CEF cells were found to be similar, but higher viral titers were detected in the DF-1 cells as compared to CEF. Thus the DF-1 cell line had a higher growth potential and infectivity, which will be of advantage in vaccine production.

  8. Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease among free range village chickens in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcastle disease in free-range village chickens was confirmed by retrospective data analysis and epidemiological cross-sectional studies. The combination of serological survey and virus isolation and characterisation established seasonal occurrence of Newcastle disease (ND) in free-range village chickens. The highest sero-prevalence (81.5) and virus isolation frequency (18/27) were found in the period between June and October. The field isolates of Newcastle virus (NDV) were confirmed to be PMV-1 serotype by polyclonal PMV-1 antiserum and monoclonal antibody (mAb) U85. All isolates were not inhibited by mAb 716/161 specific for pigeon panzootic NDV, showing that the current Tanzanian field isolates have antigenic variation and were not involved in the recent pigeon NDV panzootic. Mean death time determination characterised isolates into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes. Isolation of NDV from apparently healthy ducks revealed the role of ducks in the epidemiology of ND in free-range village chickens in Tanzania. Studies are recommended to determine the similarities of the field isolates from different sources within Tanzania and to panzootic NDV from other countries. Strategic control of ND in free-range village chickens is recommended taking into consideration the presence of different age groups. Infectious bursal disease was histologically diagnosed in free-range village chickens. Therefore, there is a need of carrying out research on the role of other diseases and determine their prevalence and their contribution to the mortalities experienced in the free-range village chickens. (author)

  9. Pathogenic Antigenic and Molecular Characterization of the Very Virulent Strain(Gx) of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-mei; FU Chao-yang; GAO Hong-lei; SONG Xiou-long; ZENG Xiang-wei; ZHANG Man-fu; Wallace B L lim

    2003-01-01

    The very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strain Gx was isolated from a poutl-try farm in Guangxi Province, China, during 1996. The mortality in the infected flock was 80% and occurred5 days after immunization with serotype I IBD vaccine. The results of antigen-capture ELISA (AC-ELISA),pathogenicity testing, cloning and sequence analysis of the VP2 gene showed that the deduced amino acid se-quence of strain Gx VP2 was the same as vvIBDV UK661, which is considered as a reference strain for Europe-an vvIBDVs. The antigenicity of the Gx strain was the same as an European vvIBDV strain 849. The EID50 of Gx virus was 10-8. 25/0. 2 ml, and the mortality was 64 % when 4 week-old SPF chickens were challenged atdosage of 2 × 103 EID50. We have demonstrated that the IBDV strain Gx isolated in China is vvlBDV according to European standards.

  10. 鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗对SPF鸡和商品肉鸡的免疫效果观察%The immune effect of duplex inactivated vaccines of newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease on SPF chicken and commercial broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹先强

    2016-01-01

    1, 7, 14 days of age SPF chicken are respectively vaccinated with a new, efficient inactivated vaccine of infectious bursal disease, and group 1 of chicken immune at 1 day-age, blood collecting at 25 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to15.5log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10; group 2 of chicken immune at 7 days-age, blood collecting at 30 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to 14.8log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10; group 3 of chicken immune at 14 days-age, blood collecting at 35 days-age, the neutralizing antibody is up to 15.4log2, poison attack protection reaches 10/10.At 50 days-age of three groups chickenˊs neutralizing antibody are respectively up to16log2,16.1log2 and15.9log2, and poison attack protection all reaches 10/10. A new, effi-cient inactivated vaccine immune 1, 7, 14 days old commercial broilers with maternal antibody, after 25 days, sera-neutralizing anti-bodies are respectively up to 12.4log2, 15log2 and 14.2log2, poison attack protection respectively reach 8/10, 10/10 and 9/10; Three groups commercial broilers at the age of 50 days,their neutralizing antibody titers are respectively up to16.2log2,15.7log2,15.5log2, and poison attack protection reaches all 10/10.%用鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗(La Sota+HQ株)分别免疫1、7、14日龄SPF雏鸡,1日龄免疫组于25日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为15.5log2,攻毒保护10/10;7日龄免疫组于30日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为14.8log2,攻毒保护10/10;14日龄免疫组于35日龄采血,法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值为15.4log2,攻毒保护10/10。3组在50日龄时法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值依次为16log2、16.1log2、15.9log2,攻毒保护均为10/10。用鸡新城疫-传染性法氏囊病二联灭活疫苗(La Sota+HQ株)免疫带有母源抗体的1、7、14日龄商品肉鸡,免后25 d血清法氏囊病中和抗体几何平均值分别为12

  11. Conventional and Molecular Detection of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ameer H. Zahid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare different diagnostic procedures for the detection of Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease in broilers and layers (during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 in the laboratory of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia (UPM .A total of 187 sick and dead chickens (63 broilers and 124 layers of different ages (1 week to >15 weeks were collected from 12 selective poultry farms (4 broilers and 8 layers. Clinically, 7 (14.89% of 63 affected broiler and 27 (30.68% of 124 affected layer chickens were diagnosed as Newcastle disease (ND whereas, 11 (23.4% of 63 affected broiler and 6 (4.82% of the 124 affected layer birds were diagnosed as IBD on the basis of clinical history, clinical signs and postmortem findings. Virus isolation from field samples was performed by inoculating each suspected sample into 10-day-old chicken embryos. Out of 34 ND suspected field samples, 26 (5 broilers and 21 layers were positive for NDV isolation and 11 (8 broilers and 3 layers of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive for IBDV isolation. For confirmatory diagnosis, virus detection was confirmed by serological tests (HI and AGID and RT-PCR assay. Out of 34 clinically diagnosed ND field samples, 20 (5 broiler and 15 layer were positive by RT-PCR assay and 15 (10 broiler and 5 layer of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay. Of the 26 HA positive NDV suspected AF, 19 (4 broilers and 15 layers were positive by both HI and RT-PCR assay whereas, 10 (7 broilers and 3 layers of 11 IBDV isolation positive tissue suspension were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay in the laboratory. Therefore, it may be concluded that serological (HI and AGIDT and molecular (RT-PCR techniques which allow rapid identification of most of samples are the reliable, sensitive, specific and more accurate methods to detect the

  12. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne;

    2007-01-01

    or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day I post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8......In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...

  13. Comparative Studies on Detection of Antibodies against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus with Test Strips and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinliang ZHANG; Wentong ZHANG; Sishun HU; Dingren BI; Xiliang WANG; Yuncai XIAO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to compare the detection results of antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus with test strips and agar gel immunodiffusion method. [Method] Antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus in chicken serum were detected using test strips developed in our laboratory, and the results were comparad~with that using traditional agar diffusion method. [Result] The comparative study of the two methods showed that the sensitivity of test strips was eight times over agar gel immunodiffusion; test strips showed higher detection rate in the deter- mination test of 216 clinical samples, with high specificity, easy preservation, and simple and rapid operation, thereby being more suitable for the monitoring of clinical antibodies. [Conclusion] Test strips could replace the existing serological methods, having great promotion and application value in antibody monitoring.

  14. Antigenic Properties and Diagnostic Potential of Baculovirus-Expressed Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Proteins VPX and VP3

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Lázaro, Beatriz; Rodriguez, José F; Casal, J. Ignacio

    2000-01-01

    The routine technique for detecting antibodies specific to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a serological evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with preparations of whole virions as the antigens. To avoid using complete virus in the standard technique, we have developed two new antigens through the expression of the VPX and VP3 genes in insect cells. VPX and especially VP3 were expressed at high levels in insect cells and simple to purify. The immunogenicity of both...

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of the Combined Extract of Herbal Medicine Against Infectious Bursal Disease in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbo Ou, Ningning Shi1, Qing Pan, Deyu Tian, Wenshu Zeng and Cheng He*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious disease leading to huge economic losses in poultry industry. Our objective was to investigate potential therapeutic effects of the combined extracts of Rhizoma Dryopteridis crassirhizomatis and Fructus mume (RDCFM against IBDV infection. Seventy-two 4-week-old SPF chickens were randomly divided into six groups and inoculated intranasally with 0.2 ml of 102.5 EID50 of IBDV strain CJ801. Twenty-four hours post infection, the birds were orally administered with 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg BW of RDCFM, respectively, 125 mg/kg Astragalus polysaccharide (ASP and saline water, respectively for 5 days and then monitored daily for 10 days. Finally, the remaining birds were euthanized to collect the sera for detecting antibodies and immune organs for determining the immune organs index as well as virus loads. The herbal extracts improved survival rate and relative body gain rate. Virus loads in bursa of Fabricius in herbal treated groups decreased significantly while higher antibody levels were detected in the three RDCFM groups as compared to those of ASP and infection group. These results implied that chickens administered with 100-200 mg/kg of RDCFM for 5 days could improve protection against IBDV infection and RDCFM may be a promising alternative to ASP and egg yolk antibody.

  16. Conformational analysis of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV derived cell penetrating peptide (CPP analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay G. Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to develop peptide analogs of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD virus VP5 protein segment having cell penetrating ability to improve their interaction with cargo molecule (Nucleic acid without affecting the backbone conformation. Materials and Methods: IBDV VP5 protein segment designated as RATH peptide were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and their solution conformation was elucidated using CD spectroscopy in polar (water and apolar (TFE solvents. Cell penetrating ability of RATH-CONH2 was observed using FITC labeled peptide internalization in to HeLa cells under fluorescent microscopy. The efficacy of RATH analog interactions with nucleic acids was evaluated using FITC labeled oligonucleotides by fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay. Results: CD spectra of RATH analogs in water and apolar trifluroethanol (TFE helped to compare their secondary structures which were almost similar with dominant beta conformations suggesting successful induction of positive charge in the analogs without affecting back bone conformation of CPP designed. Cell penetrating ability of RATH CONH2 in HeLa cell was more than 90%. The fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay demonstrated successful interaction of amide analogs with nucleic acid. Conclusion: Intentional changes made in IBDV derived peptide RATH COOH to RATH CONH2 did not showed major changes in backbone conformation and such modifications may help to improve the cationic charge in most CPPs to interact with nucleic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 307-312

  17. Study on Propagation of Chicken Infectious Bursal Disease Virus on Vero Cells Using Microcarriers in Fermentor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Gang; WANG Hong-jun; SUN Hui-ling

    2002-01-01

    It was in flask optimization tests proved that 2% serum, pH 7.0, 5:10 000 inoculation concentration of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and 108 hours cultivation for IBDV harvest after its inoculation were the optimal conditions when IBDV was propagated on Vero cells. 250 mi self-made spinner bottle and 5 L stirring fermentor tests proved that IBDV could maintain higher titers for a long time and the highest titers of IBDV in a spinner bottle and a fermentor were 8. 875 and 8.58 ( - lgTCID50/0.1 ml) respectively when IBDV was proliferated on Vero cells using 2 g/L microcarriers in a spinner bottle and a fermentor and was cultivated under the optimum conditions obtained from flask tests after Vero cells had developed a confluent monolayer on microcarriers, which were at least one titer higher than the highest titer in the traditional rolling bottle. All these results suggested that this technology could be applied to large scale production for IBDV.

  18. Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on Erythrocyte Immune Adherence of Chickens Inoculated with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred and forty specific pathogen free leghorn chickens were randomly divided into four groups and reared in isolated pens. The tested chickens were negative to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 25 d old. Group 1 was treated with saline, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 were inoculated with 0.3 mL IBDV suspension intranasally the next day.Groups 3 and 4 were also administered with Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) intramuscularly twice daily at 5 or 10 mg kg-1 BW, respectively, until 31 d old. The erythrocyte-C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) and the erythrocyte-C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) were measured at 25, 29, 32, 35, and 38 d old. The results showed that IBDV significantly reduced E-C3bRR and E-ICRR when compared with the control group (P < 0.05), while simultaneous administration of APS with IBDV maintained E-C3bRR at similar levels to the control group (P> 0.05) and increased E-ICRR when compared with the control group and the group non-treated with APS (P < 0.05). APS treatment reduced the morbidity and mortality of chickens inoculated with IBDV (P < 0.05). The results suggest that APS may enhance the immune adherence of chickens erythrocytes by affecting the activity and/or the number of complement receptors on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings can be beneficial in providing an understanding of the basic mechanisms required for the rational application of APS in modern medicine.

  19. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Avian Poxvirus (APV) in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...

  20. Viral competition and maternal immunity influence the clinical disease caused by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2011-09-01

    The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the

  1. Vaccination for Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  2. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains.Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2 gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST, Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium in 1987, Africa (Egypt around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba by 1995 and South America (Brazil around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection.To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  3. Impact of heterophil granulocyte depletion caused by 5-fluorouracil on infectious bursal disease virus infection in specific pathogen free chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Igyarto, Botond-Zoltan; Magyar, Attila;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the cytostatic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which causes depletion of heterophil granulocytes, on clinical symptoms and histological lesions during the progress of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV) infection in chickens. The aim...... inoculated with the classical IBDV strain F52/70. Bursae of Fabricius were sampled at fixed intervals, and the progress of the infection was monitored by various histological techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found correlation between histological observations and RT......-PCR results. In the 5-FU pretreated chickens, IBDV caused only mild clinical symptoms, even though histological alterations similar to alterations caused by IBDV were still observed. The 5-FU pretreatment resulted in severe heterophil granulocyte depletion by days 2 and 3 after infection (post inoculation...

  4. Evaluation of the suitability of six host genes as internal control in real-time RT-PCR assays in chicken embryo cell cultures infected with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Bang, Dang Duong; Handberg, Kurt;

    2005-01-01

    and GAPDH had a lower expression level in CE cell cultures. Also, beta-actin showed no significant variation in both normalized and non-normalized assays and virus dose-independent of inoculation, while other genes did. beta-Actin was further successfully used as an internal control to quantitate Bursine-2......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) can cause disease in chickens characterized by immunosuppression and high mortality. Currently, real-time RT-PCR has been used to quantitate virus-specific RNA and to better understand host response to infection. However, normalization of quantitative real...... following a 7-day IBDV infection. The CE cells were inoculated with various multiplicity of infection (MOI) of IBDV vaccine strain Bursine-2, the expression of genes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR-based on cDNA synthesized from either normalized (100 ng) or non-normalized (10 mu l) total RNA...

  5. Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Li, Yiping;

    2005-01-01

    IBDV) as well as vaccine strain IBDV in experimentally infected chickens. Two groups of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were vaccinated using the intermediate infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine D78. Group 1 was vaccinated at the age of one week and group 2 at the age of three weeks. Both groups were...

  6. Molecular cloning of a Bangladeshi strain of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens and adaptation in tissue culture by site directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive as well as fatal disease known as infectious bursal disease (IBD) or Gumboro disease in young chickens. IBDV is a dsRNA virus belonging to the family Birnaviridae having a bisegmented genome. Very virulent (vv) IBDV does not replicate in common tissue culture; adaptation to tissue culture following repeated passages in embryonated eggs results in too much attenuation. It has been reported that only a few amino acids in the VP2 are responsible for tissue culture adaptation. In the present study, full-length cDNA corresponding to the genome segments A and B of a Bangladeshi vvIBDV strain BD-3/99 were synthesised and amplified by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in overlapping fragments. The PCR amplicons were used to construct full-length cDNA clones of both segments in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged at the 5'-end. Complete nucleotide sequences of both genome segments of BD 3/99 were established (GenBank Accession No. AF352776 and AF36270) and compared with 16 and 17 published sequences of segment A and segment B of IBDV, respectively, using Clustal V method of multiple alignment analysis (MegAlign, Lasergene, DNASTAR Inc., USA). In phylogenetic analysis BD-3/99 clustered with other vvIBDV strains isolated earlier from Europe, Asia and Africa.The reverse genetics technique was optimised for BD-3/99. The plasmids were linearised with appropriate restriction enzymes and cRNA corresponding to both segment A and segment B of BD-3/99 were transcribed in vitro under the control of T7 promoter. Freshly prepared chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell monolayer was then transfected with the transcribed cRNA. Transfection of CEF cells with this wild-type cRNA resulted in the formation of infectious virus particles but the progeny virus could not be passaged any further in fresh CEF cells. However, this molecularly cloned virus (BD-3mc) could

  7. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  8. 珍珠鸡源IBDV的分离鉴定及其卵黄抗体的制备%Isolation and Identification of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus from Guinea Fowl and Preparation of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚萍; 曾祥伟; 李志军; 李梦溪

    2012-01-01

    从一群发病的珍珠鸡中分离到1株病毒,经鸡胚接种、琼脂扩散试验、PCR快速检测试验和病毒基因序列的测定,证实了所分离的病毒为IBDV。将该病毒制成灭活疫苗,接种开产的蛋鸡制备卵黄抗体。结果显示该卵黄抗体经免疫扩散试验测定抗体效价可达1∶256,符合无菌标准,对雏鸡也没有任何不良反应。临床试验表明:该卵黄抗体对该养殖场珍珠鸡的传染性法氏囊病的治疗有效率达91%、预防有效率达100%。%A field virus isolated from guinea fowl was identified to be an infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) by chicken embryo inoculation test,agar-gel diffusion test,PCR rapid detection test and virus gene sequencing.The egg laying chicken were immunized with inactivated oil emulsion vaccine developed with the infectious bursal disease virus isolated from guinea fowl to prepare egg yolk immunoglobulin.The result showed that the egg yolk immunoglobulin titer of IBDV determined by APG was 1∶256 and no bacteria were found in the egg yolk immunoglobulin and no any obvious adverse reaction to the chicken.The clinical trial showed that the effective rate of treatment was 91% and effective rate of prevention was 100% for the chicken.

  9. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV and Avian Poxvirus (APV in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Freitas Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.

  10. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Maroufyan; Azhar Kasim; Goh Yong Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi; Loh Teck Chwen; Parvaneh Mehrbod; Behnam Kamalidehghan; Abdoreza Soleimani Farjam

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendatio...

  11. Molecular cloning of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens and its adaptation in tissue culture by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-length cDNA of both genome segments of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (BD 3/99) were cloned in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged to the 5'-ends. Mutations were introduced in the cloned cDNA to bring about two amino acid exchanges (Q253H and A284T) in the capsid protein VP2. Transfection of primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells with RNA transcribed in vitro from the full-length cDNA resulted in the formation of mutant infectious virus particles that grow in tissue culture. The pathogenicity of this molecularly-cloned, tissue-culture- adapted virus (BD-3tc) was tested in commercial chickens. The parental wild-type strain, BD 3/99, was included for comparison. The subclinical course of the disease and delayed bursal atrophy in BD-3tc-inoculated birds suggested that these amino acid substitutions made BD-3tc partially attenuated. (author)

  12. Humoral immune responses to inactivated oil-emulsified Marek's disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L F; Witter, R L

    1991-01-01

    When inactivated Md11/75C vaccine was inoculated into 1-day-old chickens, it stimulated antibodies detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (at a titer of 6400) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (at a titer of 640), but lacking virus-neutralizing activity. Chickens passively inoculated with these antibodies were protected against bursal atrophy, weight loss, and early mortality when challenged with the virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV). That led to the conclusion that virus-neutralizing activity is not a prerequisite for protection. In another experiment, antibody titers of adult chickens previously primed by exposure to live turkey herpesvirus and MDV did not increase after immunization with inactivated oil-emulsion MDV vaccines. This result provides little hope that Marek's disease can be controlled in progeny chickens by maternal immunity derived from hyperimmunized parents.

  13. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... considered the vaccine as risky and a threat more severe than the influenza. The health authorities’ communication was more unclear on this question, confusion increased in the Danish population and more critical voices were raised. This uncertain communication about the vaccines’ effects and side effects...... and the critical voices in the population are widespread in communication about vaccines in general and an increasing number of people are expressing skepticism and deselect this product. The communication processes are seen as a typical example of the difficulties of communicating science and risk and show how...

  14. Anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal e detecção do genoma viral em criações de frango de corte e galinhas de quintal no polo avícola da Bahia Antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease virus and viral genome detection in broilers and chickens backyard at Bahia's poultry production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência de anticorpos e detectar o genoma viral do vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal em criações de frangos de corte e em criações de subsistência localizadas em duas regiões do polo avícola da Bahia. Foram coletadas 758 amostras de soro de frangos de corte e 320 amostras de galinhas de quintal para avaliação da frequência de anticorpos utilizando ELISA indireto. Para a detecção e caracterização do vírus foram coletados 6 pools de bursas de Fabrícius em frangos de corte e 3 pools em criações de subsistência, analisados posteriormente com PCR/RFLP. Os resultados revelaram que não há proteção uniforme na criação comercial nas duas regiões estudadas, sugerindo falha na vacinação e desafio com vírus no ambiente. Também observaram-se altos títulos em galinhas de quintal não vacinadas, com variação nos títulos relacionada com desafios de campo. Nos testes moleculares, verificaram-se que três pools de frangos de corte eram positivos, sendo dois para cepa vacinal (G3 e um para cepa variante (G15. Nas criações de subsistência, houve uma amostra positiva para cepa variante (G15. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de monitoramento em ambas as criações.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease Virus as well as to detect the virus in broilers and chicken backyard, raised in two different regions at Bahia's poultry production area. A total of 758 serum samples were collected from broilers and 320 from chicken backyard, in order to assess the frequency of antibodies using an indirect ELISA. For virus detection and characterization it was collected 6 bursal pools from broilers and 3 from chicken backyard, which were further analyzed with PCR/RFLP. The results showed that there is no uniform protection in commercial flocks of the two different regions, suggesting that it may be occurring vaccination errors and

  15. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Noda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 (­ 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a

  16. Directed vaccination against pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H

    2016-06-21

    Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071

  17. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is growing steadily. We introduce key challenges for modeling in shaping our understanding and guiding policy decisions related to vaccine preventable diseases.

  18. Disease control strategies in the Smallholder Livestock Development Project in five southern districts of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disease control strategies of the project are centered around the 'poultry worker' or vaccinator who receives training and a vaccination kit, and earns income from her vaccinations. Vaccinations for chickens are given against three key diseases: infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and fowl pox, and ducks are vaccinated against duck plague. It has been necessary to adapt the vaccination programme several times, particularly to control infectious bursal disease. The farmers receive the support of government veterinarians and livestock officers in the diagnosis of diseases. Normal bio security measures are applied to the small parent farms supplying hatching eggs and to the chick rearing units. Vertically transmitted diseases are controlled through monitoring of grandparent stock. A programme of parallel research undertaken by national institutions provides information to support the adaptation of disease control strategies. The practical application of these strategies is discussed, and the importance of them in a project providing credit for family poultry production is emphasised. (author)

  19. 鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒超强毒株HQ0806的分离与鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Strain HQ0806

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利勃; 高慎阳

    2011-01-01

    为分离、鉴定鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒,通过对辽宁阜新近郊某鸡场数群15日龄左右的病鸡的临床症状、病理变化、病毒分离、纯化、动物回归、血清学检测、病毒形态观察等检测.结果显示:被检病毒效价达到10-5.8/0.2 mL,在动物回归试验中其引起发病率达100%,死亡率为83%,剖检可见法氏囊呈"紫葡萄样"外观,胸腺萎缩,骨髓脂肪化等病变,表现了超强毒株的致病特点.说明分离到一株鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒并命名为H00806%To isolate and identify an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).A series of detections, such as pathology, serological test, animal challenge and virus morphology, were applied on layer chicken died of suspected IBDV, which were found from some flocks with immune failure in Fuxin Shi suburb according to the clinical symptom,. The isolated virus was characterized as a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) because of its strong virulence pathogenicity characteristics observed in ELD50 (10-5.8/0.2 mL), animal challenge (mortality with 83% and morbidity with 100% in inoculated 4 weeks chicken), as well as pathological changes of purple grape in bursa of fabricius, thymus decrease and fatty marrow. Conclusion is: a new infectious bursal disease virus field strain, named HQ0806, was isolated and identified.

  20. 鸡传染性法氏囊病的实验室诊断%Laboratory diagnosis to a case of infectious bursal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓君

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of tissues (20% w/v) were prepared in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) added with sutiable antibiotics. The suspensions were clarified by low-speed centrifugation and 0.2 mL samples were inoculated into the chorioallantoic membrane of 10-day-old embryos. Eggs were candled daily for 5 days with mortality within the first 24 hours being considered nonspecific. Death of embryos occurred between 48~96 h post inoculation and showed specific features of IBDV infection . The samples of bursa collected from dead chicks and chorioallantoic membrane harvested from dead embryos were prepared for Agar gel immunodiffusion test. The results showed that there were clear white sediment lines between samples and standard antisera. According to the above results, the case could be determined as Infectious bursal disease.%采集病死鸡法氏囊经处理后绒毛尿囊膜途径接种5枚SPF鸡胚,接种胚均于接种后48~96 h死亡,死亡胚病变特征为体表和皮下出血,胚水肿,肾脏出血,肝脏有坏死灶,心肌苍白。琼扩试验结果显示法氏囊样品孔、绒毛尿囊膜样品孔与标准血清孔间均可出现明显的沉淀线,说明样品中含有传染性法氏囊病病毒。根据实验室检查情况,诊断为鸡传染性法氏囊病。

  1. [Vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Silja; Hatz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals with autoimmune diseases treated with immunosuppressive drugs is increasing steadily. The variety of immunosuppressive drugs and in particular biological therapies is also rising. The autoimmune disease itself as well as the immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in this population. Particularly the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is elevated. Thus, preventing infections by the means of vaccination is of utmost importance. The Division of Infectious Diseases of the Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, performed a literature search on the topic of vaccinations in patients with autoimmune diseases upon request by the Swiss Federal Commission for Vaccination Issues. Overall, data are scarce. The following main points were retrieved from the literature: Inactivated vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity may be reduced under immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to the generally recommended basic vaccinations, specific vaccinations, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are indicated in these patient groups. Live vaccines are generally contraindicated under immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, specific exceptions apply. Furthermore, certain time intervals for the administration of live vaccines after pausing or ceasing an immunosuppressive therapy should be respected. PMID:27268452

  2. [Autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więsik-Szewczyk, Ewa; Jahnz-Różyk, Karina

    2015-12-31

    The idea that infectious agents can induce autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible subjects has been a matter of discussion for years. Moreover, increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and introduction of prophylactic vaccinations from early childhood suggest that these two trends are linked. In the medical literature and even non-professional media, case reports or events temporally related to vaccination are reported. It raises the issue of vaccination safety. In everyday practice medical professionals, physicians, rheumatologists and other specialists will be asked their opinion of vaccination safety. The decision should be made according to evidence-based medicine and the current state of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a potential mechanism which links infections, vaccinations and autoimmunity. We present an overview of published case reports, especially of systemic connective tissue diseases temporally related to vaccination and results from case-nested studies. As yet, no conclusive evidence supports a causal relationship between vaccination and autoimmune diseases. It has to be determined whether the performed studies are sufficiently sensitive to detect the link. The debate is ongoing, and new data may be required to explain the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We would like to underscore the need for prophylactic vaccination in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and to break down the myth that the vaccines are contraindicated in this target group.

  3. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  4. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330... Virus Vaccines § 113.330 Marek's Disease Vaccines. Marek's disease vaccine shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. (a) The Master...

  5. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  6. Use of vaccines as probes to define disease burden

    OpenAIRE

    Feikin, Daniel R.; J Anthony G Scott; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine probe studies have emerged in the past 15 years as a useful way to characterise disease. By contrast, traditional studies of vaccines focus on defining the vaccine effectiveness or efficacy. The underlying basis for the vaccine probe approach is that the difference in disease burden between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals can be ascribed to the vaccine-specific pathogen. Vaccine probe studies can increase understanding of a vaccine’s public health value. For instance, even whe...

  7. Radiation-attenuated vaccine for lungworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the...

  9. 一株传染性法氏囊病病毒强毒株的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of a virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维婷; 廖梦; 曹瑞兵

    2012-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) , caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) , is an important infectious disease. In the present study, the samples from a suspected chickcn farm in Jiangsu province were detected by RT-PCR using IBDV vp4 specific primers, combined with the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, SPF embryo inoculation test and agar diffusion test. IBDV infection was confirmed in this farm. According to the results of artificial challenge test and the VP4 gene sequence analysis, the IBDV isolate is a virulent strain with VP4 gene variation. The result provides a useful reference for the prevention and control of IBD in Jiangsu province.%鸡传染性法氏囊病是由传染性法氏囊病病毒引起的一种急性传染病.本研究从江苏某疑似发生传染性法氏囊病的鸡场采集病料,通过观察临床症状、病理变化、RT-PCR检测、基因测序、SPF鸡胚接种、琼脂扩散试验和雏鸡攻毒等试验,证实了该鸡群发生了传染性法氏囊病,且分离到一株传染性法氏囊病病毒(JSXY株),该病毒有较强的致病力,VP4基因比较分析发现其与变异株亲缘关系最近,序列同源性为95%.本研究为江苏地区传染性法氏囊病的防治提供了有益的参考.

  10. Vaccines for metabolic diseases: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tiago Morais, Sara Andrade, Sofia S Pereira, Mariana P MonteiroDepartment of Anatomy, Unit for Multidisciplinary Biomedical Research, Institute for Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalAbstract: Several metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity, represent significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adult populations in western societies. Understandably, these chronic disorders have now replaced infectious diseases as the most important public health problem and economic burden to society in most countries. Treatment of metabolic risk factors in order to prevent cardiovascular disease requires an enduring approach with multiple drugs, which can be associated with considerable costs, side effects, and a low rate of therapeutic compliance due to lack of symptoms until later stages of the disease. Since vaccines have proven to be a powerful and effective approach to preventing infectious diseases, attempts to expand the therapeutic use of vaccines into the context of highly prevalent diseases has been attracting increased research interest. Vaccination strategies for chronic diseases in particular are an exciting area of research, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing on the use of molecular vaccines for the treatment of common and highly prevalent chronic metabolic disorders, ie, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity.Keywords: vaccines, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264

  12. Proliferation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts%传染性法氏囊病病毒在鸡胚成纤维细胞中的增殖规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小楠; 张焕容

    2014-01-01

    为建立传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)弱毒鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)感染模型,用10日龄鸡胚制备原代 CEF,经过继代培养制备继1代 CEF,接种 IBDV 弱毒后观察细胞病变情况,采用 SYBR Green Ⅰ实时荧光定量反转录 PCR(qRT-PCR)方法检测 IBDV 在继1代 CEF 中病毒拷贝数并绘制病毒增殖曲线。结果显示,IBDV 接种继1代 CEF 后,36 h 开始出现细胞病变,60 h 时出现明显的细胞病变,表现为细胞间隙增宽,细胞变圆聚集和细胞大量脱落。荧光定量 RT-PCR 检测感染 CEF 12、24、36、48、60、72、96、120、156 h的病毒培养液,结果显示病毒拷贝数分别为1.70×107、3.72×107、7.41×107、1.20×108、4.80×107、1.51×107、9.33×106、7.76×106和2.24×106 copies/μL,其中 CEF 感染 IBDV 48 h 时病毒拷贝数最高。结果表明,成功建立了 IBDV 弱毒 CEF 感染模型,为进一步研究 IBDV 的致病机理、病毒与细胞的相互作用以及疫苗研究奠定了基础。%The aim of the study was to establish an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV )infection model in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF).CEF were prepared with 10-day old chicken embryo and passaged once.The cytopathic effect (CPE)of IBDV in once-passaged CEF was observed and the dynamic growth of IBDV in CEF was detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR)based on SYBR Green Ⅰ. The results showed that CPE first appeared at 36 h post IBDV infection,and the most obvious CPE such as the cell gap increasing,net-balloon filamentation and exfoliated CEF appeared at 60 h post IBDV infec-tion.The real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the viral RNA loads of IBDV were 1.70×10 7 ,3.72× 107 ,7.41×107 ,1.20×108 ,4.80×107 ,1.51×107 ,9.33×10 6 ,7.76×10 6 and 2.24×10 6 copies per mi-croliter in cultured virus suspension collected at 12,24,36,48,60,72,96,120 and 156 h post IBDV in-fection,respectively,the highest amount appeared

  13. DNA vaccines for viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Donnelly

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA plasmids encoding foreign proteins may be used as immunogens by direct intramuscular injection alone, or with various adjuvants and excipients, or by delivery of DNA-coated gold particles to the epidermis through biolistic immunization. Antibody, helper T lymphocyte, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses have been induced in laboratory and domesticated animals by these methods. In a number of animal models, immune responses induced by DNA vaccination have been shown to be protective against challenge with various infectious agents. Immunization by injection of plasmids encoding foreign proteins has been used successfully as a research tool. This review summarizes the types of DNA vaccine vectors in common use, the immune responses and protective responses that have been obtained in animal models, the safety considerations pertinent to the evaluation of DNA vaccines in humans and the very limited information that is available from early clinical studies.

  14. Tilapia Vaccines: Important Disease Prevention, Biosecurity Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimizing the effects of disease is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity and to promote rapid growth and optimal feed conversion of tilapia cultured in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. Vaccination, a valuable biosecurity safeguard, can protect tilapia against infectious diseases. Vaccinat...

  15. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van M.; Bouma, A.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Katsma, E.; Hartog, L.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination

  16. [Dengue fever: from disease to vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssou, R

    2009-08-01

    Dengue is a tropical disease affecting 110 countries throughout the world and placing over 3 billion people at risk of infection. According the World Health Organization 70 to 500 million persons are infected every year including 2 million who develop hemorrhagic form and 20,000 who die. Children are at highest risk for death. Due to the absence of specialized laboratories in most endemic regions and to the lack of specifici clinical presentation, the incidence of dengue and its economic costs are certainly underestimated. Dengue iscaused by an arbovirus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. There are four dengue virus serotypes and no cross protection between them. The disease is transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes belonging to the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti. However A. albopictus has played an important role in the spread of the disease and other species may be involved in specific locations (e.g., A. polynesiensis in the South Pacific). There is no specific treatment for dengue. Management of severe forms depends on symptomatic treatment of hemorrhagic complications and hypovolemic shock. Prevention requires control of vector mosquitoes that is difficult to implement and maintain. Dengue is a major emerging infectious disease with a heavy impact on public health. The high human and economic costs as well as the absence of specific preventive measures underscore the need to develop a vaccine. However finding and distributing such a vaccine to populations at risk is hampered by numerous obstacles. The most notable challenges standing in the way of development of a candidate vaccine are as follows: absence of an animal model, which has important implications for the preclinical development strategy; need to develop a live attenuated vaccine; existence of 4 antigenically distinct serotypes with the resulting risk of competition between vaccine strains; immunologic risks related to antibody-dependent enhancement that has been

  17. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseasesC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Andreasen, Viggo; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.;

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is g...... is growing steadily. We introduce key challenges for modeling in shaping our understanding and guiding policy decisions related to vaccine preventable diseases......Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines...

  18. Inflammation and therapeutic vaccination in CNS diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Howard L.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2002-12-01

    The spectrum of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system has been steadily expanding from classical autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis to far more diverse diseases. Evidence now suggests that syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke have important inflammatory and immune components and may be amenable to treatment by anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic approaches. The notion of 'vaccinating' individuals against a neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease is a marked departure from classical thinking about mechanism and treatment, and yet therapeutic vaccines for both Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis have been validated in animal models and are in the clinic. Such approaches, however, have the potential to induce unwanted inflammatory responses as well as to provide benefit.

  19. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining that ...

  20. Vaccination and infectious diseases: a never ending story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Extract: The relationship between vaccine and infectious diseases can be easily considered a never ending story. In the 3rd issue of 2009 of this journal, thematic papers were related to vaccination policies and practice, with a particular focus on vaccine and vaccination evalu- ation and assessment....

  1. Recent progress in vaccines against fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Antonio; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by fungi are increasingly impacting the health of the human population and now account for a large fraction of infectious disease complications in individuals with impaired immunity or breached tissue defenses. Antifungal therapy is often of limited effectiveness in these patients, resulting into treatment failures, chronic infections and unacceptable rates of mortality, morbidity and their associated costs. Consequently there is a real medical need for new treatments and preventive measures to combat fungal diseases and, toward this goal, safe and efficacious vaccines would constitute major progress. After decades of complacency and neglect of this critically important field of research, remarkable progress has been made in recent years. A number of highly immunogenic and protective vaccine formulations in preclinical setting have been developed, and at least two have undergone Phase 1 clinical trials as preventive and/or therapeutic tools against candidiasis.

  2. [Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases by vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M

    1997-04-01

    Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases are surveyed. Patients of poliomyelitis has recently been drastically reduced by world-wide administrating live vaccines. In view of rare incidence of paralysis after giving live vaccine, adoption of inactivated vaccine has recently been reconsidered. A live varicella vaccine was developed and has been world-wide used for normal and high-risk children. Incidence of zoster in vaccinated acute leukemic children is several times higher in those who with rash after vaccination as compared with those without rash, and as no or few rash appears after vaccination of normal children, it is expected that vaccination of normal children would lead to reduction of zoster after their aging. Measles encephalitis has rapidly been reduced by world-wide use of live vaccines. Mouse-brain derived vaccine against Japanese encephalitis(JE) has been used in Asian countries. Development of tissue-culture derived JE vaccine is under way. PMID:9103901

  3. 鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒 RT-PCR 检测方法的建立与应用%Development and Application of RT-PCR for Detecting Avian Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁; 阮周曦; 陶虹; 张彩虹; 刘建利; 花群义; 吕建强; 秦智锋; 卢体康; 曾少灵; 杨俊兴; 詹爱军; 林庆燕; 曹琛福; 陈兵; 廖立珊

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)is one of three severe acute diseases in China.IBDV had emerged worldwide and caused great loss to poultry production.And IBD is a quarantine disease in the avian and avian product trade.The rapid diagnosis is crucial to any control program of IBD.In order to construct a protocol of mo-lecular diagnostic detection technique(MDD)for IBDV,two conventional RT-PCR assays directed at the VP2 gene in fragment A with 604bp production and VP1 gene of in fragment B with 642 bp respectively were optimized with the universal primers and IBDV-specific 3′extremity primers respectively.A Taqman real-time reverse transcrip-tion-PCR test IBDV(IBDV-VP2-rRT-PCR)directed at the VP2 gene in fragment A was developed specifically with 5 strains.The sensitivities of three kinds of MDD assays were evaluated.The sensitivities of IBDV-VP2(604)-RT-PCR and IBDV-VP1(642)-RT-PCR were equal in 10-3 dilution of IBDV-BLEN vaccine,and the sensitivity of IB-DV-VP2-rRT-PCR was ten times superior to two conventional RT-PCR assays in 10-4 dilution .The specificity of three MDD assays developed had no cross reaction with others.These methods potentially allowed for more rapid, sensitive,and specific detection with 221 field samples for five years with monitoring and surveillance of IBDV.%鸡传染性法氏囊病(IBD)是危害我国养禽业的主要疫病之一,呈世界性分布,对养鸡业造成重大危害。在国际种禽贸易中,对 IBDV 检测是口岸检疫的主要对象之一。为了建立标准的鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒分子检测方法,采用世界动物卫生组织(OIE)推荐的带有通用引物和酶切位点的特异性引物,通过对6株不同毒株的反复试验,优化了针对 A 片段 VP2基因的常规反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测方法(IBDV-VP2(604)-RT-PCR)和针对 B 片段 VP1基因的 RT-PCR 检测方法(IBDV-VP1(642)-RT-PCR);针对 A 片段 VP2基因设计特异性引

  4. Accelerating Next Generation Vaccine Development for Global Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Wayne C.; Dennis R Burton; R.Johnson, Philip; Walker, Bruce D; King, Charles R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Ahmed, Rafi; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan; Plotkin, Stanley A.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are among the greatest successes in the history of public health. However, past strategies for vaccine development are unlikely to succeed in the future against major global diseases such as AIDS, TB, and malaria. For such diseases, the correlates of protection are poorly defined and the pathogens evade immune detection and/or exhibit extensive genetic variability. Recent advances have heralded in a new era of vaccine discovery. However, translation of these advances into vaccines re...

  5. Cloning of Precursor Polyprotein Gene of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus by One Step%一步法克隆传染性法氏囊病病毒前体多聚蛋白基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘存仁; 梁志清

    2001-01-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus(vvIBDV)was isolatedfrom chicken bursa and then the virus double stranded RNA was extracted.After denaturation of dsRNA by heat in the presence of primers,the cDNA was synthesized by use of a reverse transcriptase lacking RNase H activity.The RNA component of RNA-cDNA hybrids was digested by RNase H.By using an optimized PCR,a 3.05kb DNA fragment coding for precursor polyprotein of IBDV was produced in one step,which was inserted into pcDNA3.1(+) vector.Two recombinant plasmids (pPP1 and pPP2)were screened and identified from eight XL1-blue colonies.Partial sequencing for pPP1 plasmid indicated that the precursor polyprotein gene for IBDV was cloned successfully.The method can simplify greatly the procedure to clone precursor polyprotein gene of IBDV isolates.

  6. The re-emergency and persistence of vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO C.N. BORBA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us.

  7. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  8. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  9. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T

    2009-02-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  10. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant, a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease

  11. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  12. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  13. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseasesC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Andreasen, Viggo; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.;

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is...

  14. Vaccines for viral and parasitic diseases produced with baculovirus vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The baculovirus¿insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this

  15. Vaccinations in children on immunosuppressive medications for renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sushmita; Dissanayake, Pathum Vindana; Abeyagunawardena, Asiri Samantha

    2016-09-01

    Renal diseases are often treated with immunosuppressive medications, placing patients at risk of infections, some of which are vaccine-preventable. However, in such patients vaccinations may be delayed or disregarded due to complications of the underlying disease process and challenges in its management. The decision to administer vaccines to immunosuppressed children is a risk-benefit balance as such children may have a qualitatively diminished immunological response or develop diseases caused by the vaccine pathogen. Vaccination may cause a flare-up of disease activity or provocation of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. Moreover, it cannot be assumed that a given antibody level provides the same protection in immunosupressed children as in healthy ones. We have evaluated the safety and efficacy of licensed vaccines in children on immunosuppressive therapy and in renal transplant recipients. The limited evidence available suggests that vaccines are most effective if given early, ideally before the requirement for immunosuppressive therapy, which may require administration of accelerated vaccine courses. Once treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is started, inactivated vaccines are usually considered to be safe when the disease is quiescent, but supplemental doses may be required. In the majority of cases, live vaccines are to be avoided. All vaccines are generally contraindicated within 3-6 months of a renal transplant. PMID:26450774

  16. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  17. Vaccination and ELISA: A partnership against Aujeszky's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aujeszky's disease is an important disease of swine. Vaccination is widely practised to control this disease. Although most vaccines offer clinical protection against the disease, they only reduce but do not prevent virus excretion or the establishment of latency after infection. Therefore vaccination alone will not lead to eradication of the disease. For this reason several serological test and elimination programmes have been developed. These programmes require either that pigs are not vaccinated or that they are vaccinated with vaccines that evoke an antibody response in serum that can be distinguished from the antibody response after infection. Differentiation between vaccinated and infected pigs is possible with the use of vaccine strains that lack one of the non-essential but highly immunogenic viral glycoproteins in combination with a glycoprotein specific antibody assay. Three such assays have been reported, based respectively on the demonstration of antibodies against the viral glycoproteins gI, gX and gIII. Because all field strains express gI and because most vaccines are gI negative, the presence of antibodies to gI seems the most logical indicator for infection with field virus. Several enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques have been developed to detect antibodies to gI, based either on the principle of a blocking ELISA or on the principle of an indirect ELISA, using affinity purified gI as antigen coated to the wells of microtitre plates. The antibody response against gI after infection of vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs has been examined in detail. Infected pigs not vaccinated or vaccinated with a gI negative vaccine develop antibodies against gI which appear to persist for more than two years. Even pigs with maternal antibodies deficient in antibodies to gI that become infected with low doses of mildly virulent Aujeszky's disease virus develop antibodies to gI, albeit at low titres. (author). 51 refs, 1 fig

  18. Effect of industrial product IMBO® on immunosuppressed broilers vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Mohammadamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.

  19. Vaccines for Prevention of Group B Meningococcal Disease: Not Your Father's Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lee H

    2015-12-01

    For decades, there was no licensed vaccine for prevention of endemic capsular group B meningococcal disease, despite the availability of vaccines for prevention of the other most common meningococcal capsular groups. Recently, however, two new vaccines have been licensed for prevention of group B disease. Although immunogenic and considered to have an acceptable safety profile, there are many scientific unknowns about these vaccines, including effectiveness against antigenically diverse endemic meningococcal strains; duration of protection; whether they provide any herd protection; and whether there will be meningococcal antigenic changes that will diminish effectiveness over time. In addition, these vaccines present societal dilemmas that could influence how they are used in the U.S., including high vaccine cost in the face of a historically low incidence of meningococcal disease. These issues are discussed in this review.

  20. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  1. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease...

  2. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  3. Isolation and identification of four infectious bursal disease virus strains and sequence analysis of VP2 gene%4株IBDV的分离鉴定及VP2基因序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅涛; 常洪涛; 李欢; 李伟豪; 燕贺; 王川庆; 姚惠霞; 刘红英; 王新卫

    2013-01-01

    Tissue samples of fabricius bursal were collected from Henan Province during the years of 2010-2012.4 isolates of IBDV were obtained by chicken embryo inoculation via chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM),cell culture with DF-1 and by the agar diffusion test.The VP2 genes of 4 isolates were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced respectively.The results indicated that isolate LY was classified to be very virulent IBDV,and had close phylogenetic relationship with isolate D6948,isolate OKYM,isolate UK661 and GZ/96,and their nucleotide homology was 97.9%-98.2%.Isolate ZZ was classified to be classical virulent IBDV,and had close phylogenetic relationship with isolate 52/70,and the two strains nucleotide homology was 97.8%.While isolate AY and XC were identified as avirulent IBDV and had close phylogenetic relationship with classical avirulent strain CU1,at the same time displayed some characters of the variant strain,and their nucleotide homology was 99.0%-99.3%.The results of the study demonstrated that there were infectious bursal disease virus strains of different pathotypes and viral variation showed polymorphisms in Henan during 2010 2012.%通过接种鸡胚绒毛尿囊膜(CAM)、DF-1细胞和琼脂扩散试验,对2010~2012年间收集于河南地区疑似鸡传染性法氏囊病病料,进行鸡传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)的分离、鉴定,得到4株IBDV;应用RT-PCR对分离株VP2基因进行扩增、克隆和序列测定后,分析比较4个分离株与参考毒株的VP2序列.结果表明:LY株属于超强毒株,与已发表的vvIBDV D6948株、OKYM株、UK661株、GZ/96株亲缘关系较近,核苷酸同源性达97.9%~98.2%;ZZ株属于强毒株,与标准强毒株52/70株亲缘关系较近,核苷酸同源性为97.8%;AY、XC株不仅具有弱毒株的特征,同时又具有变异毒株的特征,属于变异弱毒株,与标准弱毒株CU1的亲缘关系最近,核苷酸同源性达99.0%~99.3%.证明河南区域同时存在着不同毒力的IBDV

  4. [Pneumococcal vaccination in obstructive lung diseases -- what can we expect?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M; Lode, H; de Roux, A; Zielen, S

    2005-03-01

    Many countries' guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for patients suffering from obstructive airway disease. This paper reviews the literature as to immunogenicity and safety of this immunization. There is no evidence for a negative effect of pneumococcal vaccination on these patients. Only a few data exist on the preventive impact of pneumococcal vaccination as to exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases. Existing studies mostly took up this question as a side aspect. The effect in children and adults appears limited. On the other hand, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevents life-threatening invasive infections in children younger than 5 years, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine protects healthy adults against bacteriaemic pneumonia. Thus, pneumococcal vaccination of patients suffering from obstructive airway disease is recommendable.

  5. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  6. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation. PMID:24755623

  7. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation.

  8. Development of a vaccine for bacterial kidney disease in salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the executive summary and background review for the final report of ''Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon''. A description of the disease is provided, with microbiological characterization of the infective agent. A brief discussion of attempts to eradicate the disease is included. Recent progress in vaccine development and attempts to control the disease through pharmacological means are described, along with potential ways to break the cycle of infection. 80 refs

  9. Influenza vaccination coverage in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Klincewicz, Beata; Łazowska-Przeorek, Izabella; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Kąkol, Paulina; Mytyk, Aleksandra; Kofla, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influenza vaccination status among paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Poland. This was a questionnaire-based study. 242 patients with IBD and 142 controls were enrolled in the study. Of patients with IBD, 7·8% received an influenza vaccine, compared to 18·3% of controls (P = 0·0013). There were no statistically significant differences in time from IBD diagnosis, disease activity and in drugs, between vaccinated and non-vaccin...

  10. Vaccine administration in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza; Prada, Elisabetta; Pietrasanta, Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2014-11-20

    Pediatric patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) on conservative treatment, on dialysis, and those with renal transplantation are at a higher risk for infectious diseases as the result of impaired immune responses against infectious agents. Infections in these patients can have drastic consequences for disease morbidity and mortality. Immunization is a crucial preventive strategy for disease management in this pediatric population. However, vaccination coverage among children with CKD remains low due to safety concerns and doubts about vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. In this study, we reviewed why children with CKD are at higher risk of infections, the importance of vaccinations among these children, barriers to vaccinations, and recommend the best vaccination schedules. Overall, vaccines have acceptable immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety profiles in children with CKD. However, in some cases, the protective antibody levels induced by vaccines and the benefits and risks of booster vaccine doses must be individually managed. Furthermore, close contacts and household members of these children should complete age-appropriate vaccination schedules to increase the child's indirect protection.

  11. Vaccinations for Neuroinfectious Disease: A Global Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including Japanese and tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Zika, encephalitic equine viruses, and chikungunya. Also discussed are nonzoonotic agents, including measles and human herpesviruses, as well as select bacterial, fungal, and protozoal pathogens. While therapeutic vaccines will be required to treat a multitude of ongoing infections of the nervous system, the ideal vaccination strategy is pre-exposure vaccination, with the ultimate goals of minimizing disease associated with zoonotic viruses and the total eradication of nonzoonotic agents. PMID:27365085

  12. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, FE; Booy, R; Bock, HL; Clemens, J.; Datta, SK; John, TJ; Lee, BW; Lolekha, S; Peltola, H.; Ruff, TA; Santosham, M.; Schmitt, HJ

    2007-01-01

    In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against “exotic” diseases by appr...

  13. The Control of Anthrax Disease: Diagnosis, Vaccination and Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Setya Adji

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis attacking both animal and human (zoonosis . The disease is normally associated with domestic livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle, but humans are also infected due to exposure or comsuming infected animals . The control of anthrax in humans and animals involves developing a diagnostic method for B. anthracis detection and confirmation of anthrax, prevention by vaccines, and disease investigation . Rapid and more accurate diagnosis techniques for anthrax should be developed for improving the conventional method used in Indonesia . Vaccines are effective against anthrax . Current anthrax vaccine used in Indonesia is spores vaccine produced from a non-encapsulated, toxigenic. Sterne strain 34F2 of B. anthracis . The use of this vaccine occasionally causes local pain, necroses at the inoculation site, subcutaneous oedema and occasionally death of the animal . Several vaccines have been developed recently such as sub unit vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA, that contains a protective antigen (PA component of the anthrax toxin as the major protective immunogen and is usually used in humans. In endemic areas of anthrax, outbreaks still routinely occur almost yearly . Monitoring of the epidemiological patterns of the disease has to be carried out by field investigation .

  14. Controlling Johne's disease: Vaccination is the way forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this article, we summarize current research on the state of vaccination against Johne’s disease. We promote the use of live attenuated vaccine candidates over subunit approaches, but don’t wholly discount other strategies. We conclude by suggesting new research directions that may make the highes...

  15. Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, S.M.; Shah, S.I.; Ali, Q.; Mehmood, A.; Afzal, M.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine availabl

  16. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine advocacy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shey Wiysonge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the introduction of newly available vaccines (e.g. 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI as well as increased and equitable coverage for established EPI vaccines.

  17. Influenza vaccination in children at high risk of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patria, Maria Francesca; Tagliabue, Claudia; Longhi, Benedetta; Esposito, Susanna

    2013-05-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can affect the pediatric population and health authorities throughout the world recommend influenza vaccination because of the significant risk of influenza-related complications. However, despite this recommendation, vaccine coverage is generally unsatisfactory. The aim of this review is to analyze the impact of influenza on children at high risk of respiratory disease, and the immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination in such children. The results show that there is a significant risk of influenza-related complications in preterm neonates and infants, in whom influenza vaccines are immunogenic and safe (although their efficacy has not been specifically studied). There are conflicting data concerning the effect of influenza infection on asthma morbidity in children, and whether or not influenza vaccination helps to prevent asthma exacerbations. Recent data provide no evidence that influenza is more frequent in patients with cystic fibrosis than in healthy subjects, or that it is responsible for increased lower respiratory tract morbidity. The lack of any clear correlate of protection suggests that future studies should also consider the efficacy of the different influenza vaccines and not only evaluate them in terms of immunogenicity. Furthermore, there is a need for clinical studies to assess the effectiveness of the available vaccines in patients with other rare CRDs and other chronic underlying diseases with possibly severe respiratory involvement. It is also important to determine whether children with recurrent respiratory tract infections should be included in the list of those for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. In the meantime, given the increasing evidence of the burden of influenza on the population as a whole and the benefits associated with vaccination, annual influenza vaccinations should be recommended for all children at high risk of

  18. Effect of attenuated viral vaccines on suckling mice infected with LCMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatáry, L K; Szeri, I; Bános, Z; Anderlik, P; Nász, I

    1986-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal treatment with live Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) containing attenuated NDV vaccine, and with live infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) containing attenuated IBDV vaccine, one day before intracerebral infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) increased, whereas a similar treatment with inactivated NDV or IBDV vaccine did not influence the death rate of suckling mice from experimental lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Thus the attenuated live vaccine stimulated, whereas the inactivated ones failed to affect the cell-mediated immune response to LCMV. Control studies set up with the supernatant of plain tissue culture routinely used for the propagation of IBDV have shown that unlike the attenuated NDV vaccine, the immunostimulatory action is associated not so much with the virus itself, as with an as yet unidentified component of the tissue culture supernatant.

  19. DNA technologies for diagnostics and vaccines for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In certain parts of the world infectious diseases are still a big problem. Although chemotherapy and the control of the vector, where involved, would be the methods of choice for eradication of the disease, development of resistance to either the antibiotic or the pesticide require that other methods are also applied. Vaccination has been highly successful in controlling some diseases. A potential for such applications exists also in diseases like encephalitis, leprosy, leishmaniasis and malaria which are caused by a virus, a bacterium and parasites respectively. At least three of these diseases are in an epidemic form in North India. There is a tremendous hope that new recombinant DNA and nuclear techniques will not only be of help in an early and swift diagnosis of the disease-causing organism but also in the development of vaccines. This article deals with some of the recent progress made in the diagnosis and vaccine production of these diseases. (author). 12 refs

  20. Measles -- Q&A about Disease & Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications, such as pneumonia or encephalitis, and even death. Children younger than 5 years of age and adults ... rubella in the form of antibodies from their mothers. These antibodies can ... vaccine? Children should receive two doses of MMR vaccine–the ...

  1. Prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against Chagas disease

    OpenAIRE

    Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Rios-Castro, Martha; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia del Carmen; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which the most affected organ is the heart. Conventional chemotherapy has a very low effectiveness; despite recent efforts, there is currently no better or more effective treatment available. DNA vaccines provide a new alternative for both prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious disorders, including Chagas disease. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed some vaccines to be developed using recombinant proteins or virus-lik...

  2. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  3. Meeting the challenge: prevention of pneumococcal disease with conjugate vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echániz-Avilés Irma Gabriela

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been clinically studied in infants and children, only a 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PNCRM7; Prevnar®/Prevenar® is currently approved for the prevention of invasive disease. Vaccination with PNCRM7 is safe and effective in infants and young children. Routine vaccination with the conjugate vaccine could improve outcomes by safeguarding against the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, thus simplifying the management of pneumococcal disease. Additionally, the overall costs associated with the treatment of pneumococcal diseases could be substantially reduced, particularly in developing countries. The time has come for fully applying this new advancement against S. pneumoniae, to benefit the children of the world. The Spanish version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  4. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073

  5. Vaccination against Alzheimer disease: an update on future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettelschoss, Antonia; Zabel, Franziska; Bachmann, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating chronic disease without adequate therapy. More than 10 years ago, it was demonstrated in transgenic mouse models that vaccination may be a novel, disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer. Subsequent clinical development has been a roller-coaster with some positive and many negative news. Here, we would like to summarize evidence that next generation vaccines optimized for old people and focusing on patients with mild disease stand a good chance to proof efficacious for the treatment of Alzheimer.

  6. Genetic vaccination against acute viral disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fleeton, Marina N

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of recombinant vaccines based on the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression system. Immunisation of mice with recombinant virus particles, a layered DNA/RNA plasmid vector, and recombinant self-replicating RNA were carried out and the protective effect of these recombinant vaccines against viral challenge were examined. The construction of a full-length infectious clone formed the basis for the SFV expression system which has previous...

  7. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amood Al-Kamarany, Mohammed; Al-Areqi, Lina; Mujally, Abulatif; Alkarshy, Fawzya; Nasser, Arwa; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH) in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009-July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013-December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%), followed by G1P[8] (15.0%), while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31%) was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%). In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains. PMID:27437161

  8. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%, followed by G1P[8] (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.

  9. Telling stories of vaccine-preventable diseases: why it works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rachel M; Boom, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of storytelling in health communication and, in particular, immunization education. During the mid-20th century polio epidemic, both personal stories and scientific information abounded in the media. However, as rates of vaccine-preventable diseases declined, narratives about the dangers of such diseases faded as did the public fear of them. Meanwhile, anti-vaccine advocates flooded the media and Internet with stories of injured children and tied those injuries, such as autism, to vaccines. Medical experts often counter anti-vaccine concerns with scientific information which can fail to persuade parents. Furthermore, evidence suggests that many people misunderstand quantitative information resulting in a misinterpretation of risk. Compared to scientific information, stories relate life lessons and values. They are effective because they are memorable and relatable. Evidence also suggests that storytelling can effectively improve health knowledge and behaviors. Inspired by In Harm's Way--True Stories of Uninsured Texas Children by the Children's Defense Fund and Faces of Influenza by the American Lung Association, we published Vaccine-Preventable Disease: The Forgotten Story, a collection of photographs and personal stories of families affected by vaccine-preventable diseases. We have found that the stories included in our booklet capture all the benefits of storytelling. Given the many benefits of storytelling, providers should strive to include stories along with medical facts in their daily practice.

  10. Healthcare providers as sources of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, Emily; Perl, Trish M

    2014-08-27

    Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases may be introduced into the healthcare setting and pose a serious risk to vulnerable populations including immunocompromised patients. Healthcare providers (HCPs) are exposed to these pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. The primary method of protection from work-related infection risk is vaccination that protects not only an individual HCP from disease, but also subsequent patients in contact with that HCP. Individual HCPs and healthcare institutions must balance the ethical and professional responsibility to protect their patients from nosocomial transmission of preventable infections with HCP autonomy. This article reviews known cases of HCP-to-patient transmission of the most common vaccine-preventable infections encountered in the healthcare setting including hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, Bordetella pertussis, varicella-zoster virus, measles, mumps and rubella virus. The impact of HCP vaccination on patient care and current recommendations for HCP vaccination against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are also reviewed.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease: overview of motives of disease spread and efficacy of available vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Ali; Kanwal, Sehrish; Arshad, Memoona; Ali, Muhammad; Shaikh, Rehan Sadiq; Abubakar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Control and prevention of foot and mouth disease (FMD) by vaccination remains unsatisfactory in endemic countries. Indeed, consistent and new FMD epidemics in previously disease-free countries have precipitated the need for a worldwide control strategy. Outbreaks in vaccinated animals require that a new and safe vaccine be developed against foot and mouth virus (FMDV). FMDV can be eradicated worldwide based on previous scientific information about its spread using existing and modern control ...

  12. Vaccination with a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine in prevention of disease in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter

    2015-08-26

    Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults. PMID:26187261

  13. Vaccines against papillomavirus infections and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Luisa Lina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.

  14. The effects of vaccination, the incidence of the target diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof S van den; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Melker HE de; Geubbels ELPE; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Talsma E; Plantinga AD; Rumke HC; CIE

    1998-01-01

    As a result of improved socio-economic state and related hygiene, and the introduction of the National Vaccination Programme (RVP), the incidence of the target diseases of the RVP is low nowadays. Insight in the occurrence of the diseases remains necessary in order to be able to signal possible seco

  15. Titration of Marek's disease cell-associated vaccine virus (CVI 988) of reconstituted vaccine and vaccine ampoules from dutch hatcheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, W.J.M.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY. Thirty-one outbreaks of Marek¿s disease (MD) were reported in the Netherlands and retrospectively analyzed. The outbreaks occurred mostly in vaccinated commercial layer and a few breeder flocks of several breeds; however, the cause of the outbreaks could not be stablished. Therefore, in a p

  16. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:25109229

  17. DNA technology for diagnosis and vaccines for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three or four general strategies are adopted for the control of infectious diseases. Early diagnosis, vaccination and chemotherapy. In the situations where there is transfer through mosquitoes or ticks from alternate hosts, control of the vector and of the infection in the alternate host are additional measures to be taken. This Chapter looks at the problems of disease control from the perspective of genetics, since molecular genetics now provides powerful tools in the form of radiolabelled DNA probes and clones of selected segments, useful for diagnosis as well as for vaccine design

  18. 靶向传染性法氏囊病病毒VP1基因siRNA对病毒复制的抑制%Inhibition on replication of infectious bursal disease virus by siRNA targeting VP1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳伟; 王永山; 刘小娟; 张海彬

    2011-01-01

    Three short interfering RNA(siRNA) sequences,named VP1-siRNA668,VP1-siRNA1034 and VP1-siRNA2250 based on conserved regions in the VP1 gene of the infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) were selected and synthesized via in vitro transcription.The chicken embryo fibroblast(CEF) was transfected with the 3 siRNA and then infected with IBDV,respectively.The viral titers of CEF cultures were 102.75,102.00 and 101.75 TCID50/0.1 mL in CEF cultures transfected with VP1-siRNA668,VP1-siRNA1034 and VP1-siRNA2250,respectively,which were significantly lower than 106TCID50/0.1 mL in siRNACON and IBDV control groups.As compared to the control,the inhibitory rates were 73.10%,81.79% and 90.28% in the real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR assay for detecting VP1 gene,respectively.The results indicated that the 3 siRNA could effectively inhibit IBDV replication in vitro,in which 2 250 the highest site of the siRNA inhibitory effect,suggesting that is a major functional region of VP1 gene and an important target for designing novel drug and vaccine against IBDV.%根据传染性法氏囊病病毒(IBDV)VP1基因保守区序列,选择设计了3个靶向VP1的小干扰RNA序列(siR-NA):VP1-siRNA668、VP1-siRNA1034和VP1-siRNA2250,化学合成DNA序列,体外转录合成siRNA,转染鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)后接种IBDV,分析siRNA对病毒复制的影响。结果显示,病毒接种后72h,3个VP1-siRNA转染组未出现明显的细胞病变(CPE),病毒滴度分别为102.75,102.00,101.75 TCID50/0.1mL,而siRNACON转染和单纯IBDV接种对照组均出现明显CPE,病毒滴度均为106 TCID50/0.1mL;用荧光定量RT-PCR分析VP1基因水平,3个VP1-siRNA转染组比对照组分别降低了73.10%,81.79%,90.28%。结果表明,本试验选择设计的3个siRNA具有明显抑制IBDV复制功能,其中2 250位点的siRNA抑制效果最明显,推测该区域是VP1基因的重要功能区,是新型抗IBDV药物与疫苗设计的重要靶标。

  19. Proper quality control of formulated foot-and-mouth disease vaccines in countries with prophylactic vaccination is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S M; Shah, S I; Ali, Q; Mehmood, A; Afzal, M; Afzal, M; Dekker, A

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine available in Pakistan, including three locally produced and two imported products. All the vaccines were found free of bacterial or fungal contamination. No adverse effects were noted in suckling mice and buffalo calves inoculated with the vaccines, showing that the vaccines were sterile and safe. The humoral immune response to the FMD vaccines was determined in buffalo calves for 234 days post-vaccination. Very low humoral immune responses against FMD serotypes O, A and Asia 1 viruses were detected to the locally produced vaccines. The imported vaccines, however, elicited a higher antibody response which persisted for a long period in one of the 2 vaccines. The present study highlights the need of assessing an independent vaccine quality control of finished FMD vaccine products.

  20. The Control of Anthrax Disease: Diagnosis, Vaccination and Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Setya Adji; Lily Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis attacking both animal and human (zoonosis) . The disease is normally associated with domestic livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle, but humans are also infected due to exposure or comsuming infected animals . The control of anthrax in humans and animals involves developing a diagnostic method for B. anthracis detection and confirmation of anthrax, prevention by vaccines, and disease investigation . Rapid and more accurate diagn...

  1. Meeting the Challenge: Prevention of Pneumococcal Disease with Conjugate Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Gabriela Echániz Avilés; Fortino Solórzano Santos

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal co...

  2. Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revisio...

  3. Pneumococcal Vaccine and Patients with Pulmonary Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Golnaz; Allen, Mary Beth; Aliberti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary diseases describe chronic diseases that affect the airways and lung parenchyma. Examples of common chronic pulmonary diseases include asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. Pulmonary infection is considered a significant cause of mortality in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading isolated bacteria from adult patients with community-acquired pne...

  4. What to do about pertussis vaccines? Linking what we know about pertussis vaccine effectiveness, immunology and disease transmission to create a better vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Shelly; Harvill, Eric T; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2015-11-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) is a respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite the implementation of immunization programs and high vaccine coverage in most jurisdictions, pertussis is still one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases, suggesting that the current vaccines and immunization schedules have not been sufficiently effective. Several factors are thought to contribute to this. The acellular pertussis vaccine that has been used in many jurisdictions since the 1990s is less effective than the previously used whole-cell vaccine, with immunity waning over time. Both whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccines are effective at reducing disease severity but not transmission, resulting in outbreaks in vaccinated cohorts. In this review, we discuss various limitations of the current approaches to protection from pertussis and outline various options for reducing the burden of pertussis on a population level.

  5. New recombinant vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal B disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha MK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the

  6. Prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Rios-Castro, Martha; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia del Carmen; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which the most affected organ is the heart. Conventional chemotherapy has a very low effectiveness; despite recent efforts, there is currently no better or more effective treatment available. DNA vaccines provide a new alternative for both prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious disorders, including Chagas disease. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed some vaccines to be developed using recombinant proteins or virus-like particles capable of inducing both a humoral and cellular specific immune response. This type of immunization has been successfully used in preclinical studies and there are diverse models for viral, bacterial and/or parasitic diseases, allergies, tumors and other diseases. Therefore, several research groups have been given the task of designing a DNA vaccine against experimental infection with T. cruzi. In this review we explain what DNA vaccines are and the most recent studies that have been done to develop them with prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against Chagas disease.

  7. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Monteón-Padilla, Víctor; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C; Rios-Castro, Martha; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms "Chagas disease" and "American trypanosomiasis" together with "vaccines" or "immunization". In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed.

  8. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility

  9. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.P.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yang, M.J. [Instituto Butantan, Laboratório de Genética, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Genética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility.

  10. T Cell Vaccination as an Immunotherapy for Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingwuZhang

    2004-01-01

    Immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells (T cell vaccination) selected from individual's own T cellrepertoire provides a unique in vivo setting for testing immune regulation that is known to involve interactionsof a variety of related surface molecules (1). It induces regulatory immune responses that closely resemble thein vivo situation where the immune system is challenged by clonal activation and expansion of given T cellpopulations in various autoimmune diseases. T cell vaccination provides a powerful means of eliciting naturalreactions of the immune system in response to clonal expansion of T cells, which can used as a therapeuticapproach to suppress or eliminate specific pathogenic autoreactive T cells in autoimmune conditions. Clinicaltrials using T cell vaccination to deplete autoreactive T cells in human autoimmune conditions have begun toreveal the pathologic relevance of various autoimmune T cell populations in the disease processes, providing aunique opportunity to test the autoimmune theories in a clinical setting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2004; 1(5):321-327.

  11. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27040400

  12. Evaluation of the response to vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine in pediatric patients diagnosed with celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Walkiewicz-Jedrzejczak, Dorota; Egberg, Matthew; Nelson, Catherine; Eickoff, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: A gap exists in the literature on celiac disease populations and the response to hepatitis B vaccination. Objective: To identify pediatric patients with celiac disease who received the primary hepatitis B vaccination and investigate their response to vaccine. Design/Methods: Patients underwent blood draw for hepatitis B surface antibody titers. Patients with undetectable or non-protective HBsAb titers were contacted. Study outcome measures and patient characteristics variables wer...

  13. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. PMID:23578479

  14. Chinese Scientists Starting Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The infection causes a rash and painful blisters(水疱),but in some cases results in brain infections which can be fatal.A trial involving 10,000 children,published in the Lancet,showed the vaccine was 90% effective against one virus which causes the disease.

  15. Biotechnology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular biological methods have become increasingly applicable to the diagnosis of infectious diseases and vaccine development. To become widely used the methods need to be easy, safe, sensitive, reproducible and eventually automated to facilitate the evaluation of large number of samples. The p...

  16. In the mood for wiping out vaccine-preventable diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ciro de Quadros has led some of the most successful immunization campaigns in the history of public health. He tells Fiona Fleck why, in some ways, it’s harder to eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases today than it was in the past.

  17. Review article: hepatitis vaccination in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, G; Keeffe, E B

    2004-04-01

    Evidence regarding the outcomes of viral super-infection in patients with chronic liver disease and practical strategies for hepatitis A and B vaccination of these individuals are reviewed. Patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B have a more severe clinical course and a higher death rate compared with otherwise healthy individuals with hepatitis A, and these differences are most pronounced in older patients and those with histological evidence of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, rather than in asymptomatic hepatitis B carriers. Patients with acute hepatitis A super-infection and chronic hepatitis C have an increased risk of fulminant hepatitis and death. In addition, patients with other chronic liver diseases also appear to be at increased risk for more severe disease with superimposed hepatitis A. Patients with chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection have more severe laboratory abnormalities, more severe histological disease, a greater frequency of cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis, and a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Vaccines for both hepatitis A and B are safe and effective if used early in the course of chronic liver disease. Hepatitis A and B vaccination should be part of the routine management of patients with chronic liver disease, preferably as early as possible in the natural course of their disease.

  18. Eradicating diseases: The effect of conditional cash transfers on vaccination coverage in rural Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Tania; Maluccio, John A

    2009-05-01

    Despite significant global efforts to improve vaccination coverage against major childhood diseases, vaccination rates are below 90%. To eradicate diseases such as measles, however, vaccination rates close to 95% are needed. We use a randomized experiment to investigate the effect of a demand incentive, a conditional cash transfer program, in improving vaccination coverage in rural Nicaragua. Double-difference estimates show the program led to large increases in vaccination coverage, and these resulted in vaccination levels greater than 95% for some vaccines. Effects were especially large for children who are typically harder to reach with traditional supply-side interventions.

  19. Comparison of test methodologies for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A vaccine matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Weerdmeester, K.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention and control. The impact of vaccination largely depends on the quality and suitability of the chosen vaccine. To determine the suitability of a vaccine strain, antigenic matching is usually studied by in vitro analysis

  20. Routinely vaccinating adolescents against meningococcus: targeting transmission & disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Volker; Baxter, Roger; Denizer, Gülhan; Sáfadi, Marco A P; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Vyse, Andrew; Borrow, Ray

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents have the highest rates of meningococcal carriage and transmission. Interrupting the adolescent habitat in order to reduce carriage and transmission within adolescents and to other age groups could help to control meningococcal disease at a population level. Compared to immunization strategies restricted to young children, a strategy focused on adolescents may have more profound and long-lasting indirect impacts, and may be more cost effective. Despite challenges in reaching this age-group, experience with other vaccines show that high vaccine coverage of adolescents is attainable. PMID:26651380

  1. Hepatitis A and B superimposed on chronic liver disease: vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeffe, Emmet B

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the acquisition of hepatitis A or hepatitis B in patients with chronic liver disease is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Superimposition of acute hepatitis A in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been associated with a particularly high mortality rate, and chronic hepatitis B virus coinfection with hepatitis C virus is associated with an accelerated progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. With the availability of vaccines against hepatitis B and hepatitis A since 1981 and 1995, respectively, these are vaccine-preventable diseases. Studies have confirmed that hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are safe and immunogenic in patients with mild to moderate chronic liver disease. However, hepatitis A and B vaccination is less effective in patients with advanced liver disease and after liver transplantation. These observations have led to the recommendation that patients undergo hepatitis A and B vaccination early in the natural history of their chronic liver disease. Vaccination rates are low in clinical practice, and public health and educational programs are needed to overcome barriers to facilitate timely implementation of these recommendations.

  2. Immunity of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by sublingual vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-tai Chen

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea pigs exhibited clinical disease, including fever, viremia, and lesions, specifically vesicle formation in feet. Animals vaccinated with the 1/16 and 1/4 doses were protected after challenge at days 7, 28, and 35 post vaccination. These data suggest that effective protection against foot-and-mouth disease can be achieved with 1/16 of the recommended vaccine dose using SL vaccination, indicating that the sublingual route is an attractive alternative for the administration of the FMDV vaccine.

  3. Booster vaccinations: can immunologic memory outpace disease pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2009-12-01

    Almost all current vaccines work by the induction of antibodies in serum or on the mucosa to block adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells or interfere with microbial invasion of the bloodstream. However, antibody levels usually decline after vaccination to undetectable amounts if further vaccination does not occur. Persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies usually goes well beyond the time when they should have decayed to undetectable levels because of ongoing "natural" boosting or other immunologic mechanisms. The production of memory B and T cells is of clear importance, but the likelihood that a memory response will be fast enough in the absence of a protective circulating antibody level likely depends on the pace of pathogenesis of a specific organism. This concept is discussed with regard to Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis; hepatitis A and B; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis; polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella; rotavirus; and human papilloma virus. With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is less rapid, some individuals will contract infection before the memory response is fully activated and implemented. With infectious diseases for which the pace of pathogenesis is slow, immune memory should be sufficient to prevent disease.

  4. Vaccine preventable viral diseases and risks associated with waterborne transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Maria Ruggeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.

  5. Prevention of infectious diseases by public vaccination and individual protection

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiao-Long; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In the face of serious infectious diseases, governments endeavour to implement containment measures such as public vaccination at a macroscopic level. Meanwhile, individuals tend to protect themselves by avoiding contacts with infections at a microscopic level. However, a comprehensive understanding of how such combined strategy influences epidemic dynamics is still lacking. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model with imperfect vaccination on dynamic contact networks, where the macroscopic intervention is represented by random vaccination of the population and the microscopic protection is characterised by susceptible individuals rewiring contacts from infective neighbours. In particular, the model is formulated both in populations without and then with demographic effects. Using the pairwise approximation and the probability generating function approach, we investigate both dynamics of the epidemic and the underlying network. For populations without demography, the emerging degree correla...

  6. Study and Application on an Immunochromatographic Method for Detection the VP4 Protein Antibody of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus%检测传染性法氏囊病病毒VP4蛋白抗体试纸条的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忆春

    2013-01-01

    采用RT-PCR技术从滨州分离株中扩增出传染性法氏囊病病毒(infectious bursal disease virus,IBDV)VP4基因,将VP4基因插入到pGEX-4T-1载体上构建pGEX-4T-1-VP4,诱导表达并用谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)亲和层析柱纯化得到纯化的重组VP4蛋白.以兔抗鸡IgG为胶体金标记物,以重组IBDV VP4蛋白和羊抗兔IgG为硝酸纤维素膜检测线和质控线的包被物,制备一种能检测IBDV VP4蛋白抗体的胶体金试纸条.结果表明,该试纸条检测IBDV强毒(IBDV BC6/85)免疫的血清检测线显红色,为阳性反应;检测IBDV弱毒(IBDV NB)免疫的血清、新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)标准阳性血清、禽流感H5和H9标准阳性血清、传染性支气管炎标准阳性血清及0.85%生理盐水检测线不显红色,为阴性反应.该试纸条与建立的ELISA方法相比,敏感度低2个滴度;检测320份临床血清,试纸条与ELISA的符合率达99.38%.提示,该试纸条使用方便、操作简单,10 min内可以用肉眼判断结果,可为区分IBDV的强弱毒提供参考数据,具有较大的应用价值.%The VP4 gene was acquired by RT-PCR from Binzhou isolate of infectious bursal disease virus,the VP4 expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the target fragment into pGEX 4T 1 vectors.The expression VP4 proteins were acquired by inducing and purifying.An immunochromatograpic strip was developed for the detection VP4 protein antibody of infectious bursal disease virus.Rabbit anti-chicken IgG was labled with colloidal gold as a detection reagent,and recombinant VP4 protein of IBDV was blotted on the test line while goat anti rabbit IgG was used on the control line of the nitrocellulose membrane.The results of specificity showed that the strip was positive in the detection of reference sera against IBDV BC6/85 virulent and negative to the detection of standard positive serum of Newcastle disease virus,anvian influenza virus H5 and H9 subtypes,infectious bronchitis

  7. Evaluation of Novel Oral Vaccine Candidates and Validation of a Caprine Model of Johne's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray E. Hines

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn’s disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC, and 2 to validate the AMSC Johne’s disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis, or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 X 10^9 CFU divided in 2 consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate. All kids were necropsied at 13 months post challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318 do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329 reduced fecal shedding and tissue

  8. Effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for preschool-age children with chronic disease.

    OpenAIRE

    FIORE, A. E.; Levine, O S; Elliott, J A; Facklam, R R; Butler, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, we serotyped isolates submitted to the Pneumococcal Sentinel Surveillance System from 1984 to 1996 from 48 vaccinated and 125 unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age. Effectiveness against invasive disease caused by serotypes included in the vaccine was 63%. Effectiveness against serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine but not in a proposed seven-valent protein conjugate vaccine was 94%.

  9. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Christopher B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%. Deliverability

  10. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed.

  11. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Monteón-Padilla, Víctor; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C.; Rios-Castro, Martha; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed. PMID:26090490

  12. Production and utilization of radiation vaccines against helminthic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helminthic diseases in man and in animals are various and widespread, but to date the only successful vaccines to be developed against helminths are those based on the radiation treatment of infective larvae. A panel of experts met in Vienna in December 1963 to consider how the IAEA might support and encourage developments in this field. The present report gathers together some of the important contributions of the Panel members together with the general conclusions and recommendations. 77 refs, 19 figs, 16 tabs

  13. Immunity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Serotype Asia 1 by Sublingual Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Hao-tai Chen; Yong-sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer's recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea p...

  14. Immunity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Serotype Asia 1 by Sublingual Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao-tai; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, with severe agricultural and economic losses. Here we present study using a sublingual (SL) route with the killed serotype Asia 1 FMDV vaccine. Guinea pigs were vaccinated using a commercially available vaccine formulation at the manufacturer’s recommended full, 1/4, and 1/16 antigen doses. Animals were challenged with homologous FMDV Asia1 strain at various times following vaccination. All control guinea p...

  15. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  16. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  17. A Safe Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Platform with Two Negative Markers for Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Uddowla, Sabena; Hollister, Jason; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of domestic animals with chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is widely practiced to control FMD. Currently, FMD vaccine manufacturing requires the growth of large volumes of virulent FMDV in biocontainment-level facilities. Here, two marker FMDV vaccine candidates (A24LL3DYR and A24LL3BPVKV3DYR) featuring the deletion of the leader coding region (Lpro) and one of the 3B proteins were constructed and evaluated. These vaccine candidates also contain either one...

  18. Enhancement of the Immune Response to Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Vaccine in Young Rabbits by Advanced Vaccination and Chinese Herbal Adjuvants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Long-sheng; XUE Jia-bin; HU Yuan-liang; WANG Fang; WANG De-yun; XU Wei-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants (CHA), containing astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and ginsenosides (GS) on the immune response to rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) vaccine in young rabbits. In experiment 1, 5 New Zealand rabbits of each group at 30, 35, 40, or 45 days of age were injected with 2 mL of inactivated RHD vaccine, respectively. The dynamic changes of antibody liters were tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) method. In experiment 2, 30 New Zealand rabbits at 35 days of age were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups, representing inoculation with 3 mL of non-adjuvant RHD vaccine, CHA-RHD vaccine, CHA-HA vaccine (half dose antigen), aluminium adjuvant-RHD vaccine, and PBS, respectively. The dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody liters were tested by the MTT method and the HI method. The results showed that the titer of maternal HI antibody in the 35-day-old rabbits was lower than the protective level of 3 log2, while on days 7 to 49 after the vaccination, the antibody tilers were higher than 3 log2. The CHA promoted me lymphocyte proliferation and enhanced the serum antibody liter (P<0.05). These findings from the two experiments suggested that advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants significantly enhanced the immune response lo vaccine againsl RHD, and effectively protected the young rabbils againsl RHD challenge.

  19. Treg inducing adjuvants for therapeutic vaccination against chronic inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal eKeijzer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many existing therapies in autoimmune diseases are based on systemic suppression of inflammation, the observed side effects illustrate the need for more specific interventions. Regulatory T cells (Treg are pivotal controllers of (autoaggressive immune responses, and decreased Treg numbers and/or functioning have been associated with autoimmune disease. Especially antigen-specific targeting of Treg would enable tailor made interventions, while obviating negative side effects of general immuno-suppression. Self-antigens that participate in inflammation, irrespective of the etiology of the different autoimmune diseases, are held to be candidate antigens for such interventions. Rather than tolerance induction to disease inciting self-antigens, which are frequently unknown, general self-antigens expressed at sites of inflammation would allow targeting of disease independent, but inflammatory-site specific, regulatory mechanisms. Preferably, such self-antigens should be abundantly expressed and up-regulated at the inflammatory site. Heat shock proteins show several of these characteristics.The development of antigen-specific Treg inducing vaccines is a major novel goal in the field of immunotherapy in autoimmune diseases. Progress is hampered by the lack of effective antigens and by the fact that other factors such as dose, route and the presence or absence of an adjuvant, turned out to be critical unknowns, with respect to effective induction of Treg. The use of a Treg inducing adjuvant might be required to achieve effective regulatory responses, in the case of ongoing inflammation. Future goals will be the optimization of natural Treg expansion (or the induction of adaptive Treg without loss of their suppressive function or the concomitant induction of non-regulatory T cells. Here, we discuss the potential use of protein/peptide-based vaccines combined with Treg inducing adjuvants for the development of therapeutic vaccines against chronic

  20. Peste des petits ruminants vaccine and vaccination in India: sharing experience with disease endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2015-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants, a viral disease of small ruminants, the control of which is important for poverty alleviation and to ensure livelihood security in Asia, Middle East and Africa. In recognition of these issues, we developed and applied vaccine and diagnostics to demonstrate effective control of PPR during preceding 6 years in a sub-population of small ruminants in India. Two south Indian states, namely Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, strongly indicated possibility of PPR control with more than 90 % reduction in number of reported outbreaks of PPR, mostly through mass vaccination. Similarly, the situation at the national level also demonstrated a decline of more than 75 % in the number of reported outbreaks. Sharing these experiences may motivate other countries for similar initiatives leading to progressive control of PPR, which is in line with the initiatives of the organizations like FAO/OIE and the recent platforms on global PPR research alliance. PMID:26645031

  1. Teaching package improves mothers knowledge on vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination: a Quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha D'Souza V

    2014-06-01

    Results: The mean and standard deviation of post-test knowledge score of mothers in experimental group (27.80 +/- 3.010 was much greater than pre-test value (10.44 +/- 2.323. There is no change in pre and post-test knowledge score in control group (9.74 +/- 1.805. The calculated' value t98=34.54 was greater than the table value 1.68 at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that the teaching package was effective in improving the level of mothers knowledge. Conclusion: The study findings concluded that the mothers were benefited by teaching package on vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases. Furthermore mass health education programs can be conducted to create awareness among general public. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 976-982

  2. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  3. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are

  4. Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel F. Aldrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment of the immune system to treat malignant disease represents an active area of biomedical research. The specificity of the immune response and potential for establishing long-term tumor immunity compels researchers to continue investigations into immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer. A number of immunotherapeutic strategies have arisen for the treatment of malignant disease, including various vaccination schemes, cytokine therapy, adoptive cellular therapy, and monoclonal antibody therapy. This paper describes each of these strategies and discusses some of the associated successes and limitations. Emphasis is placed on the integration of techniques to promote optimal scenarios for eliminating cancer.

  5. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem. PMID:26436786

  6. T Cell Vaccination as an Immunotherapy for Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingwu Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells (T cell vaccination) selected from individual's own T cell repertoire provides a unique in vivo setting for testing immune regulation that is known to involve interactions of a variety of related surface molecules (1). It induces regulatory immune responses that closely resemble the in vivo situation where the immune system is challenged by clonal activation and expansion of given T cell populations in various autoimmune diseases. T cell vaccination provides a powerful means of eliciting natural reactions of the immune system in response to clonal expansion of T cells, which can used as a therapeutic approach to suppress or eliminate specific pathogenic autoreactive T cells in autoimmune conditions. Clinical trials using T cell vaccination to deplete autoreactive T cells in human autoimmune conditions have begun to reveal the pathologic relevance of various autoimmune T cell populations in the disease processes, providing a unique opportunity to test the autoimmune theories in a clinical setting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2004;1(5):321-327.

  7. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  8. Pneumococcal transmission and disease in silico: a microsimulation model of the indirect effects of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Nurhonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland. A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5-10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90% coverage of vaccination and moderate (50% vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. CONCLUSIONS: The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the

  9. T cell immunity and vaccines against invasive fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, James Isami

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades much has been learned about the immunology of invasive fungal infection, especially invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Although quite different in their pathogenesis, the major common protective host response is Th1 mediated. It is through Th1 cytokine production that the effector cells, phagocytes, are activated to kill the fungus. A more thorough understanding of the pathogenesis of disease, the elicited protective Th1 immune response, the T cell antigen(s) which elicit this response, and the mechanism(s) whereby one can enhance, reconstitute, or circumvent the immunosuppressed state will, hopefully, lead to the development of a vaccine(s) capable of protecting even the most immunocompromised of hosts.

  10. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  11. A case suspected for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients.

  12. Does Oral Vaccination Protect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene;

    . The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge with Y. ruckeri. The rainbow trout were given oral vaccinations...... with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Seven groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w/ booster (4 months post...

  13. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, K; de Jong, M C M; Bouma, A; Stegeman, J A; Dekker, A

    2007-08-21

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not suitable to start an infection chain, as inoculated vaccinated pigs resisted challenge. Therefore, we carried out two experiments in which we used direct contact to a non-vaccinated pig as route of infection. In the first experiment only the vaccine effect on susceptibility was quantified by exposing pigs, either vaccinated 14 days before or not vaccinated, each to a non-vaccinated seeder pig inoculated with FMD virus O/NET/2001. Since no significant differences were observed between contact infections in vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs, we performed a second experiment in which both susceptibility and infectivity were subject to vaccination. We quantified virus transmission in homogenous groups of vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs in which the infection chain was started by exposure to a third group of non-vaccinated infected pigs. Transmission occurred to all contact-exposed pigs in the non-vaccinated groups and to 9 out of 10 contact-exposed pigs in the vaccinated groups. The rate of transmission (beta) was significantly reduced in the vaccine group. Yet, the estimated reproduction ratio in both groups was still above 1. In conclusion, by adjusting our transmission study design and challenge method, we were able to quantify transmission of FMDV among vaccinated pigs. According to this study a single vaccination was not sufficient to stop pig to pig virus transmission. With these results major outbreaks may still be expected, even in groups of vaccinated pigs. PMID:17658199

  14. Vaccination of patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases requires careful benefit-risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, M.; Agmon-Levin, N.; Dayer, J. -M.; Israeli, E.; Gatto, M.; Shoenfeld, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Will vaccination raise the incidence of autoimmune diseases, what is the impact of increasingly crowded vaccination schedules, the vaccination in age groups and the risk of coincidental temporal association? All these issues are still under debate. However, for the time being, to avoid confusion in

  15. Vaccination against foot and mouth disease reduces virus transmission in groups of calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Dekker, A.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of vaccination during an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is not to induce clinical protection, but to reduce virus transmission. Since no quantitative data were available on the effectiveness of vaccination in cattle, we investigated whether a single vaccination against FMD could re

  16. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases. PMID:27436364

  17. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, M.; B. Dungu; L.I. Van Staden; N. Ismail-Cassim; W. Vosloo

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in ...

  18. Vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky's disease by the intradermal route using live attenuated and inactivated virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, P; Cariolet, R

    1989-09-01

    A study was undertaken of the protection induced by inactivated and live Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines. The vaccines were administered using a special device which, without the use of a needle, delivered the preparation intradermally. The trials were performed on 88 pigs which were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period both in experimental conditions and in pig herds. All the pigs were challenged at the end of the fattening period in isolation units. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the same vaccines injected intramuscularly. It was shown that vaccination via the intradermal route induced good protection in the vaccinated animals and was similar to that conferred by live virus vaccine injected intramuscularly. The results, with the inactivated virus vaccine, were not so good when it was injected via the intradermal route. Studies with intradermal vaccination showed no local lesion or very small nodules strictly localized to the dermis. The results also confirmed that the effects of challenge exposure depended on the health status of animals prior to infection and show the necessity to use a synthetic value (delta G) to interpret the data and mainly to compare the results objectively. In fattening pigs this vaccination procedure is attractive because (i) less animal constraint is needed than would be for intramuscular injections, (ii) injection can be checked by the presence of a visible papula at the site of inoculation and, (iii) pigs can be vaccinated in the ham while they are feeding. Injection without a needle also contributes to avoiding bacterial contamination under practical farm conditions of vaccination.

  19. Vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky's disease by the intradermal route using live attenuated and inactivated virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, P; Cariolet, R

    1989-09-01

    A study was undertaken of the protection induced by inactivated and live Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines. The vaccines were administered using a special device which, without the use of a needle, delivered the preparation intradermally. The trials were performed on 88 pigs which were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period both in experimental conditions and in pig herds. All the pigs were challenged at the end of the fattening period in isolation units. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the same vaccines injected intramuscularly. It was shown that vaccination via the intradermal route induced good protection in the vaccinated animals and was similar to that conferred by live virus vaccine injected intramuscularly. The results, with the inactivated virus vaccine, were not so good when it was injected via the intradermal route. Studies with intradermal vaccination showed no local lesion or very small nodules strictly localized to the dermis. The results also confirmed that the effects of challenge exposure depended on the health status of animals prior to infection and show the necessity to use a synthetic value (delta G) to interpret the data and mainly to compare the results objectively. In fattening pigs this vaccination procedure is attractive because (i) less animal constraint is needed than would be for intramuscular injections, (ii) injection can be checked by the presence of a visible papula at the site of inoculation and, (iii) pigs can be vaccinated in the ham while they are feeding. Injection without a needle also contributes to avoiding bacterial contamination under practical farm conditions of vaccination. PMID:2554623

  20. IMMUNO-MODULATORY EFFECT OF INACTIVATED EIMERIA TENELLA VACCINE AND LIVE IMPPORTED COCCIDIAL VACCINE ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS VACCINA TED BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram Muneer, Haji Ahmad Hashmi, Masood Rabbani, Zahid Munir Chaudhry and Ali M. Bahrami

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 160 one-day-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of an inactivated Eimeria tenella vaccine and a live polyvalent imported antiococcidial vaccine (Coccivac. This study indicated that both of these vaccines did not adversely affect the development of serum antibody against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and the chicks vaccinated with either of the anticoccidial vaccines resisted the virulent NDV challenge. A study of the lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricuis: thymus and spleen from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable with those from the chicks not vaccinated with these coccidial vaccines. The overall findings of this study indicate that anticoccidial vaccines do not have any effects on the immune functions of the vaccinates. In fact these vaccines prevented the occurrence of clinical coccidiosis in the vaccinates.

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccination in Chronic Kidney Disease: Review of Evidence in Non-Dialyzed Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

    2012-01-01

    Context Hepatitis B vaccination of hemodialysis patients is performed all over the world. There are also recommendations from world health organizations to vaccinate patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior dialysis commencement, but the implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program is less common and not well organized. Evidence Acquisition This review article summarizes data indicating why, when and how to vaccinate CKD patients before they start renal replacement therapy. Pub...

  2. Serotype specificity of B-haplotype influence on the relative efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1994-01-01

    B-haplotype genes in the chicken were previously shown to differentially influence vaccine efficacy against challenge with very virulent Marek's disease virus according to the type of Marek's disease (MD) vaccine used. To determine whether MD vaccines of the same serotype gave comparable levels of protection against MD in chickens of the same haplotype challenged with MD virus strain Md5, two serotype 1 and two serotype 2 vaccines were compared with one serotype 3 vaccine using chickens of 15-B-congenic lines. There was a strong correlation in development of MD lesions among chickens of the different lines receiving the two serotype 2 vaccines (r = 0.94) as well as among chickens receiving the two serotype 1 vaccines (r = 0.76). The serotype 1 vaccines were preferable for B2, B13, B15, and B21, but serotype 2 vaccines were more protective for B5 chickens. The two serotype 2 vaccines gave equivalent protection; however, of the serotype 1 vaccines, CVI988/Rispens provided more protection than Md11/75c/R2/23. We conclude that the B-haplotype influence on MD vaccine efficacy is dependent on the serotype of the vaccine.

  3. [Recent advances in DNA vaccines against allergic airway disease: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jin; Xu, Yu; Shi, Wendan

    2013-12-01

    DNA vaccine is used in infectious diseases initially, and later is applied in neoplastic diseases, allergic diseases and other fields with the further understanding of DNA vaccine and the development of genetic engineering. DNA vaccine transfers the genes encoding exogenous antigens to plasmid vector and then is introduced into organism. It controls the antigen proteins synthesis, thus induces specific humoral and cellular immune responses. So it has a broad application prospect in allergic diseases. Compared with the traditional protein vaccines used in specific immunotherapy, DNA vaccine has many advantages, including high purity and specificity, and improvement of patients' compliance etc. However, there are still two unsolved problems. First, the transfection rate of unmodified naked DNA plasmid is not high, Second, it's difficult to induce ideal immune response. In this study, we will review the progress of DNA vaccine applications in respiratory allergic diseases and its various optimization strategies.

  4. Retrospective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine effectiveness in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Bulut, A N; Gubbins, S; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2014-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is present in much of Turkey and its control is largely based on vaccination. The arrival of the FMD Asia-1 serotype in Turkey in 2011 caused particular concern, spreading rapidly westwards across the country towards the FMD free European Union. With no prior natural immunity, control of spread would rely heavily on vaccination. Unlike human vaccines, field protection is rarely evaluated directly for FMD vaccines. Between September 2011 and July 2012 we performed four retrospective outbreak investigations to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of FMD Asia-1 vaccines in Turkey. Vaccine effectiveness is defined as the reduction in risk in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals with similar virus exposure in the field. The four investigations included 12 villages and 1230 cattle >4 months of age. One investigation assessed the FMD Asia-1 Shamir vaccine, the other three evaluated the recently introduced FMD Asia-1 TUR 11 vaccine made using a field isolate of the FMD Asia-1 Sindh-08 lineage that had recently entered Turkey. After adjustment for confounding, the TUR 11 vaccine provided moderate protection against both clinical disease VE=69% [95% CI: 50%-81%] and infection VE=63% [95% CI: 29%-81%]. However, protection was variable with some herds with high vaccine coverage still experiencing high disease incidence. Some of this variability will be the result of the variation in virus challenge and immunity that occurs under field conditions. In the outbreak investigated there was no evidence that the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine provided adequate protection against clinical FMD with an incidence of 89% in single vaccinated cattle and 69% in those vaccinated two to five times. Based on these effectiveness estimates, vaccination alone is unlikely to produce the high levels of herd immunity needed to control FMD without additional control measures.

  5. OBSERVATION ON VACCINATING Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine with Inhalation and Preventing Recurrence of Nasopharyngeal cancer after Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To understand whether the Newcastle disease virus(NDV) vaccine can successfully vaccinate the rabbits and volunteers of cancer patients by inhalation and to observe the effects of NDV vaccine on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NRC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods: The live NDV vaccine was vaccinated through nasal cavities of rabbits, NPC patients and other cancer patients who were treated by surgery or chemotherapy with larynx spray. The blood specimens of vein from the tested rabbits and volunteers of patients with cancer were collected before and after vaccination. The anti-NDV-antibody in serum was detected by conventional blood coagulation inhibiting method. The white blood cell (WBC) amount in blood samples was counted. In addition, the NPC patients after radiotherapy were divided into both test group and control group with random match. The both were followed-up by multiple kinds of way in order to understand effects of NDV immunotherapy for NPC. Results: The anti-NDV-antibody level of the rabbits and the patients with NPC rose significantly after vaccination. The WBC amount of cancer patients treated by surgery or chemotherapy also rose significantly after vaccination. The recurrence rate (3.23%) of NRC patients in test group who received immunotherapy of NDV vaccine for 4 to 10 treatment courses within 3 years after end of radiotherapy were significantly lower than that (25.81%) of the control group (P<0.025). Conclusion: The NDV vaccine La Sota strain can vaccinate the rabbits and the cancer patients in success by inhalation. And it has remarkable effect to decrease 3 year recurrence rate of NRC patients after radiotherapy.

  6. Disease Persistence in Epidemiological Models: The Interplay between Vaccination and Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Jackson; Cummings, Derek A T; Schwartz, Ira B

    2012-01-01

    We consider the interplay of vaccination and migration rates on disease persistence in epidemiological systems. We show that short-term and long-term migration can inhibit disease persistence. As a result, we show how migration changes how vaccination rates should be chosen to maintain herd immunity. In a system of coupled SIR models, we analyze how disease eradication depends explicitly on vaccine distribution and migration connectivity. The analysis suggests potentially novel vaccination policies that underscore the importance of optimal placement of finite resources.

  7. Vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention of infectious diseases having cutaneous manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J; Huang, David B; Pang, Katie R; Tyring, Stephen K

    2004-04-01

    Although the development of antimicrobial drugs has advanced rapidly in the past several years, such agents act against only certain groups of microbes and are associated with increasing rates of resistance. These limitations of treatment force physicians to continue to rely on prevention, which is more effective and cost-effective than therapy. From the use of the smallpox vaccine by Jenner in the 1700s to the current concerns about biologic warfare, the technology for vaccine development has seen numerous advances. The currently available vaccines for viral illnesses include Dryvax for smallpox; the combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; inactivated vaccine for hepatitis A; plasma-derived vaccine for hepatitis B; and the live attenuated Oka strain vaccine for varicella zoster. Vaccines available against bacterial illnesses include those for anthrax, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Currently in development for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes are vaccines for HIV, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus. Other vaccines being investigated for prevention are those for cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, hepatitis C, and dengue fever, among many others. Fungal and protozoan diseases are also subjects of vaccine research. Among immunoglobulins approved for prophylactic and therapeutic use are those against cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A and B, measles, rabies, and tetanus. With this progress, it is hoped that effective vaccines soon will be developed for many more infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations. PMID:15034501

  8. Intentions to receive a potentially available Lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. Methods: We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. Results: We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p Lyme disease vaccine. Although pharmaceutical companies may benefit by advertising a Lyme disease vaccine to Asian/Asian Americans and South Asians, marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine. PMID:27551427

  9. Advanced Nanobiomaterials: Vaccines, Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torres-Sangiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles has contributed to many advances due to their important properties such as, size, shape or biocompatibility. The use of nanotechnology in medicine has great potential, especially in medical microbiology. Promising data show the possibility of shaping immune responses and fighting severe infections using synthetic materials. Different studies have suggested that the addition of synthetic nanoparticles in vaccines and immunotherapy will have a great impact on public health. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance is one of the major concerns worldwide; a recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO states that antibiotic resistance could cause 300 million deaths by 2050. Nanomedicine offers an innovative tool for combating the high rates of resistance that we are fighting nowadays, by the development of both alternative therapeutic and prophylaxis approaches and also novel diagnosis methods. Early detection of infectious diseases is the key to a successful treatment and the new developed applications based on nanotechnology offer an increased sensibility and efficiency of the diagnosis. The aim of this review is to reveal and discuss the main advances made on the science of nanomaterials for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Highlighting innovative approaches utilized to: (i increasing the efficiency of vaccines; (ii obtaining shuttle systems that require lower antibiotic concentrations; (iii developing coating devices that inhibit microbial colonization and biofilm formation.

  10. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight...... of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two...... scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario...

  11. History of Meningococcal Outbreaks in the United States: Implications for Vaccination and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Bruce; Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis presents a significant public health concern. Meningococcal disease is rare but potentially fatal within 24 hours of onset of illness, and survivors may experience permanent sequelae. This review presents the epidemiology, incidence, and outbreak data for invasive meningococcal disease in the United States since 1970, and it highlights recent changes in vaccine recommendations to prevent meningococcal disease. Relevant publications were obtained by database searches for articles published between January 1970 and July 2015. The incidence of meningococcal disease has decreased in the United States since 1970, but serogroup B meningococcal disease is responsible for an increasing proportion of disease burden in young adults. Recent serogroup B outbreaks on college campuses warrant broader age-based recommendations for meningococcal group B vaccines, similar to the currently recommended quadrivalent vaccine that protects against serogroups A, C, W, and Y. After the recent approval of two serogroup B vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices first updated its recommendations for routine meningococcal vaccination to cover at-risk populations, including those at risk during serogroup B outbreaks, and later it issued a recommendation for those aged 16-23 years. Meningococcal disease outbreaks remain challenging to predict, making the optimal disease management strategy one of prevention through vaccination rather than containment. How the epidemiology of serogroup B disease and prevention of outbreaks will be affected by the new category B recommendation for serogroup B vaccines remains to be seen. PMID:27332671

  12. Therapeutic passive vaccination against chronic Lyme disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, W; Stehle, T; Museteanu, C; Siebers, A; Gern, L; Kramer, M; Wallich, R; Simon, M M

    1997-11-11

    Passive and active immunization against outer surface protein A (OspA) has been successful in protecting laboratory animals against subsequent infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Antibodies (Abs) to OspA convey full protection, but only when they are present at the time of infection. Abs inactivate spirochetes within the tick and block their transmission to mammals, but do not affect established infection because of the loss of OspA in the vertebrate host. Our initial finding that the presence of high serum titers of anti-OspC Abs (5 to 10 microg/ml) correlates with spontaneous resolution of disease and infection in experimentally challenged immunocompetent mice suggested that therapeutic vaccination with OspC may be feasible. We now show that polyclonal and monospecific mouse immune sera to recombinant OspC, but not to OspA, of B. burgdorferi resolve chronic arthritis and carditis and clear disseminated spirochetes in experimentally infected C.B.-17 severe combined immunodeficient mice in a dose-dependent manner. This was verified by macroscopical and microscopical examination of affected tissues and recultivation of spirochetes from ear biopsies. Complete resolution of disease and infection was achieved, independent of whether OspC-specific immune sera (10 microg OspC-specific Abs) were repeatedly given (4x in 3- to 4-day intervals) before the onset (day 10 postinfection) or at the time of fully established arthritis and carditis (days 19 or 60 postinfection). The results indicate that in mice spirochetes constitutively express OspC and are readily susceptible to protective OspC-specific Abs throughout the infection. Thus, an OspC-based vaccine appears to be a candidate for therapy of Lyme disease.

  13. Herd immunity after vaccination: how to quantify it and how to use it to halt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, M C; Bouma, A

    2001-03-21

    In comparison to unvaccinated individuals, vaccinated individuals have fewer clinical symptoms, reduced susceptibility and reduced infectivity. The first two effects of vaccination can mean that each vaccinated individual is protected against clinical symptoms. From experiments and field trials, the extent of individual protection can be determined by a statistical analysis of the resulting data. In addition, there is an effect of the vaccination on the populations in which one or more individuals are vaccinated. This effect on the population is due to the effects of vaccination on susceptibility and infectivity of the vaccinated individuals. The population effect is called herd immunity and is observed as a reduction in chance of becoming infected when being part of a population with some of the individuals vaccinated. Note that the protection by herd immunity applies to vaccinated individuals as well as to unvaccinated individuals. Thus, protection against disease can be achieved not only by vaccinating the individuals that have to be protected but also by vaccinating other individuals in the same population. Such an application of herd immunity is especially important in protecting farm animals. To plan and evaluate vaccination at the population level, the herd immunity needs to be quantified. It will be illustrated that it is possible, not only theoretically but also practically, to quantify herd immunity among farm animals with data from small-scale experiments as well as with data from field trials.

  14. The serological response against foot and mouth disease virus elicited by repeated vaccination of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-09-22

    In Israel, cattle are annually vaccinated against foot and mouth disease (FMD). If infections with FMD virus occur in dairy farms it mainly involves heifers and calves, while older dairy cows seldom become infected. We hypothesized that this difference in susceptibility between adult cows and the young heifers and calves is due to stronger and more stable immune response elicited by multiple vaccinations. In order to test this hypothesis, 99 dairy cattle, divided into six groups according to number of prior vaccinations, were annually vaccinated with a trivalent vaccine (A, O and Asia-1) and followed during two consecutive years. In total 988 sera were sampled at 11 time points. Virus neutralization tests (VNT) were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine homologous serotypes: O-4625, O-Manisa, Asia-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. In the 'high vaccination' groups (cows that were vaccinated at least four times before the study), high NAT were found on the beginning of the trial and no or only a mild increase of NAT was observed following further vaccinations. Additionally, in the 'high vaccination' groups, the percentage of cows that had a NAT higher than 2.0 (log10) by the end of the 1st year was significantly higher than in the 'low vaccination' groups (cows vaccinated only three times or less before the study). We conclude that starting from the 5th vaccination, the NAT increase following vaccination is mild and NAT are persistent, suggesting reduction of the frequency of routine vaccination after multiple vaccinations is possible. PMID:27576078

  15. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cloete

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oilbased ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain.

  16. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain. PMID:18575060

  17. Novel bivalent vectored vaccine for control of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spibey, N; McCabe, V J; Greenwood, N M; Jack, S C; Sutton, D; van der Waart, L

    2012-03-24

    A novel, recombinant myxoma virus-rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) vaccine has been developed for the prevention of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). A number of laboratory studies are described illustrating the safety and efficacy of the vaccine following subcutaneous administration in laboratory rabbits from four weeks of age onwards. In these studies, both vaccinated and unvaccinated control rabbits were challenged using pathogenic strains of RHD and myxoma viruses, and 100 per cent of the vaccinated rabbits were protected against both myxomatosis and RHD. PMID:22266680

  18. Efficacy of experimental Newcastle disease water-in-oil oil-emulsion vaccines formulated from squalane and squalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H D; Xie, Z X

    1990-01-01

    Water-in-oil inactivated Newcastle disease oil-emulsion vaccines were formulated with the terpene oils squalane or squalene, or mixtures thereof, and injected into 4-week-old broilers. Vaccine efficacy based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers was comparable to that of control mineral oil vaccines. Tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of the terpene oil emulsion vaccines was greatly reduced 3 weeks post-vaccination compared with that of mineral oil-based vaccine. Viscosity of the terpene oil vaccines was satisfactory but increased three to four times that of mineral oil vaccine when the antigen phase volume increased from 5% to 20%.

  19. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination : a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in t

  20. Comparative evaluation of vaccine efficacy of recombinant Marek's disease virus vaccine lacking Meq oncogene in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy F; Kreager, K S; Arango, J; Paraguassu, A; Beckman, B; Zhang, Huanmin; Fadly, Aly; Lupiani, B; Reddy, S M

    2010-02-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5 Delta Meq, in which the oncogene meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) 15I(5) x 7(1) chickens vaccinated with rMd5 Delta Meq virus or an ADOL preparation of CVI988/Rispens indicated that rMd5 Delta Meq provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens when challenged with the very virulent plus MDV 648A strain. In the present study we set to investigate the vaccine efficacy of rMd5 Delta Meq in the field compared to several commercial preparations of CVI988/Rispens. Three large-scale field experiments, in which seeder chickens were inoculated with a very virulent plus strain of 686, vv+ MDV, were conducted in a model developed by Hy-Line International. In addition, comparisons were made with bivalent vaccine (HVT+SB-1), HVT alone and several serotype 3 HVT-vectored vaccines individually or in combination with CVI988/Rispens. Experimental results showed that addition of HVT to either of the two commercial CVI988/Rispens preparations tested (A or B) did not enhance protection conferred by CVI988/Rispens alone and that rMd5 Delta Meq was a better or equal vaccine compared to any of the CVI988/Rispens vaccines tested under the conditions of the field trials presented herein. Our results also emphasized the complexity of factors affecting vaccine efficacy and the importance of challenge dose in protection. PMID:19941987

  1. New approaches and omics tools for mining of vaccine candidates against vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleš, Josipa; Horvatić, Anita; Guillemin, Nicolas; Galan, Asier; Mrljak, Vladimir; Bhide, Mangesh

    2016-08-16

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) present a major threat to human and animal health, as well as place a substantial burden on livestock production. As a way of sustainable VBD control, focus is set on vaccine development. Advances in genomics and other "omics" over the past two decades have given rise to a "third generation" of vaccines based on technologies such as reverse vaccinology, functional genomics, immunomics, structural vaccinology and the systems biology approach. The application of omics approaches is shortening the time required to develop the vaccines and increasing the probability of discovery of potential vaccine candidates. Herein, we review the development of new generation vaccines for VBDs, and discuss technological advancement and overall challenges in the vaccine development pipeline. Special emphasis is placed on the development of anti-tick vaccines that can quell both vectors and pathogens.

  2. Vaccination against enteric red mouth disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian

    isolate of biotype 2. Recently a new biotype (biotype 2) of Y. ruckeri has been isolated from farmed trout diagnosed with ERM across Europe although the fish had been vaccinated against ERM with the commercially available ERM-vaccine. Further, we will develop a new vaccination strategy based...... on the hypothesis that booster vaccinations will improve and prolong the protection of the rainbow trout against ERM. The vaccine induced protection will be tested in laboratory bath challenge infections before and after booster vaccination. It is the goal that the effect of the experimental vaccine and the most...... effect full booster method will be confirmed in a field experiment at a commercial fish farm with ERM biotype 2 disease problems. We will in this project investigate the mucosal and systemic immune mechanisms behind the improved protective response by new molecular and immunological tools as well...

  3. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children agedmeningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant serogroup responsible for disease remains serogroup B, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have significantly higher incidence of serogroup B disease than other children. A vaccine against meningococcus type B has now been licensed in Australia. The decline in severe rotavirus disease after vaccine introduction in 2007 was less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. By far the highest hospitalisation rates continue to occur among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory. Consideration of the role of age cut-offs and 2-dose versus 3-dose schedules may be necessary. Genotype surveillance is critically important to allow detection of any possible emergence of genotypes for which there is lower vaccine-derived immunity. Although Haemophilus influenzae type b disease rates have decreased significantly since the introduction of vaccines in 1993, the plateauing of rates in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and increasing disparity with other children, are concerning. While it is possible that higher disease rates in young

  4. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján;

    2009-01-01

    at enrollment. Conclusions: These results suggest that natural HPV infection-elicited antibodies may not provide complete protection over time, however the immune response to the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine appears to prevent reinfection or reactivation of disease with vaccine HPV types. Vaccine-related adverse......Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...... disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external...

  5. Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Villumsen, Marie; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence from observational studies and randomized trials in low-income countries that vaccinations have non-specific effects. Administration of live vaccines reduces overall child morbidity and mortality, presumably due to protection against non-targeted infections. In Denmark......, the live vaccine against smallpox was phased out in the 1970s due to the eradication of smallpox. We used the phasing-out period to investigate the effect of smallpox vaccination on the risk of hospitalization for infections....

  6. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle disease and avian influenza in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OE Oluwole,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and Avian Influenza (AI are among the important viral diseases of poultry with very high economic implications. ND is enzootic in most parts of the world while Highly Pathogenic AI (HPAI is an emerging zoonosis in Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the perception and attitude of poultry farmers in the selected Local Government Areas in Ibadan towards vaccination of birds against these diseases, and to find out the types of vaccines that were available for the control of the two diseases. A total of 84 respondents out of 100 (84% completed and returned the questionnaires administered. The results indicated that all farmers vaccinated their birds against ND. The regime for ND vaccination was not the same across the local government areas. Some 32 (38.1% farmers operated vaccination schedules provided by hatchery technicians, while 43 (51.2% farmers vaccinated their birds at about 4-6 weeks interval. Nine (10.7% farmers combined hatchery and laboratory evaluation to determine schedule. Thirty nine farmers (46.4% indicated that they were aware of national policy of non-vaccination against AI. However, 14 out of 84 farmers (16.7% vaccinated their birds against HPAI. There is a need to continue the national policy of slaughter of HPAI infected poultry birds and compensation of farmers, albeit allowing strategic use of vaccine to effectively control HPAI outbreaks in south-western part of Nigeria.

  7. Challenges and opportunities in developing and marketing vaccines for OIE List A and emerging animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, C G; Salt, J; Balaski, C

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceutical products generated 14.5 billion U.S. Dollars (USD) in worldwide sales in 2000, with biological products contributing 16.2 percent or 2.3 billion USD. The leading biological products were foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines, with 284 million USD in sales, representing 26.4 percent of the entire livestock biological business. Despite the potential opportunities for the biologicals industry, non-vaccination policies and undefined control and eradication strategies have deterred the private sector from significant investments in the research and development of vaccines against List A diseases. The primary research focus remains vaccines for infectious diseases that have an impact on current domestic herd health management systems. Changing the vaccine paradigm, investing in new technologies, and creating the future by integrating into key alliances with producers and regulatory authorities will be paramount in protecting our poultry and livestock industries against highly infectious diseases and potential acts of bioterrorism. PMID:14677694

  8. The Need for Evolutionarily Rational Disease Interventions: Vaccination Can Select for Higher Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Boots

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt evolution has played a major role in preventing the control of infectious disease through antibiotic and insecticide resistance, but recent theory suggests disease interventions such as vaccination may lead to evolution of more harmful parasites. A new study published in PLOS Biology by Andrew Read and colleagues shows empirically that vaccination against Marek's disease has favored higher virulence; without intervention, the birds die too quickly for any transmission to occur, but vaccinated hosts can both stay alive longer and shed the virus. This is an elegant empirical demonstration of how evolutionary theory can predict potentially dangerous responses of infectious disease to human interventions.

  9. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene;

    dose of ERM bacterin fully protected rainbow trout when they are vaccinated anally. Oral vaccination can also induce full protection but the dose of the bacterin has to be 100 times higher than if the fish was to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the oral feed bacteria is digested......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally and anally vaccinated...... fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral...

  10. Apoptose e expressão de VP2 e GAPDH na infecção precoce pelo vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius em pintos SPF Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove pintos SPF de um dia foram inoculados com o vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius (VDIB para avaliar a ocorrência precoce de apoptose e a expressão da proteína viral 2 (VP2 e da enzima gliceraldeído fosfato dehidrogenase (GAPDH. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: 1-controle; e 2 a 5- com 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas pós-inoculação, respectivamente. Fragmentos da bursa de Fabricius foram colhidos para processamento histológico e extração de RNA. Lâminas coradas em HE e TUNEL (marcação in situ da fragmentação do genoma com transferase terminal de deoxinucleotídeo foram utilizadas na morfometria do índice apoptótico. Amostras de mRNA foram testadas para a expressão dos genes VP2 e GAPDH utilizando-se transcrição reversa e RT-PCR. Utilizou-se um kit SYBR GREEN PCR, e a reação foi desenvolvida em ABI Prism 7000 SDS. Os índices apoptóticos cresceram progressivamente indicando uma relação na atrofia bursal causada pelo VDIB. Paralelamente, os resultados da PCR em tempo real demonstraram queda da carga viral nas células linfóides da bursa nos diferentes intervalos de tempo do experimento. Esses resultados sugerem um papel protetor da apoptose na diminuição da replicação viral.Twenty-nine SPF 1-day-old chicks were inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV to evaluate early apoptosis and the expression of viral protein 2 (VP2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GAPDH. Five groups were formed: G1-control -and G2 to G5, - 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation, respectively. Half of each BF was fixed and processed by routine techniques. To quantify apoptosis, 5µm-thick sections were stained with HE and submitted to TUNEL (terminal transferase UDP nick end labeling technique. mRNA was extracted from pooled samples of 3 animals/group and used for the expression of VP2 and GADPH genes using the reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A SYBR

  11. Increased Protection against Pneumococcal Disease by Mucosal Administration of Conjugate Vaccine plus Interleukin-12

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-...

  12. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  13. Vaccines based on structure-based design provide protection against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Luxon, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    Vaccines elicit immune responses, provide protection against microorganisms and are considered as one of the most successful medical interventions against infectious diseases. Vaccines can be produced using attenuated virus or bacteria, recombinant proteins, bacterial polysaccharides, carbohydrates or plasmid DNA. Conventional vaccines rely on the induction of immune responses against antigenic proteins to be effective. The genetic diversity of microorganisms, coupled with the high degree of sequence variability in antigenic proteins, presents a challenge to developing broadly effective conventional vaccines. The observation that whole protein antigens are not necessarily essential for inducing immunity has led to the emergence of a new branch of vaccine design termed 'structural vaccinology'. Structure-based vaccines are designed on the rationale that protective epitopes should be sufficient to induce immune responses and provide protection against pathogens. Recent studies demonstrated that designing structure-based vaccine candidates with multiple epitopes induce a higher immune response. As yet there are no commercial vaccines available based on structure-based design and most of the structure-based vaccine candidates are in the preclinical stages of development. This review focuses on recent advances in structure-based vaccine candidates and their application in providing protection against infectious diseases.

  14. Influence of serotype and virus strain on synergism between Marek's disease vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R L

    1992-12-01

    The enhanced protective effect (synergism) when certain Marek's disease (MD) vaccine viruses are combined has been widely used in the development of improved vaccines, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To better characterize the basis for synergism among MD vaccine viruses, three vaccine viruses from each of the three MD viral serotypes were evaluated alone and in various combinations for protection against early challenge with very virulent MD viruses in four replicate trials. Synergism seemed to be influenced by viral serotype because significant enhancement occurred frequently between viruses of serotypes 2 and 3 (five of nine bivalent vaccines positive), but rarely between viruses of serotypes 1 and 3 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive) and 1 and 2 (one of nine bivalent vaccines positive), and was not detectable between viruses of the same serotype (none of nine bivalent vaccines positive). With some exceptions, the degree of synergism tended to vary inversely with the mean protective efficacy of the most protective component virus. Little effect of virus dose, virus dose ratio or type and route of viral challenge was noted. The combination of strains 281MI/1 (serotype 2) and WTHV-1/1 (serotype 3), both poorly protective as monovalent vaccines, consistently demonstrated high levels of synergism (over 300%) in antibody-positive chickens challenged 5 days post-vaccination with Md5 virus. This protocol may be a useful model system for further studies on mechanisms of synergism. However, mixtures that optimize synergism are not necessarily as protective as commercial vaccines.

  15. Using Plasmids as DNA Vaccines for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregoning, John S; Kinnear, Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    DNA plasmids can be used to induce a protective (or therapeutic) immune response by delivering genes encoding vaccine antigens. That naked DNA (without the refinement of coat proteins or host evasion systems) can cross from outside the cell into the nucleus and be expressed is particularly remarkable given the sophistication of the immune system in preventing infection by pathogens. As a result of the ease, low cost, and speed of custom gene synthesis, DNA vaccines dangle a tantalizing prospect of the next wave of vaccine technology, promising individual designer vaccines for cancer or mass vaccines with a rapid response time to emerging pandemics. There is considerable enthusiasm for the use of DNA vaccination as an approach, but this enthusiasm should be tempered by the successive failures in clinical trials to induce a potent immune response. The technology is evolving with the development of improved delivery systems that increase expression levels, particularly electroporation and the incorporation of genetically encoded adjuvants. This review will introduce some key concepts in the use of DNA plasmids as vaccines, including how the DNA enters the cell and is expressed, how it induces an immune response, and a summary of clinical trials with DNA vaccines. The review also explores the advances being made in vector design, delivery, formulation, and adjuvants to try to realize the promise of this technology for new vaccines. If the immunogenicity and expression barriers can be cracked, then DNA vaccines may offer a step change in mass vaccination.

  16. Safety and efficacy of hepatitis A vaccine in children with chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanaa Mostafa El-Karaksy; Manal Ismail El-Hawary; Nehal Mohammad El-Koofy; Rokaya El-Sayed; Mona Al-Saeed El-Raziky; Samah Asaad Mansour; Gamal Mohammad Taha; Fatma El-Mougy

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety and efficacy of hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) in children with chronic liver disease of various etiologies.METHODS: Eleven children with chronic liver disease and thirteen age- and sex-matched controls negative for HAV antibodies were vaccinated against hepatitis A after they gave their informed consent. Children with uncontrolled coagulopathy or signs of hepatic decompensation were excluded. The vaccine (Havrix:720 ELISA units in 0.5 mL, from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) was given intramuscularly in the deltoid in 2 doses 6 mo apart. Children were tested for HAV antibodies one and six months after the 1st dose and one month after the 2nd dose. Total serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined immediately before and after one month of the 1st dose of the vaccine.RESULTS: Only 7 out of the 11 patients were positive for HAV antibodies after the 1st dose of the vaccine,as compared to 100% of the controls. One month after the 2nd dose, all patients tested were positive for HAV antibodies. No deterioration in liver functions of patients was noted after vaccination. No adverse events,immediate or late, were reported by the mothers after each dose of the vaccine.CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A vaccine is both safe and effective in this small studied group of children with chronic liver disease. Given the high seroconversion rate, post-vaccination testing for HAV antibodies is not needed.

  17. The effectiviness of hepatitis-B vaccination in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    DİŞİBEYAZ, Selçuk; TÜRKMEN, Aygül; Parlak, Erkan; SAYDAM, Gül; ÜLKER, Aysel

    2002-01-01

    Background and aim: Inflammatory bowel disease patients are at high risk for hepatitis- B Virus infection due to the frequent need for hospitalisation, blood transfusion and endoscopic examination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of inflammatory bowel disease patients to hepatitis- B Virus vaccination. Material and methods: A total of 41 patients (24 ulcerative colitis and 17 Crohn's disease) and 28 healthy controls were vaccinated with a recombinant hepatitis- ...

  18. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events.

  19. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. PMID:27087559

  20. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM. Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.

  1. Comparative study on immuno-modulatory effect of anticoccidial vaccines and a coccidiostat on nd vaccinated broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    105 day old broiler chicks were divided into 5 equal groups with 21 chicks in each i.e. A (non vaccinated, non medicated control), B (ND vaccinated control), C (administered with ND vaccine Lasota and Eimeria vaccine EV), D (NDV and immucox) and E (administered with NDV vaccine and coccidiostat). The comparative immunomodulatory effects of EV, immucox and Sacox were worked out on the basis of the GMT levels in Newcastle disease vaccinated birds along with the non-vaccinated and non-medicated control birds. These titres were evaluated by using HA and H1 tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, OPG, weight gain, FCR, Postmortem findings, Bursal/body weight ratio, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus and liver were also assessed. The birds that were kept as NDV vaccinated control (group B) had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds of unmedicated, unvaccinated control group (A) secured 2nd position regarding weight gain and FCR. Among the three experimental groups (C, D and E), the birds from group C (NDV + EV) had higher body weight than group D and E. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the birds of group C was also found to be better than the birds belonging to group D and E. The number of oocysts per gm of faeces showed gradual decrease and became nil on the observation of day 33 of the experiment, as the birds became solidly immune against Eimeria infection at this age. The birds belonging to group B (NDV vaccinated control) had shown the highest antibody titers while the birds of group A (unvaccinated unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titres. Among the three experimental groups (C, D and E) the birds from group C had the higher antibody titres as compared to other two groups (D and E) on day 49. (author)

  2. Optimal Control for TB disease with vaccination assuming endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggriani, N.; Wicaksono, B. C.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious disease in the world which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is spread through the air via the droplets from the infectious persons when they are coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the TB by providing some solution, for example by providing BCG vaccine that prevent an infected person from becoming an active infectious TB. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of the spread of the TB which assumes endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection factors. We also assume that some of the susceptible population are vaccinated. Furthermore we investigate the optimal vaccination level for the disease.

  3. Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease following Bacille Calmette-Guérin and Smallpox Vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Jess, Tine; Sørup, Signe;

    2013-01-01

    Childhood immunology has been suggested to play a role in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on the studies of childhood vaccinations, infections, and treatment with antibiotics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and smallpox vaccinations were gradually phased-out in Denmark...

  4. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease 3 Years after Introduction of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, Mirjam J.; Wagenvoort, Gertjan H.J.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Elberse, Karin; Vlaminckx, Bart J.; Hester E. de Melker; van der Ende, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Three years after a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was replaced by a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands, we observed a decrease in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 1, 5, and 7F. Our data do not support or exclude cross-protection against serotype 19A.

  5. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Fortunato; Domenico Martinelli; Maria Giovanna Cappelli; Vanessa Cozza; Rosa Prato

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children

  6. Effects of chicken interferon Gamma on Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...

  7. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dekker, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not

  8. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both. Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls

  9. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental benefits of adding boys vaccination are

  10. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...... replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different...... grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better...

  11. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján;

    2009-01-01

    In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical disease....... Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external anogenital disease...... related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed....

  12. Increase in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Children with Sickle Cell Disease since Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Licensure

    OpenAIRE

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Quinn, Charles T.; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Rogers, Zora R.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased with prophylactic penicillin, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV7) usage. We report 10 IPD cases since PCV7 licensure, including a recent surge of non-vaccine serotypes. IPD continues to be a serious risk in SCD.

  13. From regional pulse vaccination to global disease eradication: insights from a mathematical model of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cameron J; Smith, Robert J; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    Mass-vaccination campaigns are an important strategy in the global fight against poliomyelitis and measles. The large-scale logistics required for these mass immunisation campaigns magnifies the need for research into the effectiveness and optimal deployment of pulse vaccination. In order to better understand this control strategy, we propose a mathematical model accounting for the disease dynamics in connected regions, incorporating seasonality, environmental reservoirs and independent periodic pulse vaccination schedules in each region. The effective reproduction number, Re, is defined and proved to be a global threshold for persistence of the disease. Analytical and numerical calculations show the importance of synchronising the pulse vaccinations in connected regions and the timing of the pulses with respect to the pathogen circulation seasonality. Our results indicate that it may be crucial for mass-vaccination programs, such as national immunisation days, to be synchronised across different regions. In addition, simulations show that a migration imbalance can increase Re and alter how pulse vaccination should be optimally distributed among the patches, similar to results found with constant-rate vaccination. Furthermore, contrary to the case of constant-rate vaccination, the fraction of environmental transmission affects the value of Re when pulse vaccination is present.

  14. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  15. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723

  16. Inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of a patient with Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenberg, Christina; Friis-Møller, Nina; Ulstrup, Thomas; Aalykke, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Following vaccination, the patient fell ill with influenza-like illness. Elevated transaminase levels and YF viremia were detected. Despite being immunocompromised, the patient did not develop more severe adverse effects. Neutralising antibodies to YF virus were detected on day 14 following vaccination and remained protective at least 10 months after vaccination. Limited data is available on outcomes of YFV in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, including biologics, and we report this case as a reminder of vigilance of vaccine recommendations in this population. PMID:27571912

  17. Inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of a patient with Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenberg, Christina; Friis-Møller, Nina; Ulstrup, Thomas; Aalykke, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Following vaccination, the patient fell ill with influenza-like illness. Elevated transaminase levels and YF viremia were detected. Despite being immunocompromised, the patient did not develop more severe adverse effects. Neutralising antibodies to YF virus were detected on day 14 following vaccination and remained protective at least 10 months after vaccination. Limited data is available on outcomes of YFV in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, including biologics, and we report this case as a reminder of vigilance of vaccine recommendations in this population.

  18. Fatal outcome after postexposure rabies vaccination in a patient with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalošević Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In Serbia and Montenegro postexposure rabies vaccination is performed using five doses of rabies vaccine with a potency of 2.5 I.U. It is given on 0, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th day, combined with human rabies immunoglobulin with the first dose. Modern rabies vaccines produced in cell cultures rarely cause neurological complications, among which Guillain-Barre syndrome and parkinsonism. Case report The authors report a case of a 78-year-old woman with a documented five-year history of Parkinson's disease, who was bitten by a rabid cat. Twelve hours later, when the rabies infection of the cat was confirmed by an immunofluorescence test, the patient received the first dose of rabies vaccine Verorab (Aventis, a cell culture vaccine, together with the human rabies immunoglobulin produced in Belgrade. After the third dose of rabies vaccine, the symptoms of Parkinson's disease progressed and vaccination was interrupted. However, one month later, the patient died with predominantly neurological symptoms. As the patient died at the time when incubation of rabies might have been expected, autopsy and rabies diagnostics were performed. Autopsy and pathohistologic findings The autopsy and pathohistologic findings from the specimens treated with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining, together with immunofluorescence test, excluded rabies as a cause of death and revealed neurodegenerative changes typical for Parkinson's disease. Using two different fluorescent rabies antibodies, we performed a direct immunofluorescence antibody tests, but no rabies antigens were detected. However, in histologic slides of the brain stem, large intracytoplasmic inclusions were found in some neurons, identified as Lewy bodies characteristic for Parkinson's disease Conclusion Parkinson's disease, with its complications, was the cause of death of the patient bitten by a rabid cat. Furthermore, the coincidence of the progression of Parkinson's disease symptoms, at the

  19. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Rasmussen, Jeppe N; Andersen, Peter H S;

    2013-01-01

    A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule) in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction...... of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number) and 105 (55%) caused by one...... of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F...

  20. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families. PMID:27405928

  1. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  2. Evaluation of factors associated with response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic, Cem; Aslan, Fatih; Krc, Adnan; Gümüs, Zeynep Zehra; Arabul, Mahmut; Yüksel, Elif Sartas; Vatansever, Sezgin; Yurtsever, Süreyya Gül; Alper, Emrah; Ünsal, Belks

    2015-06-01

    It is recommended to investigate the serology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and vaccinate seronegative patients at the time of diagnosis in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HBV vaccine and factors affecting the response.In this retrospective, observational study, HBV-seronegative IBD patients were administered 3 doses (at months 0, 1, and 6) recombinant 20  μg HbsAg. Patients' demographics, IBD attributes, and treatment methods were investigated as the factors with potential impacts on vaccination outcomes.One hundred twenty-five patients with IBD were evaluated. The number of patients with Anti-HBs >10  IU/L was 71 (56.8%), and the number of patients with anti-HBs >100  IU/L was 50 (40%). Age, disease activity, Crohn disease subtype, and immunosuppressive treatment (IST) were found to have significant effects on immune response (P = 0.011, P vaccination during remission (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-14, P vaccine response.The likelihood of achieving adequate immune response with standard HBV vaccination protocol in IBD is low. Selecting vaccination protocols with more potent immunogenicity is a better approach to achieve effective vaccine response in patients with multiple unfavorable factors. PMID:26039133

  3. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  4. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  5. [Impact of vaccination on the infectious diseases epidemiology: example of pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Guiso, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Several vaccines are now routinely used since fifty years in different developed countries. Their principal impact has been to decrease morbidity and mortality of the infectious diseases they are targeting. One disease, smallpox, is eradicated, poliomyelitis will be soon, diphteria is controlled in several countries but pertussis is still endemic although an efficacious vaccine was used. Why? Pertussis is an example of an infection for which the immunity of the population has changed after th...

  6. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.

  7. Parents’ and Adolescents’ Willingness to be Vaccinated Against Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease during a Mass Vaccination in Saguenay–Lac-St-Jean (Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Dubé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93% and adolescents (75%. Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated.

  8. Parents’ and adolescents’ willingness to be vaccinated against serogroup B meningococcal disease during a mass vaccination in Saguenay–Lac-St-Jean (Quebec)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Hamel, Denis; Belley, Sylvie; Gagné, Hélène; Boulianne, Nicole; Landry, Monique; Bettinger, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc) was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93%) and adolescents (75%). Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated. PMID:26236359

  9. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0-84.6%) in children children vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage.

  10. [Invasive pneumococcal disease in two non-vaccinated pediatric cases: pleural empyema and bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Tezer, Hasan; Özkaya Parlakay, Aslınur; Uzun Kenan, Bahriye; Sayed Oskovi, Hülya; Nar Ötgün, Selin

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the causative agent of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) characterized by severe infections such as bacteraemia, sepsis and meningitis. S.pneumoniae and IPDs are situated in the focus of the vaccine studies because of being encompassed of a significant burden of disease in the world, severe mortality and morbidities, and location in vaccine-preventable diseases group. Although S.pneumoniae has more than 90 defined serotypes, certain serotypes are often identified as the cause of IPDs. Individuals with comorbid and chronic diseases, primary or secondary immune deficiencies, and 65 years of age are at increased risk for IPDs. Currently, a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine and also 7, 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) have been produced for pneumococci. Phase studies of protein based vaccines, which will provide protection independent of serotypes, and 15-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine are still ongoing. In Turkey, in November 2008 PCV7 and in April 2011 PCV13 have been implemented in the national immunization program. First case of the pneumococcal unvaccinated cases presented in this report was a 6-year-old girl patient with pneumonia and pleural empyema due to S.pneumoniae serotype 1, without any underlying risk factors. The other case is a 52-days-old male patient, who had a history of pneumococcal septicemia in the newborn period and was followed for bacteremia associated S.pneumoniae serotype 12B and diagnosed as complement deficiency on follow-up. S.pneumoniae serotype 1 is within serotypes covered by 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that are in use today, and is a highly invasive strain often isolated in pneumococcal lobar pneumonia and empyema. S.pneumoniae serotype 12B is a non-vaccine serotype not included in any of conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines, and usually obtained in respiratory infections and

  11. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT. Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents.

  12. Exposed and concealed antigens as vaccine targets for controlling ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, P A; Trimnell, A R; Kazimirova, M; Labuda, M

    2006-04-01

    Tick vaccines derived from Bm86, a midgut membrane-bound protein of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, are currently the only commercially available ectoparasite vaccines. Despite its introduction to the market in 1994, and the recognized need for alternatives to chemical pesticides, progress in developing effective antitick vaccines (and ectoparasite vaccines in general) is slow. The primary rate-limiting step is the identification of suitable antigenic targets for vaccine development. Two sources of candidate vaccine antigens have been identified: 'exposed' antigens that are secreted in tick saliva during attachment and feeding on a host and 'concealed' antigens that are normally hidden from the host. Recently, a third group of antigens has been distinguished that combines the properties of both exposed and concealed antigens. This latter group offers the prospect of a broad-spectrum vaccine effective against both adults and immature stages of a wide variety of tick species. It also shows transmission-blocking and protective activity against a tick-borne pathogen. With the proliferation of molecular techniques and their application to vaccine development, there are high hopes for new and effective antitick vaccines that also control tick-borne diseases. PMID:16542317

  13. Drug Treatment Combined with BCG Vaccination Reduces Disease Reactivation in Guinea Pigs Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shaobin; Shanley, Crystal A.; Caraway, Megan L.; Orme, Eileen A.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Hascall-Dove, Laurel; Ackart, David; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only human tuberculosis vaccine, primes a partially protective immune response against M. tuberculosis infection in humans and animals. In guinea pigs, BCG vaccination slows the progression of disease and reduces the severity of necrotic granulomas, which harbor a population of drug-tolerant bacilli. The objective of this study was to determine if reducing disease severity by BCG vaccination of guinea pigs prior to M. tuberculosis challenge enhanced the efficacy of combination drug therapy. At 20 days of infection, treatment of vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals with rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrizinamide (RHZ) was initiated for 4 or 8 weeks. On days 50, 80 and 190 of infection (10 weeks after drug were withdrawn), treatment efficacy was evaluated by quantifying clinical condition, bacterial loads, lesion severity, and dynamic changes in peripheral blood and lung leukocyte numbers by flow cytometry. In a separate, long-term survival study, treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining disease reactivation frequency post-mortem. BCG vaccination alone delayed pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease progression, but failed to prevent dissemination of bacilli and the formation of necrotic granulomas. Drug therapy either alone or in combination with BCG, was more effective at lessening clinical disease and lesion severity compared to control animals or those receiving BCG alone. Fewer residual lesions in BCG vaccinated and drug treated animals, equated to a reduced frequency of reactivation disease and improvement in survival even out to 500 days of infection. The combining of BCG vaccination and drug therapy was more effective at resolving granulomas such that fewer animals had evidence of residual infection and thus less reactivation disease. PMID:22244979

  14. Prevention of pneumococcal diseases in the post-seven valent vaccine era: A European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weil-Olivier Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in young children decreased dramatically following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae now reflects infections caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. Recently introduced higher valency pneumococcal vaccines target the residual burden of invasive and non-invasive infections, including those caused by serotypes not included in PCV7. This review is based on presentations made at the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in June 2011. Discussion Surveillance data show increased circulation of the non-PCV7 vaccine serotypes 1, 3, 6A, 6C, 7 F and 19A in countries with routine vaccination. Preliminary evidence suggests that broadened serotype coverage offered by higher valency vaccines may be having an effect on invasive disease caused by some of those serotypes, including 19A, 7 F and 6C. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia remains a difficult clinical diagnosis. However, recent reports indicate that pneumococcal vaccination has reduced hospitalisations of children for vaccine serotype pneumonia. Variations in serotype circulation and occurrence of complicated and non-complicated pneumonia caused by non-PCV7 serotypes highlight the potential of higher valency vaccines to decrease the remaining burden. PCVs reduce nasopharyngeal carriage and acute otitis media (AOM caused by vaccine serotypes. Recent investigations of the interaction between S. pneumoniae and non-typeable H. influenzae suggest that considerable reduction in severe, complicated AOM infections may be achieved by prevention of early pneumococcal carriage and AOM infections. Extension of the vaccine serotype spectrum beyond PCV7 may provide additional benefit in preventing the evolution of AOM. The direct and indirect costs associated with pneumococcal disease are high, thus herd protection and infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes

  15. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitta B Harboe

    Full Text Available A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by PCV7-serotypes. We report the results from a nationwide population-based cohort study of laboratory confirmed IPD cases in children younger than 5 years during October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 and describe the characteristics of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number and 105 (55% caused by one of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F and 23F. One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13 serotypes had been vaccinated by PCV13 and there were therefore no PCV13-vaccine failures in the first 8-months after PCV13 introduction in Denmark.

  16. Safety and tolerability of intradermal influenza vaccination in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arintaya Phrommintikul; Wanwarang Wongcharoen; Srun Kuanprasert; Narawudt Prasertwitayakij; Rungsrit Kanjanavanit; Siriluck Gunaparn; Apichard Sukonthasarn

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well-established that influenza vaccination reduces adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), however, the vaccine coverage rate in most countries remains low. The concern about the local adverse effects of intramus-cular injection, particularly in CVD patients receiving antithrombotic therapy, is one of the important impediments. This study was con-ducted to assess the safety, side effects and tolerability of intradermal influenza vaccine in CVD patients. Methods This was an observa-tional study in adult CVD patients who had undergone vaccination against seasonal influenza by intradermal vaccination between May 16th and May 30th, 2012 at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital. The medical history, patients’ acceptability and adverse effects were collected using a written questionnaire completed by the patient immediately following vaccination and by a telephone survey eight days later. Results Among 169 patients, 52.1%were women and the mean age was 63 ± 12 years. Coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy were present in 121 (71.6%), 40 (23.7%) and 8 (4.7%), respectively. Antithrombotics were used in 89.3%. After vaccination, the pain score was 0, 1 or 2 (out of 10) in 44.4%, 15.1%, and 27.6%of the patients, respectively. Eight days after vaccination, the common adverse reactions were itching 19 (11.9%), swelling 9 (5.7%) and fatigue (4.7%). No hematoma or bruising was reported. Conclusions The intradermal influenza vaccination is safe and well tolerates with high rates of satisfaction in CVD patients. This technique should be useful in expanding influenza vaccine coverage.

  17. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease.

  18. Characterization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function following foot-and-mouth disease virus infection and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that remains a global threat to livestock species. The induction of neutralizing antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this disease. Although these effort...

  19. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  20. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki;

    2014-01-01

    is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...

  1. Contribution of vaccines to our understanding of pneumococcal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Klugman, Keith P.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and is also the leading infectious cause of death in adults. The most important cause of pneumonia is the Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus. It has thus become the leading vaccine-preventable cause of death and is a successful and diverse human pathogen. The development of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines has made possible the prevention of pneumococcal disea...

  2. Adverse Reactions to Field Vaccination Against Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarbush, S M; Hananeh, W M; Ramadan, W; Al Sheyab, O M; Alnajjar, A R; Al Zoubi, I G; Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Tuppurainen, E S M

    2016-04-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging disease in the Middle East region and has been recently reported in Jordan. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. Geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. Sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. Of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administration. The duration between vaccine administration and appearance of adverse clinical signs ranged from 1 to 20 days (Mean = 10.3, SD ± 3.9). Clinical signs were similar to those observed with natural cases of lumpy skin disease. These were mainly fever, decreased feed intake, decreased milk production and variable sized cutaneous nodules (a few millimetres to around 2 cm in diameter) that could be seen anywhere on the body (head, neck, trunk, perineum), udder, and/or teats. Nodules were raised and firm initially and then formed dry scabs that could be peeled off the skin. The characteristic deep 'sit fast' appearance was rarely seen and most lesions were superficial. Some cattle had swollen lymph nodes, while a few pregnant animals aborted. The percentage of affected cattle ranged from 0.3 to 25% (Mean = 8, SD ± 5.1). Fever, decreased feed intake, and decreased milk production were seen in 83.9, 85.7, and 94.6% in cattle on the affected farms, respectively. All affected cattle displayed skin nodules over their entire bodies, while 33.9 and 7.1% of the affected farms reported nodular lesions present on the udders and teats, respectively. No mortalities were reported due to vaccine adverse reactions. Duration (course) of clinical signs ranged from 3 to 20 days (Mean = 13.7, SD ± 4.1). Two types of LSD vaccines were used by the farmers in this study. The first one was a sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccine derived from the RM65 isolate [Jovivac, manufactured by Jordan

  3. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: towards combination vaccines for allergic and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlmayr, Johanna; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an antigen-specific and disease-modifying form of treatment. It is based on the therapeutic administration of the disease-causing allergens to allergic patients. However, the fact that only allergen extracts of insufficient quality are currently available and the possible occurrence of side effects during treatment limit the broad use of SIT and prophylactic vaccination is has not yet been performed. In the last 20 years the DNA sequences of the most common allergens have been isolated and the corresponding allergens have been produced as recombinant allergens. Based on the progress made in the field of allergen characterization it is possible to improve the quality and safety of allergy vaccines and to develop new, more effective strategies for a broad application of SIT and even for prophylactic treatment. Here we discuss the development of combination vaccines for allergy and infectious diseases. This approach is based on the selection of allergen-derived peptides with reduced IgE- and T cell reactivity in order to minimize IgE- and T cell-mediated side effects as well as the potential of the vaccine to induce allergic sensitization. These peptides are fused by recombinant technology onto a viral carrier protein to obtain a combination vaccine which induces protective immunity against allergy and viral infections. The application of such combination vaccines for therapy and prophylaxis of allergy and infectious diseases is discussed.

  4. SEVERAL MUCOSAL VACCINATION ROUTES CONFER IMMUNITY AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE IN RAINBOW TROUT, BUT THE PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS ARE DIFFERENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene;

    Vaccination is a keystone in prophylactic strategies preventing outbreaks of fish pathogenic bacterial diseases in aquaculture. The first commercial fish vaccine consisted of a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 1. The vaccine has been very successful and has been used for more than...

  5. Construction of recombinant baculovirus vaccines for Newcastle disease virus and an assessment of their immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingping; Liu, Ying; Jin, Liying; Gao, Dongni; Bai, Chengle; Ping, Wenxiang

    2016-08-10

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-GED), (2) woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of adeno-associated virus (AAV Serotype II), and (4) the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To test the in vivo efficacy of the viruses, we vaccinated chickens with each construct and characterized the cellular and humoral immune response to challenge with virulent NDV (F48E9). All of the vaccine constructs provided some level of protection (62.5-100% protection). The F-series of vaccines provided a greater degree of protection (87.5-100%) than the HN-series (62.5-87.5%). While all of the vaccines elicited a robust cellular and humoral response subtle differences in efficacy were observed. The combination of the WPRE and VSV-GED regulatory elements enhanced the immune response and increased antigen expression. The ITRs effectively increased the length of time IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 were expressed in the plasma. The F-series elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibody and NDV-specific IgG. The baculovirus system is a promising platform for NDV vaccine development that combines the immunostimulatory benefits of a recombinant virus vector with the non-replicating benefits of a DNA vaccine. PMID:27015979

  6. Preparation and efficacy of a live newcastle disease virus vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV. Live NDV vaccines are administered by drinking water, eyedrops or coarse aerosol spray. To further enhance mucosal immune responses, chitosan nanoparticles were developed for the mucosal delivery of a live NDV vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A lentogenic live-virus vaccine (strain LaSota against NDV encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles were developed using an ionic crosslinking method. Chitosan nanoparticles containing the lentogenic live-virus vaccine against NDV (NDV-CS-NPs were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 371.1 nm, an encapsulation rate of 77% and a zeta potential of +2.84 mV. The Western blotting analysis showed that NDV structural proteins were detected in NDV-CS-NPs. The virus release assay results of NDV-CS-NPs indicated that NDV was released from NDV-CS-NPs. Chickens immunized orally or intranasally with NDV-CS-NPs were fully protected whereas one out of five chickens immunized with the LaSota live NDV vaccine and three out of five chickens immunized with the inactivated NDV vaccine were dead after challenge with the highly virulent NDV strain F48E9. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NDV-CS-NPs induced better protection of immunized specific pathogen free chickens compared to the live NDV vaccine strain LaSota and the inactivated NDV vaccine. This study lays a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.

  7. Application of mouse model for effective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; You, Su-Hwa; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2016-07-19

    Efficacy evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines has been conducted in target animals such as cows and pigs. In particular, handling FMD virus requires a high level of biosafety management and facilities to contain the virulent viruses. The lack of a laboratory animal model has resulted in inconvenience when it comes to using target animals for vaccine evaluation, bringing about increased cost, time and labor for the experiments. The FMD mouse model has been studied, but most FMD virus (FMDV) strains are not known to cause disease in adult mice. In the present study, we created a series of challenge viruses that are lethal to adult C57BL/6 mice. FMDV types O, A, and Asia1, which are related to frequent FMD outbreaks, were adapted for mice and the pathogenesis of each virus was evaluated in the mouse model. Challenge experiments after vaccination using in-house and commercial vaccines demonstrated vaccine-mediated protection in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we propose that FMD vaccine evaluation should be carried out using mouse-adapted challenge viruses as a swift, effective efficacy test of experimental or commercial vaccines. PMID:27340094

  8. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Critical Community Size and Spatial Vaccination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Takahashi, Saki; Liao, Qiaohong; Xing, Weijia; Lai, Shengjie; Hsiao, Victor; Liu, Fengfeng; Zheng, Yaming; Chang, Zhaorui; Yuan, Chen; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Yu, Hongjie; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) constitutes a considerable burden for health care systems across China. Yet this burden displays important geographic heterogeneity that directly affects the local persistence and the dynamics of the disease, and thus the ability to control it through vaccination campaigns. Here, we use detailed geographic surveillance data and epidemic models to estimate the critical community size (CCS) of HFMD associated enterovirus serotypes CV-A16 and EV-A71 and we explore what spatial vaccination strategies may best reduce the burden of HFMD. We found CCS ranging from 336,979 (±225,866) to 722,372 (±150,562) with the lowest estimates associated with EV-A71 in the southern region of China where multiple transmission seasons have previously been identified. Our results suggest the existence of a regional immigration-recolonization dynamic driven by urban centers. If EV-A71 vaccines doses are limited, these would be optimally deployed in highly populated urban centers and in high-prevalence areas. If HFMD vaccines are included in China’s National Immunization Program in order to achieve high coverage rates (>85%), routine vaccination of newborns largely outperforms strategies in which the equivalent number of doses is equally divided between routine vaccination of newborns and pulse vaccination of the community at large. PMID:27125917

  9. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pit Sze Liew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described.

  10. Immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccination in Italian children with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, E; Carloni, E; Marino, M G; Ciofi degli Atti, M L; Gesualdo, F; Romano, M; Giannattasio, A; Guarino, A; Carloni, R; Borgia, P; Volpe, E; Perrelli, F; Pizzuti, R; Tozzi, A E

    2012-07-20

    Since children with chronic diseases represent a primary target for immunization strategies, it is important that their immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines is optimal. We performed a study to measure immunization coverage and timeliness of vaccines in children with type 1 diabetes, HIV infection, Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and neurological diseases. A total of 275 children aged 6 months-18 years were included in the study. Coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), polio (Pol), and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines approximated 85% at 24 months, while measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) coverage was 62%. Immunization coverage for seasonal influenza was 59%. The analysis of timeliness revealed that there was heterogeneity among children with different chronic diseases. A proportional hazard model showed that children with HIV infection had the longest time to complete three doses of DTP, Pol, and HBV, and those with neurological diseases received the first dose of MMR later than the other categories. Causes of missing or delayed vaccination mostly included a concurrent acute disease. Children with chronic diseases should be strictly monitored for routine and recommended vaccinations, and health care providers and families should be properly informed to avoid false contraindications.

  11. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, Sarah;

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  12. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  13. Continued control of pneumococcal disease in the UK - the impact of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Gladstone, R.A.; Jefferies, J. M.; Faust, S. N.; Clarke, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were first introduced for routine use in the USA in 2000, although the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced into the UK's routine childhood immunization programme until September 2006. After its introduction, a marked decrease in the incidence of pneumococcal disease was observed, both...

  14. Influenza Vaccination of Persons with Cardiovascular Disease in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Singleton, James A.; Wortley, Pascale; Lu, Peng-jun

    2004-01-01

    People who have cardiovascular disease are at increased risk of hospitalization or death associated with influenza infection, and are included among the high-risk groups for whom annual influenza vaccination is recommended. To measure the progress toward the national year 2000 and 2010 objectives of a 60% annual influenza vaccination of adults with high-risk conditions aged 18 to 64 years, we analyzed data from the 1997 to 2001 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) regarding persons with c...

  15. Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) at healthcare facilities in Taiwan (n = 32,844) from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007. Each patient was followed up to assess dementia risk or protective factors: demographic characteristics of age and sex; comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular diseases, parkinsonism, epilepsy, substance and alcohol use disorders, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, and sleep disorder; urbanization level; monthly income; and statin, metformin, aspirin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use. A propensity score was derived using a logistic regression model for estimating the effect of vaccination by accounting for covariates that predict receiving the intervention (vaccine). A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of dementia among vaccinated and unvaccinated CKD patients. The study population comprised 11,943 eligible patients with CKD; 5745 (48%) received influenza vaccination and the remaining 6198 (52%) did not. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) of dementia decreased in vaccinated patients compared with those in unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs = 0.68, 0.58, and 0.64; P dementia in various models. A stronger protective effect against dementia risk was demonstrated during the noninfluenza season. Regardless of comorbidities or drug use, influenza vaccination was an independent protective factor and

  16. Effects of Immunosuppressants on Immune Response to Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Cao; Di Zhao; An-Tao Xu; Jun Shen; Zhi-Hua Ran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (nonimmunosuppressants and immunosuppressants). Data Sources: We completed an online systematic search using PubMed to identify all articles published in English between January 1990 and December 2013 assessing the effect of the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (with and without immunomodulators). The following terms were used: "inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)" OR "Crohn′s dise...

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus vaccine in patients with autoimmune diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    Whereas safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in healthy women have been shown in several randomised controlled clinical trials and in post marketing analyses, only few data exist in patients affected by autoimmune diseases. These issues are significant as autoimmune conditions are recognised as a risk factor for the persistence of HPV infection. Herein we review and systematise the existing literature to assess immunogenicity and safety of HPV vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The results of our literature revision suggest that the HPV vaccines are efficacious and safe in most of the patients affected by autoimmune diseases. Yet, some points of concern remain to be tackled, including the effects of concomitant therapies, the risk of disease exacerbation and the cost-effectiveness of such immunisation programmes in these populations. PMID:26036945

  18. Effect of adding crushed Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris mixture to antibiotics-free rations of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers on growth performance, antibody titer and haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Z. Athamneh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of crushed Pimpinella anisum (PA, Nigella sativa (NS seeds and Thymus vulgaris (TV mixture as a feed additive on growth performance and mortality rate (MR, selected antibodies titer (Ab’s and blood hematological profile of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Lohman male broiler chicks fed free-antibiotics ration. A total of 400 one-day old chicks were distributed into 16 groups (4 treatment x 4 replicates x 25chicks. The experiment lasted from one to 42 days of age. The statistical findings of this experiment prove that the use of medicinal plants mixture improves live body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and MR of vaccinated male broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. antibodies titer against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease of non-vaccinated and vaccinated male broilers were significantly improved at 21 and 42 days as a result of the addition of medicinal plant mixture to the basal ration. Concerning Newcastle disease, the use of PA, NS and TV mixture did not reflect in any additional improvement of Ab's than vaccines did. The addition of medicinal plants mixture increases WBC's, RBC's, thrombocytes count and Hb concentration of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers at 21 days of age. Meanwhile, heterophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of vaccinated male broilers (VMB were significantly improved by adding medicinal plant mixture to their basal diet. Moreover, at 42 days of age the use of PA, NS seeds and TV mixture indicate significant increase in total WBC’s, lymphocytes and monocytes and monocytes count of VMB and non-vaccinated male broiler (NVMB. No significant differences were noticed in RBC’s and Hct as a result of feeding crushed medicinal plants mixture.

  19. Prion疾病疫苗研究策略%Strategies of Vaccines against Prion Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 董小平

    2009-01-01

    朊病毒病是一类侵袭人类及多种动物中枢神经系统的致死性退行性脑病,目前缺乏有效的预防和治疗方法.朊病毒病的重组蛋白亚单位疫苗、DNA疫苗、合成肽疫苗、病毒样颗粒疫苗、树突状细胞疫苗、黏膜免疫疫苗等已取得一定进展,但现有的免疫策略仅能部分克服免疫耐受,诱导较低或中等滴度的抗体,对PrP~(Sc)感染动物模型只能提供部分保护,Prion疫苗研究任重而道远.%Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which can be acquired by human and many kinds of animals.At present,there are no effective preventive and therapeutic methods.Recombinant protein subunit vaccine,DNA vaccine,synthetic peptide vaccine,viral like particles,dendritic cell vaccine and musocal vaccine against Prion diseases have achieved certain progress.However,strategies used now can only partially overcome immune tolerance,induce only low and moderate degree of antibody,and provide inadequate protection in animal models.Therefore,strategy of vaccines against Prion diseases is thorny but imminent.

  20. Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2010-06-11

    Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. PMID:20430122

  1. Challenges to developing effective streptococcal vaccines to prevent rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abhinay Sharma, D Patric Nitsche-SchmitzDepartment of Medical Microbiology, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Braunschweig, GermanyAbstract: Acute rheumatic fever is a sequela of Streptococcus pyogenes and potentially of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis infections. Acute rheumatic fever is caused by destructive autoimmunity and inflammation in the extracellular matrix and can lead to rheumatic heart disease, which is the most frequent cardiologic disease that is acquired in youth. Although effective treatments are available, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain serious threats to human health, which affect millions and cause high economic losses. This has motivated the search for a vaccine that prevents the causative streptococcal infections. A variety of potential vaccine candidates have been identified and investigated in the past. Today, new approaches are applied to find alternative candidates. Nevertheless, several obstacles lie in the way of an approved S. pyogenes vaccine for use in humans. Herein, a subjective selection of promising vaccine candidates with respect to the prevention of acute rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease and safety regarding immunological side effects is discussed.Keywords: autoimmune disease, side effects, M protein vaccine, molecular mimicry, coiled-coil, collagen binding, PARF

  2. Effects of Immunosuppressants on Immune Response to Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (nonimmunosuppressants and immunosuppressants. Data Sources: We completed an online systematic search using PubMed to identify all articles published in English between January 1990 and December 2013 assessing the effect of the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (with and without immunomodulators. The following terms were used: "inflammatory bowel disease (IBD" OR "Crohn′s disease" OR "ulcerative colitis" AND ("vaccination" OR "vaccine" AND ("corticosteroids" OR "mercaptopurine" OR "azathioprine" OR "methotrexate [MTX]" AND "immunomodulators." Study Selection: The inclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1 Randomized controlled trials which included patients with a diagnosis of IBD (established by standard clinical, radiographic, endoscopic, and histologic criteria; (2 exposed patients received immunomodulators for maintenance (weight-appropriate doses of 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine or within 3 months of stopping, 15 mg or more MTX per week or within 3 months of stopping; (3 exposed patients received nonimmunomodulators (no therapy, antibiotics only, mesalazine only, biological agent only such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab or natalizumab or within 3 months of stopping one of these agents. The exclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1 History of hepatitis B virus (HBV, influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae infection; (2 patients who had previously been vaccinated against HBV, influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae; (3 any medical condition known to cause immunosuppression (e.g. chronic renal failure and human immunodeficiency virus infection; (4 individuals with positive hepatitis markers or liver cirrhosis; (5 patients with a known allergy to eggs or other components of the vaccines and (6 pregnancy. Results: Patients treated with immunomodulators were associated with lower response rates to

  3. Normal or defective immune response to Hepatitis B vaccine in patients with diabetes and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Giovanna; Contreas, Giovanna; Valletta, Enrico; Gabrielli, Oretta; Mengoli, Carlo; Veneri, Dino

    2015-01-01

    A defective production of protective levels of antibodies to Hepatitis B (HB) vaccine is reported to occur in 4-10% of healthy subjects and a correlation with the presence of specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules, including DQ2, which also confers genetic predisposition to celiac disease (CD) and type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), has been suggested.   The aim of this study was to analyze the serological response to HB vaccine and measles-containing vaccines in 69 diabetic patients (T1DM), 42 patients with celiac disease (CD) and 79 healthy control subjects (CT). The median interval between the third dose of HB vaccine and serum collection was 6.8, 3.5, and 4.7 years for T1DM, CD and CT groups, respectively. 50/69 (72%) T1DM patients, 32/42 (76%) CD patients and 61/79 (77%) CT subjects showed protective anti-HBs antibodies after vaccination, with no statistically significant difference. On the contrary, a lower statistically significant difference was found in the mean HBsAb level of T1DM subjects when compared with the other two groups. No correlation between HLA DQ2 expression in T1DM and vaccine response was detected. The comparison of serological response to measles after vaccination also showed no statistically significant differences in the three groups. Contrasting results between these data and those reported in the literature might be due to differences in the time intervals between vaccination and testing. Prospective studies in pathological and healthy groups with the same age at HBV vaccination and with the same time interval for blood sample collection to determine antibody titers are necessary in order to provide more conclusive data. PMID:25483516

  4. Effects of Immunosuppressants on Immune Response to Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Cao; Di Zhao; An-Tao Xu; Jun Shen; Zhi-Hua Ran

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (nonimmunosuppressants and immunosuppressants).Data Sources:We completed an online systematic search using PubMed to identify all articles published in English between January 1990 and December 2013 assessing the effect of the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (with and without immunomodulators).The following terms were used:"inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)" OR "Cmhn's disease" OR "ulcerative colitis"AND ("vaccination" OR "vaccine") AND ("corticosteroids" OR "mercaptopurine" OR "azathioprine" OR "methotrexate [MTX]") AND "immunomodulators."Study Selection:The inclusion criteria of articles were that the studies:(1) Randomized controlled trials which included patients with a diagnosis of IBD (established by standard clinical,radiographic,endoscopic,and histologic criteria); (2) exposed patients received immunomodulators for maintenance (weight-appropriate doses of 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine or within 3 months of stopping,15 mg or more MTX per week or within 3 months of stopping; (3) exposed patients received nonimmunomodulators (no therapy,antibiotics only,mesalazine only,biological agent only such as infliximab,adalimumab,certolizumab or natalizumab or within 3 months of stopping one of these agents).The exclusion criteria of articles were that the studies:(1) History of hepatitis B virus (HBV),influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae infection; (2) patients who had previously been vaccinated against HBV,influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae; (3) any medical condition known to cause immunosuppression (e.g.chronic renal failure and human immunodeficiency virus infection); (4) individuals with positive hepatitis markers or liver cirrhosis; (5) patients with a known allergy to eggs or other components of the vaccines and (6) pregnancy.Results:Patients treated with immunomodulators were associated with lower response rates to vaccination

  5. Heterogeneity in the antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease primo-vaccinated calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important viral disease of wild and domesticated biungulate species and presents a major constraint to international trade of livestock and their associated products. FMD vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions wor...

  6. Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) of which the antigenic properties can be readily manipulated is a potentially powerful approach in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in sub-Saharan Africa. FMD vaccine application is complicated by the extensive variability of the South Africa...

  7. Efficacy of emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eblé, Phaedra Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Since the foot-and-mouth disease epidemics in Europe in 2001 the use of emergency vaccination, if an outbreak occurs, has become more prominent in EU legislation. Since pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) excrete huge amounts of virus they are considered as amplifiers of the disea

  8. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: Linking systems biology with vaccine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Leslie G.; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Lewin, Harris A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Turse, Joshua E.; Wylie, Dennis C.; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L.

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host

  9. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: linking systems biology with vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L Garry; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D; Rossetti, Carlos A; Lewin, Harris A; Lipton, Mary S; Turse, Joshua E; Wylie, Dennis C; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic ΔsipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host's biosignatures

  10. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  11. Predicting the vulnerability of great apes to disease: the role of superspreaders and their potential vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Disease is a major concern for the conservation of great apes, and one that is likely to become increasingly relevant as deforestation and the rise of ecotourism bring humans and apes into ever closer proximity. Consequently, it is imperative that preventative measures are explored to ensure that future epidemics do not wipe out the remaining populations of these animals. In this paper, social network analysis was used to investigate vulnerability to disease in a population of wild orang-utans and a community of wild chimpanzees. Potential 'superspreaders' of disease--individuals with disproportionately central positions in the community or population--were identified, and the efficacy of vaccinating these individuals assessed using simulations. Three resident female orang-utans were identified as potential superspreaders, and females and unflanged males were predicted to be more influential in disease spread than flanged males. By contrast, no superspreaders were identified in the chimpanzee network, although males were significantly more central than females. In both species, simulating the vaccination of the most central individuals in the network caused a greater reduction in potential disease pathways than removing random individuals, but this effect was considerably more pronounced for orang-utans. This suggests that targeted vaccinations would have a greater impact on reducing disease spread among orang-utans than chimpanzees. Overall, these results have important implications for orang-utan and chimpanzee conservation and highlight the role that certain individuals may play in the spread of disease and its prevention by vaccination. PMID:24386405

  12. Predicting the vulnerability of great apes to disease: the role of superspreaders and their potential vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, Charlotte; Semple, Stuart; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lehmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Disease is a major concern for the conservation of great apes, and one that is likely to become increasingly relevant as deforestation and the rise of ecotourism bring humans and apes into ever closer proximity. Consequently, it is imperative that preventative measures are explored to ensure that future epidemics do not wipe out the remaining populations of these animals. In this paper, social network analysis was used to investigate vulnerability to disease in a population of wild orang-utans and a community of wild chimpanzees. Potential 'superspreaders' of disease--individuals with disproportionately central positions in the community or population--were identified, and the efficacy of vaccinating these individuals assessed using simulations. Three resident female orang-utans were identified as potential superspreaders, and females and unflanged males were predicted to be more influential in disease spread than flanged males. By contrast, no superspreaders were identified in the chimpanzee network, although males were significantly more central than females. In both species, simulating the vaccination of the most central individuals in the network caused a greater reduction in potential disease pathways than removing random individuals, but this effect was considerably more pronounced for orang-utans. This suggests that targeted vaccinations would have a greater impact on reducing disease spread among orang-utans than chimpanzees. Overall, these results have important implications for orang-utan and chimpanzee conservation and highlight the role that certain individuals may play in the spread of disease and its prevention by vaccination.

  13. B haplotype influence on the relative efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1994-04-01

    The objectives were to investigate whether or not B haplotypes influence vaccinal immunity against Marek's disease (MD) in commercial chickens and to evaluate whether retrospective analysis would detect the influence. This method involved evaluating the B haplotypes of turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-vaccinated sick vs normal chickens from a flock afflicted with MD symptoms. An analysis of the retrospective data disclosed that MD symptoms were present in a higher proportion of B2B19 than B2B21 chickens. A prospective study was then conducted with blood-typed chickens of the strain vaccinated with HVT or HVT + 301B bivalent MD vaccines prior to inoculation of the very virulent Md5 virus. The bivalent vaccine provided better protection than HVT alone, but with either vaccine fewer B2B21 chickens developed MD lesions. We conclude that the B haplotype influence on vaccinal immunity against MD previously demonstrated in B-congenic strains of chickens is also significant in commercial chickens and that the influence can be detected through analysis of B haplotypes in sick vs normal chickens of an affected flock.

  14. B-cell differentiation in the chicken: expression of immunoglobulin genes in the bursal and peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, A; Veromaa, T; Vainio, O; Toivanen, P

    1989-03-01

    We have studied the expression of immunoglobulin genes in the chicken B-cell precursors, and of a B-cell surface marker (Bu-1) on the bursal and peripheral B cells during normal ontogeny. Since there is no way of distinguishing the precursor cells from the more mature bursal lymphocytes on the basis of surface markers, we chose to study the total bursal lymphocyte population at ages when the numbers of the various precursor cells (bursal, early post-bursal, and post-bursal stem cells) in the bursa are estimated to be at their highest. Thereafter, comparisons with the more mature lymphocytes in the peripheral organs were made. As a result, levels of the lambda and mu transcripts and expression of Bu-1 antigen in the chicken B-cell precursors were found to be unchanged during the post-hatching period. In the light of these experiments, the later events of B-cell differentiation, i.e. the development from the bursal to post-bursal B lymphocytes, occurs without the lambda, mu, and Bu-1 gene loci involved. On the other hand, the higher level of lambda and mu expression in the splenic B lymphocytes indicates that the post-bursal stem cells mature into highly active plasma cells after seeding to the peripheral organs.

  15. Tetanus disease and deaths in men reveal need for vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Shona; Samuelson, Julia; Reed, Jason; Yakubu, Ahmadu; Ncube, Buhle; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    With efforts focused on the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus, less attention has been given to tetanus incidence and mortality among men. Since 2007 voluntary medical male circumcision has been scaled-up in 14 sub-Saharan African countries as an effective intervention to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among men. As part of a review of adverse events from these programmes, we identified 13 cases of tetanus from five countries reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) up to March 2016. Eight patients died and only one patient had a known history of tetanus vaccination. Tetanus after voluntary medical male circumcision was rare among more than 11 million procedures conducted. Nevertheless, the cases prompted a review of the evidence on tetanus vaccination coverage and case notifications in sub-Saharan Africa, supplemented by a literature review of non-neonatal tetanus in Africa over the years 2003-2014. The WHO African Region reported the highest number of non-neonatal tetanus cases per million population and lowest historic coverage of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. Coverage of the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine ranged from 65% to 98% across the 14 countries in 2013. In hospital-based studies, non-neonatal tetanus comprised 0.3-10.7% of admissions, and a median of 71% of patients were men. The identification of tetanus cases following voluntary medical male circumcision highlights a gender gap in tetanus morbidity disproportionately affecting men. Incorporating tetanus vaccination for boys and men into national programmes should be a priority to align with the goal of universal health coverage. PMID:27516639

  16. Tetanus disease and deaths in men reveal need for vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Shona; Reed, Jason; Yakubu, Ahmadu; Ncube, Buhle; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With efforts focused on the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus, less attention has been given to tetanus incidence and mortality among men. Since 2007 voluntary medical male circumcision has been scaled-up in 14 sub-Saharan African countries as an effective intervention to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among men. As part of a review of adverse events from these programmes, we identified 13 cases of tetanus from five countries reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) up to March 2016. Eight patients died and only one patient had a known history of tetanus vaccination. Tetanus after voluntary medical male circumcision was rare among more than 11 million procedures conducted. Nevertheless, the cases prompted a review of the evidence on tetanus vaccination coverage and case notifications in sub-Saharan Africa, supplemented by a literature review of non-neonatal tetanus in Africa over the years 2003–2014. The WHO African Region reported the highest number of non-neonatal tetanus cases per million population and lowest historic coverage of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. Coverage of the third dose of diphtheria–tetanus–polio vaccine ranged from 65% to 98% across the 14 countries in 2013. In hospital-based studies, non-neonatal tetanus comprised 0.3–10.7% of admissions, and a median of 71% of patients were men. The identification of tetanus cases following voluntary medical male circumcision highlights a gender gap in tetanus morbidity disproportionately affecting men. Incorporating tetanus vaccination for boys and men into national programmes should be a priority to align with the goal of universal health coverage.

  17. Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Influenza and Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Focus on Vaccine Hesitancy and Perceptions of Disease Severity and Vaccine Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Allison T.; Seib, Katherine; Ault, Kevin A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Frew, Paula M.; Malik, Fauzia; Cortés, Marielysse; Cota, Pat; Whitney, Ellen A.S.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Berkelman, Ruth L.; Omer, Saad B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine coverage among pregnant women is needed. PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with intention to receive influenza and/or Tdap vaccinations during pregnancy with a focus on perceptions of influenza and pertussis disease severity and influenza vaccine safety. METHODS: Participants were 325 pregnant women in Georgia recruited from December 2012 – April 2013 who had not yet received a 2012/2013 influen...

  18. Bovine herpesvirus-1: Genetic diversity of field strains from cattle with respiratory disease, genital, fetal disease and systemic neonatal disease and their relationship to vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Dubovi, E J; Eberle, R

    2016-09-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes disease in cattle with varied clinical forms. In the U.S. there are two BoHV1 subtypes, BoHV-1.1 and BoHV-1.2b. Control programs in North America incorporate modified live (MLV) or killed (KV) viral vaccines. However, BoHV-1 strains continue to be isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. It is possible to differentiate BoHV-1 wild-type from MLV vaccine strains by determining their single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns through either whole-genome sequencing or PCR sequencing of genomic regions containing vaccine-defining SNPs. To determine the BoHV-1 subtype in clinical isolates and their relationship to MLV strains, 8 isolates from varied clinical disease at three different laboratories in the U.S. were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Five samples were isolated within the past 5 years from New York and 3 were archived samples recovered 35 years prior from Oklahoma and Louisiana. Based on phylogenetic analysis, four of the cases appeared to be due to an MLV vaccine: 3 cases of aborted fetuses and one neonate with systemic BoHV-1 disease. One aborted fetus was from a herd with no reported history of MLV vaccination in two years. The remaining four isolates did not group with any MLV vaccines: two were associated with bovine respiratory disease, one with vulvovaginitis, and a fourth was determined to be a BoHV-1.2b respiratory isolate. Recovery of BoHV-1.1 that is very closely related to an MLV vaccine virus from a herd not receiving vaccines in an extended period prior to its isolation suggests that MLV viruses may remain latent or circulate within herds for long periods. PMID:27374060

  19. Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-05-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

  20. European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases consensus recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in Europe: update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Van Damme, Pierre; Giaquinto, Carlo; Dagan, Ron; Guarino, Alfredo; Szajewska, Hania; Usonis, Vytautas

    2015-06-01

    The first evidence-based recommendations for rotavirus (RV) vaccination in Europe were prepared at the time of licensure of 2 live oral RV vaccines (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, and RotaTeq, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) in 2006 and published in 2008. Since then several countries in Europe and more globally have adopted universal RV vaccination of all healthy infants as part of their national immunization programs (NIPs). The experience from these NIPs has produced a wealth of post-introduction effectiveness data that, together with the evidence from prelicensure efficacy trials presented in the 2008 Recommendations, support the case of RV vaccination in Europe. The prelicensure safety trials of Rotarix and RotaTeq, each in populations of more than 60,000 infants, did not reveal risk of intussusception (IS), but postvaccination surveillance in several countries, particularly Australia and Mexico, has established that the risk of IS for both vaccines after the first dose might be between 1:50,000 and 1:80,000. Although it may be argued that the risk is acceptable vis-à-vis the great benefits of RV vaccination, this argument alone may not suffice, and every effort should be made to reduce the risk of IS. Considerable evidence, including postvaccination surveillance data from Germany, suggests that the risk of IS can be reduced by early administration of the first dose of oral RV vaccine. The previous European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases/European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommendations held that the first dose of oral RV vaccine should be given between 6 and 12 weeks of age; this recommendation is sustained but with an emphasis toward the lower range of the recommended age, that is, preferably between 6 and 8 weeks of age. At the time of the earlier recommendations, experience of RV vaccination in premature infants and other special target groups was limited. It is now recommended with greater confidence than

  1. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Dalby, Tine; Weinberger, Daniel M;

    2014-01-01

    conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2008-2010), and PCV13 (2011-2013) periods were estimated. Predicted incidences of serotypes were estimated controlling for cyclical trends from historical patterns observed during the past 20 years. RESULTS: We observed a 21% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-25%) in IPD......BACKGROUND: The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at the population level is unclear. We explored PCV13's effect in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-related morbidity and mortality, and whether serotype-specific changes were attributable to vaccination...... incidence in the total population after PCV13's introduction, and a 71% reduction (95% CI, 62%-79%) in children aged vaccine effectiveness. We estimated a 28% reduction (95% CI, 18%-37%) in IPD-related 30-day mortality, from 3.4 deaths (95% CI, 3.2-3.6) per 100 000 population...

  2. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous microorganisms in the world causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic infection, which emerges and re-emerges in human populations. The 2014 outbreak was caused by the Zaire strain, which has a kill rate of up to 90%, though 40% was recorded in the current outbreak. The 2014 outbreak is larger than all 20 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976, when the virus was first discovered. It is the first time that the virus was sustained in urban centers and spread beyond Africa into Europe and USA. Thus far, over 22,000 cases have been reported with about 50% mortality in one year. There are currently no approved therapeutics and preventive vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Responding to the devastating effe1cts of the 2014 outbreak and the potential risk of global spread, has spurred research for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review is therefore aimed at presenting the progress of vaccine development. Results showed that conventional inactivated vaccines produced from EBOV by heat, formalin or gamma irradiation appear to be ineffective. However, novel vaccines production techniques have emerged leading to the production of candidate vaccines that have been demonstrated to be effective in preclinical trials using small animal and non-human primates (NHP) models. Some of the promising vaccines have undergone phase 1 clinical trials, which demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Many of the candidate vaccines are vector based such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Rabies Virus (RABV), Adenovirus (Ad), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Other platforms include virus like particle (VLP), DNA and subunit vaccines.

  3. Probabilistic Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vaccination for Mild or Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies on the immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have increasingly gained attention since 1990s. However, there are pros (preventing of AD) and cons (incurred cost and side effects) regarding the administration of immunotherapy. Up to date, there has been lacking of economic evaluation for immunotherapy of AD. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness analysis of the vaccination for AD. Methods: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials after systemic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine. A Markov decision model was constructed and applied to a 120,000-Taiwanese cohort aged ≥65 years. Person years and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were computed between the vaccinated group and the the unvaccinated group. Economic evaluation was performed to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC). Results: Vaccinated group gained an additional 0.84 life years and 0.56 QALYs over 10-years and an additional 0.35 life years and 0.282 QALYs over 5-years of follow-up. The vaccinated group dominated the unvaccinated group by ICER over 5-years of follow-up. The ICERs of 10-year follow-up for the vaccinated group against the unvaccinated group were $13,850 per QALY and $9,038 per life year gained. Given the threshold of $20,000 of willingness to pay (WTP), the CEAC showed the probability of being cost-effective for vaccination with QALY was 70.7% and 92% for life years gained after 10-years of follow-up. The corresponding figures were 87.3% for QALY and 93.5% for life years gained over 5-years follow-up. Conclusion: The vaccination for AD was cost-effective in gaining QALY and life years compared with no vaccination, under the condition of a reasonable threshold of WTP. PMID:26825097

  4. Protection by attenuated and polyvalent vaccines against highly virulent strains of Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R L

    1982-01-01

    Tests confirmed that turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine protected chickens poorly against challenge with the highly virulent Md5 strain of Marek's disease (MD) virus, especially in chickens with homologous HVT antibodies. The naturally avirulent SB-1 vaccine virus was likewise poorly protective against challenge with the Md5 strain. Homologous antibodies reduced the protective efficacy of both vaccines, but SB-1 was not affected by HVT antibodies. In order to provide better protection against strains of MD virus poorly protected against by HVT, such as Md5, the Md11 strain of MD virus was attenuated by 75 cell culture passages and evaluated for protective efficacy. This vaccine virus, designated Mdl 1/75C, provided good protection against challenge with Md5 and most other highly virulent MD viruses tested, but was less efficacious against challenge with the JM/102W strain, a prototype MD virus protected against well by HVT and SB-1 vaccines. Furthermore, its efficacy was consistently lower in chicks with HVT antibody. Thus, although HVT, SB-1, and Md11/75C were all efficacious against certain MD viruses, none of these vaccines protected optimally against all MD challenge viruses in all chickens. A polyvalent vaccine composed of Md11/75C, HVT and SB-1 viruses protected chickens better against a battery of five highly virulent MD challenge viruses, including three strains poorly protected against by HVT, than any single vaccine and was not influenced by HVT antibody. These data suggest that vaccinal immunity may be partially viral strain specific.

  5. Comparison of test methodologies for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A vaccine matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, Tesfaalem; Weerdmeester, Klaas; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Moormann, Rob J M; Dekker, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention and control. The impact of vaccination largely depends on the quality and suitability of the chosen vaccine. To determine the suitability of a vaccine strain, antigenic matching is usually studied by in vitro analysis. In this study, we performed three in vitro test methods to determine which one gives the lowest variability and the highest discriminatory capacity. Binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepared from 10 different foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype A strains, were used to vaccinate cattle (5 animals for each strain). The antibody titers in blood serum samples 3 weeks postvaccination (w.p.v.) were determined by a virus neutralization test, neutralization index test, and liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The titers were then used to calculate relationship coefficient (r1) values. These r1 values were compared to the genetic lineage using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the two neutralization test methods, the median titers observed against the test strains differed considerably, and the sera of the vaccinated animals did not always show the highest titers against their respective homologous virus strains. When the titers were corrected for test strain effect (scaling), the variability (standard error of the mean per vaccinated group) increased because the results were on a different scale, but the discriminatory capacity improved. An ROC analysis of the r1 value calculated on both observed and scaled titers showed that only r1 values of the liquid-phase blocking ELISA gave a consistent statistically significant result. Under the conditions of the present study, the liquid-phase blocking ELISA showed less variation and still had a higher discriminatory capacity than the other tests.

  6. Plant-made oral vaccines against human infectious diseases-Are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Ting; Daniell, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Although the plant-made vaccine field started three decades ago with the promise of developing low-cost vaccines to prevent infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics around the globe, this goal has not yet been achieved. Plants offer several major advantages in vaccine generation, including low-cost production by eliminating expensive fermentation and purification systems, sterile delivery and cold storage/transportation. Most importantly, oral vaccination using plant-made antigens confers both mucosal (IgA) and systemic (IgG) immunity. Studies in the past 5 years have made significant progress in expressing vaccine antigens in edible leaves (especially lettuce), processing leaves or seeds through lyophilization and achieving antigen stability and efficacy after prolonged storage at ambient temperatures. Bioencapsulation of antigens in plant cells protects them from the digestive system; the fusion of antigens to transmucosal carriers enhances efficiency of their delivery to the immune system and facilitates successful development of plant vaccines as oral boosters. However, the lack of oral priming approaches diminishes these advantages because purified antigens, cold storage/transportation and limited shelf life are still major challenges for priming with adjuvants and for antigen delivery by injection. Yet another challenge is the risk of inducing tolerance without priming the host immune system. Therefore, mechanistic aspects of these two opposing processes (antibody production or suppression) are discussed in this review. In addition, we summarize recent progress made in oral delivery of vaccine antigens expressed in plant cells via the chloroplast or nuclear genomes and potential challenges in achieving immunity against infectious diseases using cold-chain-free vaccine delivery approaches. PMID:26387509

  7. Preparation, characterization, and in ovo vaccination of dextran-spermine nanoparticle DNA vaccine coexpressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes against Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzamandi M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Firouzamandi,1,2 Hassan Moeini,3 Seyed Davood Hosseini,4 Mohd Hair Bejo,1 Abdul Rahman Omar,1,3 Parvaneh Mehrbod,3 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,5 Thomas J Webster,6 Aini Ideris1,3 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Iran; 3Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Arak, Iran; 5Biomedical Research Center, Vice President Office for Research, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Plasmid DNA (pDNA-based vaccines have emerged as effective subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, a DNA vaccine, namely plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F, was applied in ovo against Newcastle disease (ND. Vaccination was carried out using the DNA vaccine alone or as a mixture of the pDNA and dextran-spermine (D-SPM, a nanoparticle used for pDNA delivery. The results showed that in ovo vaccination with 40 µg pDNA/egg alone induced high levels of antibody titer (P<0.05 in specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens at 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination compared to 2 weeks postvaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI titer was not significantly different between groups injected with 40 µg pDNA + 64 µg D-SPM and 40 µg pDNA at 4 weeks postvaccination (P>0.05. Higher antibody titer was observed in the group immunized with 40 µg pDNA/egg at 4 weeks postvaccination. The findings also showed that vaccination with 40 µg pDNA/egg alone was able to confer protection against Newcastle disease virus strain NDIBS002 in two out of seven SPF chickens. Although the chickens produced antibody titers 3 weeks after in ovo vaccination, it was not sufficient to provide complete protection

  8. Chimeric Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses: Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Potential Marker Vaccines in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work in swine has demonstrated that full protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) vaccines, whereby the VP1 G-H loop has been substituted with a non-homologous alternative. If proven to be effect...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of a Vaccine Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Munir, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing and subsequent analysis of a vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O is reported here. Genomic heterogeneity in the protective epitopes (VP1 protein) of the reported strain, compared to characterized strains and available sequences from Pakistan, warrants further studies to determine vaccine-induced immunity and disease protection.

  10. Influenza vaccination for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: understanding immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei, Farzaneh; Wilkinson, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Influenza infection is an important cause of global mortality and morbidity with the greatest impact on older people and those with chronic disease. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are particularly vulnerable to influenza, with evidence for increased incidence and severity of infection. In this patient group influenza is associated with exacerbations and pneumonia which result in a significant healthcare burden and premature mortality. Influenza vaccination and in particular the use of the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended for patients with COPD. The evidence base for its effects in this population is, however, limited. Available data suggest that immunogenicity is variable in COPD but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The contribution of age, disease severity, comorbidity and treatments to vaccine responses has only been investigated in a limited manner. Existing data suggest that key immune mechanisms governing T- and B-cell responses are adversely affected by these factors. The efficacy of TIV has been studied in a number of small clinical trials which form the basis of a Cochrane review. Here evidence for effect is conflicting depending on individual trial design and inclusions. Overall, TIV offers protection against influenza infection in the trial setting but further studies are required to stratify patients and enable prediction of inadequate responses. Larger-scale clinical studies have largely been observational and have often been conducted in consort with pneumonia vaccination. Overall the mortality benefit of TIV in COPD is suggested by a number studies but the impact on exacerbation prevention is less clear. Influenza vaccination currently plays an important role in disease prevention in COPD. However, we postulate that a more in-depth understanding of mechanisms of response in the context of a highly heterogeneous disease will lead to a more informed approach to vaccination and

  11. Risk assessment for infectious disease and its impact on voluntary vaccination behavior in social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model a vaccination game from the standpoint of network reciprocity on 2 × 2 game. • We investigate the impacts of public information for infectious disease. • Effect of risk assessment based on public information depends on network structure. • Use of public information yields positive effect if vaccination cost is small. - Abstract: Achievement of the herd immunity is essential for preventing the periodic spreading of an infectious disease such as the flu. If vaccination is voluntary, as vaccination coverage approaches the critical level required for herd immunity, there is less incentive for individuals to be vaccinated; this results in an increase in the number of so-called “free-riders” who craftily avoid infection via the herd immunity and avoid paying any cost. We use a framework originating in evolutionary game theory to investigate this type of social dilemma with respect to epidemiology and the decision of whether to be vaccinated. For each individual in a population, the decision on vaccination is associated with how one assesses the risk of infection. In this study, we propose a new risk-assessment model in a vaccination game when an individual updates her strategy, she compares her own payoff to a net payoff obtained by averaging a collective payoff over individuals who adopt the same strategy as that of a randomly selected neighbor. In previous studies of vaccination games, when an individual updates her strategy, she typically compares her payoff to the payoff of a randomly selected neighbor, indicating that the risk for changing her strategy is largely based on the behavior of one other individual, i.e., this is an individual-based risk assessment. However, in our proposed model, risk assessment by any individual is based on the collective success of a strategy and not on the behavior of any one other individual. For strategy adaptation, each individual always takes a survey of the degree of success of a certain

  12. Gene-based vaccines and immunotherapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative diseases: Potential utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrna, Jeremy J; Ugen, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent expansion of vaccination and immunotherapeutic strategies from controlling infectious diseases to the targeting of non-infectious conditions including neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to conventional vaccine and immunotherapeutic modalities, gene-based methods that express antigens for presentation to the immune system by either live viral vectors or non-viral naked DNA plasmids have been developed and evaluated. This mini-review/commentary summarizes the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the research findings to date, of both of these gene-based vaccination approaches in terms of how they can be targeted against appropriate antigens within the Alzheimer and Parkinson disease pathogenesis processes as well as potentially against targets in other neurodegenerative diseases. Most recently, the novel utilization of these viral vector and naked DNA gene-based technologies includes the delivery of immunoglobulin genes from established biologically active monoclonal antibodies. This modified passive immunotherapeutic strategy has recently been applied to deliver passive antibody immunotherapy against the pathologically relevant amyloid β protein in Alzheimer disease. The advantages and disadvantages of this technological application of gene-based immune interventions, as well as research findings to date are also summarized. In sum, it is suggested that further evaluation of gene based vaccines and immunotherapies against neurodegenerative diseases are warranted to determine their potential clinical utility.

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  14. The Ebola Vaccine Team B: a model for promoting the rapid development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious disease threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael; Moore, Kristine; Ostrowsky, Julie; Kimball-Baker, Kathleen; Farrar, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In support of accelerated development of Ebola vaccines from preclinical research to clinical trials, in November, 2014, the Wellcome Trust and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota established the Wellcome Trust-CIDRAP Ebola Vaccine Team B initiative. This ongoing initiative includes experts with global experience in various phases of bringing new vaccines to market, such as funding, research and development, manufacturing, determination of safety and efficacy, regulatory approval, and vaccination delivery. It also includes experts in community engagement strategies and ethical issues germane to vaccination policies, including eight African scientists with direct experience in developing and implementing vaccination policies in Africa. Ebola Vaccine Team B members have worked on a range of vaccination programmes, such as polio eradication (Africa and globally), development of meningococcal A disease vaccination campaigns in Africa, and malaria and HIV/AIDS vaccine research. We also provide perspective on how this experience can inform future situations where urgent development of vaccines is needed, and we comment on the role that an independent, expert group such as Team B can have in support of national and international public health authorities toward addressing a public health crisis.

  15. A proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin-Capeti, K C; Sepulveda, L; Terra, F; Torres-Pioli, M F; Costa-Casagrande, T; França, S C; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2013-02-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control in Brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA). The FMD vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), at 28 days post-vaccination. Biological product testing using large animals is expensive and unwieldy. Thus, alternative testing procedures using laboratory animals have been proposed for quality control of these products. Such biological methods for vaccine evaluation using animals from vivarium facilities can have a significant impact through reduced costs, easier handling, and shorter testing times. The present study was designed to access Balb/C mice's humoral immune responses to a FMDV experimental vaccine, the composition of which contains three virus serotypes of FMDV (O1 Campos, A24 Cruzeiro, and C3 Indaial). Balb/C mice were immunized at doses that were 5% and 10% of the vaccine volume administered in cattle. Immunized mice had their antibody titers probed at 14, 21, and 28 DPV (days post vaccination). The results obtained were compared to those previously known from cattle's immune responses to the FMDV vaccine. An adequate immune response to the vaccine was seen with 10% formulation at 21 DPV. The study results are encouraging and indicate that the mouse model can be used for quality control in experimental vaccine testing.

  16. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Tine Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the consequences of a national immunization program with HPV vaccine for both boys and girls in Denmark, including the prophylactic effects on all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-associated diseases in male and female. Methods: The study...... focussed on the quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the vaccine's protection against genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anogenital cancer (anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer) and head and neck cancer (oral cavity, oropharyngeal......, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects...

  17. Immunogenicity of influenza H1N1 vaccination in mixed connective tissue disease: effect of disease and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Miossi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential acute effects regarding the immunogenicity and safety of non-adjuvanted influenza A H1N1/2009 vaccine in patients with mixed connective tissue disease and healthy controls. METHODS: Sixty-nine mixed connective tissue disease patients that were confirmed by Kasukawa's classification criteria and 69 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study; the participants were vaccinated with the non-adjuvanted influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 virus-like strain. The percentages of seroprotec-tion, seroconversion, geometric mean titer and factor increase in the geometric mean titer were calculated. The patients were clinically evaluated, and blood samples were collected pre- and 21 days post-vaccination to evaluate C-reactive protein, muscle enzymes and autoantibodies. Anti-H1N1 titers were determined using an influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01151644. RESULTS: Before vaccination, no difference was observed regarding the seroprotection rates (p = 1.0 and geometric mean titer (p = 0.83 between the patients and controls. After vaccination, seroprotection (75.4% vs. 71%, (p = 0.7, seroconversion (68.1% vs. 65.2%, (p = 1.00 and factor increase in the geometric mean titer (10.0 vs. 8.0, p = 0.40 were similar in the two groups. Further evaluation of seroconversion in patients with and without current or previous history of muscle disease (p = 0.20, skin ulcers (p = 0.48, lupus-like cutaneous disease (p = 0.74, secondary Sjogren syndrome (p = 0.78, scleroderma-pattern in the nailfold capillaroscopy (p = 1.0, lymphopenia #1000/mm³ on two or more occasions (p = 1.0, hypergammaglobulinemia $1.6 g/d (p = 0.60, pulmonary hypertension (p = 1.0 and pulmonary fibrosis (p = 0.80 revealed comparable rates. Seroconversion rates were also similar in patients with and without immunosuppressants. Disease parameters, such as C-reactive protein (p = 0.94, aldolase (p = 0.73, creatine

  18. The haematological profile of female bronze turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo vaccinated with various commercial strains of Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M.d.S. Schmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05 in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05 in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease.

  19. The haematological profile of female bronze turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) vaccinated with various commercial strains of Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M d S; Santos, Ivan F C; Paulillo, António C; Martins, Gislaine R V; Denadai, Janine; Lapela, Ivan M

    2014-08-25

    The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota) of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease.

  20. Impact of the antipneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the occurrence of infectious respiratory diseases and hospitalization rates in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderci Marys Oliveira Abrão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, to reduce the occurrence of serious pneumococcal disease, the Ministry of Health in Brazil incorporated the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the immunization schedule of children younger than two years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of vaccination on the incidence of infectious respiratory diseases in infants before and after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved primary care and hospital networks from a city in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: A 40% reduction in the prevalence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was observed after introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Male children were 28% more likely to develop the disease. The prevalence ratio ([PR] = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.53, p < 0.05 suggested that not being vaccinated was associated with the occurrence of pneumonia. The prevalence of CAP was 70% lower (PR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.37, p<0.05 in children vaccinated as recommended compared to children with delayed vaccination, suggesting that the updated vaccine schedule improves protection. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine appeared to reduce the number of pneumonia cases in children during the study period. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of the vaccine against the occurrence of pneumococcal pneumonia.

  1. Predicting the potential public health impact of disease-modifying HIV vaccines in South Africa: the problem of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Sally M; Bodine, Erin N; Grovit-Ferbas, Kathie

    2005-06-01

    Current HIV vaccines in development appear unlikely to prevent infection, but could provide benefits by increasing survival; such vaccines are described as disease-modifying vaccines. We review the current status of vaccines and modeling vaccines. We also predict the impact that disease-modifying vaccines could have in South Africa, where multiple subtypes are co-circulating. We model transmissibility/fitness differences among subtypes. We used uncertainty analyses to model vaccines with four characteristics: (i) take, (ii) duration of immunity, (iii) reduction in transmissibility/fitness, and (iv) increase in survival. We reconstructed, and forecasted, the South African epidemic from 1940 to 2140 (assuming no vaccination). We predict that: (i) incidence will peak in 2014, decline, and stabilize, (ii) prevalence will continue to rise, and (iii) the AIDS death rate curve will peak in 2022. Our predictions show that (over the next 135 years) the epidemic in South Africa will switch from a predominantly Subtype C epidemic to an epidemic driven by other subtypes. We predict that the epidemic could remain unchanged, even with mass vaccination with a vaccine that is equally effective against all co-circulating subtypes. However, if the non-C subtypes are less (or equally) transmissible as Subtype C then disease-modifying vaccines could result in eradication. Thus, in countries where multiple-subtypes are co-circulating it is critical to realize that small biological differences among subtypes will have dramatic consequences for the effectiveness of HIV vaccination campaigns. A slight difference in fitness will determine whether a disease-modifying vaccine has almost no impact on the epidemic or can achieve eradication.

  2. Distribution and expression in vitro and in vivo of DNA vaccine against lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑风荣; 孙修勤; 刘洪展; 吴兴安; 钟楠; 王波; 周国栋

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocystis disease,caused by the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV),is a significant worldwide problem in fish industry causing substantial economic losses.In this study,we aimed to develop the DNA vaccine against LCDV,using DNA vaccination technology.We evaluated plasmid pEGFP-N2-LCDV1.3 kb as a DNA vaccine candidate.The plasmid DNA was transiently expressed after liposome transfection into the eukaryotic COS 7 cell line.The distribution and expression of the DNA vaccine (pEGFP-N2-LCDV1.3kb) were also ana...

  3. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Newcastle disease virus (NDV inactivated vaccines and attenuated live vaccines have been used to prevent and control Newcastle disease (ND for years, there are some disadvantages. Recently, newly developed DNA vaccines have the potential to overcome these disadvantages. The low delivery efficiency, however, hindered the application of DNA vaccines for ND in practice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1-F (o DNA that expressed the F gene of NDV encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimal preparation conditions of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were determined. Under the optimal conditions, the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were produced in good morphology and had high stability with a mean diameter of 433.5 ± 7.5 nm, with encapsulation efficiency of 91.8 ± 0.3% and a Zeta potential of +2.7 mV. Release assay in vitro showed that the fusion gene plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs up to 93.14% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed and maintained its bioactivity. Immunization results showed that better immune responses of SPF chickens immunized with the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were induced compared to the chickens immunized with the DNA vaccine alone. In addition, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs was also tested in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pFNDV-PLGA-NPs could induce stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and reached the sustained release effect. These results laid a foundation for further development of vaccines and drugs in PLGA nanoparticles.

  4. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

  5. Development of a highly immunogenic Newcastle disease virus chicken vaccine strain of duck origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.

  6. Probability of exporting infected carcasses from vaccinated pigs following a foot-and-mouth disease epidemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de C.J.; Nielen, M.; Lopez, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Dekker, A.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency vaccination is an effective control strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics in densely populated livestock areas, but results in a six-month waiting period before exports can be resumed, incurring severe economic consequences for pig exporting countries. In the European Union,

  7. Presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sites where virulent Newcastle disease virus persists in endemic countries are unknown. Evidence presented here shows that the same strain that caused a previous outbreak was present in both apparently healthy and sick vaccinated birds from multiple farms that had high average specific antibody...

  8. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease II: regaining FMD-free status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J.A.; Engel, B.; Dekker, A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole. The preferred control strategy in the Netherlands has recently changed to vaccination-to-live, but – not have been applied before – this poses un

  9. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  10. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  11. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease subunit vaccines: the first decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present the results of the first decade of development of a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) containing the capsid and 3C protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as a vaccine candidate. In proof-of concept studies we demonstrated that a single inoculation w...

  12. US College and University Student Health Screening Requirements for Tuberculosis and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Bell, Teal; Cohen, Nicole J.; Buckley, Kirsten; Leino, E. Victor; Even, Susan; Beavers, Suzanne; Brown, Clive; Marano, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Colleges are at risk for communicable disease outbreaks because of the high degree of person-to-person interactions and relatively crowded dormitory settings. This report describes the US college student health screening requirements among US resident and international students for tuberculosis (TB) and vaccine-preventable diseases…

  13. Bacterial vaccines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects on clinical outcomes and cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Salvador; Marco, Francisco M; Martínez-Carbonell, Juan A; Carratalá, José A

    2015-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Exacerbation episodes impair lung function leading to disease progression. Levels of inflammation markers correlate with disease severity. Bacterial immunomodulators have shown a beneficial effect in COPD, improving symptoms and reducing the rate of exacerbations. This is an observational prospective study on 30 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis and COPD, who received bacterial autogenous vaccine for 12 months. The rate of exacerbation, severity of symptoms and lung function were studied at baseline and after treatment. In addition, plasma levels CRP, IL6, IL8, and TNFα were measured. After treatment we found a reduction in mean acute respiratory infections and signs of lung disease. Acute phase proteins IL6 and CRP increased in blood and IL8 decreased. These changes may be related to the repeated injection of inactivated bacteria. Given the implication of these factors in the pathogenesis of COPD, particularly the production of IL8, the causes and consequences of cytokine modulation by bacterial vaccines should be investigated. Vaccination with autogenous vaccines for 1 year can produce a significant clinical improvement in COPD patients, reducing the frequency of exacerbations associated to changes in the profile of markers of inflammation.

  14. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  15. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;

    2010-01-01

    The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...... for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  16. Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: Anesthetic and Critical Care Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Grete H; Hanson, Neil A; Sueda, Lila Ann A; Hoaglan, Carli D; Dahl, Aaron B; Ohlson, Brooks B; Schmidt, Brian E; Wang, Chia C; Fagley, R Eliot

    2016-05-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) such as measles and pertussis are becoming more common in the United States. This disturbing trend is driven by several factors, including the antivaccination movement, waning efficacy of certain vaccines, pathogen adaptation, and travel of individuals to and from areas where disease is endemic. The anesthesia-related manifestations of many VPDs involve airway complications, cardiovascular and respiratory compromise, and unusual neurologic and neuromuscular symptoms. In this article, we will review the presentation and management of 9 VPDs most relevant to anesthesiologists, intensivists, and other hospital-based clinicians: measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis, diphtheria, influenza, meningococcal disease, varicella, and poliomyelitis. Because many of the pathogens causing these diseases are spread by respiratory droplets and aerosols, appropriate transmission precautions, personal protective equipment, and immunizations necessary to protect clinicians and prevent nosocomial outbreaks are described. PMID:27088999

  17. Production of vaccines for treatment of infectious diseases by transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina LEDL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first pathogen antigen was expressed in transgenic plants with the aim of producing edible vaccine in early 1990s, transgenic plants have become a well-established expression system for production of alternative vaccines against various human and animal infectious diseases. The main focus of plant expression systems in the last five years has been on improving expression of well-studied antigens such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV, bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV, footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, rabies G protein, rotavirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP, avian influenza virus H5N1, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LT-B, cholera toxin B (CT-B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, artherosclerosis, ebola and anthrax. Significant increases in expression have been obtained using improved expression vectors, different plant species and transformation methods.

  18. A New Approach to a Lyme Disease Vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livey, I.; Dunn, J.; O' Rourke, M.; Traweger, A.; Savidis-Dacho, H.; Crowe, B. A.; Barrett, P. N.; Yang, X.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    A single recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) antigen designed to contain protective elements from 2 different OspA serotypes (1 and 2) is able to induce antibody responses that protect mice against infection with either Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (OspA serotype-1) or Borrelia afzelii (OspA serotype-2). Protection against infection with B burgdorferi ss strain ZS7 was demonstrated in a needle-challenge model. Protection against B. afzelii species was shown in a tick-challenge model using feral ticks. In both models, as little as .03 {micro}g of antigen, when administered in a 2-dose immunization schedule with aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant, was sufficient to provide complete protection against the species targeted. This proof of principle study proves that knowledge of protective epitopes can be used for the rational design of effective, genetically modified vaccines requiring fewer OspA antigens and suggests that this approach may facilitate the development of an OspA vaccine for global use.

  19. Nasal vaccination of young rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against infectious hematopoietic necrosis and enteric red mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, I; LaPatra, S E; Erhardt, E B

    2015-11-01

    Determining the earliest age at which farmed fish can be successfully vaccinated is a very important question for fish farmers. Nasal vaccines are novel mucosal vaccines that prevent aquatic infectious diseases of finfish. The present study investigates the ontogeny of the olfactory organ of rainbow trout by histology and aims to establish the earliest age for vaccination against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease using the nasal route. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated intranasally (I.N) at three different ages: 1050° days (DD) (group A); 450 DD (group B); and 360 DD (group C), or 70, 30 and 24 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. The mean weights of groups A, B and C were 4.69 g, 2.9 g and 2.37 g, respectively. Fish received either a live attenuated IHN virus vaccine, ERM formalin killed bacterin or saline (mock vaccinated). Fish were challenged to the corresponding live pathogen 28 days post-vaccination. IHN vaccine delivery at 360 DD resulted in 40% mortality likely due to residual virulence of the vaccine. No mortality was observed in the ERM nasal delivery groups. Following challenge, very high protection rates against IHN virus were recorded in all three age groups with survivals of 95%, 100% and 97.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival against ERM was 82.5%, 87.5% and 77.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival rates did not differ among ages for either vaccine. Our results indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of nasal vaccination as early as 360 DD and vaccination-related mortalities when a live attenuated viral vaccine was used in the youngest fish. PMID:26111996

  20. Immunosuppressive drugs impairs antibody response of the polysaccharide and conjugated pneumococcal vaccines in patients with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Thomsen, Ole Østergaard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a higher risk of infectious diseases including pneumococcal infections, and the risk increases with immunotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study was to investigate the specific antibody response to two pneumococcal vaccines in CD patients...... with and without immunosuppressive treatment four weeks post vaccination. METHODS: In a randomized trial of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13), a group of CD patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs (IS) alone or in combination...... with TNF-α antagonists were compared to a group of CD patients not treated with any of these drugs (untreated). Specific pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured against 12 serotypes common to the two vaccines before and 4 week after vaccination. RESULTS: PCV13 induced a significantly higher...

  1. Serological response of pigs to a standard and increased dose of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two randomly allocated age-matched groups of 17 conventionally reared pigs derived from vaccinated sows were vaccinated at 10 and 14 weeks of age with a commercially available foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, using either a 1 mL dose or a 3 mL dose. A control group of four pigs was left unvaccinated. Pigs were monitored at regular intervals from birth to 26 weeks of age for antibodies to FMD Type O virus using a liquid phase blocking ELISA. At 12 weeks post vaccination, significantly more pigs vaccinated twice with 3 mL of vaccine had developed antibodies against Type O foot-and-mouth disease virus (at an ELISA titre of 90 or greater) than those vaccinated twice with 1 mL of vaccine (chi-squared test, p = 0.006). Overall, the response to vaccination was poor in both groups of pigs. Four weeks after the first dose of vaccine only four pigs had detectable antibody against the virus. Twelve weeks after the second dose of vaccine only 60% of pigs given the 3 mL dose and 15% of pigs given the 1 mL dose had ELISA titres of 90 or greater. Maternal antibody is considered to have played a role in this poor response, as it was present in 27 of the 34 vaccinated pigs at the time of first vaccination. Two pigs in the unvaccinated control group developed a low level antibody response (antibody titre <90). Infection with field virus was considered a highly unlikely cause of this. These results show, that under field conditions using a widely adopted protocol not all pigs vaccinated develop antibody to foot-and-mouth disease. This, in part, may explain why vaccination programmes against this disease in Hong Kong seem to have a limited impact. The results also suggest, that an increased dose of vaccine has a positive effect on the humoral immune response against FMD virus and may improve protection against this disease. Timing of vaccination needs to be re-evaluated to reduce the impact of maternally derived antibodies. (author)

  2. Characterization of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Function After Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Patch, Jared R; Kenney, Mary; Pacheco, Juan M.; Grubman, Marvin J.; Golde, William T.

    2013-01-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been the central goal of vaccination efforts against this economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Although these efforts have yielded much success, challenges remain, including little cross-serotype protection and inadequate duration of immunity. Commonly, viral infections are characterized by induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), yet the function of CTL in FMDV immunity is poo...

  3. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  4. Proper Timing of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination of Piglets with Maternally Derived Antibodies Will Maximize Expected Protection Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Aldo; Chénard, Gilles; Stockhofe, Norbert; Eblé, Phaedra L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. Groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to FMD virus (FMDV) were measured using virus neutralization tests (VNT). We used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the neck during pregnancy with FMD vaccine containing strains of FMDV serotypes O, A, and Asia-1. Four groups of 10 piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly in the neck at 3, 5, 7, or 9 weeks of age using a monovalent Cedivac-FMD vaccine (serotype A TUR/14/98). One group of 10 piglets with maternally derived antibodies was not vaccinated, and another group of 10 piglets without maternally derived antibodies was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and served as a control group. Sera samples were collected, and antibody titers were determined using VNT. In our study, the antibody responses of piglets with maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 7 or 9 weeks of age were similar to the responses of piglets without maternally derived antibodies vaccinated at 3 weeks of age. The maternally derived antibody levels in piglets depended very strongly on the antibody titer in the sow, so the optimal time for vaccination of piglets will depend on the vaccination scheme and quality of vaccine used in the sows and should, therefore, be monitored and reviewed on regular basis in countries that use FMD prophylactic vaccination. PMID:27446940

  5. Construction and Application of Newcastle Disease Virus-Based Vector Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses are able to stably express a wide-variety of heterologous antigens at relatively high levels in various species and are consequently considered as potent gene delivery vehicles. A single vaccination is frequently sufficient for the induction of robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we provide detailed methods for the construction and application of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based vector vaccines. The in silico design and in vitro rescue as well as the in vivo evaluation of NDV based vectors are described in this chapter.

  6. Global dynamics behaviors for new delay SEIR epidemic disease model with vertical transmission and pulse vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A robust SEIR epidemic disease model with a profitless delay and vertical transmission is formulated, and the dynamics behaviors of the model under pulse vaccination are analyzed.By use of the discrete dynamical system determined by the the model are under appropriate conditions.Using the theory on delay functional and impulsive differential equation, the sufficient condition with time delay for the permanence of the system is obtained, and it is proved that time delays, pulse vaccination and vertical transmission can bring obvious effects on the dynamics behaviors of the model.

  7. Vaccination with genetically modified Shiga-like toxin IIe prevents edema disease in swine.

    OpenAIRE

    Bosworth, B T; Samuel, J E; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D; Gordon, V M; Whipp, S C

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains producing Shiga-like toxin II variant (SLT-IIe, formerly called SLT-IIv) cause edema disease in weaned pigs. Vaccination of pigs with a genetically modified form of Shiga-like toxin IIe, SLT-IIe(E167Q), has been previously shown to be nontoxic and to induce antibodies to SLT-IIe (V.M. Gordon. S.C. Whipp, H.W. Moon, A.D. O'Brien, and J.E. Samuel, Infect, Immun. 60:485-502, 1992). Fifty micrograms of SLT-IIe(E167Q) toxin was used to vaccinate suckling pigs at 1 and 2 we...

  8. Extracellular Vesicles: Role in Inflammatory Responses and Potential Uses in Vaccination in Cancer and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, João Henrique; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Ribeiro, Kleber; Cronemberger Andrade, André; Batista, Wagner Luiz; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events. Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26380326

  9. A dynamic model for infectious diseases: The role of vaccination and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Sekhara Rao, P.; Naresh Kumar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding dynamics of an infectious disease helps in designing appropriate strategies for containing its spread in a population. Recent mathematical models are aimed at studying dynamics of some specific types of infectious diseases. In this paper we propose a new model for infectious diseases spread having susceptible, infected, and recovered populations and study its dynamics in presence of incubation delays and relapse of the disease. The influence of treatment and vaccination efforts on the spread of infection in presence of time delays are studied. Sufficient conditions for local stability of the equilibria and change of stability are derived in various cases. The problem of global stability is studied for an important special case of the model. Simulations carried out in this study brought out the importance of treatment rate in controlling the disease spread. It is observed that incubation delays have influence on the system even under enhanced vaccination. The present study has clearly brought out the fact that treatment rate in presence of time delays would contain the disease as compared to popular belief that eradication can only be done through vaccination.

  10. Vaccinations in adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease: Immunization schedule and recommendations for patients taking synthetic or biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Jacques; Czitrom, Séverine Guillaume; Mallick, Auriane; Sellam, Jérémie; Sibilia, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The risk of infection associated with autoimmune diseases is further increased by the use of biotherapies. Recommendations to minimize this risk include administering the full complement of vaccines on the standard immunization schedule, as well as the pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Adults with chronic inflammatory joint disease (IJD) may receive a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, as well as a live attenuated vaccine against recurrent herpes zoster, recently licensed by European regulatory authorities. Live attenuated vaccines can be given only after an interval without immunosuppressant and/or glucocorticoid therapy. The effectiveness of vaccines, as assessed based on titers of protective antibodies, varies across vaccine types and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Thus, methotrexate and rituximab are usually associated with decreased vaccine responses. The risks associated with vaccines are often considerably exaggerated by the media, which serve lobbies opposed to immunizations and make some patients reluctant to accept immunizations. Increasing immunization coverage may diminish the risk of treatment-related infections. A physician visit dedicated specifically to detecting comorbidities in patients with chronic IJD may result in improved immunization coverage. In this review, we discuss immunizations for adults with chronic IJD based on the treatments used, as well as immunization coverage. Many questions remain unanswered and warrant investigation by studies coordinated by the French networks IREIVAC (Innovative clinical research network in vaccinology) and IMIDIATE (Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Disease Alliance for Translational and Clinical Research). PMID:26453106

  11. Antibody recognition of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein epitopes after vaccination, infection, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trible, Benjamin R; Kerrigan, Maureen; Crossland, Nicholas; Potter, Megan; Faaberg, Kay; Hesse, Richard; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2011-05-01

    Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) codes for the 233-amino-acid capsid protein (CP). Baculovirus-based vaccines that express only ORF2 are protective against clinical disease following experimental challenge or natural infection. The goal of this study was to identify regions in CP preferentially recognized by sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated pigs and to compare these responses to those of pigs diagnosed with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), including porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). The approach was to react porcine sera with CP polypeptide fragments followed by finer mapping studies using overlapping oligopeptides that covered amino acids 141 to 200. The results showed that vaccinated pigs preferentially recognized only the largest polypeptide fragment, CP(43-233). A subset of experimentally infected pigs and pigs with PDNS showed strong reactivity against a CP oligopeptide, 169-STIDYFQPNNKR-180. Alanine scanning identified Y-173, F-174, Q-175, and K-179 as important for antibody recognition. The results from this study support the notion of PCV2 modulation of immunity, including antibody responses that may represent a precursor for disease. The recognition of CP(169-180) and other polypeptides provides opportunities to devise diagnostic tests for monitoring the immunological effectiveness of vaccination. PMID:21430122

  12. Evaluating the role of vaccine to combat peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in endemic disease situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shumaila; Ali, Qurban

    2015-01-01

    Among the main intimidation to the sheep and goat population, PPR outbreaks are causing huge losses especially in endemic areas. During recent times, six outbreaks of PPR were confirmed at semi-organized goat farms/herds in various regions of Punjab province and Islamabad capital territory (ICT), Pakistan. The disease started after introduction of new animals at these farms with no history of previous PPR vaccination. The clinical signs appeared affecting respiratory and enteric systems and spread quickly. Disease caused mortality of 10-20% and morbidity of 20-40% within a time period of four weeks. Morbidity and mortality rates were 30.38% (86/283) and 15.55% (44/283), respectively. Three treatment regimes were executed to demonstrate the role of vaccination during outbreak at these farms. First was to use only the broad spectrum antibiotics (Penicillin & Streptomycin and/ or Trimethoprim and Sulfadiazine) at two farms (Texilla and Attock). Second treatment regime was to use the same broad spectrum antibiotic along with extensive fluid therapy (Farms at ICT-1 and ICT-2). The third regime was to use of broad spectrum antibiotic plus fluid therapy along with vaccinating the herd against PPR during first week of outbreak (ICT-3 and ICT-4). The third scheme of treatment gave the better results as there was no mortality in third week post-outbreak. Therefore, it is suggested to give proper importance to PPR vaccination along with conventional symptomatic treatment when dealing the PPR outbreaks in endemic disease conditions. PMID:26290722

  13. Vaccination against rheumatic heart disease: a review of current research strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manisha; Batzloff, Michael R; Good, Michael F

    2012-08-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are major health problems in many developing countries and Indigenous populations of developed countries. ARF and RHD are sequelae resulting from an infection of Streptococcus pyogenes. Despite advances in health care practices and technology, these diseases still pose major challenges in the communities where Streptococcus pyogenes is often endemic. Here we review and discuss the dynamic epidemiology of streptococcal infection and its associated diseases (ARF and RHD), with a focus on disease burden in temperate versus tropical regions, the tissue tropism of the organism and the efforts towards vaccine development in relation to the available animal models. PMID:22729401

  14. Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Kagucia, Eunice W; Loo, Jennifer D;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccine-serotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably...... representing serotype replacement. We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of 32 IPD surveillance datasets received, we identified 21 eligible databases with rate data ≥ 2 years before and ≥ 1 year after PCV7...... introduction. Expected annual rates of IPD absent PCV7 introduction were estimated by extrapolation using either Poisson regression modeling of pre-PCV7 rates or averaging pre-PCV7 rates. To estimate whether changes in rates had occurred following PCV7 introduction, we calculated site specific rate ratios...

  15. Recurrent Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Serotype 12F in a Vaccinated Splenectomized Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Katrine; Schumacher, Anna Holst; Kantsø, Bjørn;

    2016-01-01

    This is the first case report of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), specifically, due to serotype 12F. The patient described here was vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) due to previous splenectomy, and an anti-pneumococcal IgG test concluded that...... she had responded sufficiently to vaccination. Still, she had a fulminate recurrent infection with PPV23 serotype 12F. We investigated the anti-pneumococcal IgG test, and it turned out that it is based on the geometric mean value of only 12 of the serotypes included in PPV23; 12F is none of them. The...... reason is that there are no titer cut-offs available for 11 of the PPV23 serotypes, including 12F, neither nationally nor internationally. Yet, this is not specified in the answer to the clinicians. This case illustrates the need for titer cut-offs for the remaining pneumococcal serotypes in available...

  16. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B.; Specht, L.; Henrichsen, J.;

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in...... antibody response was compared to the findings in 12 healthy volunteers with the aim of establishing the optimal time for vaccination. Serum antibodies against 6 of the pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (types 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C and 23F) contained in the vaccine were determined by an ELISA. Antibody...... response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response...

  17. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B; Specht, L; Henrichsen, J;

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in...... antibody response was compared to the findings in 12 healthy volunteers with the aim of establishing the optimal time for vaccination. Serum antibodies against 6 of the pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (types 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C and 23F) contained in the vaccine were determined by an ELISA. Antibody...... response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response....

  18. The burden of pneumococcal disease in the Canadian population before routine use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne Morrow; Philippe De Wals; Geneviève Petit; Maryse Guay; Lonny James Erickson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, implementation of the seven-valent conjugate vaccine into childhood immunization schedules has had an effect on the burden of pneumococcal disease in all ages of the population. To evaluate the impact in Canada, it is essential to have an estimate of the burden of pneumococcal disease before routine use of the vaccine.METHODS: The incidence and costs of pneumococcal disease in the Canadian population in 2001 were estimated from various sources, including publ...

  19. Levamisole as an adjuvant to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Somi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High risk of blood-borne infections is one of the problems of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, above which, there is hepatitis B. One of the ways to prevent this disease is vaccination against hepatitis B besides observing standard precautions. Lack of response to vaccine in uremic patients has been reported up to 33.0%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levamisole as an adjuvant in improving vaccination response in patients suffering from CKD. Methods: In this cohort study, 30 patients suffering from the chronic renal disease who had undergone levamisole plus hepatitis B vaccine were included in the study as exposed group (Group A. Then 30 equivalent patients who had just underwent hepatitis B vaccination were in the study as a unexposed group (Group B. Antibody titer against hepatitis B virus (HBV was compared between two groups monthly, then data was analyzed. Results: Mean age of all investigated patients was 58.1 ± 14.9 years old, and it ranged from 26 to 82. 23 patients (38.3% were female, and 37 patients (61.7% were male. None of the patients in both groups had a history of previous hepatitis B vaccination. Mean antibody titer was higher in group A than that of the group B after the first and second stages of hepatitis B vaccination. However, the difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.14 and P = 0.46 respectively. Also, the mean antibody titer after the third stage was 98.8 ± 61 u/l in group A and 86.2 ± 49 u/l in group B where the difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.38. Side effects resulted from levamisole was not observed in any of patients in group A. Conclusion: According to the results it is possible to express that levamisole pill could be used as a proper adjuvant in improving the response of hepatitis B vaccination in patients suffering from CKD. However, further studies in this field are recommended according to the

  20. Two profitless delays for an SEIRS epidemic disease model with vertical transmission and pulse vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the investigation of impulsive delay differential equations is beginning, the literature on delay epidemic models with pulse vaccination is not extensive. In this paper, we propose a new SEIRS epidemic disease model with two profitless delays and vertical transmission, and analyze the dynamics behaviors of the model under pulse vaccination. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain a 'infection-free' periodic solution, further, show that the 'infection-free' periodic solution is globally attractive when some parameters of the model are under appropriate conditions. Using a new modeling method, we obtain sufficient condition for the permanence of the epidemic model with pulse vaccination. We show that time delays, pulse vaccination and vertical transmission can bring different effects on the dynamics behaviors of the model by numerical analysis. Our results also show the delays are 'profitless'. In this paper, the main feature is to introduce two discrete time delays, vertical transmission and impulse into SEIRS epidemic model and to give pulse vaccination strategies.

  1. Risk of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease among the elderly: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Ellen; Duclos, Philippe; Yactayo, Sergio; Schuster, Melanie

    2013-12-01

    Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a rare and serious adverse event of the yellow fever (YF) vaccine that mimics wild-type YF. Research shows there may be an increased risk of YEL-AVD among the elderly population (≥ 60-65 years old), however this research has yet to be accumulated and reviewed in order to make policy recommendations to countries currently administering the YF vaccine. This paper systematically reviewed all information available on YEL-AVD to determine if there is an increased risk among the elderly, for both travelers and endemic populations. Age-specific reporting rates (RRs) were re-calculated from the literature using the Brighton Collaboration case definition for YEL-AVD and were then analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference between the RRs of younger and older age groups. Two out of the five studies found a significantly higher rate of YEL-AVD among the elderly population. Our findings suggest unexposed elders may be at an increased risk of developing YEF-AVD, however the evidence remains limited. Therefore, our findings for YF vaccination of elderly populations support the recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) in their April 2013 meeting, mainly vaccination of the elderly should be based on a careful risk-benefit analysis.

  2. Risk of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease among the elderly: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Ellen; Duclos, Philippe; Yactayo, Sergio; Schuster, Melanie

    2013-12-01

    Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a rare and serious adverse event of the yellow fever (YF) vaccine that mimics wild-type YF. Research shows there may be an increased risk of YEL-AVD among the elderly population (≥ 60-65 years old), however this research has yet to be accumulated and reviewed in order to make policy recommendations to countries currently administering the YF vaccine. This paper systematically reviewed all information available on YEL-AVD to determine if there is an increased risk among the elderly, for both travelers and endemic populations. Age-specific reporting rates (RRs) were re-calculated from the literature using the Brighton Collaboration case definition for YEL-AVD and were then analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference between the RRs of younger and older age groups. Two out of the five studies found a significantly higher rate of YEL-AVD among the elderly population. Our findings suggest unexposed elders may be at an increased risk of developing YEF-AVD, however the evidence remains limited. Therefore, our findings for YF vaccination of elderly populations support the recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) in their April 2013 meeting, mainly vaccination of the elderly should be based on a careful risk-benefit analysis. PMID:24079979

  3. Comparative full-length sequence analysis of Marek's disease virus vaccine strain 814.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Ai-Ling; Yan, Fu-Hai; Cong, Feng; Cheng, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1 vaccine strain 814 was determined. It consisted of 172,541 bp, with an overall gene organization identical to that of the MDV-1 type strains. Comparative genomic analysis of vaccine strains (814 and CVI988) and other strains (CU-2, Md5, and Md11) showed that 814 was most similar to CVI988. Several unique insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified in strain 814. Of note, a 177-bp insertion in the overlapping genes encoding the Meq, RLORF6, and 23-kDa proteins of strain 814 was identified, and a 69-bp deletion was also located in the origin of replication site (Ori) in the gene encoding RLORF12. Compared to the CVI988 vaccine strain, a deletion of 510 bp was identified in the UL36 gene. These analyses identified key mutations in the 814 strain and the vaccine strain that could be exploited for future MDV vaccine design.

  4. Role of parasitic vaccines in integrated control of parasitic diseases in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K P

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic infections adversely affect animal's health and threaten profitable animal production, thus affecting the economy of our country. These infections also play a major role in the spread of zoonotic diseases. Parasitic infections cause severe morbidity and mortality in animals especially those affecting the gastrointestinal system and thus affect the economy of livestock owner by decreasing the ability of the farmer to produce economically useful animal products. Due to all these reasons proper control of parasitic infection is critically important for sustained animal production. The most common and regularly used method to control parasitic infection is chemotherapy, which is very effective but has several disadvantages like drug resistance and drug residues. Integrated approaches to control parasitic infections should be formulated including grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts, and parasitic vaccines. India ranks first in cattle and buffalo population, but the majority of livestock owners have fewer herds, so other measures like grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts are not much practical to use. The most sustainable and economical approach to control parasitic infection in our country is to vaccinate animals, although vaccines increase the initial cost, but the immunity offered by the vaccine are long lived. Thus, vaccination of animals for various clinical, chronic, subclinical parasitic infections will be a cheaper and effective alternative to control parasitic infection for long time and improve animal production.

  5. Lumpy skin disease: preliminary vaccine efficacy assessment and overview on outbreak impact in dairy cattle at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelet, Gelagay; Abate, Yebeyen; Sisay, Tesfaye; Nigussie, Haileleul; Gelaye, Esayas; Jemberie, Shiferaw; Asmare, Kassahun

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted in and around Debre Zeit town to assess the field efficacy of LSD vaccine in use and overview associated disease impact. The study comprised cross-sectional and retrospective study design which employed active disease follow-up, semi-structured questionnaire survey and molecular techniques. The finding revealed that the Kenyan sheep pox vaccine strain used for the control of LSD did not confer expected protection. From the total of 476 animals observed, 22.9% and 2.31% cattle were found sick and dead due to LSD, respectively. Breed specific morbidity rate was 22.5% in Holstein Friesian-zebu cross and 25.9% in local zebu breed. The disease was observed to be more serious in young animals and also in females. A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development. PMID:23428671

  6. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S;

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children children

  7. Superior Immune Response to Protein-Conjugate versus Free Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dransfield, Mark T.; Nahm, Moon H.; Han, MeiLan K.; Harnden, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Fernando J Martinez; Scanlon, Paul D.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Washko, George R.; Connett, John E.; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.; Bailey, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Debate exists about the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of antibodies produced by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 7-valent diphtheria-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7) induces a more robust immune response than PPSV23 in healthy elderly adults.

  8. Differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an ELISA based on recombinant 3ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruderer, U.; Swam, H.; Haas, B.; Visser, N.; Brocchi, E.; Grazioli, S.; Esterhuysen, J.J.; Vosloo, W.; Forsyth, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Cox, S.; Armstrong, R.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the EU in 1991. Here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination an

  9. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  10. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S;

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children quality surveillance data, just prior to the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....

  11. 77 FR 41985 - Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... disease computer simulation models to generate quantitative estimates of the benefits and risks of... assessment methods to vaccine assessment of quantitative benefit/risk assessment methods to vaccine... developments in open-source, agent-based, publicly available computer simulation tools to model influenza...

  12. Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine: A Review in the Prevention of Dengue Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2016-09-01

    Tetravalent, live-attenuated, dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia(®); CYD-TDV) is the first vaccine approved for the prevention of dengue disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1-4 in individuals aged 9-45 or 9-60 years living in high dengue endemic areas. This narrative review discusses the immunogenicity, protective efficacy, reactogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV in the prevention of dengue disease. In Latin American and Asian phase 3 trials in children and adolescents (n > 30,000), the recommended three-dose CYD-TDV regimen was efficacious in preventing virologically-confirmed dengue (VCD) during the period from 28 days after the last dose (month 13) to month 25, meeting the primary endpoint criteria. Protective efficacy against VCD in the respective individual trials was 60.8 and 56.5 % (primary analysis). During the 25-month active surveillance phase, CYD-TDV also provided protective efficacy against VCD, severe dengue, any grade of dengue haemorrhagic fever and VCD-related hospitalization in children aged 9 years and older. CYD-TDV was generally well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified after up to 4 years' follow-up (i.e. from post dose 1) in ongoing long-term studies. Based on evidence from the dengue clinical trial program, the WHO SAGE recommended that countries with high dengue endemicity consider introducing CYD-TDV as part of an integrated disease prevention strategy to lower disease burden. Pharmacoeconomic considerations will be pivotal to implementing dengue vaccination prevention strategies in these countries. The availability of a dengue vaccine is considered essential if the 2012 WHO global strategy targets for reducing the burden of dengue disease by 2020 are to be attained. Hence, CYD-TDV represents a major advance for the prevention of dengue disease in high dengue endemic regions. PMID:27506852

  13. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conducted as follows: (i) For each dilution, inject at least five embryos, 9 to 11 days old, in the... as follows: Each of twenty-five 3 to 5 week old Newcastle disease susceptible chickens shall be... any of the birds show severe clinical signs of disease or death during the observation period due...

  14. Effect of diluting Marek's disease vaccines on the outcomes of Marek's disease virus infection when challenged with highly virulent Marek's disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Montiel, Enrique R; Lemiere, Stephane; Pandiri, Arun K R

    2011-06-01

    Dilution of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines is a common practice in the field to reduce the cost associated with vaccination. In this study we have evaluated the effect of diluting MD vaccines on the protection against MD, vaccine and challenge MD virus (MDV) kinetics, and body weight when challenged with strains Md5 (very virulent MDV) and 648A (very virulent plus MDV) by contact at day of age. The following four vaccination protocols were evaluated in meat-type chickens: turkey herpesvirus (HVT) at manufacturer-recommended full dose; HVT diluted 1:10; HVT + SB-1 at the manufacturer-recommended full dose; and HVT + SB-1 diluted 1:10 for HVT and 1:5 for SB-1. Vaccine was administered at hatch subcutaneously. One-day-old chickens were placed in floor pens and housed together with ten 15-day-old chickens that had been previously inoculated with 500 PFU of either Md5 or 648A MDV strains. Chickens were individually identified with wing bands, and for each chicken samples of feather pulp and blood were collected at 1, 3, and 8 wk posthatch. Body weights were recorded at 8 wk for every chicken. Viral DNA load of wild-type MDV, SB-1, and HVT were evaluated by real time-PCR. Our results showed that dilution of MD vaccines can lead to reduced MD protection, reduced relative body weights, reduced vaccine DNA during the first 3 wk, and increased MDV DNA load. The detrimental effect of vaccine dilution was more evident in females than in males and was more evident when the challenge virus was 648A. However, lower relative body weights and higher MDV DNA load could be detected in chickens challenged with strain Md5, even in the absence of obvious differences in protection.

  15. Quantifying Parameter and Structural Uncertainty of Dynamic Disease Transmission Models Using MCMC: An Application to Rotavirus Vaccination in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Bilcke, Joke; Chapman, Ruth; Atchison, Christina; Cromer, Deborah; Johnson, Helen; Willem, Lander; Cox, Martin; Edmunds, William John; Jit, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) are highly effective at preventing severe rotavirus disease. Rotavirus vaccination has been introduced in the United Kingdom and other countries partly based on modeling and cost-effectiveness results. However, most of these models fail to account for the uncertainty about several vaccine characteristics and the mechanism of vaccine action. Methods. A deterministic dynamic transmission model of rotavirus vaccination in the United Kingdom was deve...

  16. Evaluation of cytokine mRNA expression in vaccinated guinea pigs with foot-and-mouth disease type O inactivated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasandideh, R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a severely contagious viral disease that mainly affects cloven-hoofed livestock and wildlife. This study quantifies the cytokines mRNA expression of vaccinated guinea pigs with FMD type O inactivated vaccine. Blood samples were collected from eight guinea pigs at 7 and 28 days after the first vaccination. Extracted mRNAs were reverse-transcribed into cDNA and analyzed for quantification of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 expression using relative real-time PCR assay. Our results showed that all of the genes were upregulated. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 genes significantly increased (P<0.05 in day 28th in comparison to the day 7th post the first vaccination. It can be concluded that the vaccine induced immune responses by increasing expression of the cytokines. Therefore, effects of DNA vaccines on immune system also may be evaluated using these genes.

  17. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  18. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathyraj, S; Arunkumar, G; Alidjinou, E K; Hober, D

    2016-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). In the recent years, coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A10 have been widely associated with both sporadic cases and outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, particularly in India, South East Asia and Europe with an increased frequency of neurological complications as well as mortality. Currently, there is no pharmacological intervention or vaccine available for HFMD. A formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine has completed clinical trial in several Asian countries. However, this vaccine cannot protect against other major emerging etiologies of HFMD such as CV-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10. Therefore, the development of a globally representative multivalent HFMD vaccine could be the best strategy. PMID:27406374

  19. Vaccination and reduced cohort duration can drive virulence evolution: Marek's disease virus and industrialized agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine E; Read, Andrew F; Savill, Nicholas J; Renz, Katrin G; Islam, A F M Fakhrul; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-03-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a commercially important disease of poultry, has become substantially more virulent over the last 60 years. This evolution was presumably a consequence of changes in virus ecology associated with the intensification of the poultry industry. Here, we assess whether vaccination or reduced host life span could have generated natural selection, which favored more virulent strains. Using previously published experimental data, we estimated viral fitness under a range of cohort durations and vaccine treatments on broiler farms. We found that viral fitness maximized at intermediate virulence, as a result of a trade-off between virulence and transmission previously reported. Our results suggest that vaccination, acting on this trade-off, could have led to the evolution of increased virulence. By keeping the host alive, vaccination prolongs infectious periods of virulent strains. Improvements in host genetics and nutrition, which reduced broiler life spans below 50 days, could have also increased the virulence of the circulating MDV strains because shortened cohort duration reduces the impact of host death on viral fitness. These results illustrate the dramatic impact anthropogenic change can potentially have on pathogen virulence.

  20. Assessing vaccination sentiments with online social media: implications for infectious disease dynamics and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the dynamics of health behaviors in social networks and how they affect collective public health outcomes, but measuring population health behaviors over time and space requires substantial resources. Here, we use publicly available data from 101,853 users of online social media collected over a time period of almost six months to measure the spatio-temporal sentiment towards a new vaccine. We validated our approach by identifying a strong correlation between sentiments expressed online and CDC-estimated vaccination rates by region. Analysis of the network of opinionated users showed that information flows more often between users who share the same sentiments - and less often between users who do not share the same sentiments - than expected by chance alone. We also found that most communities are dominated by either positive or negative sentiments towards the novel vaccine. Simulations of infectious disease transmission show that if clusters of negative vaccine sentiments lead to clusters of unprotected individuals, the likelihood of disease outbreaks is greatly increased. Online social media provide unprecedented access to data allowing for inexpensive and efficient tools to identify target areas for intervention efforts and to evaluate their effectiveness.

  1. Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ≤11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ≥56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD.

  2. Effects of T-2 Toxin on Turkey Herpesvirus-Induced Vaccinal Immunity Against Marek's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufuor-Mensah, E; Reed, W M; Sleight, S; Pestka, J; Fadly, A M; Dunn, J R

    2016-03-01

    T-2 toxin, a very potent immunotoxic Type A trichothecene, is a secondary metabolite produced primarily by Fusarium spp., which grows on cereal grains and can lead to contaminated livestock feed. Repeated exposure to T-2 toxin has been shown to cause immunosuppression and decrease the resistance of exposed animals to a variety of infectious diseases; however, the effects of T-2 toxin on Marek's disease (MD) vaccinal immunity have not been reported. Four trials were conducted to determine the effects of T-2 toxin on vaccinal immunity against MD. Day-old, white leghorn chicks of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory line 15I5 × 71 were treated daily for 7 days via crop gavage with T-2 toxin at a sublethal dose of 1.25 mg/kg body weight. Treated and untreated chicks were also vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) at hatch and were challenged with the JM strain of MD virus (MDV) at 8 days of age. Chickens were tested for HVT viremia at 1 wk postvaccination immediately before challenge, and for HVT and MDV viremia at 3 wk postchallenge. Chickens were observed for the development of MD lesions and mortality within 8 wk of age. T-2 toxin significantly reduced body weight and titers of HVT viremia within 7 days after hatch. T-2 toxin shortened the incubation period for the development of MD lesions and mortality, but only in unvaccinated chickens. The percent MD protection in T-2-toxin-treated, HVT-vaccinated chickens ranged from 82% to 96% and was comparable to that in HVT-vaccinated untreated control chickens (89%-100%). The data suggest that exposure of chickens to sublethal doses of T-2 toxin for 7 consecutive days after hatch may influence the development of 1) HVT viremia; and 2) MD lesions and mortality, but only in unvaccinated chickens. PMID:26953944

  3. Reduction in morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease after species A rotavirus vaccine introduction in Latin America : a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Desai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries in Latin America were among the first to implement routine vaccination against species A rotavirus (RVA. We evaluate data from Latin America on reductions in gastroenteritis and RVA disease burden following the introduction of RVA vaccine. Published literature was reviewed to identify case-control studies of vaccine effectiveness and population-based studies examining longitudinal trends of diarrhoeal disease reduction after RVA vaccine introduction in Latin American countries. RVA vaccine effectiveness and impact on gastroenteritis mortality and hospitalization rates and RVA hospitalization rates are described. Among middle-income Latin American countries with published data (Mexico, Brazil, El Salvador and Panama, RVA vaccine contributed to a gastroenteritis-associated mortality reduction of 22-41%, a gastroenteritis-associated hospitalization reduction of 17-51% and a RVA hospitalization reduction of 59-81% among children younger than five years of age. In Brazil and El Salvador, case-control studies demonstrated that a full RVA vaccination schedule was 76-85% effective against RVA hospitalization; a lower effectiveness of 46% was seen in Nicaragua, the only low-income country with available data. A growing body of literature offers convincing evidence of "real world" vaccine program successes in Latin American settings, which may be expanded as more countries in the region include RVA vaccine in their immunization programs.

  4. Effect of foot and mouth disease vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Perumal; K Khate; C Rajkhowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of semen of mithun at pre and post vaccinated stage. Methods: The breeding bulls were maintained at Semen Collection Centre, National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland. A total of 160 ejaculates were collected from eight mithun bulls twice a week at about 4 weeks in pre vaccinated stage and 12 weeks post vaccinated stage to know the effect of vaccine stress on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun semen. The vaccine was given at the end of 4th week of experimental period and semen was collected and evaluated upto the 16th weeks of experimental period. Results: It revealed that FMD vaccination affected the sperm functional and biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) upto 10th weeks of vaccination. But the animal recovered slowly in both physical health and spermiogram.Conclusions:The adverse effect of vaccination on seminal parameters suggest that the semen collection and preservation should be suspended till 10th weeks of vaccination to get normal fertility of sperm to avoid the failure of conception from artificial insemination using such semen in this precious species.

  5. Added Value of Avian Influenza (H5) Day-Old Chick Vaccination for Disease Control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Marisa; Choisy, Marc; Sobhy, Heba; Kilany, Walid H; Gély, Marie; Tripodi, Astrid; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Saad, Mona; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

    2016-05-01

    The immunity profile against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the commercial poultry value chain network in Egypt was modeled with the use of different vaccination scenarios. The model estimated the vaccination coverage, the protective seroconversion level, and the duration of immunity for each node of the network and vaccination scenario. Partial budget analysis was used to compare the benefit-cost of the different vaccination scenarios. The model predicted that targeting day-old chick avian influenza (AI) vaccination in industrial and large hatcheries would increase immunity levels in the overall poultry population in Egypt and especially in small commercial poultry farms (from 60%). This strategy was shown to be more efficient than the current strategy of using inactivated vaccines. Improving HPAI control in the commercial poultry sector in Egypt would have a positive impact to improve disease control. PMID:27309063

  6. Vaccines and Photodynamic Therapies for Oral Microbial-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoid...

  7. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-05-17

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a "South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines" was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  8. Dynamic models of pneumococcal carriage and the impact of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmunds W John

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been introduced in national immunisation programmes of most industrialised countries and recently in two African GAVI eligible countries (Rwanda and The Gambia. However the long term effects of PCV are still unclear, as beneficial direct and herd immunity effects might be countered by serotype replacement. Method A dynamic, age-structured, compartmental model of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission was developed to predict the potential impact of PCV7 on the incidence of invasive disease accounting for both herd immunity and serotype replacement effects. The model was parameterised using epidemiological data from England and Wales and pre and post-vaccination surveillance data from the US. Results Model projections showed that serotype replacement plays a crucial role in determining the overall effect of a PCV7 vaccination programme and could reduce, negate or outweigh its beneficial impact. However, using the estimate of the competition parameter derived from the US post-vaccination experience, an infant vaccination programme would prevent 39,000 IPD cases in the 20 years after PCV7 introduction in the UK. Adding a catch-up campaign for under 2 or under 5 year olds would provide a further reduction of 1,200 or 3,300 IPD cases respectively, mostly in the first few years of the programme. Conclusions This analysis suggests that a PCV vaccination programme would eradicate vaccine serotypes from circulation. However, the increase in carriage of non-vaccine serotypes, and the consequent increase in invasive disease, could reduce, negate or outweigh the benefit. These results are sensitive to changes in the protective effect of the vaccine, and, most importantly, to the level of competition between vaccine and non-vaccine types. The techniques developed here can be used to assess the introduction of vaccination programmes in developing countries and provide the basis for cost

  9. A high-resolution melting (HRM) assay for the differentiation between Israeli field and Neethling vaccine lumpy skin disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasherow, Sophia; Erster, Oran; Rubinstein-Giuni, Marisol; Kovtunenko, Anita; Eyngor, Evgeny; Gelman, Boris; Khinich, Evgeny; Stram, Yehuda

    2016-06-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a constant threat to the Middle East including the State of Israel. During vaccination programs it is essential for veterinary services and farmers to be able to distinguish between animals affected by the cattle-borne virulent viruses and vaccinated animals, subsequently affected by the vaccine strain. This study describes an improved high resolution-melting (HRM) test that exploits a 27 base pair (bp) fragment of the LSDV126 extracellular enveloped virion (EEV) gene that is present in field viruses but is absent from the Neethling vaccine strain. This difference leads to ∼0.5 °C melting point change in the HRM assay, when testing the quantitative PCR (qPCR) products generated from the virulent field viruses compared to the attenuated vaccine. By exploiting this difference, it could be shown using the newly developed HRM assay that virus isolated from vaccinated cattle that developed disease symptoms behave similarly to vaccine virus control, indicating that the vaccine virus can induce disease symptoms. This assay is not only in full agreement with the previously published PCR gradient and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) tests but it is faster with, fewer steps, cheaper and dependable. PMID:26902159

  10. Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus replication in chicken embryos by miRNAs delivered by recombinant avian adeno-associated viral vector%重组禽腺联病毒介导的miRNA抑制传染性法氏囊病病毒在鸡胚内的复制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹏鹏; 王永娟; 孙怀昌; 张鑫宇; 夏晓莉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]We studied the inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV ) replication in chicken embryos by recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV)-delivered VP1- and VP2-specific microRNAs (miRNAs).[Methods and Results]We co-transfected AAV-293 cells with the VP1- or VP2 gene-specific miRNA expression vector pAITR-RFPmiVP1 or AITR-RFPmiVP2E, AAAV packaging vector pcDNA-ARC and adenovirus helper vector pHelper, resulting in recombinant virus rAAAV-RFPmiVP1 or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E.We also generated the recombinant viruses rAAAV-RFP (without miRNA expression cassette) and rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con ( expressing control miRNA ) using the same method as the control purpose.Electron microscopy showed that the recombinant viruses had a typical morphology of AAV.We confirmed the presence of miRNA expression cassette in the recombinant viral genomes by using PCR.Our poly (A)-tailed RT-PCR showed correct expression of the miRNAs in the rAAAV-transduced DF-1 cells.We inoculated the recombinant viruses individually into 8-day-old SPF chicken embryos and then challenged them using Lukert strain IBDV on day 2 after inoculation.Our IBDV titration assay showed that the 50% tissue culture infectious dose ( TCID50) of rAAAV-RFP- or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con-inoculated group was 8.0 log10, whereas the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP1-inoculated group decreased to 1.0 and 0.8 log10 on day 3 and 6 after challenge, respectively.Similarly, the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E-inoculated group decreased to 1.5 and 2.0 log10, respectively.[Conclusion]These data suggest that rAAAV can transduce efficiently chicken embryos and the expressed VP1- and VP2-specific miRNAs can inhibit the replication of IBDV efficiently.%[目的]在鸡胚水平上探索VP1和VP2基因特异miRNA抑制传染性法氏囊病病毒(infectious bursaldisease virus,IBDV)复制的可行性.[方法与结果]将表达VP1基因特异miRNA重组载体pAITR-RFPmiVP1或VP2基因特异miRNA重组载体pAITR-RFPmiVP2E

  11. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody based approach for the selection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine strains

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Cox, S; Statham, R.J.; Knowles, N J; Barnett, P.V.; Paton, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody based approach for the selection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine strains UNITED KINGDOM (Mahapatra, M.) UNITED KINGDOM Received: 2007-04-08 Revised: 2007-06-18 Accepted: 2007-06-22

  12. How Many Individuals with Asthma Need to Be Vaccinated to Prevent One Case of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Okapuu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended the inclusion of adults with asthma in the high-risk category for pneumococcal vaccination based on a twofold increase in risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD.

  13. Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...

  14. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intuss...

  15. Isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease virus from vaccinated commercial layer chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balachandran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an infectious, highly contagious and destructive viral disease of poultry and controlled by vaccination. In spite of vaccination, incidence of ND was reported in commercial layers with gastrointestinal lesions. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV involved in gastrointestinal tract abnormalities of vaccinated commercial layer chicken of Namakkal region for a period of three years from 2008 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Pooled tissue (trachea, lung, spleen, proventriculus, intestine and caecal tonsils samples collected from dead birds on postmortem examination from 100 layer flocks above 20 weeks of age with gastrointestinal lesions were subjected to isolation of NDV in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs. Mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index of the isolates were characterized. Flock details were collected from NDV positive flocks to assess the prevalence and impact of NDV on vaccinated commercial layer chicken. Results: Among the 100 flocks examined Newcastle disease virus was detected in 14 flocks as a single infection and 10 flocks as combined infections with worm infestation, necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. Chicken embryo mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI values ranged from 50.4 to 96.0 hrs and from 0.650 to 1.675 respectively. Affected birds showed anorexia, diarrohea and drop in egg production. Macropathologically, matting of vent feathers, petechial haemorrhage on the tip of proventricular papilla, caecal tonsils and degeneration of ovarian follicles were noticed. The incidence of ND was most commonly noticed in 20-50 wk of age and between the months of September to November. Morbidity rate varied from 5% to 10% in the NDV alone affected flocks and 5 to 15% in NDV with other concurrent infections. Egg production drop from the expected level ranged between 3 to 7 % in ND and

  16. Impact of routine PCV7 (Prevenar vaccination of infants on the clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulong Saperi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7. Methods A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population. Results At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million. Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261 per life year gained. Conclusions PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261. This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922.

  17. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.; Enøe, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis.Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to a...

  18. Simultaneous immunization of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and live anthrax vaccines do not interfere with FMD booster responses

    OpenAIRE

    Myrian Trotta; Juan Lahore; Nancy Cardoso; Osvaldo Melucci; María Catena; Mariano Pérez-Filgueira; Fernando Fernández; Alejandra Victoria Capozzo

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in Argentina is compulsory for most of the cattle population and conducted by certified veterinarians. This organized campaign may facilitate the controlled application of other vaccines against endemic diseases, provided immune responses against FMD are not hindered. There is no published information on the interference of immunity against FMD vaccines when applied together with a live bacterial vaccine. In this study we evaluated if the simultaneous ...

  19. Is There Need for a New Hepatitıs B Vaccine Schedule for Children with Celiac Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Ertekin, Vildan; Tosun, Mahya Sultan; Selimoglu, Mukadder Ayse

    2011-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immunemediated inflammatory damage of the small intestinal mucosa, precipitated by the ingestion of gluten-containing foods. Since human leucocyte antigen DQ2 (HLA-DQ2) is a marker of nonresponsiveness to hepatits B virus (HBV) vaccine, CD may also be associated with this nonresponsiveness. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the responses to HBV vaccine between children with CD and healthy children. We also ...

  20. Development of a novel oral vaccine against Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and Johne disease: A patho-biotechnological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, C.; Coffey, A.; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, RD

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of Johne disease, a granulomatous enteritis of cattle and other domesticated and wild ruminant species. Johne disease is prevalent worldwide and has a significant impact on the global agricultural economy. Current vaccines against Johne are insufficient in stemming its spread, and associated side-effects prevent their widespread use in control programs. Effective and safe vaccine strategies are needed. The main purpose...

  1. Acute respiratory failure secondary to eosinophilic pneumonia following influenza vaccination in an elderly man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapaporn Pornsuriyasak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure with diffuse pulmonary opacities is an unusual manifestation following influenza vaccination. We report herein a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed fever with worsening of respiratory symptoms and severe hypoxemia requiring ventilatory support shortly after influenza vaccination. Bronchoalveolar lavage was compatible with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Rapid clinical improvement was observed 2 weeks after systemic corticosteroid treatment, followed by radiographic improvement at 4 weeks. No disease recurrence was observed at the 6-month follow-up.

  2. Fish Vaccine Development and Use to Prevent Streptococcal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important pathogen of tilapia, hybrid striped bass and trout raised in intensive aquaculture is Streptococcus sp., a cause of severe economic losses in the fish farming industry. Infected fish experience severe to moderate mortality due to Streptococcus iniae and/or S. agalactiae. The diseased ...

  3. Protection induced by a commercial bivalent vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease 2010 field virus from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Hernando; Naranjo, Jose; Carrillo, Consuelo; Burbano, Alexandra; Vargas, Javier; Pauszek, Lisa; Olesen, Ian; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Cosivi, Ottorino; Allende, Rossana M

    2016-07-29

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype O circulated endemically in Ecuador for many years, with an upsurge occurring in 2009. This manuscript describes retrospectively in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies to predict the field effectiveness of a commercial FMD vaccine to protect against the field strain, and explains the key actions and epidemiological strategies followed by the country to control the disease. The results established that the use of a good quality oil vaccine, manufactured with strains that were isolated long ago: O1 Campos Br/58 and A24 Cruzeiro Br/55; combined with the correct epidemiological strategies, are useful to control field strains when used in periodic biannual vaccination campaigns.

  4. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

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    Francesca Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6% in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%–84%; it was 69% (95% CI: 30%–88% against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%–87% against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage.

  5. Treated Follicular Lymphoma, Recurrent Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Nonresponsiveness to Vaccination, and a Unique Pneumococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonneutropenic patient with treated low-grade non-Hodgkin’s (Follicular lymphoma and secondary hypogammaglobulinemia recovered from pneumococcal pneumonia and septicemia (serotype 7F; ST191 subsequent to influenza A H1N1 (2009. Both infections were potentially vaccine preventable. The patient then developed pneumococcal meningitis due to a serotype 35F pneumococcus with a unique Multilocus Sequence Type (ST7004 which was not vaccine preventable. Patient management was influenced by host predisposition to pneumococcal infection, antibiotic intolerance, and poor response to polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Indirect immunofluorescence with anti-human immunoglobulin confirmed a poor or intermediate response to Pneumovax II. Prophylactic erythromycin was initiated, and immunoglobulin transfusions were also commenced as a preventive strategy. ST7004 is a single locus variant of ST1635 which has been associated with the serotype 35F capsule in England. The spi gene in ST7004, which differentiates it from ST1635, is the same as the spi gene present in ST191 which could have arisen from the first disease episode suggesting that horizontal gene transfer may have occurred between different populations of pneumococci present within the patient in an attempt to evade vaccination selection pressure.

  6. Current therapeutic vaccination and immunotherapy strategies for HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Joseph G; Woodham, Andrew W; Einstein, Mark H; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2016-06-01

    Carcinomas of the anogenital tract, in particular cervical cancer, remains one of the most common cancers in women, and represent the most frequent gynecological malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are immunologically distinct in that they express viral antigens, which are necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. The causal relationship between HPV infection and anogenital cancer has prompted substantial interest in the development of therapeutic vaccines against high-risk HPV types targeting the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for immunotherapies for mucosal HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced diseases. Progress in peptide- and protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibition, immune response modifiers, and adoptive cell therapy for HPV will be discussed.

  7. Low vaccination coverage for seasonal influenza and pneumococcal disease among adults at-risk and health care workers in Ireland, 2013: The key role of GPs in recommending vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Coralie; Mereckiene, Jolita; Danis, Kostas; O'Donnell, Joan; O'Flanagan, Darina; Cotter, Suzanne

    2016-07-12

    The World Health Organization (WHO), and European Agencies recommend influenza vaccination for individuals at-risk due to age (≥65 years), underlying diseases, pregnancy and for health care workers (HCWs) in Europe. Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for those at-risk of pneumococcal disease. In Ireland, vaccination uptake among at-risk adults is not routinely available. In 2013, we conducted a national survey among Irish residents ≥18 years of age, to estimate size and vaccination coverage of at-risk groups, and identify predictive factors for influenza vaccination. We used computer assisted telephone interviews to collect self-reported information on health, vaccination status, attitudes towards vaccination. We calculated prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) using binomial regression. Overall, 1770 individuals participated. For influenza, among those aged 18-64 years, 22% (325/1485) [95%CI: 17%-20%] were at-risk; 28% [95%CI: 23%-33%] were vaccinated. Among those aged ≥65 years, 60% [95%CI: 54%-66%] were vaccinated. Influenza vaccine uptake among HCWs was 28% [95%CI: 21%-35%]. For pneumococcal disease, among those aged 18-64 years, 18% [95%CI: 16%-20%] were at-risk; 16% [95%CI: 12%-21%] reported ever-vaccination; among those aged ≥65 years, 36% [95%CI: 30%-42%] reported ever-vaccination. Main reasons for not receiving influenza vaccine were perceptions of not being at-risk, or not thinking of it; and among HCWs thinking that vaccination was not necessary or they were not at-risk. At-risk individuals were more likely to be vaccinated if their doctor had recommended it (PR 3.2; [95%CI: 2.4%-4.4%]) or they had access to free medical care or free vaccination services (PR 2.0; [95%CI: 1.5%-2.8%]). Vaccination coverage for both influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in at-risk individuals aged 18-64 years was very low. Influenza vaccination coverage among individuals ≥65 years was moderate. Influenza vaccination status was associated with GP vaccination

  8. Efficacy of Various HVT Vaccines (Conventional and Recombinant) Against Marek's Disease in Broiler Chickens: Effect of Dose and Age of Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, I M; Cortes, A L; Faiz, N; Villalobos, T; Badillo, H; Barbosa, T

    2016-09-01

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as a Marek's disease (MD) vaccine for more than 40 yr. Either alone (broiler chickens) or in combination with vaccines of other serotypes (broilers, broiler breeders, and layers), HVT is used worldwide. In recent years, several vector vaccines based on HVT (rHVT) have been developed. At present, there are both conventional HVT and rHVTs in the market, and it is unknown if all of them confer the same level of protection against MD. The objective of this study was to further characterize the protection conferred by two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) and three recombinant HVTs (rHVT-B, rHVT-C, and rHVT-D) against MD in broiler chickens. In a first study we evaluated the efficacy of two conventional HVTs (HVT-A and HVT-B) administered at different doses (475, 1500, and 4000 PFU) at day of age on the ability to protect against an early challenge with very virulent plus strain 645. In a second experiment we evaluated the protection ability of several HVTs (both conventional and recombinant) when administered in ovo at a dose of 1500 PFU using the same challenge model. Our results show that each HVT product is unique, regardless of being conventional or recombinant, in their ability to protect against MD and might require different PFUs to achieve its maximum efficacy. In Experiment 1, HVT-A at 4000 PFU conferred higher protection (protection index [PI] = 63) than any of the other vaccine protocols (PI ranging from 36 to 47). In Experiment 2, significant differences were found among vaccine protocols with PI varying from 66 (HVT-A) to 15 (rHVT-D). Our results show that each HVT is unique and age at vaccination and vaccine dose greatly affected vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, they highlight the need of following manufacturer's recommendations. PMID:27610727

  9. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992-2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld's Quellung method. Among children vaccination (1997-2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007-2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010-2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups vaccination period (1992-2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013-2014, as compared to 2010-2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing among adults. Eight years of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination have had a strong effect on the pneumococcal population in Germany, both among the target group for vaccination as well as among older children and adults.

  10. A Recombinant G Protein Plus Cyclosporine A-Based Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Elicits Humoral and Regulatory T Cell Responses against Infection without Vaccine-Enhanced Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Yiwei; Li, Changgui; Dong, Aihua; He, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Shuren; Wang, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and older people. Vaccination with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV) and subsequent RSV infection has led to mild to severe pneumonia with two deaths among vaccinees. The vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) was recently demonstrated to be due to an elevated level of Th2 cell responses following loss of regulatory T (Treg) cells from the lungs. To induce high levels of neutralizing Abs and minimize pathogenic T cell responses, we developed a novel strategy of immunizing animals with a recombinant RSV G protein together with cyclosporine A. This novel vaccine induced not only a higher level of neutralizing Abs against RSV infection, but, most importantly, also significantly higher levels of Treg cells that suppressed VED in the lung after RSV infection. The induced responses provided protection against RSV challenge with no sign of pneumonia or bronchitis. Treg cell production of IL-10 was one of the key factors to suppress VED. These finding indicate that G protein plus cyclosporine A could be a promising vaccine against RSV infection in children and older people.

  11. Recombinant Newcastle disease vaccines: risk for recombination, reversion to virulence, and spread in non-target species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important diseases of poultry and causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Vaccination is the main form of control of ND and it has been practiced for more than 60 years with billions of...

  12. Serum-Mediated Activation of Macrophages Reflects TcVac2 Vaccine Efficacy against Chagas Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shivali; Silva, Trevor S.; Osizugbo, Jessica E.; Tucker, Laura; Spratt, Heidi M.; Garg, Nisha J.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and an emerging infectious disease in the United States. No effective treatments are available. The TcG1, TcG2, and TcG4 antigens are highly conserved in clinically relevant Trypanosoma cruzi isolates and are recognized by B and T cells in infected hosts. Delivery of these antigens as a DNA prime/protein boost vaccine (TcVac2) elicited lytic antibodies and type 1 CD8+ T cells that expanded upon challenge infection and provided >90% control of parasit...

  13. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  14. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvão, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

  15. Vaccine Induced Specific Protection Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM) Caused by Yersinia Ruckeri Serotype 1 Biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Sidharta; Raida, Martin K.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2011-01-01

    In European fish farms there is evidence of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) outbreaks in previously vaccinated farmed fish. It has been suggested that the occurrence of a Yersinia ruckeri variant (biotype 2) may explain this situation. Recent development of commercial vaccines has included both...... biotype 1 and 2. In this study, the specificity of immune protection extended by three commercial vaccines viz; AQUAVAC ERM® Intervet Schering Plough (based on biotype 1 only), ERMOGEN VET® Novartis (based on biotype 1 only) and AQUAVAC RELERA® Intervet Schering Plough (based on both biotype 1and 2......) developed against ERM was investigated following intraperitoneal (IP) challenge with Yersinia ruckeri serotype1 biotype 2. Fish were immersion vaccinated for 30 s and challenged 2, 4 and 6 months post vaccination. The onset and severity of various pathological lesions along with their disappearance during...

  16. The assessment of antibody response following immunization with polysaccharide vaccine in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghamohammadi A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: An increased risk for invasive infections with encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae has been described in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD or in those on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibody response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine in CKD patients. "n"nMethods : Sixty-six patients with CKD and 40 healthy individuals were vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The serum antibody response (IgG and IgG2 to the Pneumovax antigens was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA prior to and four weeks after vaccination."n"nResults : Out of 66 vaccinated patients with CKD, 14 were found to be hyporesponsive to the vaccine (Group 1. Patients with normal specific antibody response were regarded as respondents and were assigned to Group 2 (n=52. The mean post-vaccination IgG titer to the pneumococcal antigens in Group 1 was significantly lower than those in Group 2 (P=0.012 for IgG and P=0.02 for IgG2. The increased anti-pneumococcal IgG titer was significantly lower in patients in Group 1 versus Group 2 (P=0.001 or the healthy control group (P=0.005. During the follow-up period of patients, patients in Group 1 developed

  17. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  18. Serosurveillance of vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C in healthcare workers from Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony P Black

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers (HCW have an increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases and are a potential source of infections for their patients. The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR has no national policy regarding HCW vaccinations and routine vaccination coverage is low within the general population. This cross-sectional serostudy determines the level of exposure and risk of infection in Lao HCW against 6 vaccine preventable diseases and hepatitis C.1128 HCW were recruited from 3 central, 2 provincial and 8 district hospitals. Sera were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies and antigens to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, rubella, varicella zoster, tetanus and diphtheria.Only 53.1% of the HCW had protective anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies (anti-HBs with 48.8% having anti-hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc, indicating previous exposure and 8.0% were hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. 3.9% were hepatitis C seropositive. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected in 95.4% and 86.2% of the HCW, with 11.9% of females being unprotected against rubella. Antibodies against varicella zoster, tetanus and diphtheria were detected in 95%, 78.8% and 55.3%, respectively. Seroprevalence varied according to age, gender and number of children.An unacceptably high proportion of Lao HCW remain susceptible to infection with hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus and rubella. Furthermore, a high number of healthcare workers are chronically infected with hepatitis B and C viruses. These data emphasize the need for a robust HCW vaccination policy in addition to increased awareness within this subpopulation.

  19. A retrospective analysis of the Alzheimer's disease vaccine progress - The critical need for new development strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J

    2016-06-01

    The promising results obtained with aducanumab and solanezumab against Alzheimer's disease (AD) strengthen the vaccine approach to prevent AD, despite of the many clinical setbacks. It has been problematic to use conjugated peptides with Th1/Th2 adjuvants to induce immune responses against conformational epitopes formed by Aβ oligomers, which is critical to induce protective antibodies. Hence, vaccination should mimic natural immunity by using whole or if possible conjugated antigens, but biasing the response to Th2 with anti-inflammatory adjuvants. Also, selection of the carrier and cross-linking agents is important to prevent suppression of the immune response against the antigen. That certain compounds having phosphorylcholine or fucose induce a sole Th2 immunity would allow antigens with T-cell epitopes without inflammatory autoimmune reactions to be used. Another immunization method is DNA vaccines combined with antigenic ones, which favors the clonal selection and expansion of high affinity antibodies needed for immune protection, but this also requires Th2 immunity. Since AD transgenic mouse models have limited value for immunogen selection as shown by the clinical studies, screening may require the use of validated antibodies and biophysical methods to identify the antigens that would be most likely recognized by the human immune system and thus capable to stimulate a protective antibody response. To induce an anti-Alzheimer's disease protective immunity and prevent possible damage triggered by antigens having B-cell epitopes-only, whole antigens might be used; while inducing Th2 immunity with sole anti-inflammatory fucose-based adjuvants. This approach would avert a damaging systemic inflammatory immunity and the suppression of immunoresponse against the antigen because of carrier and cross-linkers; immune requirements that extend to DNA vaccines. PMID:26990863

  20. ["Choosing wisely" in infectious diseases : Overuse of antibiotics - too few vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, N; Koop, H; Riessen, R; Galle, J-C; Jany, B; Märker-Herrmann, E

    2016-06-01

    The "choosing wisely" recommendations of the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) and its specialist societies address diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which are of particular medical importance but applied too often or too rarely in clinical practice. The aim is to further improve treatment of patients. Important topics of overuse and insufficient treatment related to the diagnostics, therapy, prevention and exclusion of infectious diseases could be identified. These topics not only play an important role in the discipline of infectious diseases but are also relevant for other internal medical disciplines. These topics related to infectious diseases have also been integrated into the recommendations of the German Society of Gastroenterology, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases as well as the German Societies for Internal Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, for Pneumology, for Nephrology and for Rheumatology. The pivotal issues of the recommendations are the inappropriate use of antibiotics and insufficient vaccination rates.

  1. Immunization of horses with a polyvalent live-attenuated African horse sickness vaccine: Serological response and disease occurrence under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Molini

    2015-01-01

    Our data confirm that vaccination with LAV is a useful tool to reduce the severity of the disease in endemic areas. However, clinical and sometimes fatal AHS can still affect young vaccinated horses, thus highlighting the necessity to better understand the immune response to AHSV and to dispose of more effective vaccines.

  2. Efficacy of Marek's disease vaccines in Mhc heterozygous chickens: Mhc congenic x inbred line F1 matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, L D; Witter, R L

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that Mhc (B) heterozygous chickens differ in efficacy of response to several Marek's disease (MD) vaccines. Four types of B2 heterozygotes, in addition to B2B2 homozygotes, were developed by crossing 15.B congenic males to inbred line 7(1) (B2B2) hens. The five types of F1 chicks were intermingled in isolators and vaccinated with one of four types of MD vaccine before inoculation with the very virulent Md5 strain of MD herpesvirus. The F1 chickens differ in development of protective immunity following MD vaccination from two perspectives. First, chickens of a particular Mhc genotype were protected better by some vaccines than others. Second, individual vaccine preparations protected some Mhc genotypes more effectively. We conclude that some MD vaccines are more appropriate than others for certain B-haplotypes when chickens are heterozygous for the Mhc. The value of using Mhc-congenic x inbred line F1 animals for studies concerning the influence of the Mhc on vaccinal immunity is discussed.

  3. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines – Meeting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-01-01

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a “South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines” was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  4. Relating Pneumococcal Carriage Among Children to Disease Rates Among Adults Before and After the Introduction of Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Daniel M; Grant, Lindsay R; Weatherholtz, Robert C; Warren, Joshua L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Hammitt, Laura L

    2016-06-01

    The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in children has a strong indirect effect on disease rates in adults. When children are vaccinated with PCVs, other serotypes that are not targeted by the vaccine can increase in frequency (serotype replacement) and reduce the direct and indirect benefits of the vaccine. To understand and predict the likely impacts of serotype replacement, it is important to know how patterns in the transmission of serotypes among children relate to disease rates in adults. We used data on pneumococcal carriage and disease from Navajo Nation children and adults collected before and after the routine use of PCVs (1998-2012). Using regression models within a Bayesian framework, we found that serotype-specific carriage and invasiveness (disease incidence divided by carriage prevalence) had similar patterns in children and adults. Moreover, carriage in children, invasiveness in children, and a serotype-specific random intercept (which captured additional variation associated with the serotypes) could predict the incidence serotype-specific pneumococcal disease in adults 18-39 years of age and those 40 years of age or older in the era of routine use of PCVs. These models could help us predict the effects of future pneumococcal vaccine use in children on disease rates in adults, and the modeling approach developed here could be used to test these findings in other settings. PMID:27188949

  5. The effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in village chicken in Bamenda area of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in Ndop and Santa zones of the Bamenda area in the Republic of Cameroon on the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in backyard poultry. The results of the study showed that there was an increase in egg production and weight gain in the vaccinated birds which received feed supplement as compared to the non-vaccinated and without feed supplements. The mortality pattern did not reflect the effect of feed supplementation suggesting that other factors may be responsible for mortality. An economic analysis of the impact of the two interventions on backyard poultry production was carried out using the partial farm budget analysis. It was evident from the results that feed supplementation was beneficial to rural poultry performance and that the inclusion of a vaccination programme against Newcastle disease made the intervention even more beneficial. (author)

  6. Herd immunity after vaccination: how to quantify it and how to use it to halt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.

    2001-01-01

    In comparison to unvaccinated individuals, vaccinated individuals have fewer clinical symptoms, reduced susceptibility and reduced infectivity. The first two effects of vaccination can mean that each vaccinated individual is protected against clinical symptoms. From experiments and field trials, the

  7. Tracing the antibody mediated acquired immunity by Foot and Mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever combined vaccine in pregnant ewes and their lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Wael Mossad Gamal; Eman Mahmoud Mohamed Soliman; Mona Ali El-Manzalawy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to provide adequate protection to ewes and their lambs against Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). Materials and Methods: A combined inactivated oil vaccine was prepared successfully. Such vaccine was found to be free from foreign contaminants, safe and potent as determined by quality control tests such as challenge protection percentage for FMD and mice ED50 for RVF. Vaccination of pregnant ewes with the prepared combined vaccine and de...

  8. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  9. [Rotavirus Vaccine. Statement of the Consultive Committee of Immunizations on behalf of The Chilean Infectious Diseases Society. March 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz M, Alma; Abarca V, Katia; Luchsinger F, Vivian; Valenzuela B, M Teresa; Jiménez de la J, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The article briefly reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus infection and the scientific information of the rotavirus vaccines: Rotashield, withdrawn from the market due to its association with intussusception, Rotateq currently in an advanced phase of development, and Rotarix, recently licensed in Chile. Considering the available information, the Consultive Committee of Immunizations of the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases, summarizes its conclusions and makes recommendations for infants vaccination against rotavirus in our country.

  10. Health Care Segregation and Race Disparities in Infectious Disease: The Case of Nursing Homes and Seasonal Influenza Vaccinations*

    OpenAIRE

    Strully, Kate W.

    2011-01-01

    Examining nursing home segregation and race disparities in influenza vaccinations, this article demonstrates that segregation may increase both susceptibility and exposure to seasonal flu for black Americans. Evidence based on the 2004 U.S. National Nursing Home Survey shows that individuals in nursing homes with a high percentage of black residents have less personal immunity to flu since they are less likely to have been vaccinated against the disease; they may also be more likely to be exp...

  11. Effect of different culture systems on the production of foot and mouth disease trivalent vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Ismail Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of the stationary rawx, roller, and the suspension cell culture systems on the total virus yield infectivity and antigenicity. Materials and Methods: Three serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV (serotype A, O and SAT-2 were inoculated separately into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line in rawx, roller, and suspension cultivation systems using multiplicity of infection (1:100. Samples were taken from the total virus yield from each system at 15, 18, 21, and 24 h post-inoculation. Testing the total virus yield infectivity through virus titration and antigenicity through estimation of complement fixing titer and 146S content and evaluation of the potency of the vaccine prepared from the different cultivation systems were done. Results: The results showed that the FMDV titer of serotype A, O, and SAT-2 obtained from the roller cultivation system showed the highest level followed by suspension cultivation system then the rawx cultivation system. The FMDV titer showed its highest level at 21 h post-inoculation in all the cultivation systems and then decline at 24 h post-inoculation. The antigenicity reached its highest value content at 18 h post-inoculation either by complement fixation test or by quantifying the 146S intact virion. Montanide ISA 206 oil inactivated trivalent vaccines were prepared from the tested serotypes (A Iran O5. O Panasia and SAT-2/EGY/2012 harvested at 18 h post-inoculation from the 3 culture systems. The results of tracing the antibody response showed that the mean antibody response from the roller cultivation system start its protective antibody titer earlier at 2 weeks post-vaccination (WPV than the vaccine prepared from the other two cultivation system and the immune protection period lasts longer for 36 WPV for the roller cultivation system vaccine than the other two cultivation systems. Conclusion: The best cultivation system used for the production of FMD vaccine

  12. Fixed-point Monitoring of Vaccine Immune Effects on Severe Animal Diseases in Livestock and Poultry Breeding Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Sihua; Ruan; Zheng; Yin; Weili; Wan; Yun; Zhou; Hui; Gong; Shiyu

    2014-01-01

    In order to reveal the immune antibody levels and immune effect of livestock and poultry in the locality,we performed antibody surveillance on severe animal diseases in 17 livestock and poultry fields in six administrative districts of Wuhan City. The results showed that the vaccines had a good protective efficacy on highly pathogenic avian influenza( HPAI) and Newcastle disease( ND) in Wuhan City. The whole antibody levels kept above the ministerial standard( > 70%).However,the vaccine immunity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome( PRRS),swine fever( SF) and foot and mouth disease( FMD) was still poorly protective. The data indicated that the vaccines are protecting the severe animal diseases well,but there are still some potential security holes in some administrative districts.

  13. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  14. IgA response and protection following nasal vaccination of chickens with Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine nanoencapsulated with Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Hao, Yan; Yu, Lu; Kang, Hong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng; Ren, Zhiyu; Li, Zejun

    2016-05-01

    Newcastle disease caused by ND virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease of birds. Vaccine for effective protection of poultry animals from NDV infection is urgently needed. Mucosal immunity plays a very important role in the antiviral immune response. In this study, a NDV F gene-containing DNA vaccine encapsulated in Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles (pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs) with an average diameter of 500 nm were prepared to assess the mucosal immune response. These nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity and did not destroy the bioactivity of plasmid DNA, which could be expressed in vitro. The plasmid DNA was sustainably released after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization showed that the intranasal immunization of chickens with pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs induced high titers of serum antibody, significantly promoted lymphocyte proliferation and induced higher expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles could serve as an efficient and safe delivery carrier for NDV DNA vaccine to induce mucosal immunity. This study has provided promising results for the further development of mucosal vaccines encapsulated in inorganic nanoparticles.

  15. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and...

  16. Pacheco's parrot disease in macaws of the Lisbon's Zoological Garden. Description of an outbreak, diagnosis and management, including vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão Da Cunha, M; Correia, J J; Fagulha, T; Fevereiro, M; Peleteiro, M C; Vollrath, G; Kaleta, E F

    2007-11-01

    The Lisbon's Zoological Garden, Portugal, has maintained for many years a large collection of psittacine birds without any serious health problems. Unexpectedly, in April 1999, a total of nine macaws died after a short period of illness. Clinical signs consisted mainly of anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish droppings. A herpesvirus was isolated from brain, trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine of each of the examined dead birds, confirming that all animals succumbed during viraemia. Serotyping of the isolate in cross neutralization tests with reference sera prove that the outbreak was caused by serotype 3 of Pacheco's parrot disease herpesviruses. An autogenous, formalin-inactivated vaccine with adjuvant (aluminium hydroxid gel) was prepared from one of the isolates and injected intramuscularly 14 days and six weeks after the onset of mortality in an attempt to protect the remaining psittacine birds in the zoo from the disease. The autogenous vaccine was well tolerated and was able to rapidly stop virus spread and morbidity and mortality among the psittacine birds. Follow-up studies demonstrate that all nine blood samples from vaccinated birds obtained nine month' after the second vaccination contain neutralizing antibodies. Twenty five month' after vaccination two out of four serum samples were still antibody positive. No herpesvirus was isolated from faecal samples nine and twenty five months after the onset of the outbreak. These data prove that the autogenous vaccine played a major role in containing a severe outbreak of Pacheco's parrot disease in a large collection of psittacine birds.

  17. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  18. Impact of pneumococcal vaccines use on invasive pneumococcal disease in Nunavik (Quebec from 1997 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Le Meur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2000, an outbreak of severe pneumonia caused by a virulent clone of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in the Nunavik region of Quebec. A mass immunization campaign was implemented in the spring of 2002, targeting persons ≥5 years of age and using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23. At the same time, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced into the routine immunization programme of infants, with catch-up for children up to 4 years of age. Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in relation to PPSV23 and PCV7 use. Study design and methods: Retrospective analysis of IPD cases identified by the Quebec public health laboratory during the period 1997–2010. Results: A total of 82 IPD cases were identified during the study period. In adults, serotype 1 incidence decreased following the 2002 PPSV23 mass campaign but breakthrough cases continued to occur. Following PCV7 use in children, there was a decrease in the incidence of vaccine-type IPD and replacement by other serotypes in adults. In children, a marked decrease in the annual incidence of serotypes included in PCV7 was observed following PCV7 introduction: 162/100,000 in 1997–2001 vs. 10/100,000 in 2004–2010 (p<0.01. Concomitantly, the incidence of IPD caused by serotypes not included in PCV7 increased from 29/100,000 to 109/100,000 (p=0.11. Conclusion: The mass immunization campaign using the PPSV23 in 2002 and the introduction of PCV7 for the routine immunization of infants induced important modifications in the epidemiology of IPD. IPD rates in Nunavik remain much higher than in the southern part of the province both in children and adults. More effective pneumococcal vaccines are needed to eliminate geographic disparities in IPD risk.

  19. A Phase I Trial of Epstein-Barr Virus Gp350 Vaccine for Children With Chronic Kidney Disease Awaiting Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, L.; Tizard, E.J.; Morgan, A.J.; Cubitt, W.D.; Finerty, S.; Oyewole-Eletu, T.A.; Owen, K.; Royed, C.; Stevens, S.J.C.; Shroff, R.C.; Tanday, M.K.; Wilson, A.; Middeldorp, J.M.; Amlot, P.L.; Steven, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Vaccination against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), inducing an antibody response to the envelope glycoprotein gp350, might protect EBV-negative children with chronic kidney disease from lymphoproliferative disease after transplantation. Methods. A phase I trial recruited children with chronic

  20. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: evaluation of new vectors expressing serotype O in bovines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an antigenically variable virus, is considered the most important infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Recently serotypes A and O have been the cause of major outbreaks. We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine...

  1. IgA antibody response of swine to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection and vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) continues to be a significant economic problem worldwide. Control of the disease involves the use of killed virus vaccines, a control measure developed decades ago. However, the primary site of replication of FMDV after natural infection is the pharyngeal area and...

  2. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  3. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen

    1988-06-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon to Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem, and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's fourth year was to test the immunogenicity and prophylactic value in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of various--chemical conjugates of Renibacterium salmoninarum cell and major antigens. This was accomplished by assessing the serum antibody response, the cellular immune response (chemiluminescence), and the kinetics of mortality after lethal injections of the bacteria. The studies completed this year have: (1) identified immunization procedures which enhance the induction of high levels of antibody; (2) identified functionally distinct serum antibodies which may possess different abilities to protect salmon against BKD; (3) begun the isolation and characterization of anti-R. salmoninarum antibodies which may correlate with varying degrees of protection; (4) identified chemiluminescence as a potential method for assessing cellular immunity to bacterial kidney disease; and (5) characterized two monoclonal antibodies to R. salmoninarum which will be of benefit in the diagnosis of this disease.

  4. Clinical experience with the meningococcal B vaccine, Bexsero(®): Prospects for reducing the burden of meningococcal serogroup B disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Philip S; Turner, David P J

    2016-02-10

    Although rare, invasive meningococcal disease remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults. Vaccines have been successfully introduced to help protect against meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y, but until recently, a vaccine for serogroup B (MenB) was not available. In many industrialised countries, MenB causes the majority of meningococcal disease. Moreover, MenB outbreaks occur unpredictably, particularly in high-risk populations, such as university students. In 2013, Bexsero(®) became the first broad-coverage vaccine to be licensed for active immunisation against MenB disease. Bexsero is now licensed in more than 35 countries worldwide for varying age groups, including the EU, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Uruguay and the USA. Clinical recommendations for the use of Bexsero have been published in several countries. Recommendations include use in high-risk groups, outbreak control and routine infant immunisation. Since initial licensure, considerable clinical experience has been gained. In Canada, 43,740 individuals received Bexsero during a vaccination programme in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, where local disease incidence was high. In the USA, Bexsero was administered to >15,000 individuals during two college outbreaks prior to licensure, under an Investigational New Drug protocol. In the UK, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has recommended the inclusion of Bexsero in the routine immunisation schedule for infants. Publically funded vaccination programmes have been initiated in Italy, and there has been widespread use of the vaccine outside of publically reimbursed programmes. Overall, >1,000,000 doses of Bexsero have been distributed in 19 countries worldwide since 2013. The emerging clinical experience with Bexsero is consistent with findings from pre-licensure clinical studies, and no new safety concerns have been identified. Additional data on length of

  5. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Bøtner, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease remains one of the world’s most economically important diseases of livestock. It is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family. The virus replicates very rapidly and can be efficiently transmitted between hosts by a variety of routes....... The disease has been effectively controlled in some parts of the world but remains endemic in many others, thus there is a constant risk of introduction of the disease into areas that are normally free of foot-and-mouth disease with potentially huge economic consequences. To reduce the need for large......-scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self...

  6. Multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A24 subunit vaccine in cattle using homologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutta, Christopher; Barrera, José; Pisano, Melia; Zsak, Laszlo; Grubman, Marvin J; Mayr, Gregory A; Moraes, Mauro P; Kamicker, Barbara J; Brake, David A; Ettyreddy, Damodar; Brough, Douglas E; Butman, Bryan T; Neilan, John G

    2016-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularly to a total of 150 steers in doses ranging from approximately 1.0×10(8) to 2.1×10(11) particle units per animal. No detectable local or systemic reactions were observed after vaccination. At 7 days post-vaccination (dpv), vaccinated and control animals were challenged with FMDV serotype A24 Cruzeiro via the intradermal lingual route. Vaccine efficacy was measured by FMDV A24 serum neutralizing titers and by protection from clinical disease and viremia after challenge. The results of eight studies demonstrated a strong correlation between AdtA24 vaccine dose and protection from clinical disease (R(2)=0.97) and viremia (R(2)=0.98). There was also a strong correlation between FMDV A24 neutralization titers on day of challenge and protection from clinical disease (R(2)=0.99). Vaccination with AdtA24 enabled differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) as demonstrated by the absence of antibodies to the FMDV nonstructural proteins in vaccinates prior to challenge. Lack of AdtA24 vaccine shedding after vaccination was indicated by the absence of neutralizing antibody titers to both the adenovector and FMDV A24 Cruzeiro in control animals after co-mingling with vaccinated cattle for three to four weeks. In summary, a non-adjuvanted AdtA24 experimental vaccine was shown to be safe, immunogenic, consistently protected cattle at 7 dpv against direct, homologous FMDV challenge, and enabled differentiation of infected from vaccinated cattle prior to challenge. PMID:26707216

  7. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Waugh

    Full Text Available Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive at either urogenital (UGT and/or ocular sites (Oc, but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking, results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  8. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  9. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1988 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1989-08-01

    Bacterial kidney disease of salmonids is a very complex disease which appears to exploit a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. An understanding of these mechanisms is essential to the development of efficacious vaccines. It has become well established from the studies published .in this report and those of others that soluble antigens which are secreted by Renibacterium salmoninarum have toxigenic potential. If they are found to be responsible for mortality, the development of toxoid(s) could be paramount to the production of a vaccine. One must, however, be circumspect in producing a vaccine. A thorough knowledge, not only of the pathogen, but also of the immune system of the host is an absolute requirement. This becomes of particular importance when dealing with fish diseases, since the field of fish immunology is still within its infancy. This lack of knowledge is particularly felt when the induction of a prophylactic immune response concomitantly leads to pathological side effects which may be as destructive as the original infection. Indeed, it appears that some aspects of BKD may be due to the induction of hypersensitivity reactions. If such immunopathologies are expressed, it is prudent to thoroughly evaluate the nature of the immunoprophylaxis to insure that these harmful sequelae do not occur. Evaluation of a variety of antigens, adjuvants, immune responses, and survival data leads us to recommend that attempts at prophylaxis against BKD should center upon the elicitation of cellular immunity utilizing preparations of Mycobacterium chelonii. The choice of this species of mycobacteria was made because of its effectiveness, ease of maintenance and production, and the lack of need for its propagation within containment facilities. These assets are important to consider if large scale vaccine production is to be profitable. As can be seen from the data provided, M. chelonii alone is capable of producing prophylaxis to BKD, however, this is likely due to the

  10. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhao,1,2,* Yang Zhang,1,2,* Xiaoyan Zhang,1,* Wei Li,1 Ci Shi,1,2 Chen Guo,1 Chunxiao Dai,3 Qian Chen,1 Zheng Jin,3 Yan Zhao,2 Hongyu Cui,2 Yunfeng Wang2 1College of Life Science, Heilongjiang University, 2Division of Avian Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-Efficiency Conversion, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Optimal preparation conditions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (pFNDV-CS-NPs were determined. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were prepared according to a complex coacervation method. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 199.5 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 98.37%±0.87%, loading capacity of 36.12%±0.19%, and a zeta potential of +12.11 mV. The in vitro release assay showed that the plasmid DNA was sustainably released from the pFNDV-CS-NPs, up to 82.9%±2.9% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed the F gene in cells and maintained good bioactivity. Additionally, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-CS-NPs was also tested in vitro by cell cytotoxicity and in vivo by safety test in chickens. In vivo immunization showed that better immune responses of specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with the pFNDV-CS-NPs were induced, and prolonged release of the plasmid DNA was achieved compared to the chickens immunized with the control plasmid. This study lays the foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. Keywords: Newcastle disease, DNA vaccine, chitosan nanoparticles, mucosal immunity delivery system, immune effectiveness

  11. Respons Antibodi terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam yang Divaksin Tetelo dan Tetelo-Flu Burung (NEWCASTLE DISEASE/ND ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH ND SINGLE AND COMBINED ND AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antibody response of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens vaccinatedwith single inactivated Newcastle disease (ND vaccine and combined inactive ND and avian influenza(AI vaccines and to known the efficacy of both vaccines. The vaccines used were killed ND vaccine andkilled ND-AI vaccine produced by PT. Sanbio Laboratories Bogor, West Java. SPF chickens were vaccinatedwith 3 different doses. Antibody titer of SPF chickens against ND virus were determined byhaemagglutination inhibition (HI test. As many as 130 two week old SPF chickens were used and theywere divided into 2 groups (A and B consisting of 60 chickens and 10 chickens were used as control withoutvaccine. Group A chickens were vaccinated with ND-K vaccine and group B were vaccinated with combinedkilled ND-AI vaccines. Each group was further divided into 3 subsgroups (1, 2 and 3 consisting 20 chickens.Subgroups 1, 2 and 3 were vaccinated intramuscularly respectively with intramuskular 1, 1/10 and 1/100doses of each vaccines. Antibody response of chickens against ND virus was examined before vaccinationand every three week after vaccination and was expresses as geometric mean titre (GMT HI units. Theresult showed that the titre antibody against ND increased at the second week following the vaccination.The antibody titer against ND virus of chickens vaccinated single killed ND at the second week in eachdose were 6.05 GMT HI unit, 4.05 GMT HI unit, and 0.9 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre at the third week were 7.90 GMT HI unit ,5.40 GMT HI unit and 2.20 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre against ND virus ofchickens vaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine at the second week were 6.30 GMT HI unit , 4.15 GMTHI unit , and 2.05 GMT HI unit. At the third week, the antibody titre against ND virus of chickensvaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine in each subgroup were 7.45 GMT HI unit, 5.60 GMT HI unit , and2.40 GMT HI unit . It showed that the antibody titers

  12. Immunization with hepatitis B vaccine accelerates SLE-like disease in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Arango, María-Teresa; Kivity, Shaye; Katzav, Aviva; Gilburd, Boris; Blank, Miri; Tomer, Nir; Volkov, Alex; Barshack, Iris; Chapman, Joab; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis-B vaccine (HBVv) can prevent HBV-infection and associated liver diseases. However, concerns regarding its safety, particularly among patients with autoimmune diseases (i.e. SLE) were raised. Moreover, the aluminum adjuvant in HBVv was related to immune mediated adverse events. Therefore, we examined the effects of immunization with HBVv or alum on SLE-like disease in a murine model. NZBWF1 mice were immunized with HBVv (Engerix), or aluminum hydroxide (alum) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 8 and 12 weeks of age. Mice were followed for weight, autoantibodies titers, blood counts, proteinuria, kidney histology, neurocognitive functions (novel object recognition, staircase, Y-maze and the forced swimming tests) and brain histology. Immunization with HBVv induced acceleration of kidney disease manifested by high anti-dsDNA antibodies (p < 0.01), early onset of proteinuria (p < 0.05), histological damage and deposition of HBs antigen in the kidney. Mice immunized with HBVv and/or alum had decreased cells counts mainly of the red cell lineage (p < 0.001), memory deficits (p < 0.01), and increased activated microglia in different areas of the brain compare with mice immunized with PBS. Anxiety-like behavior was more pronounced among mice immunized with alum. In conclusion, herein we report that immunization with the HBVv aggravated kidney disease in an animal model of SLE. Immunization with either HBVv or alum affected blood counts, neurocognitive functions and brain gliosis. Our data support the concept that different component of vaccines may be linked with immune and autoimmune mediated adverse events.

  13. Optimized oral cholera vaccine distribution strategies to minimize disease incidence: A mixed integer programming model and analysis of a Bangladesh scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Hannah K; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie; Hinman, Alan

    2015-11-17

    In addition to improved sanitation, hygiene, and better access to safe water, oral cholera vaccines can help to control the spread of cholera in the short term. However, there is currently no systematic method for determining the best allocation of oral cholera vaccines to minimize disease incidence in a population where the disease is endemic and resources are limited. We present a mathematical model for optimally allocating vaccines in a region under varying levels of demographic and incidence data availability. The model addresses the questions of where, when, and how many doses of vaccines to send. Considering vaccine efficacies (which may vary based on age and the number of years since vaccination), we analyze distribution strategies which allocate vaccines over multiple years. Results indicate that, given appropriate surveillance data, targeting age groups and regions with the highest disease incidence should be the first priority, followed by other groups primarily in order of disease incidence, as this approach is the most life-saving and cost-effective. A lack of detailed incidence data results in distribution strategies which are not cost-effective and can lead to thousands more deaths from the disease. The mathematical model allows for what-if analysis for various vaccine distribution strategies by providing the ability to easily vary parameters such as numbers and sizes of regions and age groups, risk levels, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, production capacity and budget. PMID:26458806

  14. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-03-01

    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  15. Incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in the Island of Majorca (2008-2010), an area with non-universal vaccination, and estimations of serotype & children population coverage by available conjugate vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Picazo, Juan; Dueñas, Joaquin; Ramirez, Antonio; Perez, Andres-Ricardo; Padilla, Emma; Herrero, Susana; Gallegos, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Balseiro, Cesar; Mendez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitoring the impact of vaccination. These analyses should be conducted in specific geographical areas and should be aimed to evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), by age groups, clinical presentation, and vaccine serotypes (and non-vaccine serotypes to detect possible r...

  16. Flow cytometric assessment of chicken T cell-mediated immune responses after Newcastle disease virus vaccination and challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, T. S.; Norup, L. R.; Pedersen, A.R.;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use flow cytometry to assess chicken T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study two inbred genetic chicken lines (L130 and L133) were subjected to two times vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and a subsequent challenge by ND virus (NDV) infection....... Furthermore, peripheral lymphocytes from L133 exhibited a significantly higher expression of CD44 and CD45 throughout the experiment. Interestingly, also vaccine-induced differences were observed in L133 as immune chickens had a significantly higher CD45 expression on their lymphocytes than the naïve controls....... Immune chickens from both lines had a significantly higher frequency of circulating γδ T cells than the naïve controls both after vaccination and challenge. Finally, the proliferative capacity of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ cells specific for NDV was addressed 3 weeks after vaccination and 1 week after...

  17. Use of Recombinant Virus Replicon Particles for Vaccination against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolz, Miriam; Kerber, Sarah; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer, caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which is most prevalent in rural regions of West African countries. The majority of clinical presentations seen in patients are ulcers on limbs that can be treated by eight weeks of antibiotic therapy. Nevertheless, scarring and permanent disabilities occur frequently and Buruli ulcer still causes high morbidity. A vaccine against the disease is so far not available but would be of great benefit if used for prophylaxis as well as therapy. In the present study, vesicular stomatitis virus-based RNA replicon particles encoding the M. ulcerans proteins MUL2232 and MUL3720 were generated and the expression of the recombinant antigens characterized in vitro. Immunisation of mice with the recombinant replicon particles elicited antibodies that reacted with the endogenous antigens of M. ulcerans cells. A prime-boost immunization regimen with MUL2232-recombinant replicon particles and recombinant MUL2232 protein induced a strong immune response but only slightly reduced bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of M. ulcerans infection. We conclude that a monovalent vaccine based on the MUL2232 antigen will probably not sufficiently control M. ulcerans infection in humans.

  18. Use of Recombinant Virus Replicon Particles for Vaccination against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bolz

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer, caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which is most prevalent in rural regions of West African countries. The majority of clinical presentations seen in patients are ulcers on limbs that can be treated by eight weeks of antibiotic therapy. Nevertheless, scarring and permanent disabilities occur frequently and Buruli ulcer still causes high morbidity. A vaccine against the disease is so far not available but would be of great benefit if used for prophylaxis as well as therapy. In the present study, vesicular stomatitis virus-based RNA replicon particles encoding the M. ulcerans proteins MUL2232 and MUL3720 were generated and the expression of the recombinant antigens characterized in vitro. Immunisation of mice with the recombinant replicon particles elicited antibodies that reacted with the endogenous antigens of M. ulcerans cells. A prime-boost immunization regimen with MUL2232-recombinant replicon particles and recombinant MUL2232 protein induced a strong immune response but only slightly reduced bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of M. ulcerans infection. We conclude that a monovalent vaccine based on the MUL2232 antigen will probably not sufficiently control M. ulcerans infection in humans.

  19. Large-scale production of foot-and-mouth disease virus (serotype Asia1) VLP vaccine in Escherichia coli and protection potency evaluation in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yan; Chen, Hong-Ying; Wang, Yuzhou; Yin, Bo; Lv, Chaochao; Mo, Xiaobing; Yan, He; Xuan, Yajie; Huang, Yuxin; Pang, Wenqiang; Li, Xiangdong; Yuan, Y Adam; Tian, Kegong

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious disease that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is an effective means of preventing and controlling FMD. Compared to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines, the format of FMDV virus-like particles (VLPs) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative. Results In this study, we have developed a co-expression system in E. coli, which drove the expression of FMDV capsid proteins (VP0, VP...

  20. Effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-type invasive disease among children in Uruguay: an evaluation using existing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picón, Teresa; Alonso, Lucía; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Speranza, Noelia; Casas, Mariana; Arrieta, Fernando; Camou, Teresa; Rosa, Raquel; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Verani, Jennifer Rabke

    2013-07-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Uruguay in March 2008 with a 2-dose primary series (given at 2 and 4 months) plus a booster (at 12 months) and a catch-up campaign (two doses given at 15 and 17 months). We used a case-control methodology and existing laboratory surveillance and immunization registry data from Uruguay to evaluate PCV7 effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD). Cases of VT-IPD (with pneumococcus obtained from a normally sterile site) were identified through the National Reference Laboratory. Age- and neighborhood-matched controls were obtained through a national immunization registry in which all children are enrolled at birth regardless of vaccine receipt; all eligible controls were included. Immunization status of cases and controls was assessed through the immunization registry, and conditional logistic regression was used to calculate PCV7 effectiveness. Between April 2008 and February 2010, 44 cases of VT-IPD among childrenUruguay-a middle-income country using a 2-dose primary series plus a booster dose and a limited catch-up campaign. These data also highlight the utility of surveillance and high-quality immunization registries for evaluating the effectiveness of vaccines.