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Sample records for bursal disease vaccination

  1. 9 CFR 113.331 - Bursal Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine. 113.331... Virus Vaccines § 113.331 Bursal Disease Vaccine. Bursal Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... this section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials...

  2. Interference of Infectious Bursal Diseases (IBD) Virus and Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar gel ...

  3. Management of vaccine-induced infectious bursal disease in chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred two-week old cockerel chicks and forty two-week old turkey poults were each admlnistered two doses of IBD vaccine of chick embryo cell culture origin. This produced clinical infectious bursal disease in the cockerel chicks but the turkey poults did not suffer clinical infection. Administration of an antibiotic- ...

  4. Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinda, Wanzila Usyu; Nyaga, Philip Njeru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Muchemi, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    Immunization together with application of biosecurity measures are the principal methods of preventing infectious bursal disease outbreaks in high-risk areas. However, outbreaks in vaccinated chicken flocks have been reported in many parts of the world as a result of factors of vaccine virus, animal, or vaccine handler. In Kenya, such outbreaks have been reported, but the causes have not been studied. This study aimed at determining the risk factors associated with vaccine handling leading to vaccine failure in broiler flocks in Kwale County, Kenya. Structured questionnaires and visual observations were used to collect data from 83 broiler farms, 6 breeding farms, and 17 vaccine outlets. Relative risk (RR) analysis was used to determine the association between identified potential risk factors and vaccination failure. Results show that vaccines were properly handled in all vaccine outlet shops. Breeding farms maintained high levels of biosecurity and employed standard vaccine handling practices. Basic biosecurity practices were poor in broiler farms. Broiler farms failed to meet all the recommended standard procedures for vaccine storage, reconstitution, and administration. Risk factors included poor vaccine storage (RR = 8.7) and use of few drinkers to administer vaccine (RR = 5.8); traces of disinfectants in drinkers used to administer live vaccine (RR = 2.8); use of wrong vaccine-infectious bronchitis instead of infectious bursal disease vaccine (RR = 2.1); and use of improper diluents (RR = 1.6). Broiler farmers need training on basic farm biosecurity measures and standard vaccine handling practices.

  5. Newcastle Disease Virus Vectored Bivalent Vaccine against Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease of Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Dey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV strain F is a lentogenic vaccine strain used for primary vaccination in day-old chickens against Newcastle disease (ND in India and Southeast Asian countries. Recombinant NDV-F virus and another recombinant NDV harboring the major capsid protein VP2 gene of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; namely rNDV-F and rNDV-F/VP2, respectively, were generated using the NDV F strain. The rNDV-F/VP2 virus was slightly attenuated, as compared to the rNDV-F virus, as evidenced from the mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index analysis. This result indicates that rNDV-F/VP2 behaves as a lentogenic virus and it is stable even after 10 serial passages in embryonated chicken eggs. When chickens were vaccinated with the rNDV F/VP2, it induced both humoral and cell mediated immunity, and was able to confer complete protection against very virulent IBDV challenge and 80% protection against virulent NDV challenge. These results suggest that rNDV-F could be an effective and inherently safe vaccine vector. Here, we demonstrate that a bivalent NDV-IBDV vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics method is safe, efficacious and cost-effective, which will greatly aid the poultry industry in developing countries.

  6. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from... immunogenicity of vaccine prepared in accordance with the Outline of Production shall be established by a method... Production. The test shall establish that the vaccine, when used as recommended on the label, is capable of...

  7. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

  8. Protection against infectious bursal disease virulent challenge conferred by a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozo, F; Villegas, P; Estevez, C; Alvarado, I R; Purvis, L B; Williams, S

    2008-06-01

    The development and use of recombinant vaccine vectors for the expression of poultry pathogens proteins is an active research field. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a replication-defective virus member of the family Parvoviridae that has been successfully used for gene delivery in humans and other species. In this experiment, an avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) expressing the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 protein (rAAAV-VP2) was evaluated for protection against IBDV-virulent challenge. Specific pathogen free (SPF) birds were inoculated with rAAAV-VP2 or with a commercial intermediate IBDV vaccine and then challenged with the Edgar strain. IBDV-specific antibody levels were observed in all vaccinated groups; titers were higher for the commercial vaccine group. The live, commercial vaccine induced adequate protection against morbidity and mortality; nevertheless, initial lymphoid depletion and follicular atrophy related to active viral replication was observed as early as day 14 and persisted up to day 28, when birds were challenged. No bursal tissue damage due to rAAAV-VP2 vaccination was observed. Eight-out-of-ten rAAAV-VP2-vaccinated birds survived the challenge and showed no clinical signs. The bursa:body weight ratio and bursa lesion scores in the rAAAV-VP2 group indicated protection against challenge. Therefore, transgenic expression of the VP2 protein after rAAAV-VP2 vaccination induced protective immunity against IBDV challenge in 80% of the birds, without compromising the bursa of Fabricius. The use of rAAAV virions for gene delivery represents a novel approach to poultry vaccination.

  9. Modified live infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine delays infection of neonatal broiler chickens with variant IBDV compared to turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-IBDV vectored vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulasuriya, Shanika; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Ojkic, Davor; Gunawardana, Thushari; Goonewardene, Kalhari; Gupta, Ashish; Chow-Lockerbie, Betty; Popowich, Shelly; Willson, Philip; Tikoo, Suresh K; Gomis, Susantha

    2017-02-07

    Chickens are commonly processed around 35-45days of age in broiler chicken industry hence; diseases that occur at a young age are of paramount economic importance. Early age infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) results in long-lasting immunosuppression and profound economic losses. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the protection efficacy of modified live (MdLV) IBDV and herpesvirus turkey (HVT)-IBDV vaccines against early age variant IBDV (varIBDV) infection in chicks. Experiments were carried out in IBDV maternal antibody (MtAb) positive chicks (n=330), divided into 6 groups (n=50-60/group), namely Group 1 (saline), Group 2 (saline+varIBDV), Group 3 (HVT-IBDV), Group 4 (HVT-IBDV+varIBDV), Group 5 (MdLV) and Group 6 (MdLV+varIBDV). HVT-IBDV vaccination was given via the in ovo route to 18-day-old embryonated eggs. MdLV was administered via the subcutaneous route in day-old broilers. Group 2, Group 4 and Group 6 were orally challenged with varIBDV (SK-09, 3×10 3 EID 50 ) at day 6 post-hatch. IBDV seroconversion, bursal weight to body weight ratio (BBW) and bursal histopathology were assessed at 19 and 35days of age. Histopathological examination at day 19 revealed that varIBDV-SK09 challenge caused severe bursal atrophy and lower BBW in HVT-IBDV but not in MdLV vaccinated chicks. However by day 35, all challenged groups showed bursal atrophy and seroconversion. Interestingly, RT-qPCR analysis after varIBDV-SK09 challenge demonstrated an early (9days of age) and significantly high viral load (∼5744 folds) in HVT-IBDV vaccinated group vs unvaccinated challenged group (∼2.25 folds). Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis revealed inhibition of cytotoxic CD8 + T-cell response (CD44-downregulation) and decreased splenic lymphocytes counts in chicks after HVT-IBDV vaccination. Overall, our data suggest that MdLV delays varIBDV pathogenesis, whereas, HVT-IBDV vaccine is potentially immunosuppressive, which may increase the risk of

  10. Cellular immune response of infectious bursal disease and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... various monochromatic lights on T lymphocytes proliferation and serum nitric oxide production in chicken vaccinated with infectious bursal disease and newcastle disease vaccines, a total of 60 one-day-old broilers were exposed to red, green, blue, white and yellow light by using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks.

  11. Infectious bursal disease virus: case report and experimental studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated SPF chickens and commercial broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scanavini Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available IBDV Gm 11 (Simbios eleven-molecular group has been detected since 1997 in many farms of commercial broilers and layers causing high mortality (2 to 15% and severe macro and microscopic damage in cloacal bursae, spleen, thymus, kidney and liver. Five serial passages of 2050/97-Gm 11 IBDV sample by CAM route in SPF chicken's embryonated eggs did not elicit increased embryo mortality. High mortality (100% of 21 day-old SPF leghorn chickens and severe bursal and splenic lesions were seen from 24 up to 48 hours after eye-drop inoculation of 2050/97 strain (50 mL of 10-2 dilution of 10% bursae homogenate. Mortality was not detected when vaccinated SPF and broiler chickens were inoculated. One dead bird was found among ten challenged unvaccinated broilers. Variations in the intensity of cloacal bursae injury and spleen response were found between unvaccinated and vaccinated broiler chickens. IBDV antibodies were detected by ELISA test in almost all vaccinated SPF chickens before challenge while low number of commercial vaccinated and unvaccinated broilers were serologically positive (0 to 3 birds in 18. Increasing IBDV antibody titers were detected after challenge with 2050/97 strain and highest GMTs were found in broilers. It was concluded that 2050/97 strain is a highly virulent IBDV and SPF leghorn chickens immunized with BV8 intermediate vaccine strain were resistant to the challenge. Increasing susceptibility was found from experimental groups of unvaccinated broilers to vaccinated broilers and to unvaccinated SPF birds. It is discussed that passive immunity was involved in the rate of protection of challenged unvaccinated broiler and in the immune response impairment after vaccination of broilers chicks. The use of a constant virus suspension with known potency to challenge the experimental birds was suitable to evaluate vaccination efficacy. Evaluation of bursal and splenic responses at early and delayed time after challenge were useful to

  12. The working mechanism of an immune complex vaccine that protects chickens against infectious bursal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.H.M.; Janse, E.M.; Lehrbach, P.R.; Haddad, E.E.; Avakian, A.; Whitfill, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The role of immune complexes (Icx) in B-cell memory formation and affinity maturation allow for their potential use as vaccines. Recently, a new immune complex vaccine has been developed that is currently under field trials conducted in commercial poultry. This immune complex vaccine is developed by

  13. THE PATHOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An outbreak of infectious bursal disease (IBD) occurred in a flock of 11-week old crossbreeds of Harco cocks and indigenous Nigerian hens (referred to as exotic and locals respectively in the text). Clinical signs observed include depression, anorexia, ruffled feathers and diarrhoea. Haemorrhages were present in the bursa ...

  14. Mixture of polysaccharide and nucleic acid extracted from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) enhances immune response of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X B; Liu, Z J; Lv, Y J; Long, Y; Bao, E D

    2016-05-12

    In this study, the immune response induced by a mixture of polysaccharide and nucleic acid extracted from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was evaluated in chickens inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine. After the mixture was injected intramuscularly at a dose of 0.075, 0.15 or 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 days, the 14-day-old chickens were inoculated with the attenuated IBDV vaccine via intranasal and ocular routes. The relative weight of bursa of Fabricius (BF) and thymus, the serum IBD antibody titer, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 in peripheral blood were investigated on days 5, 15 and 25. The IBD antibody titer in BCG-treated groups was higher than in the negative control and only IBD-vaccinated chickens, indicating that the mixture of BCG can significantly enhance chicken humoral response. CD4+/CD8+ and the secretions of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 were also clearly increased compared with that in the negative control and IBD-vaccinated chickens, indicating that the mixture can also enhance the cell-mediated immune response. The results also showed that the relative weights of BF and thymus increased after chickens were inoculated with BCG, indicating that the BCG mixture can clearly enhance the immunity of IBD-vaccine and can be expected to be viewed as a candidate for a new type of immune adjuvant.

  15. A Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Infectious Bursal Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Infectious Bursal Disease in Scavenging Village Chickens in Enugu State, Nigeria. GN Anosa, JI Eze. Abstract. A serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) virus using the Agar Gel Precipitin Test (AGPT) in unvaccinated ...

  16. Key points in the presentation of the infectious bursal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Jaimes-Olaya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bursal disease or Gumboro disease is an immunosuppressive pathology of birds, which has great importance in the poultry industry due to large economic losses that it produces not only for its direct effect, but because of the susceptibility to secondary infections, interference with commercial vaccines, reducing the effective use of them. The disease is produced by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, which is an RNA genome birnavirus, with high capacity for mutation, so the agent is continually evolving. The pathology has three types of clinical presentation: a subclinical form, a mild or moderate clinical form and a severe clinical form. However, the type of manifestation is determined mainly by three factors: the age of birds at the time of infection, the type of strain or acting or genetic variability of it, and the immunity degree. In this article, we discuss each of these factors and their importance in the presentation of the disease. These elements are vital in order to establish effective prevention and control programs.

  17. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  18. The effect of infectious bursal disease virus induced immunosuppression on vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines in chickens has been documented in the field in spite of good results in experimental settings. Although the causes are multi-factorial and complex, one contributing factor may be prior infection with immunosuppressive viruses. In an effort to ...

  19. Haematology of infectious bursal disease virus infected chickens on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herbal spice proven to posses antimicrobial and immunostimulating properties which could be useful in the control of endemic diseases of poultry such as infectious bursal disease (IBD). Its effect on IBD virus infection was therefore investigated via haematological assessment. One hundred and ...

  20. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... and interaction leading to the virus entry into the cell. Here, the review presents the currently available knowledge regarding the receptors or molecules that interact with IBDV. Key words: IBDV, SIgM, cellular receptor, chicken heat shock protein 90α. INTRODUTION. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), ...

  1. The cellular receptors for infectious bursal disease virus | Zhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus receptors are simplistically defined as cell surface molecules that mediate binding (attachment, adsorption) and/or trigger membrane fusion or entry through other processes. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) entry into host cells occurs by recognition of specific cellular receptor(s) with viral envelope glycoprotein, ...

  2. Infectious bursal disease outbreak in 19-week old commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necropsy revealed a markedly enlarged, oedematous and haemorrhagic bursa. Histopathologic findings including lympho-cytolysis and oedema were characteristic of an acute bursitis and a positive agar-gel precipitation test were used to confirm the diagnosis of Infectious bursal disease. Keywords: Agar gel precipitation, ...

  3. Detection of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in naturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The technique was applied on bursa of Fabricius of infected chicken. Some of these bursae have been kept in the freezer for 16years under conditions of regular electric power ...

  4. Sero-prevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SINIDU

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... Infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chicken reared under backyard poultry production systems around. Mekelle town, Tigray ... hepatitis, anaemia syndrome, and Escherichia coli infections (Lukert and Saif, 2003). ... 39° 28` E with an elevation of 2084 m above sea level (CSA, 2005). The mean annual rainfall ...

  5. Differentiation of five strains of infectious bursal disease virus: Development of a strain-specific multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M.; Kabell, Susanne; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test and histopath......Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major cause of disease problems in the poultry industry and vaccination has therefore been applied intensively to control the infection. The classical methods of detection and characterization of IBDV are by the use of immunodiffusion test...... and histopathology. Since these methods are laborious and have low specificity alternatives are needed. In the present study, we report the development of a strain-specific multiplex RT-PCR technique, which can detect and differentiate between field strains of IBDV and vaccine virus strains including a so-called hot...

  6. Major histocompatibility complex-linked immune response of young chickens vaccinated with an attenuated live infectious bursal disease virus vaccine followed by an infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, Helle; Nielsen, O.L.; Krogh-Maibom, T.

    2002-01-01

    (mean 5,243), B21 (5,570), and B131 (5,333) at 8 d postinfection, How-ever, a virus-neutralizing antibody test did not reflect this result. Nevertheless, the MHC haplotype-associated protective immunity was further supported by the bursa of Fabricius (bursa) recovery from the disease, as measured...... by histological scorings of the bursa. Chickens carrying the BW1 haplotype had a significantly lower bursa lesion score (1.7) than the haplotypes B19 (mean 3.8), B21 (3.6), and B131 (4.3) 8 d postinfection. Furthermore, multiple line effects were found in other variables when comparing Day 6 with Day 8. Body...... weight, relative weights of the bursa and the spleen, percentage and relative number of MHC II molecules on MHC II-positive lymphocytes, percentage and relative number of CD4 molecules on CD4-positive lymphocytes, and the specific antibody response all differed significantly among lines. Line 1, with Red...

  7. Pathogenicity and immunosuppresive properties of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Murmu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effects of GM-97 strain of infectious bursal disease virus in commercial broiler chickens. A total of 500 broiler chickens were vaccinated with the virus through oral route at 10 and 17 days of age (102-103 EID50/dose. Chickens were also vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (Hitchner B1 orally at 14 and 21 days old. Chickens were euthanized (at 12, 14, 16, 20, 23, 26 days of age after measuring body weight. Bursa of Fabricius was examined for any gross lesion, weighed and processed for histological investigations. Bursa to body weight ratio and bursal lesion scoring were made to evaluate pathogenicity of the virus. Blood samples were analyzed for antibody response to ND vaccine virus using HI test. Results showed that the GM-97 strain of IBDV induced mild to moderate depletion of lymphoid cells in the center of bursal follicles and non-significant difference in bursa to body weight ratio amongst vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. Chickens responded well to ND vaccine by mounting high level of serum NDV specific HI antibody titers. It can be concluded from the present study that GM-97 strain of IBDV has mild pathogenicity but is not immunosuppressive.

  8. THE PATHOLOGY OF INFETIOUS BURSAL DISEASE IN .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology and. 2Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of lbadan, Ibadan Nigeria. An outbreak of inllectious bursa! disease (lBD) occurred in a flock of 11-week old crcssbreeds of Homo cocks and indigenous Nigerian hens. (referred to as exotic and locals respectively ...

  9. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...

  10. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rugea

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  12. Passive immunization using purified IgYs against infectious bursal disease of chickens in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Wasif; Ayub, Najma

    2006-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute and highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Birnavirus. Mortality of infected birds can be best prevented if injected with antibodies. The present study was an attempt to raise specific hyper-immune polyclonal antibodies against IBD virus in Pakistan. Commercial layers divided into four groups were injected with IBD vaccine subcutaneously according to four different treatment regimens. Eggs were collected daily and antibodies were purified from yolk with dextran sulphate. Titers of antibodies in serum and yolk were evaluated with enzyme linked immunosorbant assay and agar gel precipitation test. Antibody titers were significantly higher in yolk than serum. Eggs collected at 28 days post-vaccination had maximum antibody titers. Of treatment regimens, T3 was found to be most effective for hyperimmunization. Lyophilized antibodies stored at 4℃ did not lose their activity till the end of experiment. IBD virus infected birds were injected with purified antibodies which induced 92% recovery as compared to control birds. The study implicates that the purified antibodies may be useful as a therapeutic agent to cure IBD infected birds. PMID:16434848

  13. Transcriptional profiles of chicken embryo cell cultures following infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of infectious bursal disease in chickens and causes a significant economic loss for the poultry industry. Little is understood about the mechanism involved in the host responses to IBDV infection. For better understanding the IBDV...... and UB) showed a constant expression or only slight alteration. Apparently, the host genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and apoptosis, interferon-regulated proteins, and the cellular immune response were affected by IBDV infection, indicating involvement in the complex signaling pathways of host...

  14. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

  15. Occurrence of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Antibodies in Double-Spurred Francolins in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The double-spurred francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus has been identified as a good candidate for future domestication due to the universal acceptability of its meat and its adaptability to anthropogenically altered environments. Therefore, in investigating the diseases to which they are susceptible, serum samples from 56 francolins in a major live-bird market (LBM in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, were screened for antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD viruses. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA revealed 25.0% and 35.7% prevalence of ND virus (NDV antibodies, respectively, while 5.4% and 57.1% prevalence of IBD virus (IBDV antibodies was detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and ELISA, respectively. This first report on the occurrence of NDV and IBDV antibodies in apparently healthy, unvaccinated double-spurred francolins from a LBM suggests that they were subclinically infected with either field or vaccine viruses and could thus serve as possible reservoirs of these viruses to domestic poultry. Furthermore, if they are to be domesticated for intensive rearing, a vaccination plan including ND and IBD should be developed and implemented.

  16. Comparative immunogenicity of local and imported infectious bursal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative immunogenicity and efficacy study of local and imported infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines administered to chicks (cockerels) at varying regimes (10 and 18, 10 and 28, 14 and 35 days of age) was carried out. The test birds were challenged seven days after the booster dose of the IBD vaccine by ...

  17. Infectious bursal disease virus as a replication-incompetent viral vector expressing green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Yung-Yi C; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has been established as a replication-competent viral vector capable of carrying an epitope at multiple loci in the genome. To enhance the safety and increase the insertion capacity of IBDV as a vector, a replication-incompetent IBDV vector was developed in the present study. The feasibility of replacing one of the viral gene loci, including pvp2, vp3, vp1, or the polyprotein vp243, with the sequence of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was explored. A method combining TCID50 and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) determined the most feasible locus for gene replacement to be pvp2. The genomic segment containing gfp at the pvp2 locus was able to be encapsidated into IBDV particles. Furthermore, the expression of GFP in GFP-IBDV infected cells was confirmed by Western blotting and GFP-IBDV particles showed similar morphology and size to that of wildtype IBDV by electron microscopy. By providing the deleted protein in trans in a packaging cell line (pVP2-DF1), replication-incompetent GFP-IBDV particles were successfully plaque-quantified. The gfp sequence from the plaque-forming GFP-IBDV in pVP2-DF1 was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. To our knowledge, GFP-IBDV developed in the present study is the first replication-incompetent IBDV vector which expresses a foreign protein in infected cells without the capability to produce viral progeny. Additionally, such replication-incompetent IBDV vectors could serve as bivalent vaccine vectors for conferring protection against infections with IBDV and other economically important, or zoonotic, avian pathogens.

  18. Sero-prevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SINIDU

    2015-02-04

    sectional study was undertaken from January 2012 to June. 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence and risk factors of IBD infection in non-vaccinated backyard chickens. The sample size was determined using the formula ...

  19. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1 the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound, V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds, CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol, terminator III® (phenols, and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride. But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen.

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size. Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s, in conjunction to inner lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle, respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV antigen. Advanced immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation (r=0.64623 was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring. Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC, and IHC staining is a precise

  1. Inactivation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Through Composting of Litter from Poultry Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Rocio; Badcoe, Lyndon M; Williams, Cheryl; Bary, Andrew I

    2016-06-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was diagnosed in a pullet farm in Washington in 2014. Infectious bursal disease virus is resistant to many environmental stresses and often persists on farms for months. There have been conflicting reports as to whether composting can destroy vvIBDV in the manure. This project investigated the composting of litter from the affected house using an aerated static pile to inactivate the virus. Two weeks before the affected pullet flocks were moved to the layer house, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds were placed in the barns. Ten days after they were placed, three SPF birds died and were positive for vvIBDV. Thirty percent of the SPF birds were positive for vvIBDV. After the pullets were moved, at 20 wk of age, the litter in the house was composted using the aerated static pile method. The pile was maintained at above 55 C for 4 wk. After this time, 30 additional SPF birds were placed on the composted material. Two weeks later, the birds were healthy and there was no evidence of vvIBDV. The subsequent pullet flock did not break with vvIBDV. These results demonstrate that this composting method can be used to decontaminate the litter from vvIBDV and help prevent the spread of vvIBDV.

  2. Modifications of the 3 '-UTR stem-loop of infectious bursal disease virus are allowed without influencing replication or virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.

    2004-01-01

    Many questions regarding the initiation of replication and translation of the segmented, double-stranded RNA genome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remain to be solved. Computer analysis shows that the non-polyadenylated extreme 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the coding strand of both

  3. A serological survey for infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in free-range village chickens in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of infectious bursal disease (IBD or ‘Gumboro disease’ seroprevalence rates in healthy, non-vaccinated indigenous scavenging chickens in northern Tanzania was conducted in November and December 2009 on 362 chickens raised in a traditional management system. Individual bird and flock-level information was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and serum samples were screened for IBD virus (IBDV antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The study revealed high rates of IBDV antibodies, yielding an overall seropositive rate of 58.8 % and with at least one positive bird detected in 82.8 % (74/90 of flocks. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that seropositivity to IBDV varied significantly (χ2 = 16.1, P < 0.001 between the study sites. The flock seroprevalence was found to vary from 37.5 % to 91 % between districts and from 75%to 90%between regions. The results of this study showed that IBD is an endemic and widely distributed disease in northern Tanzania.

  4. Inflammatory response of different chicken lines and B haplotypes to infection with infectious bursal disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Sorensen, P.; Hedemand, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Chickens representing two different inbred lines (layer and meat-type) and three different B haplotypes (BW1, B19 and B131) were infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at 21 days of age. Mortality was recorded, and surviving chickens were killed and examined either 3 or 17 days post...... and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was seen among chickens from the layer type line compared with the meat-type line. In addition, the haplotype of the chickens influenced the atrophy and hypertrophy of the thymus, It was concluded that the meat-type chicken line was more resistant to IBDV infection than...... the layer-type line, and that mortality rate, liver to body weight ratio and ESR were valuable variables for evaluation of the level of IBDV infection-induced inflammation and disease....

  5. Tracking the molecular epidemiology of Brazilian Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda M F; Vidigal, Pedro M P; Myrrha, Luciana W; Fietto, Juliana L R; Silva, Abelardo; Almeida, Márcia R

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Genome segment A encodes the capsid protein (VP2), while segment B encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (VP1). In the present study, we trace the molecular epidemiology of IBDV in Brazil by analyzing 29 isolates collected in the major regions of poultry production. To genetically characterize the isolates, phylogenetic and population dynamic analyses were conducted using 68 VP1 (2634 nt) and 102 VP2 (1356 nt) coding sequences from IBDV isolates from different regions of the world. Furthermore, the evolution of IBDV was analyzed by characterizing the selective forces that operated during the diversification of viral isolates. We show that IBDV isolates were introduced into Brazil mainly from the Netherlands and the USA. These introductions were associated with all Brazilian poultry production regions analyzed in this work. In addition, we show that the evolution of IBDV has been shaped by a combination of very low recombination rates and relatively high rates of nucleotide substitution (2.988×10(-4) for VP1 and 3.2937×10(-4) for VP2), which themselves are a function of purifying selection operating on VP1 and VP2. Furthermore, our extended Bayesian skyline plot suggests that the increase in the effective population size of isolates of IBDV is consistent with its epidemiological history, with a large increase during the emergence of acute outbreaks of IBD in the 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maroufyan, Elham; Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Teck Chwen, Loh; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD...

  7. Effect of dietary combination of methionine and fish oil on cellular immunity and plasma fatty acids in infectious bursal disease challenged chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maroufyan, Elham; Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Teck Chwen, Loh; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD...

  8. Cell culture attenuation eliminates rMd5deltaMeq-induced bursal and thymic atrophy and renders the mutant virus as an effective and safe vaccine against Marek's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine zipper oncoprotein, meq, which structurally resembles jun/fos family of transcriptional activators. It has been clearly demonstrated that deletion of meq results in loss of transformation and oncogenic capacity of MDV. The rMd5'meq virus provided s...

  9. Conformational analysis of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV derived cell penetrating peptide (CPP analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay G. Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to develop peptide analogs of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD virus VP5 protein segment having cell penetrating ability to improve their interaction with cargo molecule (Nucleic acid without affecting the backbone conformation. Materials and Methods: IBDV VP5 protein segment designated as RATH peptide were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis and their solution conformation was elucidated using CD spectroscopy in polar (water and apolar (TFE solvents. Cell penetrating ability of RATH-CONH2 was observed using FITC labeled peptide internalization in to HeLa cells under fluorescent microscopy. The efficacy of RATH analog interactions with nucleic acids was evaluated using FITC labeled oligonucleotides by fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay. Results: CD spectra of RATH analogs in water and apolar trifluroethanol (TFE helped to compare their secondary structures which were almost similar with dominant beta conformations suggesting successful induction of positive charge in the analogs without affecting back bone conformation of CPP designed. Cell penetrating ability of RATH CONH2 in HeLa cell was more than 90%. The fluorescence spectroscopy and plasmid constructs in gel retardation assay demonstrated successful interaction of amide analogs with nucleic acid. Conclusion: Intentional changes made in IBDV derived peptide RATH COOH to RATH CONH2 did not showed major changes in backbone conformation and such modifications may help to improve the cationic charge in most CPPs to interact with nucleic acid. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 307-312

  10. ADAPTATION OF AN INDIGENOUS VERY VIRULENT INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS ON VERO CELL LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hussain and M. H. Rasool

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Vero cell line was tested for its ability to support the replication of indigenous very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV. The frozen cells were resuscitated to prepare monolayer, which was further sub-cultured to prepare semi-confluent monolayers using M199 growth medium supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum. The semi confluent monolayers were then infected with 0.25 ml of indigenous vvIBDV. The passage 1 virus was harvested and used for the next passage. In this way virus was given three serial passages on Vero cell line, where characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs were observed. During the first passage, no CPEs were found. The Vero cell monolayers remained normal in first passage upto 144 hours post-infection. During second passage, rounding of cells was observed after 72 hours of infection. However, clear and consistent CPEs were not observed in 2nd passage. Typical aggregation, rounding and granulation of Vero cells was noticed in passage 3 (P3 from 72 hours upto 144 hours post-infection. The positive results of agar gel precipitation test (AGPT confirmed that the adapted (P3 virus was IBDV. The infectivity titer of adapted vvIBDV was found to be log10 7.60 TCID50/ ml at 72 hours post-infection. The indigenous vvIBDV was well adapted to Vero cell line after three successive passages.

  11. Risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease among Danish broiler chickens in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2002-01-01

    from each unaffected farm. The resulting numbers of cases and controls used for statistical analyses were 16 and 61, respectively. Statistically significant associations were seen between the initial 16 Danish cases of acute clinical IBD in 1998 and certain hatcheries, age of parent birds and a certain......The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...

  12. Oral immunization with transgenic rice seeds expressing VP2 protein of infectious bursal disease virus induces protective immune responses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianxiang; Yu, Lian; Li, Long; Hu, Jinqiang; Zhou, Jiyong; Zhou, Xueping

    2007-09-01

    The expression of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) host-protective immunogen VP2 protein in rice seeds, its immunogenicity and protective capability in chickens were investigated. The VP2 cDNA of IBDV strain ZJ2000 was cloned downstream of the Gt1 promoter of the rice glutelin GluA-2 gene in the binary expression vector, pCambia1301-Gt1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the recombinant vector was used to transform rice embryogenic calli, and 121 transgenic lines were obtained and grown to maturity in a greenhouse. The expression level of VP2 protein in transgenic rice seeds varied from 0.678% to 4.521% microg/mg of the total soluble seed protein. Specific pathogen-free chickens orally vaccinated with transgenic rice seeds expressing VP2 protein produced neutralizing antibodies against IBDV and were protected when challenged with a highly virulent IBDV strain, BC6/85. These results demonstrate that transgenic rice seeds expressing IBDV VP2 can be used as an effective, safe and inexpensive vaccine against IBDV.

  13. Viral competition and maternal immunity influence the clinical disease caused by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2011-09-01

    The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the

  14. Infection with Some Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Pathotypes Produces Virus in Chicken Muscle Tissue and the Role of Humoral Immunity as a Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Sá E; Bertran, Kateri; Moresco, Kira; Jackwood, Daral J; Swayne, David E

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes important economic losses and negatively affects global trade in poultry and poultry products. This study determined the presence of IBDV in primary lymphoid tissues and muscle tissue of infected broilers and the role of vaccination as a mitigation strategy. In the first study, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broiler chickens were challenged with STC (classical [cIBDV]), Indiana (variant [varIBDV]), rA (very virulent [vvIBDV]), or Ohio (serotype 2, avirulent) IBDV. Infection was confirmed in all groups, but only the cIBDV group experienced morbidity or mortality. Virus was only isolated in low titers from a few breast and/or thigh muscle tissue samples from cIBDV and vvIBDV-infected chickens. For the second study, SPF broilers from three different treatment groups were challenged with IBDV viruses that currently circulate in the United States, varIBDV or vvIBDV: 1) maternal antibody-positive (MAb+), vaccinated with recombinant HVT-IBDV vaccine (Vaxxitek®, Merial; MAb+/Vax); 2) MAb+, not-vaccinated (MAb+/Unvax); and 3) maternal antibody-negative, not-vaccinated chickens (MAb-/Unvax). MAb+/Vax and MAb+/Unvax chickens had significantly lower virus titers in primary lymphoid tissues compared to MAb-/Unvax chickens. No virus was detected in muscle tissues from any of the groups challenged with varIBDV, confirming the results of the first experiment. Only 1 of 36 (MAb+/Vax) and 2 of 36 (MAb+/Unvax) muscle samples were positive at minimal amounts (101.97 EID50/ml) in vvIBDV challenge, compared to the 9 of 36 muscle samples that were positive in the MAb-/Unvax group. This study indicates that only cIBDV and vvIBDV strains can be found in muscle at low titers of SPF meat chickens and that the breeder vaccination with MAb transfer to progeny with or without accompanying progeny vaccination, as practiced in the United States, was an effective mitigation strategy for vvIBDV-challenged birds.

  15. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains.Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2 gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST, Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium in 1987, Africa (Egypt around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba by 1995 and South America (Brazil around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection.To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  16. Impact of heterophil granulocyte depletion caused by 5-fluorouracil on infectious bursal disease virus infection in specific pathogen free chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Igyarto, Botond-Zoltan; Magyar, Attila

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the cytostatic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which causes depletion of heterophil granulocytes, on clinical symptoms and histological lesions during the progress of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV) infection in chickens. The aim...... inoculated with the classical IBDV strain F52/70. Bursae of Fabricius were sampled at fixed intervals, and the progress of the infection was monitored by various histological techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found correlation between histological observations and RT......-PCR results. In the 5-FU pretreated chickens, IBDV caused only mild clinical symptoms, even though histological alterations similar to alterations caused by IBDV were still observed. The 5-FU pretreatment resulted in severe heterophil granulocyte depletion by days 2 and 3 after infection (post inoculation...

  17. Inactivation of infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease viruses at temperatures below 0 C using chemical disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J; Chan, M; Brooks, B W; Rohonczy, L

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of bleach, Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at temperatures below 0 C. To simulate the influence of organic load on the effectiveness of disinfectants, as would be encountered in disinfecting farm vehicles and equipment, the viruses were suspended in preparations containing light or heavy levels of organic matter. A small volume of the viral suspension was applied to the upper surface of stainless steel carrier disks and these were then air dried. The dried virus inoculum was covered with disinfectant to which propylene glycol had been added to prevent freezing. The disks were incubated at various temperatures for periods up to 24 hr. With NDV, at -10 C all three disinfectants in both organic preparations achieved a 5 log 10 reduction within 5 min. Results with SDF were similar at -25 and -10 C. To achieve comparable reduction with Virkon and bleach at -25 C, contact periods up to 2 or 24 hr, respectively, were required. With IBDV, to achieve a 5 log 10 to reduction by treatment with Virkon or SDF at -20 C, contact periods of 2 or 24 hr, respectively, were required in both organic preparations. It was concluded that at temperatures as low as -20 to -25 C, SDF was the most effective disinfectant for killing NDV and Virkon was most effective for killing IBDV. The finding that a contact period of up to 2 hr was required to kill IBDV, whereas NDV was killed within 5 min, attests to the greater stability of the former virus.

  18. Differential gene expression in chicken primary B cells infected ex vivo with attenuated and very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulwich, Katherine L; Giotis, Efstathios S; Gray, Alice; Nair, Venugopal; Skinner, Michael A; Broadbent, Andrew J

    2017-11-20

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae and is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide. IBDV infects B cells in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and morbidity in young chickens. In addition to strains that cause classical Gumboro disease, the so-called 'very virulent' (vv) strain, also in circulation, causes more severe disease and increased mortality. IBDV has traditionally been controlled through the use of live attenuated vaccines, with attenuation resulting from serial passage in non-lymphoid cells. However, the factors that contribute to the vv or attenuated phenotypes are poorly understood. In order to address this, we aimed to investigate host cell-IBDV interactions using a recently described chicken primary B-cell model, where chicken B cells are harvested from the BF and cultured ex vivo in the presence of chicken CD40L. We demonstrated that these cells could support the replication of IBDV when infected ex vivo in the laboratory. Furthermore, we evaluated the gene expression profiles of B cells infected with an attenuated strain (D78) and a very virulent strain (UK661) by microarray. We found that key genes involved in B-cell activation and signalling (TNFSF13B, CD72 and GRAP) were down-regulated following infection relative to mock, which we speculate could contribute to IBDV-mediated immunosuppression. Moreover, cells responded to infection by expressing antiviral type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes, but the induction was far less pronounced upon infection with UK661, which we speculate could contribute to its virulence.

  19. Serological survery of infectious bursal diseas antibody in local kitchen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological evidence for infectious bursal disease virus antibody in local chicken in Ago-lwoye a rea of Ogun State was detected using agar gel precipitation test. 51 out of the 98 sera samples tested were vositive for precipitating antibody against infectious bursal disease. Key words: Infectious bursa] disease, precipitating ...

  20. Vaccination Strategies in Breeder and Commercial Farms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreaks have persisted despite routine vaccination. In a quest to determine some of the causes of the vaccination failures, the type of vaccines, vaccination schedules and seromonitoring for antibodies in breeder and commercial farms were investigated using structured ...

  1. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  2. Distribution of Lymphocytes in the Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT of Naturally Occurring Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Uddin*, M. Z. I. Khan1, K. N. Islam, A. S. M. G. Kibria, G. N. Adhikary2, M. N. H. Parvez3, J. Basu, M. B. Uddin4 and M. M. Rahman5

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate changes in the number and distribution of lymphocytes in the mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of digestive tract (proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and cecal tonsils and respiratory system (lungs of chicken infected by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV. Samples were divided into two groups; IBDV infected group (21, 24 and 30 days old and control group (non infected birds; 21 days old. Haematoxylin and eosin stained slides were prepared for microscopic studies to observe the distribution and the number of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the digestive tract and respiratory system. Lymphocytes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, cecal tonsils and lungs of IBDV infected chickens than the control. Moreover, the reduction in lymphocytes number was maximum in duodenum and cecal tonsils, while minimal in lungs. Depletion of lymphocyte was mainly in the lamina propria and the core of the villi and depletion increased with the advance of age of IBDV infected chicken. These results demonstrate that IBDV destroys the lymphocytes of the MALT and suppresses the immunity.

  3. Adaptation and Molecular Characterization of Two Malaysian Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates Adapted in BGM-70 Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Nafi'u; Arshad, Siti Suri

    2017-01-01

    Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 and UPM190 (also known as UPMB00/81 and UPM04/190, respectively) isolated from local IBD outbreaks were serially passaged 12 times (EP12) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The EP12 isolate was further adapted and serially propagated in BGM-70 cell line up to 20 passages (P20). Characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were subtly observed at P1 in both isolates 72 hours postinoculation (pi). The CPE became prominent at P5 with cell rounding, cytoplasmic vacuoles, granulation, and detachment from flask starting from day 3 pi, up to 7 days pi with titers of 109.50 TCID50/mL and log109.80 TCID50/mL for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. The CPE became subtle at P17 and disappeared by P18 and P19 for UPM0081 and UPM190, respectively. However, the presence of IBDV was confirmed by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and RT-PCR techniques. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates were of the vvIBDV. It appears that a single mutation of UPM190 and UPM0081 IBDV isolates at D279N could facilitate vvIBDV strain adaptability in CEE and BGM-70 cultures. PMID:29230245

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment alters performance and immune response in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroufyan Elham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5 using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens.

  5. Effect of infectious bursal disease virus on infections produced by Escherichia coli of high and low virulence in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Yuasa, N; Abe, H; Narita, M

    1990-10-01

    The effect of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on the infections caused by Escherichia coli strains of high (Expt 1) and low (Expt 2) virulence was examined in specific-pathogen-free chickens. The chickens were inoculated orally with IBDV at 1 day of age and via the air sac with E. coli at 1 week of age. In the groups given 1 x 10(5) cfu of E.coli of high virulence (Expt 1), mortality of IBDV-inoculated group (90%) was significantly higher than that in the non-IBDV-inoculated group (40%). The septicaemic lesions (splenic necrosis with fibrinous exudation) in the IBDV-inoculated-group were of significantly greater severity than those in the non-IBDV-inoculated group. The lymphocytic depletion in the bursa of Fabricius was most severe in the group inoculated with both IBDV and E. coli, then in descending order, in the group inoculated with IBDV alone and with E. coli alone. Lymphocytic depletion of the thymus was caused mainly by E. coli infection while IBDV induced mild lymphocytic depletion of the thymus. In Expt 2. the groups given 1 x 10(9) cfu of E. coli of low virulence revealed mortality of 50% when inoculated with IBDV and 10% when non-IBDV-inoculated. This study suggests that IBDV may increase the chickens' susceptibility to septicaemic infections produced by E. coli strains of high and low virulence and that IBDV and E. coli may induce additively marked lymphocytic depletion in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus.

  6. Protection level of an intermediate vaccine against gumboro disease in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    León R., Natalia; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Icochea D., Eliana; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; González V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the protection conferred by a vaccine against Gumboro disease in laying hens. Three hundred Isa Brown one-day-old chicks were equally distributed in three groups. Groups A and B were vaccinated, twice, at 9 and 24 days old with an intermediate-intermediate strain (2512), and group C remained unvaccinated. Groups B and C were challenged at 32 days old with the F52/70 strain through the eye. Bursal index, bursa/spleen relationship and microscopic lesions of the bursa, splee...

  7. Molecular characterization of two Bangladeshi infectious bursal disease virus isolates using the hypervariable sequence of VP2 as a genetic marker

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md Taohidul; Le, Thanh Hoa; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Md. Alimul

    2012-01-01

    Two Bangladeshi infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolates collected in 2007, termed GB1 and GB3, were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Sequence analysis of a 474-bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that among four major amino acid substitutions observed in the strains, two were unique to GB1 and GB3 (Ser217Leu and Ala270Thr) while one substitution was only found in GB1 (Asn299Ser). Among IBDVs from Bangladesh including GB1 and GB3, the rate of ...

  8. Flock prevalence of exposure to avian adeno-associated virus, chicken anemia virus, fowl adenovirus, and infectious bursal disease virus among Ontario broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eregae, Michael E; Dewey, Cate E; McEwen, Scott A; Ouckama, Rachel; Ojkić, Davor; Guerin, Michele T

    2014-03-01

    Samples from 231 randomly selected commercial broiler chicken flocks in Ontario were tested at slaughter for exposure to chicken anemia virus (CAV), fowl adenovirus (FAdV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Fifteen blood samples per flock were collected and analyzed for the presence of antibodies against CAV, FAdV, and IBDV by ELISA or agar gel immunodiffusion test. Fifteen cecal tonsils and cloacal swabs per flock were analyzed for the presence of CAV, FAdV, and IBDV by PCR. The prevalence of exposure to avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) was estimated by a PCR test on a subset of FAdV-PCR-positive samples from 178 flocks. Genotypes of FAdV and IBDV were identified on a subset of isolates (n = 353 and 45, respectively). The flock-level period prevalence of exposure to AAAV, CAV, FAdV, and IBDV during grow-out were 88.76% (95% CI: 84.08-93.45%), 77.06% (95% CI: 71.59-82.52%), 96.54% (95% CI: 94.16-98.91%), and 48.92% (95% CI: 42.42-55.41%), respectively. Results of a multivariable logistic regression model showed a significant association of exposure to FAdV with exposure to AAAV (OR = 18.57, 95% CI: 3.67-93.86, P = 0.004) but not with exposure to CAV (P = 0.7752) or exposure to IBDV (P = 0.2274). Pathogenic FAdV genotypes (FAdV-02, FAdV-08, and FAdV-11) constituted 39.38% of the isolates. The most-common IBDV genotypes identified were IBDV NC171 (60%) and IBDV 05SA8 (28.89%). This is the first large-scale study to estimate the baseline flock prevalence of exposure to AAAV, CAV, FAdV, and IBDV in commercial broiler flocks in Canada. Potentially pathogenic genotypes of FAdV and IBDV that can guide vaccine development and disease control efforts in Ontario were identified.

  9. Mutations of residues 249 and 256 in VP2 are involved in the replication and virulence of infectious Bursal disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaole Qi

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV is a pathogen of worldwide significance to the poultry industry. Although the PDE and PFG domains of the capsid protein VP2 contribute significantly to virulence and fitness, the detailed molecular basis for the pathogenicity of IBDV is still not fully understood. Because residues 253 and 284 of VP2 are not the sole determinants of virulence, we hypothesized that other residues involved in virulence and fitness might exist in the PDE and PFG domains of VP2. To test this, five amino acid changes selected by sequence comparison of the PDE and PFG domains of VP2 were introduced individually using a reverse genetics system into the virulent strain (rGx-F9VP2. Then reverse mutations of the selected residues 249 and 256 were introduced individually into the attenuated strain (rGt. Seven modified viruses were generated and evaluated in vitro (CEF cells and in vivo (SPF chicken. For residue 249, Q249R could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q could reduce in vitro and elevate in vivo the replication of rGt; meanwhile Q249R reduced the virulence of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q increased the virulence of rGt, which indicated that residue 249 significantly contributed to the replication and virulence of IBDV. For residue 256, I256V could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while V256I could reduce in vitro but didn't change in vivo the replication of rGt; although V256I didn't increase the virulence of rGt, I256V obviously reduced the virulence of virulent IBDV. The present results demonstrate for the first time, to different extent, residues 249 and 256 of VP2 are involved in the replication efficiency and virulence of IBDV; this is not only beneficial to further understanding of pathogenic mechanism but also to the design of newly tailored vaccines against IBDV.

  10. Virus and Vaccine with the Immune Responses of Guinea Fowls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The interference of Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus and vaccine with the immune response of the grey brested guinea fowl (Numida meleagridis galeata palas) to Newcastle desease (ND) “LaSota” vaccine was studied using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of ND virus antibody and agar.

  11. Biological and Phylogenetic Characterization of a Genotype VII Newcastle Disease Virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of Field Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozo, Francisco; Marcano, Rosmar

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the biological and molecular characterization of a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) circulating in Venezuela and the assessment of the vaccination efficacy under field conditions compared to controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping showed a mean embryo dead time of 50 h and an intracerebral pathogenicity index of 1.86. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus belongs to genotype VII in class II (a genotype often found in Asia and Africa), representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in the continent of South America. A vaccine-challenge trial in commercial broilers reared in fields or in a experimental setting included dual (live/killed) priming of 1-day-old chicks plus two live NDV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field vaccinations at days 7 and 17, followed by a very stringent genotype VII NDV challenge at day 28. Serology for NDV and IBDV, bursal integrity, and protection against NDV lethal challenge were assessed. At 28 days, field vaccinates showed significantly lower NDV (1,356 versus 2,384) and higher IBD (7,295 versus 1,489) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers than the experimentally reared birds. A lower bursal size and bursa-body weight ratio (P < 0.05) and higher bursa lesion score were also detected in the field set. Only 57.1% of field vaccinates survived the lethal challenge, differing (P < 0.05) from 90.5% survival in the experimental farm. Overall, results confirmed the presence of the genotype VII viruses in South America and suggest that field-associated factors such as immunosuppression compromise the efficacy of the vaccination protocols implemented. PMID:22238433

  12. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-01-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m2 in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m2 in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains. PMID:27733779

  13. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m 2 in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m 2 in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains.

  14. Anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal e detecção do genoma viral em criações de frango de corte e galinhas de quintal no polo avícola da Bahia Antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease virus and viral genome detection in broilers and chickens backyard at Bahia's poultry production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência de anticorpos e detectar o genoma viral do vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal em criações de frangos de corte e em criações de subsistência localizadas em duas regiões do polo avícola da Bahia. Foram coletadas 758 amostras de soro de frangos de corte e 320 amostras de galinhas de quintal para avaliação da frequência de anticorpos utilizando ELISA indireto. Para a detecção e caracterização do vírus foram coletados 6 pools de bursas de Fabrícius em frangos de corte e 3 pools em criações de subsistência, analisados posteriormente com PCR/RFLP. Os resultados revelaram que não há proteção uniforme na criação comercial nas duas regiões estudadas, sugerindo falha na vacinação e desafio com vírus no ambiente. Também observaram-se altos títulos em galinhas de quintal não vacinadas, com variação nos títulos relacionada com desafios de campo. Nos testes moleculares, verificaram-se que três pools de frangos de corte eram positivos, sendo dois para cepa vacinal (G3 e um para cepa variante (G15. Nas criações de subsistência, houve uma amostra positiva para cepa variante (G15. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de monitoramento em ambas as criações.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease Virus as well as to detect the virus in broilers and chicken backyard, raised in two different regions at Bahia's poultry production area. A total of 758 serum samples were collected from broilers and 320 from chicken backyard, in order to assess the frequency of antibodies using an indirect ELISA. For virus detection and characterization it was collected 6 bursal pools from broilers and 3 from chicken backyard, which were further analyzed with PCR/RFLP. The results showed that there is no uniform protection in commercial flocks of the two different regions, suggesting that it may be occurring vaccination errors and

  15. Development of Recombinant Vaccine Using Herpesvirus of Turkey (Hvt as Vector for Several Viral Diseases in Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.

  16. Impact of Feeding Systems and Hatchery Vaccination Programs on Immune System Development, Salmonella Colonization, Clearance of E. Coli and Reproductive Traits In Broiler Breeder Pullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were vaccinated at 19 days of embryonation with Marek's vaccines HVT +SB1 or a Vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. The birds were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the University of Georgia and fed ad libit...

  17. Acceptability of Aujeszky's disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, T G

    1992-01-01

    Vaccines against Aujeszky's disease are not only used to prevent the clinical consequences of a field infection, but also to support eradication of the virus. The current Aujeszky's disease vaccines (ADV) protect against severe clinical signs of disease and they reduce but usually do not prevent virus multiplication and excretion or the establishment of latency after infection. Vaccines also limit virus multiplication after reactivation. The efficacy of vaccination is reduced by passively acquired maternal antibodies. The mechanisms that afford immunity to the virus are only poorly understood. No simple parameters for immunity are therefore available. The European Pharmacopoeia formulates requirements for inactivated and live ADV vaccines for parenteral use. The vaccines must be safe; they must not induce local or systemic reactions; they must not be transmitted to unvaccinated pigs; they must not be transmitted by semen and across the placenta; the attenuation must be irreversible (live vaccines); the inactivation must be complete (inactivated vaccines); they must prevent mortality and limit growth retardation after challenge infection; the vaccine must not contain contaminating micro-organisms and viruses. No requirements have been formulated with regard to reduction of excretion of challenge virus after experimental infection, efficacy in pigs with maternal antibodies, reproducibility of efficacy studies, reduction of virus transmission under field conditions, the presence of a serological marker, safety for other species, and safety and efficacy of intranasally administered vaccines. Future developments should be directed to the development and evaluation of ADV vaccines that are able to limit transmission of the virus.

  18. A cross sectional study of Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease in poultry in Narsingdi district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: IBD and ND are highly prevalent in the study area. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective control measures to reduce the prevalence of these diseases. This study can help in designing appropriate control measures considering risk factors of these diseases. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 406-412

  19. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult Vaccination Records Vaccine-Preventable Adult Diseases Resources Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination ... are hospitalized, and some even die. People with heart disease and those who have suffered stroke are at ...

  20. Combination vaccines against diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Malabi M; Van de Verg, Lillian L

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Several recent epidemiological studies highlight the rate of diarrheal diseases in different parts of the world and draw attention to the impact on childhood growth and survival. Despite the well-documented global burden of diarrheal diseases, currently there are no combination diarrheal vaccines, only licensed vaccines for rotavirus and cholera, and Salmonella typhi-based vaccines for typhoid fever. The recognition of the impact of diarrheal episodes on infant growth, as seen in resource-poor countries, has spurred action from governmental and non-governmental agencies to accelerate research toward affordable and effective vaccines against diarrheal diseases. Both travelers and children in endemic countries will benefit from a combination diarrheal vaccine, but it can be argued that the greater proportion of any positive impact will be on the public health status of the latter. The history of combination pediatric vaccines indicate that monovalent or single disease vaccines are typically licensed first prior to formulation in a combination vaccine, and that the combinations themselves undergo periodic revision in response to need for improvement in safety or potential for wider coverage of important pediatric pathogens. Nevertheless combination pediatric vaccines have proven to be an effective tool in limiting or eradicating communicable childhood diseases worldwide. The landscape of diarrheal vaccine candidates indicates that there now several in active development that offer options for potential testing of combinations to combat those bacterial and viral pathogens responsible for the heaviest disease burden-rotavirus, ETEC, Shigella, Campylobacter, V. cholera and Salmonella.

  1. Infectious bursal disease virus recovery from Vero cells transfected with RNA transcripts is enhanced by expression of the structural proteins in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M A; Lin, T L; Wu, C C

    2005-11-01

    Positive sense RNA transcripts of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus genome segments A and B have previously been shown to be infectious. In this study we demonstrate that recovery of IBD virus from the transfection of Vero cells with positive sense RNA transcripts of genome segments A and B was enhanced by expression of the viral structural proteins VP2 with VP3 or by expression of viral polyprotein VP243 from DNA plasmids in trans. Expression of individual viral proteins VP2, VP3, or VP4 alone from DNA plasmids did not enhance IBD virus recovery. Earliest virus recovery from transfection of positive sense RNA transcripts of genomic segments A and B was at 36 h and mean titers were 10(1.8) pfu/ml. IBD virus was recovered 6 hours after transfection in cells concurrently expressing either VP2 with VP3 or VP243 and mean titers were 10(8.5) pfu/ml or 10(9.2) pfu/ml, respectively. Likewise, expression of the viral polyprotein from DNA plasmid increased the permissiveness of Vero cells for infection with non-culture adapted IBD virus. The titer of recovered non-culture adapted virus from 10(3.3) pfu/ml to 10(10.3) pfu/ml with expression of the viral polyprotein. This report is the first to describe a reverse genetics model for IBD virus with high efficiency of virus recovery for non-culture adapted strains.

  2. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  3. Gumboro Disease Outbreaks Cause High Mortality Rates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... Thirty nine outbreak farms (5 keeping broilers, 19 keeping layers and 15 keeping indigenous flock) were visited; vaccination history collected, clinical signs observed, flock size ... Keywords: Infectious bursal disease, vaccination failure, disease control, chicken production ...

  4. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  5. Surface IgM λ light chain is involved in the binding and infection of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) to DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jiaqi; You, Leiming; Li, Peipei; Teng, Man; Zhang, Gaiping; Luo, Jun; Wang, Aiping

    2018-01-25

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important immunosuppressive virus in chickens. Surface immunoglobulin M (sIgM)-bearing B lymphocytes act as the major targets of IBDV in the bursa of Fabricius, and sIgM may function as one of the membrane binding sites responsible for IBDV infection. Recently, using the virus overlay protein binding assay, the chicken λ light chain of sIgM was identified to specifically interact with IBDV in a virulence-independent manner in vitro. To further investigate sIgM λ light chain-mediated IBDV binding and infection in pre-B cells, the cell line DT40, which is susceptible to both pathogenic and attenuated IBDV, was used. Based on the RNA interference strategy, the DT40 cell line whose λ light chain of sIgM was stably knocked down, herein termed DT40LKD, was generated by the genomic integration of a specific small hairpin RNA and a green fluorescence protein co-expression construct. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the binding of IBDV to DT40LKD cells was significantly reduced due to the loss of sIgM λ light chain. In particular, reduced viral replication was observed in IBDV-incubated DT40LKD cells, and no viral release into cell culture medium was detected by the IBDV rapid diagnostic strips. In addition, the rescue of sIgM λ light chain expression restored viral binding and replication in DT40LKD cells. These results show that sIgM λ light chain appears to be beneficial for IBDV attachment and infection, suggesting that sIgM acts as a binding site involved in IBDV infection.

  6. Serological Evidence of Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Evidence of Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Local Chickens in Wuse, Abuja Municipal Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. ... These findings imply that the local chickens in the study area are exposed to field strains of IBDV and the immunity conferred on them by this exposure is not very ...

  7. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  8. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  9. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    that the pandemic was dealt with very different around the world. With a situated analysis inspired by Bruno Latour (2005) and Michel Callon (1986; 1999), and based on analysis of documents, media texts and interviews, the paper shows how the Danish health authorities communicated in an open and continuous way...... between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay. In ‘Power, action, and belief: a new sociology of knowledge’ /ed. By Law, J. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. Latour, B. (2005): Reassembling the Social. An introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press, New York....

  10. Diseases and vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    that the pandemic was dealt with very different around the world. With a situated analysis inspired by Bruno Latour (2005) and Michel Callon (1986; 1999), and based on analysis of documents, media texts and interviews, the paper shows how the Danish health authorities communicated in an open and continuous way...... between authorities, politicians, media and citizens. On the contrary, no broad commitment about the offer of a new pandemic vaccine to individuals from e.g. at-risk groups was reached. The vaccine was characterized by considerable uncertainty with regard to effects and side effects and many people...... and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay. In ?Power, action, and belief: a new sociology of knowledge? /ed. By Law, J. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. Latour, B. (2005): Reassembling the Social. An introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press, New York....

  11. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  12. [Inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus replication in chicken embryos by miRNAs delivered by recombinant avian adeno-associated viral vector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pengpeng; Wang, Yongjuan; Sun, Huaichang; Zhang, Xinyu; Xia, Xiaoli

    2011-02-01

    We studied the inhibition of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replication in chicken embryos by recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV)-delivered VP1- and VP2-specific microRNAs (miRNAs). We co-transfected AAV-293 cells with the VP1- or VP2 gene-specific miRNA expression vector pAITR-RFPmiVP1 or AITR-RFPmiVP2E, AAAV packaging vector pcDNA-ARC and adenovirus helper vector pHelper, resulting in recombinant virus rAAAV-RFPmiVP1 or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E. We also generated the recombinant viruses rAAAV-RFP (without miRNA expression cassette) and rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con (expressing control miRNA) using the same method as the control purpose. Electron microscopy showed that the recombinant viruses had a typical morphology of AAV. We confirmed the presence of miRNA expression cassette in the recombinant viral genomes by using PCR. Our poly (A)-tailed RT-PCR showed correct expression of the miRNAs in the rAAAV-transduced DF-1 cells. We inoculated the recombinant viruses individually into 8-day-old SPF chicken embryos and then challenged them using Lukert strain IBDV on day 2 after inoculation. Our IBDV titration assay showed that the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) of rAAAV-RFP- or rAAAV-RFPmiVP2con-inoculated group was 8.0 log10, whereas the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP1-inoculated group decreased to 1.0 and 0.8 log10 on day 3 and 6 after challenge, respectively. Similarly, the TCID50 of rAAAV-RFPmiVP2E-inoculated group decreased to 1.5 and 2.0 log10, respectively. These data suggest that rAAAV can transduce efficiently chicken embryos and the expressed VP1- and VP2-specific miRNAs can inhibit the replication of IBDV efficiently.

  13. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the ...

  14. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  15. Vaccinations in older adults with gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Henry A; Kim, Hayoon; Melmed, Gil Y

    2014-02-01

    Vaccines play a key role in the prevention of illness in the elderly, are cost effective, and generally safe. Hepatitis C, cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease are more prevalent than ever among older adults. Along with an age-related decline in immune system function (immunosenescence), these diseases make elderly individuals more susceptible to infections and more likely to experience a poor outcome relative to their younger counterparts. Vaccinations also appear to be less effective in the elderly, warranting research into different vaccination strategies such as booster vaccines, higher doses of vaccine, and measurement of antibody titers to guide vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. vaccination with newcastle disease vaccines strain i2 and lasota

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    SUMMARY. Vaccination trials and comparative immunogenicity study using Newcastle disease vaccine strain I2 (NDVI2) and NDV La Sota administered to commercial and local chickens through intraocular (i/o), intramuscular (i/m), drinking water (dw), untreated sorghum, parboiled sorghum, sorghum coated with gum ...

  17. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Michael; Plackett, Timothy P; Smith, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Yellow fever is a mosquito-transmitted hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to tropical regions in South America and Africa. It remains a significant health concern for deploying military personnel, accordingly vaccination is frequently performed on troops. Although the vaccine is generally administered with only minor complications, rare severe complications are also reported. Herein, we report a mild case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease 4 days after administration of the vaccine. The various complications of the vaccine and their pathogenesis are also reviewed.

  18. Vaccine preventable disease incidence as a complement to vaccine efficacy for setting vaccine policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been evaluated in clinical trials that establish vaccine efficacy (VE) against etiology-confirmed disease outcomes, a measure important for licensure. Yet, VE does not reflect a vaccine’s public health impact because it does not account for relative disease incidence. An additional measure that more directly establishes a vaccine’s public health value is the vaccine preventable disease incidence (VPDI), which is the incidence of disease preventable by vaccine in a given context. We describe how VE and VPDI can vary, sometimes in inverse directions, across disease outcomes and vaccinated populations. We provide examples of how VPDI can be used to reveal the relative public health impact of vaccines in developing countries, which can be masked by focus on VE alone. We recommend that VPDI be incorporated along with VE into the analytic plans of vaccine trials, as well as decisions by funders, ministries of health, and regulatory authorities. PMID:24731817

  19. Detection of immunoglobulins containing plasma cells in the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen of vaccinated broiler chickens with Newcastle disease virus vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Masum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of immunoglobulins (Igs-containing plasma cells (IgA, IgG and IgM in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus was investigated in broiler chickens that were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. In the thymus, the Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the cortex and medulla. Their frequency and distribution were higher at D14 and at D28. The number of IgG- and IgM-positive cells was greater than IgA-positive cells in thymus. In the bursa of Fabricius, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed beneath the capsules; within and around the bursal follicles. Their frequency of occurrence significantly peaked at D14 and at D28 in comparison to day-old chickens, and IgG-positive cells were significantly greater than the IgA- and IgM-positive cells in the bursa of vaccinated chickens. In the spleen, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the white pulp, around the trabeculae, and in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. In this secondary lymphatic tissue, IgG- and IgM-positive cell numbers significantly greater than IgA-positive cells. In conclusion, mobilization of more Igs-positive cells in lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens is due to the effect of NDV vaccine as well as the advancement of age.

  20. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available.

  1. Autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Więsik-Szewczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that infectious agents can induce autoimmune diseases in genetically susceptible subjects has been a matter of discussion for years. Moreover, increased incidence of autoimmune diseases and introduction of prophylactic vaccinations from early childhood suggest that these two trends are linked. In the medical literature and even non-professional media, case reports or events temporally related to vaccination are reported. It raises the issue of vaccination safety. In everyday practice medical professionals, physicians, rheumatologists and other specialists will be asked their opinion of vaccination safety. The decision should be made according to evidence-based medicine and the current state of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a potential mechanism which links infections, vaccinations and autoimmunity. We present an overview of published case reports, especially of systemic connective tissue diseases temporally related to vaccination and results from case-nested studies. As yet, no conclusive evidence supports a causal relationship between vaccination and autoimmune diseases. It has to be determined whether the performed studies are sufficiently Epsteinasensitive to detect the link. The debate is ongoing, and new data may be required to explain the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. We would like to underscore the need for prophylactic vaccination in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and to break down the myth that the vaccines are contraindicated in this target group.

  2. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329... Virus Vaccines § 113.329 Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Newcastle Disease Vaccine shall be prepared from...) of this section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  3. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  4. Active Vaccines for Alzheimer Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Rosalie M; Takahashi, Paul Y; Yu Ballard, Aimee C

    2016-09-01

    Vaccination against peptides specific to Alzheimer disease may generate an immune response that could help inhibit disease and symptom progression. PubMed and Scopus were searched for clinical trial articles, review articles, and preclinical studies relevant to the field of active Alzheimer disease vaccines and raw searches yielded articles ranging from 2016 to 1973. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for active Alzheimer disease vaccine trials. Manual research and cross-referencing from reviews and original articles was performed. First generation Aβ42 phase 2a trial in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease resulted in cases of meningoencephalitis in 6% of patients, so next generation vaccines are working to target more specific epitopes to induce a more controlled immune response. Difficulty in developing these vaccines resides in striking a balance between providing a vaccine that induces enough of an immune response to actually clear protein sustainably but not so much of a response that results in excess immune activation and possibly adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis. Although much work still needs to be done in the field to make this a practical possibility, the enticing allure of being able to treat or even prevent the extraordinarily impactful disease that is Alzheimer disease makes the idea of active vaccination for Alzheimer disease very appealing and something worth striving toward. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VACCINE (KOMAROV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty out of thirty local breed of hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) that had not been immunologically primed by previous routine vaccination were inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine (Komarov) intramuscularly while the remaining ten hens acted as uninoculated control. Clinical results show that 30% of the 20 birds ...

  6. Pneumococcal vaccination and chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froes F

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Froes,1 Nicolas Roche,2 Francesco Blasi3,4 1Chest Department, Hospital Pulido Valente, North Lisbon Hospital Center, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Department of Respiratory and Intensive Care Medicine, Cochin Hospital, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France; 3Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 4Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit and Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Patients with COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases are especially vulnerable to viral and bacterial pulmonary infections, which are major causes of exacerbations, hospitalization, disease progression, and mortality in COPD patients. Effective vaccines could reduce the burden of respiratory infections and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, but what is the evidence for this? This article reviews and discusses the existing evidence for pneumococcal vaccination efficacy and its changing role in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, especially COPD. Specifically, the recent Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA showed the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in older adults, many of whom had additional risk factors for pneumococcal disease, including chronic lung diseases. Taken together, the evidence suggests that pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations can prevent community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, while pneumococcal vaccination early in the course of COPD could help maintain stable health status. Despite the need to prevent pulmonary infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and evidence for the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine coverage and awareness are low and need to be improved. Respiratory physicians need to communicate the benefits of vaccination more effectively to their patients who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases

  7. Histopathology of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Isaac H; Milner, Danny A

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients. We review here the histopathological features and ancillary testing required for diagnosis of all illnesses preventable by vaccines that are currently approved for use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, organized into three sections: viral infections preventable by routine vaccination (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, and human papillomavirus), bacterial infections preventable by routine vaccination (diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and meningococcus), and infections with specific vaccine indications (anthrax, typhoid, tuberculosis, rabies, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, smallpox, and adenovirus). Histopathology for the less common diseases is illustrated in this review. Awareness of a patient's immune and/or vaccine status is a crucial component of the infectious disease work-up, especially for rare diseases that may not otherwise be seen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  9. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseasesC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Andreasen, Viggo; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines...... is growing steadily. We introduce key challenges for modeling in shaping our understanding and guiding policy decisions related to vaccine preventable diseases...

  10. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  11. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  12. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Requiring Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gregory; Ahmed, Bilaal; Kumar, Parvathi S; Ostrov, Barbara E; Ericson, Jessica E

    2017-09-01

    Plain children often have lower immunization rates than non-Plain children. Penn State Health Children's Hospital is a tertiary medical center with large nearby Plain (Amish and Mennonite) communities. We sought to describe the characteristics of children hospitalized with vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We hypothesized that Amish children would have a higher risk of VPDs than non-Amish children. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify patients Amish and non-Amish children. We assessed the relationship between Plain affiliation and vaccination status by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There were 215 children with 221 VPDs. Most occurred in non-Plain children: 179 of 221 (81%). Except for pneumococcal infections, VPD occurred mostly in unvaccinated or immunocompromised children, regardless of Plain affiliation. There were 15 Haemophilus influenzae type b and 5 tetanus infections that occurred in children with an unvaccinated or unknown vaccination status. The risk of a VPD requiring hospitalization was greater for Amish than for non-Plain children (risk ratio: 2.67 [95% confidence interval: 1.87-3.82]). There was a strong correlation between Plain affiliation and lack of vaccination (r = -0.63, P Amish children had an increased risk of a VPD requiring hospitalization than non-Plain children. With the exception of those with pneumococcal disease, most vaccinated children hospitalized with a VPD were immunocompromised. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas RE

    2016-01-01

    ...: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search...

  14. Acute viscerotropic disease following vaccination against yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward B

    2007-10-01

    Acute viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination (YEL-AVD) is a rare but serious complication of vaccination with 17D yellow fever vaccine. This paper reviews the existing literature regarding YEL-AVD and discusses possible etiologic mechanisms. A greater understanding of this condition is essential to assuring safe and effective prevention of yellow fever and vaccination against other arboviral diseases for which 17D-based vaccines are being developed.

  15. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal control for Malaria disease through vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzir, Said; Nasir, Muhammad; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by an amoeba (single-celled animal) type of plasmodium where anopheles mosquito serves as the carrier. This study examines the optimal control problem of malaria disease spread based on Aron and May (1982) SIR type models and seeks the optimal solution by minimizing the prevention of the spreading of malaria by vaccine. The aim is to investigate optimal control strategies on preventing the spread of malaria by vaccination. The problem in this research is solved using analytical approach. The analytical method uses the Pontryagin Minimum Principle with the symbolic help of MATLAB software to obtain optimal control result and to analyse the spread of malaria with vaccination control.

  17. Response of chickens to oral vaccination with Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine virus strain I2 was investigated for its efficacy as food- borne vaccine, using ... therefore concluded that the vaccine could be effective for protection of village chickens as food-borne vaccine ..... referred to as secretory antibody on the mucosal surfaces of avian ...

  18. Response of chickens to oral vaccination with Newcastle disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine virus strain I2 was investigated for its efficacy as foodborne vaccine, using maize offal as the vehicle. Immune response to vaccination and resistance to challenge were assessed by standard methods. Results showed that following primary vaccination, 40 (64.5%) out of the 62 ...

  19. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining around ...

  20. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette

    2005-01-01

    transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, including two recently developed strain-specific assays, were employed for detection of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three different IBDV strains in bursa tissue samples from experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens. The virus strains...... included vaccine strain D78, classical strain Faragher 52/70, and the very virulent Danish strain DK01 The presence of the virus infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation of bursa lesions. The largest number of positive samples was obtained with a strain-specific two-step multiplex (MPX) RT...... of the IBDV strains used were detected in bursa tissues, whereas only the two virulent strains were detected in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus....

  1. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine...

  2. Hatchery Vaccination Against Poultry Viral Diseases: Potential Mechanisms and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Palomino-Tapia, Victor; Amarasinghe, Aruna; Ahmed-Hassan, Hanaa; De Silva Senapathi, Upasama; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch). Although the ability to mount immune response, especially the adaptive immune response, is not optimal around the hatch, it is possible that the efficacy of these vaccines depends partly on innate host responses elicited in response to replicating vaccine viruses. This review focuses on the current knowledge of hatchery vaccination in poultry and potential mechanisms of hatchery vaccine-mediated protective responses and limitations.

  3. Awareness among adults of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccinations, United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kennedy, Erin D; Williams, Walter W; Kim, David; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Donahue, Sara; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2017-05-25

    Adults are recommended to receive select vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, and other considerations. Factors associated with awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines among adults in the United States have not been explored. Data from a 2015 internet panel survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged ≥19years were analyzed to assess awareness of selected vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines for adults. A multivariable logistic regression model with a predictive marginal approach was used to identify factors independently associated with awareness of selected vaccine-preventable infections/diseases and corresponding vaccines. Among the surveyed population, from 24.6 to 72.1% reported vaccination for recommended vaccines. Awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults aged ≥19years ranged from 63.4% to 94.0% (63.4% reported awareness of HPV, 71.5% reported awareness of tetanus, 72.0% reported awareness of pertussis, 75.4% reported awareness of HZ, 75.8% reported awareness of hepatitis B, 83.1% reported awareness of pneumonia, and 94.0% reported awareness of influenza). Awareness of the corresponding vaccines among adults aged ≥19years ranged from 59.3% to 94.1% (59.3% HZ vaccine, 59.6% HPV vaccine, 64.3% hepatitis B vaccine, 66.2% pneumococcal vaccine, 86.3% tetanus vaccines, and 94.1% influenza vaccine). In multivariable analysis, being female and being a college graduate were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of vaccine-preventable diseases, and being female, being a college graduate, and working as a health care provider were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of corresponding vaccines. Although adults in this survey reported high levels of awareness for most vaccines recommended for adults, self-reported vaccination coverage was not optimal. Combining interventions known to

  4. VACCINATION OF PREMATURE INFANTS AND CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN IRKUTSK USING CONJUGATED PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Il'ina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: analyzing the results of pneumococcal infection vaccination conducted to reduce infantile morbidity and mortality in 2011-2012 at the expenses of the Irkutsk municipal budget. Patients and methods. Vaccination using the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was conducted for more than 700 risk group children: premature infants, children with congenital heart diseases or bronchopulmonary dysplasia from 2 months to 2 years of age. 193 vaccinated children had been observed for 1.5 years. 30% of premature infants and 46% of children with congenital heart diseases were vaccinated using the PCV7/PCV13 vaccine at the age of 2-6 months, 52 and 40% - at the age of 7-11 months, accordingly. The PCV7/PCV13 vaccine was administered together with other vaccines of the national preventive vaccination calendar in 65% of cases. Results. Rate of general post-vaccinal reactions (body temperature increase from 37.6 to 38.0oC – 4%; no local reactions were registered. No other unfavorable phenomena were noted in the post-vaccinal period. No cases of pneumonia, meningitis, acute otitis media and bronchoobstructive syndrome were registered within the observation period. Conclusions: pneumococcal infection vaccination of premature infants with congenital heart diseases and bronchopulmonary dysplasia conducted in Irkutsk proved high efficacy and safety of the used vaccine – PCV7/PCV13. 

  5. The re-emergency and persistence of vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO C.N. BORBA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us.

  6. Engineering Enhanced Vaccine Cell Lines To Eradicate Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: the Polio End Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sanden, Sabine M. G.; Wu, Weilin; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi; Weldon, William C.; Brooks, Paula; O'Donnell, Jason; Jones, Les P.; Brown, Cedric; Tompkins, S. Mark; Oberste, M. Steven; Karpilow, Jon; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing costs prevent a significant portion of the world's population from accessing protection from vaccine-preventable diseases. To enhance vaccine production at reduced costs, a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen was performed to identify gene knockdown events that enhanced

  7. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant, a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease

  9. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T

    2009-02-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  10. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 9 CFR 113.330 - Marek's Disease Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. (a) The Master Seed... Master Seed Virus used for vaccine production shall be tested for immunogenicity at the highest passage... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marek's Disease Vaccines. 113.330...

  12. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka Aktürk, Ülkü; Görek Dilektaşlı, Aslı; Şengül, Aysun; Musaffa Salepçi, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; Düger, Mustafa; Arık Taşyıkan, Hale; Durmuş Koçak, Nagihan

    2017-05-05

    Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was 'no recommendation by doctors': 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination pdisease (p>0.05). Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (pchronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients needs to be addressed.

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Medina, Gisselle N; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Arzt, Jonathan; de Los Santos, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease affects many areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. In countries where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of FMD seriously impact food security and development. In highly industrialized developed nations, FMD endemics cause economic and social devastation mainly due to observance of health measures adopted from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). High morbidity, complex host-range and broad genetic diversity make FMD prevention and control exceptionally challenging. In this article we review multiple vaccine approaches developed over the years ultimately aimed to successfully control and eradicate this feared disease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine efficacy against disease related to vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Jessen, Heiko; Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Moreira, Edson D; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron G; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth

    2013-08-20

    A small number of HPV types are related to a majority of HPV-related neoplastic lesions in humans. High-risk types such as HPV 16 and 18 are most often implicated, although other oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types can cause disease in men. The efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against external genital lesions and intra-anal disease related to HPV in men has been demonstrated. This report examines the vaccine's efficacy against disease due to 10 additional non-vaccine HPV types, as well as efficacy regardless of HPV detection. The data presented suggest that vaccinating males against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 protects them against most vaccine HPV-type related anogenital disease. However, significant efficacy against disease due to non-vaccine HPV types was not seen. In addition, the data do not provide any evidence that vaccination with qHPV vaccine will increase the likelihood of disease caused by non-vaccine types in the short term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. INTRODUCTION Filoviruses (the...Crucell Holland B.V. developed the Ad26-vectored EVD vaccine Ad26.ZEBOV based on extensive experience testing Ad26 and Ad35 vectors for malaria and...a vector in the development of vaccines against many diseases, including malaria , hepatitis C, influenza, and, of course, filovirus diseases

  16. Childhood vaccines and Kawasaki disease, Vaccine Safety Datalink, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Weintraub, Eric S; Baggs, James M; McCarthy, Natalie L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Lee, Grace M; Klein, Nicola P; Belongia, Edward A; Jackson, Michael L; Naleway, Allison L; Nordin, James D; Hambidge, Simon J; Belay, Ermias D

    2015-01-03

    Kawasaki disease is a childhood vascular disorder of unknown etiology. Concerns have been raised about vaccinations being a potential risk factor for Kawasaki disease. Data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink were collected on children aged 0-6 years at seven managed care organizations across the United States. Defining exposure as one of several time periods up to 42 days after vaccination, we conducted Poisson regressions controlling for age, sex, season, and managed care organization to determine if rates of physician-diagnosed and verified Kawasaki disease were elevated following vaccination compared to rates during all unexposed periods. We also performed case-crossover analyses to control for unmeasured confounding. A total of 1,721,186 children aged 0-6 years from seven managed care organizations were followed for a combined 4,417,766 person-years. The rate of verified Kawasaki disease was significantly lower during the 1-42 days after vaccination (rate ratio=0.50, 95% CL=0.27-0.92) and 8-42 days after vaccination (rate ratio=0.45, 95% CL=0.22-0.90) compared to rates during unexposed periods. Breaking down the analysis by vaccination category did not identify a subset of vaccines which was solely responsible for this association. The case-crossover analyses revealed that children with Kawasaki disease had lower rates of vaccination in the 42 days prior to symptom onset for both physician-diagnosed Kawasaki disease (rate ratio=0.79, 95% CL=0.64-0.97) and verified Kawasaki disease (rate ratio=0.38, 95% CL=0.20-0.75). Childhood vaccinations' studied did not increase the risk of Kawasaki disease; conversely, vaccination was associated with a transient decrease in Kawasaki disease incidence. Verifying and understanding this potential protective effect could yield clues to the underlying etiology of Kawasaki disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Deconstructing the measure of vaccine efficacy against disease irrespective of HPV in HPV vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Oliver M; Luxembourg, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were licensed by demonstrating prevention of anogenital disease caused by specific HPV types in clinical studies. Measuring the impact of HPV vaccination on the overall burden of anogenital disease (irrespective of HPV) is an important public health question which is ideally addressed in post-licensure epidemiological studies. Attempts were made to use clinical trial data for that purpose. However, the interpretation of vaccine efficacy on the endpoint of disease irrespective of HPV is not widely understood. We used the 9-valent HPV vaccine clinical program as a case study to determine the value of measuring vaccine efficacy in such endpoint. This assessment was rigorously performed by heuristic reasoning and through probability calculations. The measure of vaccine efficacy in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is driven simultaneously in opposite directions by the high estimate of prophylactic efficacy and a numerically negative estimate of risk reduction that is also a reflection of high prophylactic efficacy and no cross-protection. The vaccine efficacy estimate in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is ambiguous and difficult to interpret. Comparing this estimate across different HPV vaccine studies requires an understanding of the contributions of vaccine HPV type efficacy and the incidence of disease not related to vaccine HPV types for each study. Without such understanding, comparing studies and drawing conclusions from such comparison are highly misleading. Approaches are proposed to divide this endpoint in components that are easier to interpret. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease — reinforcing the importance of vaccines in your pet's preventive health care program. Are there risks? Any treatment carries some risk, but these risks should be weighed against the benefits of protecting your pet from potentially fatal diseases. ...

  19. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H. F.; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log2 haemagglutination inhibition titre ≥3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination. PMID:18202943

  20. Vaccines to combat livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Slaughtering infected animals is not feasible in Africa due to a lack of veterinary services, including disease testing and little or no compensation for destroyed animals. This has put the global spotlight on vaccines, which have proven to be the single, most cost-effective method of disease control. But while vaccines are ...

  1. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  2. Economics and financing of vaccines for diarrheal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y

    2014-01-01

    The considerable burden of infectious disease-caused diarrhea around the world has motivated the continuing development of a number of vaccine candidates over the past several decades with some reaching the market. As with all major public health interventions, understanding the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrheal diseases is essential to their development and implementation. This review focuses on each of the major infectious pathogens that commonly cause diarrhea, the current understanding of their economic burden, the status of vaccine development, and existing economic evaluations of the vaccines. While the literature on the economics and financing of vaccines against diarrhea diseases is growing, there is considerable room for more inquiry. Substantial gaps exist for many pathogens, circumstances, and effects. Economics and financing studies are integral to vaccine development and implementation.

  3. Capripoxvirus-vectored vaccines against livestock diseases in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David; Babiuk, Shawn

    2013-05-01

    Five different viral diseases of livestock, lumpy skin disease (LSD), sheep pox (SPP), goat pox (GTP), Rift Valley fever (RVF) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR), circulate in the same regions of Africa, imposing a major burden on economic activity and public health. While commercial vaccines against these viruses are available, the cost of implementing regular vaccination regimens against multiple diseases is prohibitive for most African farmers. A single, affordable multivalent vaccine that simultaneously protects against all 5 diseases would therefore be of significant benefit to the livestock sector in Africa. It could also serve as a platform for the development of new vaccines of significance to other developing countries around the world. In this paper, we present an overview of the economic importance of livestock in Africa, the pathogens responsible for RVF, PPR, SPP, GTP and LSD and the vaccination strategies currently used to combat them. We then review experience with the development of attenuated capripoxviruses as vaccines against LSD, SPP and GTP and of recombinant capripoxvirus-vectored vaccines against RVF and PPR. We conclude the article by presenting the rationale for a single, multivalent capripoxvirus-vectored vaccine that would protect against all 5 diseases of livestock, and describe the approach being taken by a consortium of Canadian and South African researchers to develop such a vaccine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Li, Yiping

    2005-01-01

    of 28 to 44 days. Gross pathological lesions were not observed. Lymphoid tissues from the bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow, spleen and thymus in addition to cloacal- and bursal swaps were analysed by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive results were confirmed by two......-step strain specific duplex (DPX) RT-PCR. The vaccine strain was detected in bursa tissues from all groups, while the challenge strain was detected in few bursal as well as non-bursal tissue samples. The results indicate a possibility of replication of vvIBDV in vaccinated chickens....

  5. Progress and controversy surrounding vaccines against Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark S; Edelman, Robert

    2003-10-01

    Less than 20 years elapsed between the 1982 report of the identification and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi and the licensure and marketing in the USA of a prophylactic vaccine against this pathogen. However, the manufacturer removed the vaccine from the market under 4 years after its release. The low demand undoubtedly was the result of limited efficacy, need for frequent boosters, the high price of the vaccine, exclusion of children, fear of vaccine-induced musculoskeletal symptoms and litigation surrounding the vaccine. Second-generation polyvalent outer surface protein (Osp)C vaccines may overcome some of these concerns but the precise antigenic components required for efficacy are uncertain. The development of the next generation of Lyme disease vaccines is in its infancy.

  6. Vaccine administration in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza; Prada, Elisabetta; Pietrasanta, Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2014-11-20

    Pediatric patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) on conservative treatment, on dialysis, and those with renal transplantation are at a higher risk for infectious diseases as the result of impaired immune responses against infectious agents. Infections in these patients can have drastic consequences for disease morbidity and mortality. Immunization is a crucial preventive strategy for disease management in this pediatric population. However, vaccination coverage among children with CKD remains low due to safety concerns and doubts about vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. In this study, we reviewed why children with CKD are at higher risk of infections, the importance of vaccinations among these children, barriers to vaccinations, and recommend the best vaccination schedules. Overall, vaccines have acceptable immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety profiles in children with CKD. However, in some cases, the protective antibody levels induced by vaccines and the benefits and risks of booster vaccine doses must be individually managed. Furthermore, close contacts and household members of these children should complete age-appropriate vaccination schedules to increase the child's indirect protection.

  7. Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, N P; Montgomery, S M; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J

    1995-04-29

    Measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue, particularly that affected by Crohn's disease, and early exposure to measles may be a risk factor for the development of Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur in the same families and may share a common aetiology. In view of the rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), we examined the impact of measles vaccination upon these conditions. Prevalences of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, and peptic ulceration were determined in 3545 people who had received live measles vaccine in 1964 as part of a measles vaccine trial. A longitudinal birth cohort of 11,407 subjects was one unvaccinated comparison cohort, and 2541 partners of those vaccinated was another. Compared with the birth cohort, the relative risk of developing Crohn's disease in the vaccinated group was 3.01 (95% CI 1.45-6.23) and of developing ulcerative colitis was 2.53 (1.15-5.58). There was no significant difference between these two groups in coeliac disease prevalence. Increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, but not coeliac disease or peptic ulceration, was found in the vaccinated cohort compared with their partners. These findings suggest that measles virus may play a part in the development not only of Crohn's disease but also of ulcerative colitis.

  8. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such ...

  9. Vaccinating in disease-free regions: a vaccine model with application to yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeço, Claudia T; Luz, Paula M; Coelho, Flavio; Galvani, Alison P; Struchiner, Claudio

    2007-12-22

    Concerns regarding natural or induced emergence of infectious diseases have raised a debate on the pros and cons of pre-emptive vaccination of populations under uncertain risk. In the absence of immediate risk, ethical issues arise because even smaller risks associated with the vaccine are greater than the immediate disease risk (which is zero). The model proposed here seeks to formalize the vaccination decision process looking from the perspective of the susceptible individual, and results are shown in the context of the emergence of urban yellow fever in Brazil. The model decomposes the individual's choice about vaccinating or not into uncertain components. The choice is modelled as a function of (i) the risk of a vaccine adverse event, (ii) the risk of an outbreak and (iii) the probability of receiving the vaccine or escaping serious disease given an outbreak. Additionally, we explore how this decision varies as a function of mass vaccination strategies of varying efficiency. If disease is considered possible but unlikely (risk of outbreak less than 0.1), delay vaccination is a good strategy if a reasonably efficient campaign is expected. The advantage of waiting increases as the rate of transmission is reduced (low R0) suggesting that vector control programmes and emergency vaccination preparedness work together to favour this strategy. The opposing strategy, vaccinating pre-emptively, is favoured if the probability of yellow fever urbanization is high or if expected R0 is high and emergency action is expected to be slow. In summary, our model highlights the nonlinear dependence of an individual's best strategy on the preparedness of a response to a yellow fever outbreak or other emergent infectious disease.

  10. Expansion of Vaccination Services and Strengthening Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance in Haiti, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; Francois, Jeannot; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Paluku, Gilson; Yalcouye, Idrissa; Jackson, Ernsley; Wright, Tracie; Adrien, Paul; Katz, Mark A; Hyde, Terri B; Faye, Pape; Kimanuka, Francine; Dietz, Vance; Vertefeuille, John; Lowrance, David; Dahl, Benjamin; Patel, Roopal

    2017-10-01

    Following the 2010 earthquake, Haiti was at heightened risk for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) outbreaks due to the exacerbation of long-standing gaps in the vaccination program and subsequent risk of VPD importation from other countries. Therefore, partners supported the Haitian Ministry of Health and Population to improve vaccination services and VPD surveillance. During 2010-2016, three polio, measles, and rubella vaccination campaigns were implemented, achieving a coverage > 90% among children and maintaining Haiti free of those VPDs. Furthermore, Haiti is on course to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus, with 70% of communes achieving tetanus vaccine two-dose coverage > 80% among women of childbearing age. In addition, the vaccine cold chain storage capacity increased by 91% at the central level and 285% at the department level, enabling the introduction of three new vaccines (pentavalent, rotavirus, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines) that could prevent an estimated 5,227 deaths annually. Haiti moved from the fourth worst performing country in the Americas in 2012 to the sixth best performing country in 2015 for adequate investigation of suspected measles/rubella cases. Sentinel surveillance sites for rotavirus diarrhea and meningococcal meningitis were established to estimate baseline rates of those diseases prior to vaccine introduction and to evaluate the impact of vaccination in the future. In conclusion, Haiti significantly improved vaccination services and VPD surveillance. However, high dependence on external funding and competing vaccination program priorities are potential threats to sustaining the improvements achieved thus far. Political commitment and favorable economic and legal environments are needed to maintain these gains.

  11. Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, S.M.; Shah, S.I.; Ali, Q.; Mehmood, A.; Afzal, M.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is considered as an important tool to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). A good quality vaccine containing relevant serotypes and matching strains is a pre-requisite for vaccination to be effective. The present study investigated the quality of different brands of FMD vaccine

  12. Vaccination coverage of children with rare genetic diseases and attitudes of their parents toward vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Cerutti, Marta; Milani, Donatella; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2016-03-03

    Despite the fact that the achievement of appropriate immunization coverage for routine vaccines is a priority for health authorities worldwide, vaccination delays or missed opportunities for immunization are common in children with chronic diseases. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate immunization coverage and the timeliness of vaccination in children suffering from 3 different rare genetic diseases: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS), Sotos syndrome (SS), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). A total of 57 children with genetic diseases (15 with RSTS, 14 children with SS, and 28 with BWS) and 57 healthy controls with similar characteristics were enrolled. The coverage of all the recommended vaccines in children with genetic syndromes was significantly lower than that observed in healthy controls (p vaccinated, all of the patients, independent of the genetic syndrome from which they suffer, were administered the primary series and the booster doses at a similar time to healthy controls. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with genetic diseases were found to more frequently have negative attitudes toward vaccination (p vaccination coverage is poor in pediatric patients with RSTS, BWS, and SS and significantly lower than that observed in healthy children. These results highlight the need for educational programs specifically aimed at both parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage in children with these rare genetic diseases.

  13. Response of Village Chickens to Newcastle Disease (ND) Vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of sorghum as carrier for Newcastle Disease (ND) V4-UPM virus vaccine for vaccination of freerange chickens was assessed by standard methods. The grain was ground rough or broken, soaked in water for three days, washed, sun-dried, coated with the virus and finally dried at room temperature. The food ...

  14. Experimental risk assessment of recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) used as live vaccines were assessed for: 1) the potential for recombinant NDV-vectored vaccines (rNDV) containing the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) H5 gene to recombine with low pathogenicity H5, H6 and H9 AIV strains, and originate a virus with increased vi...

  15. The effects of Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Komarov) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty out of thirty local breed of hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) that had not been immunologically primed by previous routine vaccination were inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine (Komarov) intramuscularly while the remaining ten hens acted as uninoculated control. Clinical results show that 30% of the 20 birds ...

  16. The African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network: a vaccine advocacy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shey Wiysonge

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in Africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. Thus, Africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. One such initiative is the African Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Network, formed in 2009. This association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious disease experts provides a platform to advocate for the introduction of newly available vaccines (e.g. 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI as well as increased and equitable coverage for established EPI vaccines.

  17. EFFECT OF POST VACCINATION MEDICATION ON LAYER CHICKS VACCINATED WITH GUMBORO VACCINE NOBILIS D-78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Khan, S.M. Subtain, A. Aslam, K. Muhammad1 and K.A. Khan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty one-day-old layer chicks were divided into four experimental groups A, B, C and D, with 40 birds in each group. Group A was kept as control (non-vaccinated, group B was given vaccine but not medicated, group C was administered vaccine as well as multivitamins for 3 days post-vaccination, while group D was also medicated with aspirin for 3 days post-vaccination. The parameters studied were: heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum biochemical analysis (serum protein, glucose and cholesterol, antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV. At the end of experiment (42nd day adrenal glands from 10 randomly selected birds from each group were subjected to gross and histopathological examination and adrenal/body weight ratio was also determined. The results showed non significant difference among different groups. However, the group that was given multivitamins showed maximum immune response against IBDV, while the aspirin therapy did not show any significant difference. It can be concluded that vaccine produced undetectable stress in layer chicks and the vitamin supplementation evidently showed as an immuno-potentiating effect

  18. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewell, Alexander; Spokes, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales, Australia for 2013. Methods Data from the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units. Results Pertussis notification rates in infants were low, and no infant pertussis deaths were reported. Despite a high number of imported measles cases, there was limited secondary transmission. The invasive meningococcal disease notification rate declined, and disease due to serogroup C remained low and stable. Conclusion Vaccine-preventable diseases were relatively well controlled in New South Wales in 2013, with declining or stable notification rates in most diseases compared with the previous year. PMID:26306215

  19. Vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Sabine; Maltezou, Helena C

    2014-08-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, vaccinations led to the control or even eradication of several vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) in Europe. However, outbreaks of VPDs continue to occur even in countries with well-established vaccination programs. Reasons include the existence of under-vaccinated populations, the increasing anti-vaccination movement and the increasing movement of populations across borders. Ensuring adequate levels of herd immunity is the only reliable method for preventing epidemics and a re-emergence of VPDs. In order to achieve this, more flexible vaccine delivery platforms are needed targeting the less-privileged people, especially in the context of the current economic crisis. Healthcare personnel and healthcare systems should be prepared to address these challenges in the following years.

  20. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-03-03

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully.

  1. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully. PMID:26337648

  2. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  3. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People's Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity.

  4. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died) met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died). Conclusion Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published). Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF vaccine is a very safe vaccine that likely confers lifelong immunity. PMID:27784992

  5. Efficacy of vaccination with La Sota strain vaccine to control Newcastle disease in village chickens in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sulochana; Dhawan, Mamta; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste

    2017-02-01

    The efficacy of vaccination with Newcastle disease (ND) La Sota and R2B (Mukteswar) modified live strain vaccines was determined by experimental challenge and with ND La Sota vaccine under field conditions in Nepal. Booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine after a primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine, induced a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 5.0 log2 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) units, compared to a GMT of 6.0 log2 HI units following booster vaccination with R2B vaccine 1 month after primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine. Both vaccines provided 100% protection against challenge with a local field ND strain. Furthermore, booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine induced protective levels of antibody after field use in villages in Jhapa, and no outbreaks of ND occurred during the study period. The ND La Sota modified live vaccine is immunogenic and efficacious and is a suitable vaccine for use in vaccination programmes in village chickens in the rural areas of Nepal.

  6. Wheezing lower respiratory disease and vaccination of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullooly, John P; Schuler, Roberleigh; Mesa, Jill; Drew, Lois; DeStefano, Frank

    2011-10-13

    Premature infants are at increased risk of wheezing in association with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus infections. We assess possible associations between wheezing and routine vaccinations of premature infants. We conducted a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study of premature infants born at five health maintenance organizations (HMO's) from 1997 to 2002 (N=18,628). Episodes of medically attended wheezing lower respiratory diseases (WLRD) were ascertained from ICD-9 coded database records. Relative risks of WLRD during post-vaccination exposure windows were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression with time-dependent vaccine exposure variables, adjusted for age, season, and frequency of well-baby visits. WLRD hazard ratios (HR) were not significantly elevated for any vaccine type among non-fragile or fragile premature infants. Among non-fragile infants the 8-14 days HR was significantly reduced for live attenuated MMR (0.68, 0.52-0.88) and Varicella (0.71, 0.53-0.94) vaccines, and similarly but insignificantly reduced for infrequently used live attenuated OPV vaccine (0.70, 0.46-1.06). There was a smaller significant reduction (0.83, 0.69-0.998) in the 15-30 days HR for MMR and a similar but not significant reduction (0.86, 0.71-1.05) in the 31-44 days HR for MMR. Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), which is not a live vaccine, had significantly reduced 8-14 days (0.84, 0.72-0.98) and 31-44 days (0.88, 0.78-0.98) HRs among non-fragile infants. The apparent protective effect of HBV may be confounded by live vaccines administered simultaneously with the third dose of HBV. Among fragile infants there was a large significant reduction in the 8-14 days HR for live attenuated OPV vaccine (0.40, 0.23-0.70) and smaller significant reductions in the 8-14 days HR for inactivated DTaP (0.82, 0.71-0.95), Hib (0.83, 0.73-0.96), and PCV7 (0.84, 0.70-0.997) vaccines. Delays in vaccinating fragile infants may have made simultaneous administration of live

  7. Teenagers' understandings of and attitudes towards vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S; Patterson, C; Smith, E; Bedford, H; Hunt, K

    2013-05-24

    To examine immunisation information needs of teenagers we explored understandings of vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases, attitudes towards immunisation and experiences of immunisation. Diseases discussed included nine for which vaccines are currently offered in the UK (human papillomavirus, meningitis, tetanus, diphtheria, polio, whooping cough, measles, mumps and rubella), and two not currently included in the routine UK schedule (hepatitis B and chickenpox). Twelve focus groups conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with 59 teenagers (29 girls and 30 boys) living in various parts of Scotland. Teenagers exhibited limited knowledge and experience of the diseases, excluding chickenpox. Measles, mumps and rubella were perceived as severe forms of chickenpox-like illness, and rubella was not associated with foetal damage. Boys commonly believed that human papillomavirus only affects girls, and both genders exhibited confusion about its relationship with cancer. Participants considered two key factors when assessing the threat of diseases: their prevalence in the UK, and their potential to cause fatal or long-term harm. Meningitis was seen as a threat, but primarily to babies. Participants explained their limited knowledge as a result of mass immunisation making once-common diseases rare in the UK, and acknowledged immunisation's role in reducing disease prevalence. While it is welcome that fewer teenagers have experienced vaccine-preventable diseases, this presents public health advocates with the challenge of communicating benefits of immunisation when advantages are less visible. The findings are timely in view of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation's recommendation that a booster of meningitis C vaccine should be offered to teenagers; that teenagers did not perceive meningitis C as a significant threat should be a key concern of promotional information. While teenagers' experiences of immunisation in school were not always positive

  8. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%, followed by G1P[8] (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.

  9. Telling stories of vaccine-preventable diseases: why it works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rachel M; Boom, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the benefits of storytelling in health communication and, in particular, immunization education. During the mid-20th century polio epidemic, both personal stories and scientific information abounded in the media. However, as rates of vaccine-preventable diseases declined, narratives about the dangers of such diseases faded as did the public fear of them. Meanwhile, anti-vaccine advocates flooded the media and Internet with stories of injured children and tied those injuries, such as autism, to vaccines. Medical experts often counter anti-vaccine concerns with scientific information which can fail to persuade parents. Furthermore, evidence suggests that many people misunderstand quantitative information resulting in a misinterpretation of risk. Compared to scientific information, stories relate life lessons and values. They are effective because they are memorable and relatable. Evidence also suggests that storytelling can effectively improve health knowledge and behaviors. Inspired by In Harm's Way--True Stories of Uninsured Texas Children by the Children's Defense Fund and Faces of Influenza by the American Lung Association, we published Vaccine-Preventable Disease: The Forgotten Story, a collection of photographs and personal stories of families affected by vaccine-preventable diseases. We have found that the stories included in our booklet capture all the benefits of storytelling. Given the many benefits of storytelling, providers should strive to include stories along with medical facts in their daily practice.

  10. [Demyelinating disease and vaccination of the human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Soria, M Josefa; Hernández-González, Amalia; Carrasco-García de León, Sira; del Real-Francia, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Alcañiz, M José; López-Gómez, José L

    2011-04-16

    Primary prevention by prophylactic vaccination against the major cause of cervical cancer, the carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, is now available worldwide. Postlicensure adverse neurological effects have been described. The studies realized after the license are descriptive and limited by the difficulty to obtain the information, despite most of the statistical indexes show that the adverse effects by the vaccine of the HPV are not upper compared with other vaccines, the substimation must be considered. We describe the cases of four young women that developed demyelinating disease after the vaccination of the HPV, with a rank of time between the administration of the dose and the development of the clinical of seven days to a month, with similar symptoms with the successive doses. We have described six episodes coinciding after the vaccination. Have been described seizures, autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, or motor neuron disease, probably adverse effects following immunization by HPV vaccine. So we suggest that vaccine may trigger an immunological mechanism leading to demyelinating events, perhaps in predisposed young.

  11. DNA vaccines against viral diseases of farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Øystein; Leong, Jo-Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Immunization by an antigen-encoding DNA was approved for commercial sale in Canada against a Novirhabdovirus infection in fish. DNA vaccines have been particularly successful against the Novirhabdoviruses while there are reports on the efficacy against viral pathogens like infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, infectious salmon anemia virus, and lymphocystis disease virus and these are inferior to what has been attained for the novirhabdoviruses. Most recently, DNA vaccination of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus was reported. Research efforts are now focused on the development of more effective vectors for DNA vaccines, improvement of vaccine efficacy against various viral diseases of fish for which there is currently no vaccines available and provision of co-expression of viral antigen and immunomodulatory compounds. Scientists are also in the process of developing new delivery methods. While a DNA vaccine has been approved for commercial use in farmed salmon in Canada, it is foreseen that it is still a long way to go before a DNA vaccine is approved for use in farmed fish in Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NEW PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. VACCINATION AGAINST ROTAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Grechukha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of the burden of rotavirus disease. Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years of age and is a major problem for a public healthcare. The world is actively engaged in the prevention of rotavirus infection since 2005. There is a lot of data on the efficacy and safety of this vaccine. Different foreign investigations have shown the herd immunity of the vaccine. The authors present data about the effectiveness and safety of vaccines, established during clinical studies of the foreign scientists.

  13. The impact of war on vaccine preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Zarema; Balta, Snjezana; Obradovic, Amina; Mesic, Salih

    2014-12-01

    During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which lasted from 1992-1995, the functioning of all sectors was disturbed, including the health sector. The priority of the heath sector was treatment and less attention was paid to prevention, and this applies also to the Program of implementation of obligatory immunization, as one of the most important prevention measures. This program was conducted with difficulty and sometimes was completely interrupted because of the lack of necessary vaccines and the inability of adequate maintenance of the cold chain. It was difficult and sometimes completely impossible to bring children to vaccination. Because of these problems, a great number of children stayed unvaccinated so they suffered from vaccine-preventable diseases several years after the war. This is a retrospective epidemiological study. We analyzed data from January 1994 to July 2014 in Canton Sarajevo, and data about measles outbreak in 2014. In the period from January 1994 to July 2014, 3897 vaccine-preventable diseases were registered in Canton Sarajevo. Among them measles, rubella and mumps were the most frequent. In March 2014, measles outbreak was registered. Almost all cases are unvaccinated (99%) and 43% of all cases are connected with failure of vaccination during the war. During the war, routine immunization program was disrupted in Bosnia and Herzegovina (also in Canton Sarajevo). The consequences are presented as vaccine preventable diseases cases.

  14. Vaccination against Lyme disease: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embers, Monica E; Narasimhan, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria transmitted to humans and domestic animals by the bite of an Ixodes spp. tick (deer tick). Despite improvements in diagnostic tests and public awareness of Lyme disease, the reported cases have increased over the past decade to approximately 30,000 per year. Limitations and failed public acceptance of a human vaccine, comprised of the outer surface A (OspA) lipoprotein of B. burgdorferi, led to its demise, yet current research has opened doors to new strategies for protection against Lyme disease. In this review we discuss the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi, and the unique opportunities it poses to block infection or transmission at different levels. We present the correlates of protection for this infectious disease, the pros and cons of past vaccination strategies, and new paradigms for future vaccine design that would include elements of both the vector and the pathogen.

  15. Vaccines against papillomavirus infections and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Luisa Lina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.

  16. Titration of Marek's disease cell-associated vaccine virus (CVI 988) of reconstituted vaccine and vaccine ampoules from dutch hatcheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, W.J.M.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY. Thirty-one outbreaks of Marek¿s disease (MD) were reported in the Netherlands and retrospectively analyzed. The outbreaks occurred mostly in vaccinated commercial layer and a few breeder flocks of several breeds; however, the cause of the outbreaks could not be stablished. Therefore, in a

  17. The effect of oil-emulsion vaccines on the occurrence of nonspecific plate agglutination reactions for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, J R; Dawe, J F; Kleven, S H

    1984-01-01

    Six groups of ten 18-week-old mycoplasma-free white leghorn pullets were vaccinated with one of the following: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) bacterin. Haemophilus gallinarum bacterin, Pasteurella multocida bacterin, combined infectious bursal disease (IBD)-Newcastle (NDV) chicken-embryo-origin (CEO) vaccine. IBD-NDV tissue-culture-origin (TC) vaccine, or saline emulsified in oil; one group received no vaccine. Plate agglutination tests for M. synoviae (MS) and MG were done for 10 weeks after vaccination using three different test antigens. Pullets vaccinated with H. gallinarum bacterin and IBD-NDV TC vaccine showed the greatest incidence of nonspecific plate agglutination reactions. The incidence of positive plate agglutination reactions varied with test antigens. Five groups of fifty 18-week-old mycoplasma-free heavy-breed pullets were vaccinated with one of the following: saline emulsified in oil, chicken embryo fibroblasts emulsified in oil, allantoic fluid emulsified in oil, chicken embryos emulsified in oil, or MS-contaminated chicken embryos emulsified in oil. Plate agglutination tests for MS and MG were done for 8 weeks after vaccination. Chickens vaccinated with chicken embryo fibroblasts emulsified in oil had the greatest incidence of nonspecific plate agglutination reactions. Pullets vaccinated with MS-contaminated chicken embryo vaccine had only a small increase in MS-positive plate agglutination reactions compared with pullets vaccinated with uncontaminated chicken embryo vaccine.

  18. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Eradication of bluetongue disease in Germany by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetza, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-15

    Bluetongue disease first broke out in Germany on 21 August 2006, almost simultaneously with the first outbreaks in Belgium and The Netherlands. More extensive tests showed that the serotype was serotype 8. Due to westerly winds the disease spread rapidly towards the East, with the result that in the year 2008 large parts of Germany were affected. The traditional methods of animal disease control were not of much help in view of the transmission of the disease by insects; the speed of the spread of the disease could only be slowed down by movement restrictions, but could not be influenced in a decisive manner. Authorised vaccines were not (yet) available. A large-scale field study based on three prototypes in bovine animals and sheep revealed that they were both effective and safe. Consequently, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection issued an exceptional permission to administer these non-authorised vaccines. In May 2008, large-scale vaccination campaigns were launched (vaccination of all bovines, sheep and goats). As a consequence, the disease outbreak figures declined drastically. In 2009, the last blanket vaccinations were administered and from 2010 animal keepers were allowed to continue vaccinating their livestock on a voluntary basis. Intensive tests (serological, PCR) showed in the years 2010 and 2011 that BTV8 no longer circulated among the livestock population. Effective from 15.02.2012, Germany declared itself free from BTV8 in line with Article 8.3.3 of the OIE Animal Health Code. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination: a public health challenge to reduce the diseases' burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in the phase of development. At the European level, TBE vaccines are likely under-administered to effectively prevent the disease. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination is a helpful tool in the decision making process to include novel vaccines in the national vaccination program or to extend current programs, and its role is only increasing. Cost-effectiveness studies on TBE vaccines have been performed in Slovenia, Sweden, Finland and Estonia so far. Cost-effectiveness studies with the novel vaccines against LB are expected to be performed in the near future.

  1. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Monteón-Padilla, Víctor; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C; Rios-Castro, Martha; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms "Chagas disease" and "American trypanosomiasis" together with "vaccines" or "immunization". In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed.

  2. Alzheimer's disease: is a vaccine possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, R.P.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yang, M.J. [Instituto Butantan, Laboratório de Genética, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Genética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, M.T.; Ferreira, L.C.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Departamento de Microbiologia, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Vacinas, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, but the disease is distinctively characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These features have become the primary focus of much of the research looking for new treatments for the disease, including immunotherapy and vaccines targeting β-amyloid in the brain. Adverse effects observed in a clinical trial based on the β-amyloid protein were attributed to the presence of the target antigen and emphasized the relevance of finding safer antigen candidates for active immunization. For this kind of approach, different vaccine formulations using DNA, peptide, and heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens have been proposed. Promising results are expected from different vaccine candidates encompassing B-cell epitopes of the β-amyloid protein. In addition, recent results indicate that targeting another protein involved in the etiology of the disease has opened new perspectives for the effective prevention of the illness. Collectively, the evidence indicates that the idea of finding an effective vaccine for the control of Alzheimer's disease, although not without challenges, is a possibility.

  3. IMMUNIZATION AND GETTING DISEASED FROM SOME RESPIRATORY, VACCINE-PREVENTABLE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozidar Jovanovic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Contagious diseases present the leading causes of getting diseased and mortality in different parts of the world, regardless of improved socio-economic life conditions. The most important among them are the diseases which can be spread by air and water. Immunization against contagious diseases presents the most effective form of prevention, ending, elimination and, where possible, eradication of disease. When there are good programs of immunization properly implemented, and when they greatly cover the population which they refer to, the changes in frequency of vaccinable diseases can be observed, eg. contagious nosological entities that could be prevented by vaccination. Certain vaccines protect from bacterial or viral infections and reduce the possibility of infection, that is, prevent its transmission. The objective of the research is to point to the results of conducting the compulsory systematic immunization and to examine the effect of immunization on spreading of some respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases within Sumadija Region. This study shows the scope of immunization and spreading of some respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases, before all morbilli, parottitis epidemica, rubella and pertussis, in Sumadija Region for the last ten years. By means of great scope of compulsory immunization, the aforementioned respiratory vaccine-preventable diseases could be prevented.

  4. Mucosal Vaccine for Prevention of Viral Disease in Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarisman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacle in combating infectious viral diseases in animals is the lack of effective vaccines . A large number of viral pathogens are mucosaly transmitted and must cross mucosal barriers to infect the host . The mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts represent the principal portals of entry for most animal viral pathogens . Current inactivated viral vaccines administered by intramuscular injection elicit primarily circulating antibodies . The best defense against these predominantly mucosal viral pathogens would be vaccines capable inducing both systemic and mucosal immunity which is a cost effective disease prevention tool . For most viral pathogens, induction of mucosal immunity appears most appropriate based on the routes of infection . The effectiveness of vaccine delivery to mucosal surfaces including respiratory tract may be most useful for prevention of the upper ways where secretory antibody is most important for protection against viral infection . Most external mucosal surfaces are replete with organized follicles and scattered antigen-reactive or sensitized lymphoid elements, including B cells, T lymphocytes, T cell subsets . plasma cells and a variety of other cellular elements involved in the induction and maintenance of immune response . Thus, a better understanding of the mucosal immune system is needed before effiective mucosal vaccines can be developed.

  5. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of test methodologies for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A vaccine matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Weerdmeester, K.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of the most important interventions in disease prevention and control. The impact of vaccination largely depends on the quality and suitability of the chosen vaccine. To determine the suitability of a vaccine strain, antigenic matching is usually studied by in vitro

  7. Delivery of thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... Accepted 7 November, 2007. The efficacy of treated broken millet grains as a carrier for delivery of thermostable Newcastle disease ... (68.0%), respectively. Out of 28 unvaccinated control birds challenged, only 4 survived. .... room temperature until used for coating with vaccine virus. The method described ...

  8. Vaccines and photodynamic therapies for oral microbial-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoidable. Recently, vaccines for dental caries and periodontal disease have been developed and applied. Moreover, the use of photodynamic therapy has become an alternative to antibiotic drugs. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of vaccine therapy and photodynamic therapy for oral microbial-related diseases compared to treatments with antimicrobial agents and traditional periodontal surgery.

  9. Vaccines and Photodynamic Therapies for Oral Microbial-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoidable. Recently, vaccines for dental caries and periodontal disease have been developed and applied. Moreover, the use of photodynamic therapy has become an alternative to antibiotic drugs. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of vaccine therapy and photodynamic therapy for oral microbial-related diseases compared to treatments with antimicrobial agents and traditional periodontal surgery. PMID:19149517

  10. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease is influenced by haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajão, Daniela S; Chen, Hongjun; Perez, Daniel R; Sandbulte, Matthew R; Gauger, Phillip C; Loving, Crystal L; Shanks, G Dennis; Vincent, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigenic drift, but have been shown to induce vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) when challenged with an antigenic variant of the same haemagglutinin (HA) subtype. This study investigated the role the immune response against HA, neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) may play in VAERD by reverse engineering vaccine and challenge viruses on a common backbone and using them in a series of vaccination/challenge trials. Mismatched HA between vaccine and challenge virus was necessary to induce VAERD. However, vaccines containing a matched NA abrogated the VAERD phenomenon induced by the HA mismatch and this was correlated with NA-inhibiting (NI) antibodies. Divergence between the two circulating swine N2 lineages (92 % identity) resulted in a loss of NI cross-reactivity and also resulted in VAERD with the mismatched HA. The NP lineage selected for use in the WIV vaccine strains did not affect protection or pathology. Thus the combination of HA and NA in the vaccine virus strains played a substantial role in vaccine protection versus immunopathology, suggesting that vaccines that target the HA protein alone could be more prone to VAERD due to the absence of cross-protective NI antibodies.

  11. Recent advances in the administration of vaccines for infectious diseases: microneedles as painless delivery devices for mass vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagendra R; Kaveri, Srinivas V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2011-12-01

    Despite remarkable progress in the control of infectious diseases through vaccination, better delivery systems have been poorly explored. There is renewed interest in the discovery of novel vaccines and adjuvants owing to emerging and reemerging diseases and the burden and complexity of chronic infectious diseases. Conversely, the need for rapid local, regional, mucosal or parenteral bioavailability has led to advances in delivery systems and devices. Here, we present recent developments in the field of non-invasive cutaneous delivery of vaccines for infectious diseases. Transdermal delivery using microneedles could revolutionize the way prophylactic interventions for infectious diseases are carried out in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Concurrent vaccination of goats with foot and mouth disease (FMD) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) booster vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Al-Rawahi, Abdullmajeed Hamood; El-Tahir, Hatim Ali; Al-Faraei, Badar; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Al-Hussani, Ibrahim; Sabar, Safwat

    2018-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remains subclinical and self-limiting in small ruminants, but risk of spread of infection to susceptible cohorts is of great epidemiological significance; therefore, small ruminants must be included in vaccination campaigns in FMD endemic regions. Three groups of goats already immunized against peste des petits ruminants (PPR) were vaccinated with FMD and PPR vaccines alone or concurrently. The specific antibody response against three FMD virus strains and PPR virus were evaluated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Goats concurrently vaccinated with PPR + FMD vaccines had significantly (p FMD virus at 28, 45, and 60 days post-immunization compared to goats vaccinated with FMD vaccine alone, while goats vaccinated with PPR vaccines alone or PPR + FMD vaccines concurrently showed similar antibody kinetics against PPR virus up till 60 days post-vaccination. Overall, antibody kinetic curves for all three tested strains of FMD virus and PPR virus were similar in vaccinated groups during the course of experiment.

  13. Hepatitis A and B Superimposed on Chronic Liver Disease: Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeffe, Emmet B

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the acquisition of hepatitis A or hepatitis B in patients with chronic liver disease is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Superimposition of acute hepatitis A in patients with chronic hepatitis C has been associated with a particularly high mortality rate, and chronic hepatitis B virus coinfection with hepatitis C virus is associated with an accelerated progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. With the availability of vaccines against hepatitis B and hepatitis A since 1981 and 1995, respectively, these are vaccine-preventable diseases. Studies have confirmed that hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are safe and immunogenic in patients with mild to moderate chronic liver disease. However, hepatitis A and B vaccination is less effective in patients with advanced liver disease and after liver transplantation. These observations have led to the recommendation that patients undergo hepatitis A and B vaccination early in the natural history of their chronic liver disease. Vaccination rates are low in clinical practice, and public health and educational programs are needed to overcome barriers to facilitate timely implementation of these recommendations. PMID:18528476

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  15. Vaccine preventable viral diseases and risks associated with waterborne transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Maria Ruggeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.

  16. Prevention of infectious diseases by public vaccination and individual protection

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiao-Long; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In the face of serious infectious diseases, governments endeavour to implement containment measures such as public vaccination at a macroscopic level. Meanwhile, individuals tend to protect themselves by avoiding contacts with infections at a microscopic level. However, a comprehensive understanding of how such combined strategy influences epidemic dynamics is still lacking. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model with imperfect vaccination on dynamic contact networks, where the macroscopic intervention is represented by random vaccination of the population and the microscopic protection is characterised by susceptible individuals rewiring contacts from infective neighbours. In particular, the model is formulated both in populations without and then with demographic effects. Using the pairwise approximation and the probability generating function approach, we investigate both dynamics of the epidemic and the underlying network. For populations without demography, the emerging degree correla...

  17. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including inj...

  18. Intentions to receive a potentially available Lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p advertising a Lyme disease vaccine to Asian/Asian Americans and South Asians, marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine.

  19. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802

  20. Recent developments in mucosal vaccines against prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Arakawa, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle is highly suspected to be orally transmitted to humans through contaminated food, causing new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, no prophylactic procedures against these diseases, such as vaccines, in particular those stimulating mucosal protective immunity, have been established. The causative agents of these diseases, termed prions, consist of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP). Therefore, prions are immunologically tolerated, inducing no host antibody responses. This immune tolerance to PrP has hampered the development of vaccines against prions. We and others recently reported that the immune tolerance could be successfully broken and mucosal immunity could be stimulated by mucosal immunization of mice with PrP fused with bacterial enterotoxin or delivered using an attenuated Salmonella strain, eliciting significantly higher immunoglobulin A and G antibody responses against PrP. In this review, we will discuss these reports.

  1. Mucosal Immune Responses against Live Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Immunosuppressed Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengui Yan, Yijun Du1, Qingyou Zhao, Ruifeng Fan, Wenlong Guo, Rongde Ma, Xinjian Wang and Ruiliang Zhu*

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate mucosal immunity of normal and immunosuppressed chickens vaccinated with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine, cyclophosphamide (CY) was used to generate immunosuppressed chickens. Normal and immunosuppressed chickens were vaccinated with the Lasota ND vaccine by ocular-nasal route at three weeks of age and challenged with virulent ND virus (vNDV) at day 28 post-vaccination (pv). The immunosuppressed chickens had significantly lower relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and ser...

  2. Yellow fever live attenuated vaccine: A very successful live attenuated vaccine but still we have problems controlling the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alan D T

    2017-10-20

    Yellow fever (YF) is regarded as the original hemorrhagic fever and has been a major public health problem for at least 250years. A very effective live attenuated vaccine, strain 17D, was developed in the 1930s and this has proved critical in the control of the disease. There is little doubt that without the vaccine, YF virus would be considered a biosafety level 4 pathogen. Significantly, YF is currently the only disease where an international vaccination certificate is required under the International Health Regulations. Despite having a very successful vaccine, there are occasional issues of supply and demand, such as that which occurred in Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo in 2016 when there was insufficient vaccine available. For the first time fractional dosing of the vaccine was approved on an emergency basis. Thus, continued vigilance and improvements in supply and demand are needed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Christopher B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%. Deliverability

  4. Five diseases, one vaccine — a boost for emerging livestock farmers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... The first vaccine is targeted at five important viral diseases affecting sheep, goats, and cattle using a single injection. A second vaccine is being ... Read the story of change: Five diseases, one vaccine - a boost for emerging livestock farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (PDF, 885KB). This document is one of nine ...

  5. Estimating the public health importance of the CYD-tetravalent dengue vaccine: Vaccine preventable disease incidence and numbers needed to vaccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-04-29

    To evaluate the potential public health impact of the live attenuated tetravalent Sanofi Pasteur dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) we analyzed data from the reported clinical trials to calculate vaccine preventable disease incidence (VPDI) and number needed to vaccinate (NNV) based on the licensure indication for persons age 9 years and above. VPDI is defined as incidence in an unvaccinated population X vaccine efficacy (VE), and thus incorporates both VE and the underlying burden of disease. NNV was calculated as 100,000 divided by VPDI divided by 2-year length of study. We compared these values to data for three newer vaccines that are currently integrated into some national immunization programs in Asia and Latin America, namely pneumococcal conjugate, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. In the Asian-Pacific trial, in the first 25 months after the first dose of the dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV prevented annually 2639 cases of virologically confirmed dengue for every 100,000 persons vaccinated, for an NNV of 18. In the Latin American trial, given the overall lower annual dengue incidence compared to Asia, VPDI was 1707, and NNV 28. For the Asian-Pacific and Latin American studies, the VPDIs for hospitalized virologically confirmed disease at the trials' end were 638 and 239 per 100,000 population per year, respectively, with NNVs of 75 and 201. VPDI for confirmed dengue hospitalization was higher than that for Hib vaccine against Hib meningitis or all cause severe pneumonia while lower than that for rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Our analysis found that the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine had favorable VPDI and NNV, also when compared to existing vaccines used in Latin America and Asia. VPDI and NNV varied by serotype distribution, extent of prior dengue exposure (baseline seroprevalence) and country. These findings will help policy-makers decide where and how to introduce this vaccine post-licensure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  6. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Rodríguez-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed.

  7. Vaccinations in sickle cell disease: An audit of vaccination uptake in sickle cell patients attending Newham University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, M W; Smith, C R; Smith, S K; Wong, L; Kreze, O

    2015-09-11

    To assess the level of adherence of patients with sickle cell disease to the advised vaccination schedule with respect to the Sickle Cell Society guidelines on vaccination [1,2]. A retrospective audit of patients' vaccination records was carried out between July 2012 and June 2013 on a sample of 80 patients over the age of 16, who attended Newham University Hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department with a presenting complaint coded as "sickle cell". A re-audit was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 to close the audit loop. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the results. The initial audit and re-audit identified 80 and 86 patients, respectively. Only 2 (2012-2013) and 7 (2014) patients had a complete up-to-date vaccination profile. 24 (30%) patients had up-to-date influenza vaccination, increasing to 43 (50%, P=0.0062) when re-audited. 33 (41%) had current pneumococcal vaccinations, increasing to 38 (44%, P=0.7874). Uptake rates for vaccinations against Meningococcal group C (MenC), Haemophilus influenzae B (HiB) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) were under 31% in both audits. A significant improvement in vaccination rate was observed for all vaccinations except pneumococcal and HBV. Although significant improvements have been demonstrated, this audit shows a low level of adherence to the advised vaccination schedule. The study also highlighted a shortfall in appropriate record keeping, reducing the potential for detailed conclusions being drawn in relation to the childhood vaccinations against MenC, HiB and HBV. Implementation of a new database of vaccination history, raising GP awareness and patient education seminars has lead to a significant improvement in vaccination rates locally and the authors hope that this may be replicated in other centres. There may be potential to increase rates further by administering vaccinations to inpatients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes toward mandatory occupational vaccinations and vaccination coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases of health care workers in primary health care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helena C; Katerelos, Panos; Poufta, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maragos, Antonios; Theodoridou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes regarding mandatory occupational vaccinations and the vaccination coverage against vaccine-preventable diseases among health care workers (HCWs) working in primary health care centers in Greece. A standardized questionnaire was distributed to HCWs working in all primary health care centers in Greece (n = 185). A total of 2,055 of 5,639 HCWs (36.4% response rate) from 152 primary health care centers participated. The self-reported completed vaccination rates were 23.3% against measles, 23.3% against mumps, 29.8% against rubella, 3% against varicella, 5.8% against hepatitis A, 55.7% against hepatitis B, and 47.3% against tetanus-diphtheria; corresponding susceptibility rates were 17%, 25%, 18.6%, 16.7%, 87.5%, 35%, and 52.6%. Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 65.1% of 1,807 respondents, with wide differences by disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed higher rates of acceptance of mandatory vaccination in physicians compared with other HCW categories. Despite the fact that two-thirds of HCWs working in primary health care centers in Greece support mandatory vaccination for HCWs, completed vaccination rates against vaccine-preventable diseases are suboptimal. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Introducing vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease: an economic and mathematical modelling study of potential impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hannah; Hickman, Matthew; Edmunds, W John; Trotter, Caroline L

    2013-05-28

    Meningococcal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The first broadly effective vaccine against group B disease (which causes considerable meningococcal disease in Europe, the Americas and Australasia) was licensed in the EU in January 2013; our objective was to estimate the potential impact of introducing such a vaccine in England. We developed two models to estimate the impact of introducing a new 'MenB' vaccine. The cohort model assumes the vaccine protects against disease only; the transmission dynamic model also allows the vaccine to protect against carriage (accounting for herd effects). We used these, and economic models, to estimate the case reduction and cost-effectiveness of a number of different vaccine strategies. We estimate 27% of meningococcal disease cases could be prevented over the lifetime of an English birth cohort by vaccinating infants at 2,3,4 and 12 months of age with a vaccine that prevents disease only; this strategy could be cost-effective at £9 per vaccine dose. Substantial reductions in disease (71%) can be produced after 10 years by routinely vaccinating infants in combination with a large-scale catch-up campaign, using a vaccine which protects against carriage as well as disease; this could be cost-effective at £17 per vaccine dose. New 'MenB' vaccines could substantially reduce disease in England and be cost-effective if competitively priced, particularly if the vaccines can prevent carriage as well as disease. These results are relevant to other countries, with a similar epidemiology to England, considering the introduction of a new 'MenB' vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease is influenced by hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigen...

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

  12. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination: a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in the phase of development. At the European level, TBE vaccines are likely under-administered to effectively prevent the disease. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination is a helpful tool in the decision ma...

  13. Burden of vaccine preventable diseases at large events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Amani S; Alfelali, Mohammad; Arbon, Paul; Booy, Robert; Rashid, Harunor

    2015-11-27

    Large events or mass gatherings (MGs) are known to amplify the risk of infectious diseases, many of which can be prevented by vaccination. In this review we have evaluated the burden of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) in MGs. Major databases like PubMed and Embase, Google Scholar and pertinent websites were searched by using MeSH terms and text words; this was supplemented by hand searching. Following data abstraction, the pooled estimate of the burden of VPDs was calculated when possible; otherwise a narrative synthesis was conducted. In the past, at religious MGs like Hajj and Kumbh Mela, cholera caused explosive outbreaks; but currently respiratory infections, notably influenza, are the commonest diseases not only at Hajj but also at World Youth Day and Winter Olympiad. The recent cumulative attack rate of influenza at Hajj is 8.7% (range 0.7-15.8%), and the cumulative prevalence is 3.6% (range: 0.3-38%). Small outbreaks of measles (13-42 cases per event) have been reported at sport, entertainment and religious events. A sizeable outbreak (>200 cases) was reported following a special Easter Festival in Austria. An outbreak of hepatitis A occurred following the 'Jam bands' music festival. Other VPDs including pneumococcal disease, pertussis and tuberculosis have been reported in relation to MG attendance. VPDs not only affect the participants of MGs but also their contacts; vaccine uptake is variable and vaccine implementation is likely to have beneficial effects. Research to address the knowledge gaps surrounding VPDs at MGs is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Apoptose e expressão de VP2 e GAPDH na infecção precoce pelo vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius em pintos SPF Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove pintos SPF de um dia foram inoculados com o vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius (VDIB para avaliar a ocorrência precoce de apoptose e a expressão da proteína viral 2 (VP2 e da enzima gliceraldeído fosfato dehidrogenase (GAPDH. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: 1-controle; e 2 a 5- com 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas pós-inoculação, respectivamente. Fragmentos da bursa de Fabricius foram colhidos para processamento histológico e extração de RNA. Lâminas coradas em HE e TUNEL (marcação in situ da fragmentação do genoma com transferase terminal de deoxinucleotídeo foram utilizadas na morfometria do índice apoptótico. Amostras de mRNA foram testadas para a expressão dos genes VP2 e GAPDH utilizando-se transcrição reversa e RT-PCR. Utilizou-se um kit SYBR GREEN PCR, e a reação foi desenvolvida em ABI Prism 7000 SDS. Os índices apoptóticos cresceram progressivamente indicando uma relação na atrofia bursal causada pelo VDIB. Paralelamente, os resultados da PCR em tempo real demonstraram queda da carga viral nas células linfóides da bursa nos diferentes intervalos de tempo do experimento. Esses resultados sugerem um papel protetor da apoptose na diminuição da replicação viral.Twenty-nine SPF 1-day-old chicks were inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV to evaluate early apoptosis and the expression of viral protein 2 (VP2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GAPDH. Five groups were formed: G1-control -and G2 to G5, - 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation, respectively. Half of each BF was fixed and processed by routine techniques. To quantify apoptosis, 5µm-thick sections were stained with HE and submitted to TUNEL (terminal transferase UDP nick end labeling technique. mRNA was extracted from pooled samples of 3 animals/group and used for the expression of VP2 and GADPH genes using the reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A SYBR

  15. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease, a suspicious case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Nunes, Andreia; Antunes, Pedro

    2017-03-02

    A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative. Regarding the yellow fever virus, IgG was identified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with negative IgM and virus PCR in CSF. EEG showed an encephalopathic pattern. The patient improved gradually and a week after discharge was his usual self. Only criteria for suspect neurotropic disease were met, but it's possible the time spent between symptom onset and lumbar puncture prevented a definite diagnosis of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease. This gap would have been smaller if the vaccination history had been collected earlier. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Influenza Vaccination Rate and Reasons for Nonvaccination in Children With Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livni, Gilat; Wainstein, Alina; Birk, Einat; Chodick, Gabriel; Levy, Itzhak

    2017-11-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory morbidity worldwide. It poses a risk of complications in children with cardiac disease. Influenza vaccine is considered the most effective and safe means of preventing the disease. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of influenza vaccination in children with cardiac disease and to identify the reasons for failure to vaccinate in this patient population. The study group included 186 children and their parents who attended the cardiology institute of a tertiary pediatric medical center between September and October 2012. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire covering demographics, clinical features, influenza vaccination, receipt of advice from medical professionals regarding vaccination and personal knowledge about and attitude toward the influenza vaccine. Median age of the children was 7.6 years. Thirty-six percent had been vaccinated in the previous influenza season. Vaccination was unrelated to the child's age or sex or the parents' education. Factors significantly affecting the decision of the parents to have their child vaccinated were their knowledge, beliefs and conceptions about the vaccine and their receipt of a recommendation to do so from the pediatrician or cardiologist (P vaccination against influenza is low in children with heart disease. Major factors encouraging vaccination are proper parental knowledge and the recommendation of the primary physician or cardiologist. Medical professionals caring for this patient population should be alerted to the need to routinely counsel parents on the importance of influenza vaccination.

  17. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Esayas; Belay, Alebachew; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Loitsch, Angelika; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama; Lamien, Charles Euloge

    2015-07-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia. Retrospective outbreak data were compiled and isolates collected from thirteen outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle at various geographical locations and years were analyzed and compared to the vaccine strain. Isolates of GTPV and LSDV genotypes were responsible for the capripox outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle, respectively, while SPPV was absent. Pathogenic isolates collected from vaccinated cattle were identical to those from the non-vaccinated ones. The vaccine strain, genetically distinct from the outbreak isolates, was not responsible for these outbreaks. This study shows capripox to be highly significant in Ethiopia due to low performance of the local vaccine and insufficient vaccination coverage. The development of new, more efficient vaccine strains, a GTPV strain for small ruminants and a LSDV for cattle, is needed to promote the acceptance by farmers, thus contribute to better control of CaPVs in Ethiopia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccine and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Pozzi, Marco; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Perrone, Valentina; Salvati, Dionigi; Gentili, Marta; Brusadelli, Tatiana; Clementi, Emilio; Radice, Sonia

    2014-07-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines were introduced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The bivalent vaccine is effective against HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45 while the quadrivalent vaccine is effective against HPV-16, 18, 31, 6 and 11 types. The immunisation, recommended for adolescent females, has led to high vaccine coverage in many countries. Along with the introduction of the HPV vaccines, several cases of onset or exacerbations of autoimmune diseases following the vaccine shot have been reported in the literature and pharmacovigilance databases, triggering concerns about its safety. This vaccination programme, however, has been introduced in a population that is at high risk for the onset of autoimmune diseases, making it difficult to assess the role of HPV vaccine in these cases and no conclusive studies have been reported thus far. We have thus analysed and reviewed comprehensively all case reports and studies dealing with either the onset of an autoimmune disease in vaccinated subject or the safety in patients with autoimmune diseases to define the role of the HPV vaccines in these diseases and hence its safety. A solid evidence of causal relationship was provided in few cases in the examined studies, and the risk vs. benefit of vaccination is still to be solved. The on-going vigilance for the safety of this vaccine remains thus of paramount importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Routine pediatric immunization, special cases in pediatrics: prematurity, chronic disease, congenital heart disease: recent advancements/changes in pediatric vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Vaccination is a powerful and dynamic weapon in reducing the impact of infectious diseases in children. The field and schedules are constantly evolving, with significant changes resulting in new and exciting vaccines almost yearly. Special cases in pediatrics represent unique challenges and differences in vaccinations. Health care providers need to be knowledgable about the current vaccines and to remain up to date with the constant evolution, as well as be aware of the latest recommendations, warnings, and news about vaccines and their use. This article updates and discusses current but ever-changing routine pediatric vaccination programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of vaccinations on seizure risk and disease course in Dravet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Nienke E; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Sonsma, Anja C M; Ippel, Elly; Vermeer-de Bondt, Patricia E; Hagebeuk, Eveline; Jansen, Floor E; Geesink, Huibert H; Braun, Kees P; de Louw, Anton; Augustijn, Paul B; Neuteboom, Rinze F; Schieving, Jolanda H; Stroink, Hans; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Nicolai, Joost; Brouwer, Oebele F; van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Knoers, Nine V; Lindhout, Dick; Gunning, W Boudewijn; Brilstra, Eva H

    2015-08-18

    To study the effect of vaccination-associated seizure onset on disease course and estimate the risk of subsequent seizures after infant pertussis combination and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinations in Dravet syndrome (DS). We retrospectively analyzed data from hospital medical files, child health clinics, and the vaccination register for children with DS and pathogenic SCN1A mutations. Seizures within 24 hours after infant whole-cell, acellular, or nonpertussis combination vaccination or within 5 to 12 days after MMR vaccination were defined as "vaccination-associated." Risks of vaccination-associated seizures for the different vaccines were analyzed in univariable and in multivariable logistic regression for pertussis combination vaccines and by a self-controlled case series analysis using parental seizure registries for MMR vaccines. Disease courses of children with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset were compared. Children who had DS (n = 77) with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset (21% and 79%, respectively) differed in age at first seizure (median 3.7 vs 6.1 months, p vaccination-associated seizures was significantly lower for acellular pertussis (9%; odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.71) and nonpertussis (8%; odds ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.59) than whole-cell pertussis (37%; reference) vaccines. Self-controlled case series analysis showed an increased incidence rate ratio of seizures of 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.4) within the risk period of 5 to 12 days following MMR vaccination. Our results suggest that vaccination-associated earlier seizure onset does not alter disease course in DS, while the risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures is probably vaccine-specific. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Pneumococcal Transmission and Disease In Silico: A Microsimulation Model of the Indirect Effects of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhonen, Markku; Cheng, Allen C.; Auranen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree and time frame of indirect effects of vaccination (serotype replacement and herd immunity) are key determinants in assessing the net effectiveness of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in control of pneumococcal disease. Using modelling, we aimed to quantify these effects and their dependence on coverage of vaccination and the vaccine's efficacy against susceptibility to pneumococcal carriage. Methods and Findings We constructed an individual-based simulation model that explores the effects of large-scale PCV programmes and applied it in a developed country setting (Finland). A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups (families, day care groups, schools and neighbourhoods) was considered in order to properly assess the dependency of herd immunity on coverage of vaccination and vaccine efficacy against carriage. Issues regarding potential serotype replacement were addressed by employing a novel competition structure between multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Model parameters were calibrated from pre-vaccination data about the age-specific carriage prevalence and serotype distribution. The model predicts that elimination of vaccine-type carriage and disease among those vaccinated and, due to a substantial herd effect, also among the general population takes place within 5–10 years since the onset of a PCV programme with high (90%) coverage of vaccination and moderate (50%) vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage. A near-complete replacement of vaccine-type carriage by non-vaccine-type carriage occurs within the same time frame. Conclusions The changed patterns in pneumococcal carriage after PCV vaccination predicted by the model are unequivocal. The overall effect on disease incidence depends crucially on the magnitude of age- and serotype-specific case-to-carrier ratios of the remaining serotypes relative to those of the vaccine types. Thus the availability of

  2. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.

  3. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: the implications for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sarah; Geale, Dorothy W; Kitching, Paul R; Bouffard, Alice; Allard, Denis G; Duncan, J Robert

    2002-05-01

    Vaccination of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a well established strategy for helping to combat the disease. Traditionally, FMD vaccine has been used to control a disease incursion in countries where the disease has been endemic rather than in countries considered free of the disease. In 2001, the use of vaccine was considered but not implemented in the United Kingdom (1), whereas vaccine was used to help to control FMD in The Netherlands (2,3). Canadian contingency plans provide for the use of vaccine; Canada is a member of the North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, which could supply vaccine if needed. This article explains why Canada might use FMD vaccine to combat an outbreak and the factors that are relevant to the disposal of vaccinated animals and their products. It concludes that vaccination is an important mechanism in Canada's preparedness for an outbreak of FMD and that products from vaccinated animals are safe for human consumption.

  4. Antigen-Sparing and Enhanced Efficacy of Multivalent Vaccines Adjuvanted with Immunopotentiators in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously described that immunopotentiators, CVCVA5, increased the efficacy of H5 and H9 subtype avian influenza vaccines in chickens, ducks, and geese. In this study, we further investigated the effects of the CVCVA5 for improving the efficacy of other univalent or multivalent inactivated vaccines. The immune response administrated with half-dose of monovalent vaccine plus CVCVA5 were higher than those of one dose of monovalent vaccine without immunopotentiators as measured by levels of antibodies from serum, tears and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and cytokines of IFNγ and IL-4 from serum. Vaccines included the univalent vaccine of Newcastle Disease virus (ND, Egg Drop Syndrome virus (EDS, Infectious Bronchitis virus (IB, and Infectious Bursal Disease virus (IBD. The CVCVA5 also improved the immune response of both ND and IBD vaccines with less dosage. The sterile protective immunity was monitored with one- or a half-dose of adjuvanted ND vaccine or one dose of adjuvanted IBD vaccine, respectively. The improved immune efficacy was observed in a half-dose of adjuvanted bivalent vaccines compared to one dose of vaccines without CVCVA5 as measured by the antibody levels, including bivalent vaccine of ND-H9, ND-IB, and ND-IBD. The CVCVA5 also boosted the immune efficacy of the tetravalent vaccine (ND-IB-EDS-H9. A half-dose of adjuvanted commercial vaccine or 75% antigen-sparing adjuvanted vaccine elicited similar antibody levels to those of one dose non-adjuvanted commercial vaccines. The CVCVA5 improved the effect of a booster vaccination as measured by the antibody levels against H5 or H9 virus antigens, in which chickens primed with the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines given a booster with H5–H9 bivalent vaccines without CVCVA5 using 5-day intervals. The inflammatory response may contribute to these additional effects by increasing the levels of IFNγ and IL-4 after the injection of the adjuvanted ND-IB vaccines. Results indicated that the

  5. Vaccination of patients with auto-immune inflammatory rheumatic diseases requires careful benefit-risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, M.; Agmon-Levin, N.; Dayer, J. -M.; Israeli, E.; Gatto, M.; Shoenfeld, Y.

    Will vaccination raise the incidence of autoimmune diseases, what is the impact of increasingly crowded vaccination schedules, the vaccination in age groups and the risk of coincidental temporal association? All these issues are still under debate. However, for the time being, to avoid confusion in

  6. The effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Dekker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) transmission. To estimate if vaccination could significantly reduce virus transmission, we performed two replicates of a transmission experiment with one group of vaccinated

  7. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedari CP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carine P Hedari,* Rima W Khinkarly,* Ghassan S Dbaibo Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines – MenACWY-DT (Menactra® and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo® – using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix® was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity

  8. Does Oral Vaccination Protect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish....... The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge with Y. ruckeri. The rainbow trout were given oral vaccinations...... with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Seven groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w/ booster (4 months post...

  9. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...... disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were...

  10. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally and anally vaccinated...... fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral...... vaccinations with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Eight groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w...

  11. Prevention of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle using a prime-boot-vaccination strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can help to control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in mammalian......-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high-containment facilities, offers significant advantages to achieve control of FMD by vaccination....

  12. Efficacy of vaccines against bacterial diseases in swine: what can we expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Chiers, Koen; Maes, Dominiek; Ducatelle, Richard; Decostere, Annemie

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses what can be expected with regard to efficacy of antibacterial vaccines used in swine, based on the present knowledge of pathogen-host interactions. First, vaccination against bacteria that mainly cause disease by production of exotoxins is considered. Vaccines containing the inactivated toxin or a non-toxic but antigenic recombinant protein derived from the exotoxin can be expected to provide protection against disease. The degree of protection induced by such vaccines varies, however, depending amongst other things on the pathogenesis of the disease. Vaccination against clostridial infections, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections, progressive atrophic rhinitis and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, is considered. The second part of the article deals with vaccination against extracellular bacteria. Protection against these bacteria is generally mediated by antibodies against their surface antigens and certain secreted antigens, but cellular immunity may also play a role. Efficacy of vaccines against swine erysipelas, Streptococcus suis infections, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections and swine dysentery is discussed. Finally, vaccination against facultatively intracellular bacteria is considered. For protection against these bacteria cell-mediated immunity plays an important role, but antibodies may also be involved. It is generally accepted that live-attenuated vaccines are more suitable for induction of cell-mediated immunity than inactivated vaccines, although this also depends on the adjuvant used in the vaccine. As an example, vaccination against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is discussed.

  13. Archaeosomes display immunoadjuvant potential for a vaccine against Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Leticia H; Corral, Ricardo S; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder L; Petray, Patricia B

    2013-02-01

    Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen.

  14. Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine.

  15. Developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David J; Taylor, Geraldine

    2011-10-12

    Vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. Globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. Conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the global eradication of rinderpest and the control of bluetongue in the UK and northern Europe. However, in many cases, livestock vaccines could benefit from improvement in some properties (e.g. stability, speed of onset and duration of immunity, and breadth of cross-protection to different serotypes or strains) and in some cases are not available at all. Compared with human vaccines, uptake of livestock products is highly cost-sensitive and their use may also need to be compatible with post-vaccination screening methods to determine whether or not animals continue to be infected. Requirements and prospects for new or improved vaccines are described for some priority viral diseases with potential for transboundary spread, particularly for foot-and-mouth disease.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine effectiveness in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T.J.D.; Bulut, A.N.; Gubbins, S.; Stärk, K.D.C.; Pfeiffer, D.U.; Sumption, K.J.; Paton, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is present in much of Turkey and its control is largely based on vaccination. The arrival of the FMD Asia-1 serotype in Turkey in 2011 caused particular concern, spreading rapidly westwards across the country towards the FMD free European Union. With no prior natural immunity, control of spread would rely heavily on vaccination. Unlike human vaccines, field protection is rarely evaluated directly for FMD vaccines. Between September 2011 and July 2012 we performed four retrospective outbreak investigations to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of FMD Asia-1 vaccines in Turkey. Vaccine effectiveness is defined as the reduction in risk in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals with similar virus exposure in the field. The four investigations included 12 villages and 1230 cattle >4 months of age. One investigation assessed the FMD Asia-1 Shamir vaccine, the other three evaluated the recently introduced FMD Asia-1 TUR 11 vaccine made using a field isolate of the FMD Asia-1 Sindh-08 lineage that had recently entered Turkey. After adjustment for confounding, the TUR 11 vaccine provided moderate protection against both clinical disease VE = 69% [95% CI: 50%–81%] and infection VE = 63% [95% CI: 29%–81%]. However, protection was variable with some herds with high vaccine coverage still experiencing high disease incidence. Some of this variability will be the result of the variation in virus challenge and immunity that occurs under field conditions. In the outbreak investigated there was no evidence that the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine provided adequate protection against clinical FMD with an incidence of 89% in single vaccinated cattle and 69% in those vaccinated two to five times. Based on these effectiveness estimates, vaccination alone is unlikely to produce the high levels of herd immunity needed to control FMD without additional control measures. PMID:24530150

  17. 75 FR 54589 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine, Live Adenovirus Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, live... field testing of this vaccine, examines the potential effects that field testing this veterinary vaccine...

  18. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in boys and risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Morten; Besson, Andréa; Clemmensen, Kim Katrine Bjerring

    2018-01-01

    following HPV vaccination in this group. We investigated if quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination of 10-17-year-old boys is associated with any unusual risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases or venous thromboembolism. Methods: We conducted a national cohort study of 568 410 boys born in Denmark...... 1988-2006 and followed for 4 million person-years during 2006-16, using nationwide registers to obtain individual-level information about received doses of the qHPV vaccine and hospital records for 39 autoimmune diseases, 12 neurological diseases and venous thromboembolism. For each outcome, we......: 0.71-1.28, n = 46 cases in qHPV-vaccinated boys) and neurological diseases (RR = 0.67; 0.41-1.10, n = 16), as well as for venous thromboembolism (RR = 0.88; 0.33-2.35, n = 4). After taking multiple testing into account, none of the 52 individual outcomes studied appeared to occur in excess among q...

  19. Working towards dengue as a vaccine-preventable disease: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Ambuj; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Dash, Paban K; Parida, Manmohan

    2017-10-01

    Dengue is an emerging viral disease that affects the human population around the globe. Recent advancements in dengue virus research have opened new avenues for the development of vaccines against dengue. The development of a vaccine against dengue is a challenging task because any of the four serotypes of dengue viruses can cause disease. The development of a dengue vaccine aims to provide balanced protection against all the serotypes. Several dengue vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages such as inactivated, live attenuated, recombinant subunit, and plasmid DNA vaccines. Area covered: The authors provide an overview of the progress made in the development of much needed dengue vaccines. The authors include their expert opinion and their perspectives for future developments. Expert opinion: Human trials of a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine have clearly demonstrated its potential as a dengue vaccine. Other vaccine candidate molecules such as DENVax, a recombinant chimeric vaccine andTetraVax, are at different stages of development at this time. The authors believe that the novel strategies for testing and improving the immune response of vaccine candidates in humans will eventually lead to the development of a successful dengue vaccine in future.

  20. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle.

  1. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ROUTES OF VACCINATION AGAINST NEW-CASTLE DISEASE ON LYMPHOID ORGANS OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Salam, A. Aslam. S. A, Khan, K. Saeed1 and G. Saleem

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to compare two routes (intraocular and drinking water of vaccination against Newcastle disease in ten11s of protection against velogenic field isolate of Newcastle disease virus (NOV, The immune response and morphological changes in lymphoid organs (Harderian gland, bursa of fabricius and thymus of broilers were noted. The role of Harderian gland to generate local and humoral immunity in response to eye drop and drinking water vaccination against NOV was also evaluated. This experiment showed that ocular vaccination resulted in significantly high level of circulating antibodies as compared to drinking water vaccination, No histopathological changes were observed in Iymphow organs after Nov challenge in ocularly vaccinated birds. There were significantly (P<0.05 higher number of plasma cells in sections of Harderian gland after eye drop vaccination, It was concluded that ocular vaccination stimulated Harderian gland to produce strong local protective immunity in ocular as well as in oral mucosa

  2. Disease Persistence in Epidemiological Models: The Interplay between Vaccination and Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Jackson; Cummings, Derek A T; Schwartz, Ira B

    2012-01-01

    We consider the interplay of vaccination and migration rates on disease persistence in epidemiological systems. We show that short-term and long-term migration can inhibit disease persistence. As a result, we show how migration changes how vaccination rates should be chosen to maintain herd immunity. In a system of coupled SIR models, we analyze how disease eradication depends explicitly on vaccine distribution and migration connectivity. The analysis suggests potentially novel vaccination policies that underscore the importance of optimal placement of finite resources.

  3. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ?ok?al??kan, Can; T?rko?lu, Tun?er; Sareyy?po?lu, Beyhan; Uzunlu, Erg?n; Babak, Ayca; ?zbilge, Banu B.; G?lyaz, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and alum...

  4. Vaccination and Health Maintenance Issues to Consider in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Jason; Wasan, Sharmeel K; Farraye, Francis A

    2017-12-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) do not receive routine preventive care at the same rate as the general population. IBD places patients at increased risk for developing vaccine-preventable illnesses. This risk is further exacerbated by immunosuppressive therapy. This article highlights the necessary vaccinations for IBD patients and the timing of vaccination for immunosuppressed patients, and discusses the health maintenance needs and preventive care issues related to heart disease, smoking, osteoporosis, mental health, cervical cancer, and skin cancer.

  5. Advanced Nanobiomaterials: Vaccines, Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torres-Sangiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles has contributed to many advances due to their important properties such as, size, shape or biocompatibility. The use of nanotechnology in medicine has great potential, especially in medical microbiology. Promising data show the possibility of shaping immune responses and fighting severe infections using synthetic materials. Different studies have suggested that the addition of synthetic nanoparticles in vaccines and immunotherapy will have a great impact on public health. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance is one of the major concerns worldwide; a recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO states that antibiotic resistance could cause 300 million deaths by 2050. Nanomedicine offers an innovative tool for combating the high rates of resistance that we are fighting nowadays, by the development of both alternative therapeutic and prophylaxis approaches and also novel diagnosis methods. Early detection of infectious diseases is the key to a successful treatment and the new developed applications based on nanotechnology offer an increased sensibility and efficiency of the diagnosis. The aim of this review is to reveal and discuss the main advances made on the science of nanomaterials for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Highlighting innovative approaches utilized to: (i increasing the efficiency of vaccines; (ii obtaining shuttle systems that require lower antibiotic concentrations; (iii developing coating devices that inhibit microbial colonization and biofilm formation.

  6. Understanding respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine development and aspects of disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Patricia A; Anderson, Lydia; Tripp, Ralph A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections causing bronchiolitis and some mortality in young children and the elderly. Despite decades of research there is no licensed RSV vaccine. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the immune factors responsible for inducing vaccine-enhanced disease in animal models, less information is available for humans. In this review, we discuss the different types of RSV vaccines and their target population, the need for establishing immune correlates for vaccine efficacy, and how the use of different animal models can help predict vaccine efficacy and clinical outcomes in humans.

  7. Optimization of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination protocols by surveillance of neutralization antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W B; Liao, P C; Chen, S P; Yang, P C; Lin, Y L; Jong, M H; Sheu, T W

    2002-06-21

    An appropriate immunization program for pigs in a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) endemic area was proposed based on data analysis obtained from serological surveillance in Taiwan, after an intensive vaccination program. To provide an adequate passive immunity for piglets, gilts that have completed two basic vaccinations must be boosted once before breeding. To achieve an efficient response to the FMD vaccine for piglets born to well vaccinated sows, vaccination need to be delayed until 10-12 weeks of ages for the first immunization, followed by a boost 4 weeks later.

  8. Vaccines and Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs: Practical Implications for the Rheumatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Marcia A; Winthrop, Kevin L

    2017-02-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are highly vulnerable to infections because of abnormalities in their immune system, and because of immunosuppressive effects of their medications. Vaccinations in this population are complicated by disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, which also modulate or suppress the immune system and potentially decrease the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccines. We review the available data regarding the impact of rheumatoid arthritis therapy on the immunogenicity of various common vaccines. We also review rheumatoid arthritis-specific vaccination recommendations, live vaccine safety concerns, and current gaps in our understanding of these issues." Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines - MenACWY-DT (Menactra(®)) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo(®)) - using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix(®)) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks.

  10. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine that reduced the incidence of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding of MAP would aid control of Johne’s disease (JD). The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candi...

  11. [Travel advice and vaccinations in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases: the earlier, the better

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mast, Q. de; Keuter, M.; Thiel, P.P. van; Ven, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases who have been travelling to the tropics or subtropics has been rising. Use of immunomodulating drugs increases the risk for infectious diseases and may reduce seroprotection rates following vaccination. In addition, live vaccines, such as the

  12. Five diseases, one vaccine — a boost for emerging livestock farmers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 oct. 2014 ... ... in sub-Saharan Africa. South African and Canadian scientists are developing two livestock vaccines that will be affordable, heat-stable, and provide long-term protection against diseases. The first vaccine is targeted at five important viral diseases affecting sheep, goats, and cattle using a single injection.

  13. Vaccination of paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases. Navigating through turbulent waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on the safety and efficacy of vaccinations in paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases. With the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), we constructed recommendations for vaccination of paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases based on available evidence. Evidence

  14. Influence of parent characteristics and disease outcome framing on HPV vaccine acceptability among rural, Southern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Nina R; Brewer, Noel T; Smith, Jennifer S

    2008-02-01

    A new prophylactic vaccine protects against infection with HPV types that cause many cervical cancers and genital warts. This study explored the impact of framing the vaccine's benefits, with respect to the disease outcome being prevented, on women's HPV vaccination intentions for themselves and for an adolescent daughter. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural North Carolina area with a high cervical cancer mortality rate. A questionnaire was administered among female attendees of a low-income public clinic and a private OB/GYN office. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimable model. Women reported high intentions to vaccinate against HPV. Women reported higher intentions to vaccinate adolescent daughters than themselves, and this relationship varied by how the HPV vaccine was framed (preventing HPV, cervical cancer, or genital warts). Older women reported lower vaccination intentions than younger women. Rural women, especially those who are younger, may be more accepting of the HPV vaccine when it is framed as a cervical cancer vaccine. Messages to mothers about the HPV vaccine for their daughters might be made more effective by framing the vaccine in terms of cancer and sexually transmitted disease prevention.

  15. DISA vaccines for Bluetongue: A Novel Vaccine Approach for Insect-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) lacking functional NS3/NS3a protein is named Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. The BT DISA vaccine platform is broadly applied by exchange of serotype specific proteins. BT DISA vaccines are produced in standard cell lines in established production facilities, ...

  16. Recent advances in designing an effective vaccine to prevent cytomegalovirus-associated clinical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Vijayendra; Smith, Corey; Khanna, Rajiv

    2013-06-01

    It is now well over a decade since the US Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences assigned the highest priority for a vaccine to prevent congenital human CMV infection, which was subsequently endorsed by the US National Vaccine Program Office. In spite of extensive efforts over many years, successful licensure of a CMV vaccine formulation remains elusive. While the understanding of immune regulation of CMV infection in healthy virus carriers and diseased patients has dramatically improved, traditional vaccine development programs have failed to exploit this knowledge. Until recently, most efforts have concentrated on designing vaccine formulations that block CMV infection through neutralizing antibodies. However, studies carried out in various disease settings, especially in transplant patients, have clearly emphasized the importance of cellular immunity and it is indeed encouraging to see that recent CMV vaccine development programs have started to incorporate this arm of the immune system. A number of new vaccine candidates have been found to be effective in preclinical studies, and are able to induce CMV-specific immune responses in clinical studies, although firm evidence for long-term efficacy is not yet available. For successful implementation of these vaccines in clinical settings, it will be important to demonstrate that the vaccine can induce effective levels of immunity for prevention of transmission of viral infection from mother to unborn baby and thus reduce CMV-related pathogenesis. For transplant recipients, vaccine strategies should be aimed at the induction of immunity that restricts viral reactivation and limits development of disease.

  17. Daedalic DNA vaccination against self antigens as a treatment for chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan Min; Zhou, Jimmy Jianheng; Wang, Ya; Watson, Debbie; Zhang, Geoff Yu; Hu, Min; Wu, Huiling; Zheng, Guoping; Wang, Yiping; Durkan, Anne M; Harris, David C H; Alexander, Stephen I

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of death and morbidity in Australia and worldwide. DNA vaccination has been used for targeting foreign antigens to induce immune responses and prevent autoimmune disease, viral infection and cancer. However, the use of DNA vaccination has been restricted by a limited ability to induce strong immune responses, especially against self-antigens which are limited by mechanisms of self-tolerance. Furthermore, there have been few studies on the potential of DNA vaccination in chronic inflammatory diseases, including CKD. We have established strategies of DNA vaccination targeting specific self-antigens in the immune system including co-stimulatory pathways, T cell receptors and chemokine molecules, which have been effective in protecting against the development of CKD in a variety of animal models. In particular, we find that the efficacy of DNA vaccination is improved by dendritic cell (DC) targeting and can protect against animal models of autoimmune nephritis mimicking human membranous nephropathy. In this review, we summarize several approaches that have been tested to improve the efficacy of DNA vaccination in CKD models, including enhanced DNA vaccine delivery methods, DNA vaccine modifications and new molecular targets for DNA vaccination. Finally, we discuss the specific application of DNA vaccination for preventing and treating CKD.

  18. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain.

  19. Efficacy of experimental Newcastle disease water-in-oil oil-emulsion vaccines formulated from squalane and squalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H D; Xie, Z X

    1990-01-01

    Water-in-oil inactivated Newcastle disease oil-emulsion vaccines were formulated with the terpene oils squalane or squalene, or mixtures thereof, and injected into 4-week-old broilers. Vaccine efficacy based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers was comparable to that of control mineral oil vaccines. Tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of the terpene oil emulsion vaccines was greatly reduced 3 weeks post-vaccination compared with that of mineral oil-based vaccine. Viscosity of the terpene oil vaccines was satisfactory but increased three to four times that of mineral oil vaccine when the antigen phase volume increased from 5% to 20%.

  20. Novel bivalent vectored vaccine for control of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spibey, N; McCabe, V J; Greenwood, N M; Jack, S C; Sutton, D; van der Waart, L

    2012-03-24

    A novel, recombinant myxoma virus-rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) vaccine has been developed for the prevention of myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). A number of laboratory studies are described illustrating the safety and efficacy of the vaccine following subcutaneous administration in laboratory rabbits from four weeks of age onwards. In these studies, both vaccinated and unvaccinated control rabbits were challenged using pathogenic strains of RHD and myxoma viruses, and 100 per cent of the vaccinated rabbits were protected against both myxomatosis and RHD.

  1. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination : a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in

  2. Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Izquierdo, Conchita; Hernández, Sergi; Broner, Sonia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Domínguez, Àngela

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p global annual incidence per 10 ( 5) inhabitants was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20-17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43-1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ≤ 2 y and 2-4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000 persons-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000 persons-year) and the ≤ 2 y and ≥ 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000 persons-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting.

  3. Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Villumsen, Marie; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence from observational studies and randomized trials in low-income countries that vaccinations have non-specific effects. Administration of live vaccines reduces overall child morbidity and mortality, presumably due to protection against non-targeted infections. In Denmark......, the live vaccine against smallpox was phased out in the 1970s due to the eradication of smallpox. We used the phasing-out period to investigate the effect of smallpox vaccination on the risk of hospitalization for infections....

  4. Improved immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus inactivated vaccine following DNA vaccination using Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ideris, Aini

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.

  5. Skepticism toward Emerging Infectious Diseases and Influenza Vaccination Intentions in Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridor, Mathieu; Ruch, Simon; Bangerter, Adrian; Emery, Véronique

    2017-05-01

    Nurses generally show low compliance with vaccination recommendations. We assessed whether low vaccine acceptance is due to skeptical attitudes toward emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Skepticism toward EIDs manifests as doubts about the real threat of emerging diseases and as distrust in the motives and the competence of institutions that fight these diseases. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study in 293 Swiss nurses using a newly developed scale to assess skepticism toward EIDs. Skepticism affected nurses' intentions to vaccinate themselves against seasonal influenza and against possible future pandemic influenza. The influence of skepticism persisted after controlling for other factors that are known to determine nurses' vaccination behavior, namely vaccination habits, feeling at risk of catching influenza, and perceiving vaccination as a professional duty. Skeptical attitudes toward EIDs seem to have a unique and hitherto ignored impact on vaccination intentions. Nurses' vaccine acceptance could be increased if vaccination campaigns specifically target skeptical attitudes toward EIDs. These campaigns should address nurses' doubts about the real threat of EIDs and should rebuild their trust in institutions which fight these diseases.

  6. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease: a national British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D L; Montgomery, S M; Thompson, N P; Ebrahim, S; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J

    2000-12-01

    Measles vaccination has been suggested as a risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Atypical age of measles infection has also been associated with Crohn's disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship of measles vaccination and age of measles vaccination with later inflammatory bowel disease. A prospective population-based national birth cohort was used, of those born in 1 wk in April 1970 in Great Britain. The data are from 7616 responding members of the 1970 British Cohort Study with complete vaccination data, who were traced at age 26 yr. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and diabetes mellitus (a control disease) was obtained by survey at age 26 yr, and confirmed by physicians. Vaccination data were from survey at age 5 yr. Measles and mumps infection data were obtained from the survey at age 10 yr. Adjustment was made for sex, household crowding in childhood, and father's social class at birth. No statistically significant association was found between measles vaccination status at 5 yr and Crohn's disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-1.63), ulcerative colitis (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.20-1.61), or diabetes (adjusted OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.33-1.74). There was a statistically significant trend (p = 0.040) with increasing age of measles vaccination for risk of Crohn' s disease, although this was based on very few cases vaccinated after age 2 yr. In this cohort, monovalent measles vaccination status is not associated with inflammatory bowel disease by age 26 yr. Older age at measles vaccination needs to be examined in other studies to confirm whether it is a genuine risk for Crohn's disease.

  7. [Severe Yellow fever vaccine-associated disease: a case report and current overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Günther; Gabriel, Martin; Domingo, Cristina; Schäfer, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    History and physical examination A 56-year-old man developed high fever with severe headaches, fatigue, impaired concentration skills, and an exanthema 5 days after a yellow fever (YF) vaccination. Laboratory tests Liver enzymes and YF antibody titers were remarkably elevated. YF vaccine virus was detected in urine by PCR. Diagnosis and therapy Initially, severe YF vaccine-associated visceral disease was suspected and treated symptomatically. Clinical Course His fever ceased after 10 days in total, no organ failure developed. However, postencephalitic symptoms persisted with fatigue and impaired concentration, memory, and reading skills and partly incapability to work for over 3 months. A diagnosis was made of suspected YF vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. Conclusion Severe vaccine-derived adverse effects need to be considered in the indication process for YF vaccination. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The Need for Evolutionarily Rational Disease Interventions: Vaccination Can Select for Higher Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Boots

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt evolution has played a major role in preventing the control of infectious disease through antibiotic and insecticide resistance, but recent theory suggests disease interventions such as vaccination may lead to evolution of more harmful parasites. A new study published in PLOS Biology by Andrew Read and colleagues shows empirically that vaccination against Marek's disease has favored higher virulence; without intervention, the birds die too quickly for any transmission to occur, but vaccinated hosts can both stay alive longer and shed the virus. This is an elegant empirical demonstration of how evolutionary theory can predict potentially dangerous responses of infectious disease to human interventions.

  9. Effectiveness and safety of seasonal influenza vaccination in children with underlying respiratory diseases and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Han

    2014-04-01

    Influenza causes acute respiratory infections and various complications. Children in the high-risk group have higher complication and hospitalization rates than high-risk elderly individuals. Influenza prevention in children is important, as they can be a source infection spread in their communities. Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended for high-risk children with chronic underlying circulatory and respiratory disease, immature infants, and children receiving long-term immunosuppressant treatment or aspirin. However, vaccination rates in these children are low because of concerns regarding the exacerbation of underlying diseases and vaccine efficacy. To address these concerns, many clinical studies on children with underlying respiratory diseases have been conducted since the 1970s. Most of these reported no differences in immunogenicity or adverse reactions between healthy children and those with underlying respiratory diseases and no adverse effects of the influenza vaccine on the disease course. Further to these studies, the inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine is recommended for children with underlying respiratory disease, in many countries. However, the live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is not recommended for children younger than 5 years with asthma or recurrent wheezing. Influenza vaccination is contraindicated in patients with severe allergies to egg, chicken, or feathers, because egg-cultivated influenza vaccines may contain ovalbumin. There has been no recent report of serious adverse events after influenza vaccination in children with egg allergy. However, many experts recommend the trivalent influenza vaccine for patients with severe egg allergy, with close observation for 30 minutes after vaccination. LAIV is still not recommended for patients with asthma or egg allergy.

  10. Comparative immunogenecity of foot and mouth disease virus antigens in FMD-haemorrhagic septicaemia combined vaccine and FMD vaccine alone in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Rajesh; Sharma, R; Kakker, N K

    2004-03-01

    Humoral immune response was evaluated by monitoring the serum antibody titres and virus specific IgM titres against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus antigens in serum samples obtained from different groups of calves inoculated with combined vaccine or FMD vaccine alone, on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days post-vaccination (DPV). The cellular immune response was monitored by MTT based lymphoproliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Higher liquid phase blocking (LPB) ELISA antibody titres were observed in calves receiving combined vaccine as compared to calves immunized with FMD vaccine alone with the peak titres in both the groups obtained on 21 days post-vaccination. However, the virus specific IgM titres were significantly higher in group of calves inoculated with combined vaccine than FMD vaccine alone. The lymphoproliferative responses against FMDV types O, A22 and Asia 1 in the groups receiving combined vaccine and FMD vaccine alone started increasing gradually after day 14 and reached peak levels on 28 DPV followed by a gradual decline subsequently. The group receiving combined vaccine showed higher proliferative responses on in vitro stimulation with FMD virus type O, whereas, with FMD virus type Asia 1, the responses were significantly higher on 14 and 21 DPV as compared to the group immunized with FMD vaccine alone. However, in the group receiving combined vaccine, the responses on in vitro stimulation with FMD virus type A22 were significantly higher than FMD vaccine alone group on all DPV except on 42 DPV.

  11. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...... disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external...... anogenital disease related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed. Results: Subjects were followed for an average of 40 months. Seven subjects in the placebo group developed cervical disease, and eight...

  12. Costs of diarrheal disease and the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flem, Elmira T; Latipov, Renat; Nurmatov, Zuridin S; Xue, Yiting; Kasymbekova, Kaliya T; Rheingans, Richard D

    2009-11-01

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus immunization program in Kyrgyzstan, a country eligible for vaccine funding from the GAVI Alliance. We estimated the burden of rotavirus disease and its economic consequences by using national and international data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from government and societal perspectives, along with a range of 1-way sensitivity analyses. Rotavirus-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits cost US$580,864 annually, of which $421,658 (73%) is direct medical costs and $159,206 (27%) is nonmedical and indirect costs. With 95% coverage, vaccination could prevent 75% of rotavirus-related hospitalizations and deaths and 56% of outpatient visits and could avert $386,193 (66%) in total costs annually. The medical break-even price at which averted direct medical costs equal vaccination costs is $0.65/dose; the societal break-even price is $1.14/dose for a 2-dose regimen. At the current GAVI Alliance-subsidized vaccine price of $0.60/course, rotavirus vaccination is cost-saving for the government. Vaccination is cost-effective at a vaccine price $9.41/dose, according to the cost-effectiveness standard set by the 2002 World Health Report. Addition of rotavirus vaccines to childhood immunization in Kyrgyzstan could substantially reduce disease burden and associated costs. Vaccination would be cost-effective from the national perspective at a vaccine price $9.41 per dose.

  13. Primary Newcastle disease vaccination of broilers: comparison of the antibody seroresponse and adverse vaccinal reaction after eye-nose drop or coarse spray application, and implication of the results for a previously developed coarse dry powder vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, W J M; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Huyge, K; van Eck, J H H

    2017-08-01

    To compare antibody seroresponse and adverse vaccinal reaction induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination after eye-nose drop or coarse spray, groups of SPF broiler hens were vaccinated at day 4 (day of hatch is day 0) and intratracheally inoculated with Escherichia coli at day 11. Body weight gain (BWG) was assessed between day 4 and day 18; colibacillosis lesions and serum antibodies were determined at day 18. Meaningful comparison requires similar vaccine uptake. Vaccine virus loss during spray relative to eye-nose drop, which was assessed by comparing the results of endpoint titrations, was 3 log10. Colibacillosis lesions in birds spray vaccinated with 106.4 EID50/chicken were significantly more severe (P drop vaccinated with 103.4 EID50/chicken, while the seroresponse was slightly but significantly (P < 0.05) stronger. Colibacillosis lesion scores inversely paralleled BWG. It is concluded that: (1) There is room to improve the coarse ND vaccine spray used regarding adverse vaccinal reaction, while maintaining a sufficient immune response. This is also applicable to the coarse ND powder vaccine studied in previous research, which induced similar antibody response and adverse vaccinal reaction as the spray vaccine used here. (2) The vaccine virus dose influences the colibacillosis susceptibility at seven days post vaccination, as the dynamics of the vaccine virus infection is likely dose-dependent. (3) Low vaccine virus doses likely result in heterogeneous vaccine-take followed by vaccine virus spread from vaccine shedding birds to their non-vaccine virus infected flock mates ("rolling vaccinal reaction").

  14. Vaccine hesitancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  15. Genome-based vaccine design: the promise for malaria and other infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Denise L; Apte, Simon H; Proietti, Carla

    2014-10-15

    Vaccines are one of the most effective interventions to improve public health, however, the generation of highly effective vaccines for many diseases has remained difficult. Three chronic diseases that characterise these difficulties include malaria, tuberculosis and HIV, and they alone account for half of the global infectious disease burden. The whole organism vaccine approach pioneered by Jenner in 1796 and refined by Pasteur in 1857 with the "isolate, inactivate and inject" paradigm has proved highly successful for many viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute disease but has failed with respect to malaria, tuberculosis and HIV as well as many other diseases. A significant advance of the past decade has been the elucidation of the genomes, proteomes and transcriptomes of many pathogens. This information provides the foundation for new 21st Century approaches to identify target antigens for the development of vaccines, drugs and diagnostic tests. Innovative genome-based vaccine strategies have shown potential for a number of challenging pathogens, including malaria. We advocate that genome-based rational vaccine design will overcome the problem of poorly immunogenic, poorly protective vaccines that has plagued vaccine developers for many years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  17. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM. Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.

  19. [Efficacy and safety of vaccination against hepatitis A and B in patients with chronic liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Artaza Varasa, Tomás; Sánchez Ruano, Juan José; García Vela, Almudena; Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael; Romero Gutiérrez, Marta; de la Cruz Pérez, Gema; Gómez Moreno, Ana Zaida; Carrobles Jiménez, José María

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination to protect against hepatitis A and B should be part of the routine management of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in a group of patients with CLD and to assess the presence of factors predictive of response. We performed a prospective, single-center study in 194 patients (123 men, 71 women; mean age, 48.9+/-10.7 years) with CLD: 107 with chronic hepatitis (CH) and 87 with hepatic cirrhosis (HC), all Child-Pugh class A. The most frequent causes of CLD were HCV infection and alcohol. Patients negative for anti-HAV IgG received the HAV vaccination (1440 ELISA units in two doses) and those with negative HBV serology received the HBV vaccination ( three 20 microg doses). Patients with inadequate response to the latter vaccine received an additional double dose. Thirty patients received a combination vaccine (three doses). Sixty patients (31%) received the HAV vaccine and 150 (77%) patients received the HBV vaccine. Seroconversion was achieved by 91.6% of patients for HAV and by 57% of the patients for HBV. After the additional dose, the response increased to 74%. Efficacy was similar between CH and HC. HBV vaccination was less effective in HC than in CH and the seroconversion rate was significantly lower in patients with HC and previous decompensation. The combination vaccine (30 patients) was highly immunogenic. No adverse effects were registered. HAV vaccination has high efficacy in patients with CLD. Patients with HC respond weakly to HBV vaccination compared with those with CH and especially if there is prior decompensation. The combination vaccine seems particularly effective in patients with CLD. The three vaccines are safe.

  20. Multi-stage subunit vaccine development against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Johne’s disease in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers

    , but in vaccination-challenge studies protection was not associated with level of FET-specific IFN-γ production, and Map-specific IFN-γ production appeared as a surrogate of disease with an inverse relationship to level of Map in tissues at slaughter. Polyfunctional T cells were induced by FET vaccination, but could...... in macrophages. The disease progression is very slow with neonatal animals being the most susceptible to infection, but without development of detectable IFN-γ responses for months after infection and rarely with clinical disease before the second or third year of life. Available whole cell vaccines against...... paratuberculosis provide only partial protection and interfere with diagnostic tests for JD and surveillance for bovine TB. In contrast, recombinant subunit vaccines can be designed to be used without compromising control of bTB and Map. Taking advantage of data from mouse TB studies, and early Map vaccination...

  1. [Vaccination as a supporting measure to control animal disease outbreaks in Europe: Findings for Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Labio, E; Perler, L

    2010-09-01

    Switzerland and the European Union have a non-vaccination policy for many animal diseases relevant for trade. Because of the relatively low animal density, disease control measures in Switzerland focus on the immediate culling of infected animals. However, the use of vaccines as a supporting measure can represent an effective option to promptly contain an epidemic and to reduce the number of animals to be killed. A prerequisite for the success of vaccination is its early, rapid and purposeful implementation. Vaccinations can be cost-intensive and can entail restrictions in international trade. For the choice of the appropriate control measure it is therefore important to thoroughly assess the epidemiology, the economic consequences of the control measures and the acceptance of these measures by the environment. Because of their special epidemiology, vaccination has clear advantages as a preventive measure for vector-borne diseases.

  2. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. serological survey of infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    3%BSA/0.05%Tween 20 (pH7.2)). Fifty microlitres of each diluted sample was added to each well of IBD virus pre-coated microtitre plates and incubated for one hour at 380C. Positive control serum (Post IBD serum) and negative control serum ...

  4. Sero-prevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the sero-prevalence of IBDV among/between the different age groups, sex and origin of chickens. The result of this study indicates that IBD is prevalent in the study area. The prevalence of IBDV antibody in unvaccinated backyard chickens might be due to field exposure of ...

  5. Assay for Serum Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was below OIE's advocated titre of ≥ 64 for conferment of specific immunity. These findings confirm endemicity of IBDV in Kaduna and indicate that field strains of IBDV still existing in local chickens serve as vehicles of transmission of the virus, thereby maintaining the infectious cycle amongst avian species in Kaduna.

  6. Serological survey of Newcastle disease and infectious Bursal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other bird species was 23.88% (22.2% of pigeons, (27.3) % of ducks) with no significant variations between species. IBDV antibodies were found in 30.6% backyard chickens, the significantly highest value (31.5) was observed in South Darfur State and lowest (0) in Red sea State while the tested pigeons and ducks were ...

  7. [Adherence to the H1N1 vaccination recommendation in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    In September 2009, the German "Standing Committee for Vaccination" (STIKO) recommended the H1N1 influenza vaccination to all patients with chronic diseases. We investigated the adherence to this recommendation in patients with the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Special attention was paid to arguments for vaccination refusal. In an explorative multicenter study we asked adult patients to answer a questionnaire about their participation in the H1N1 vaccination campaign, their arguments for and against this vaccination and disease specific parameters. Out of 1389 participating patients, 226 (16 %) received the H1N1 vaccination. Among patients who were vaccinated against the seasonal flu as well as patients who were treated with anti-TNF-treatment and members of the German Crohn's and Colitis Association, the participation rates were significantly higher (32 %, 26 %, 25 %, respectively). The main argument against the H1N1 vaccination was fear of side effects (59 %). However, 77 % of all vaccinated patients judged the vaccine as very well tolerated. The non-adherence to general vaccination recommendations against tetanus and seasonal flu was also high (25 % and 66 %, respectively). Only a minority of patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis had adhered to the official recommendation concerning vaccination against H1N1. In order to reach higher acceptance, further vaccination campaigns must focus on the safety of the recommended vaccine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease following Bacille Calmette-Guérin and Smallpox Vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Jess, Tine; Sørup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Childhood immunology has been suggested to play a role in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on the studies of childhood vaccinations, infections, and treatment with antibiotics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and smallpox vaccinations were gradually phased-out in Denmark...

  9. Effect of vaccinations on seizure risk and disease course in Dravet syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Nienke E.; van der Maas, Nicoline A. T.; Sonsma, Anja C. M.; Ippel, Elly; Bondt, Patricia E. Vermeer-de; Hagebeuk, Eveline; Jansen, Floor E.; Geesink, Huibert H.; Braun, Kees P.; de Louw, Anton; Augustijn, Paul B.; Neuteboom, Rinze F.; Schieving, Jolanda H.; Stroink, Hans; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Nicolai, Joost; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G. F.; Kemmeren, Jeanet M.; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Knoers, Nine V.; Lindhout, Dick; Gunning, W. Boudewijn; Brilstra, Eva H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of vaccination-associated seizure onset on disease course and estimate the risk of subsequent seizures after infant pertussis combination and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinations in Dravet syndrome (DS). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from hospital

  10. Inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of a patient with Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekenberg, C.; Friis-Møller, N.; Ulstrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated...

  11. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical disease....... Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external anogenital disease...... related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed....

  12. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Jong Seok [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gyeonggi-do, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbukdo (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minkyoung [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kang, Sang-Moo, E-mail: skang24@gsu.edu [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  13. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine. However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance.

  14. Hepatitis A and B screening and vaccination rates among patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jonathan C; Ackerman, Kimberly; Strain, Sasha C; Ahmed, Syed T; de Los Santos, Mario J; Sears, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinations against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are recommended for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), yet implementation of these recommendations is lacking. This study reviewed HAV and HBV antibody testing and vaccination status of patients with CLD. In 2008, we began using pre-printed liver order sets, which included vaccination options. We compared Scott & White liver clinic CLD patient records from 2005 (238) with patient records from 2008 (792). Screening rates for immunity and vaccination rates of those lacking immunity were calculated. In 2005, 66% of CLD patients were screened for HAV immunity. In 2008, 56% of CLD patients were screened. The HAV vaccination completion rate was 37% in 2005, while in 2008, the rate was 46%. In 2005, 66% of CLD patients were screened for HBV immunity; in 2008, 56 % CLD patients were screened. The HBV vaccination completion rate was 26% in 2005 compared with 36% in 2008. Although there was a lower percentage of screening in 2008, the overall number of patients tripled between 2005 and 2008. There was a significant increase in the total number of patients screened and vaccinated in 2008. Some physicians may have vaccinated their patients without checking for immunity. In January 2008, we implemented pre-printed order sets with checkboxes to help remind providers to order labs to screen for immunity against HAV and HBV and to order vaccinations for those who lacked immunity. The use of these sets may have aided in the increase of vaccination completion rates.

  15. Zoster vaccination is associated with a reduction of zoster in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Sinéad M; Thomas, Sara L; Smeeth, Liam; Margolis, David J; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2016-12-01

    Growing epidemiological evidence demonstrates increased zoster risks in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Study objectives were to determine zoster vaccine effectiveness in individuals with CKD in pragmatic use. A population-based cohort study was undertaken in a 5% random sample of US Medicare from 2007 to 2009 involving 766 330 eligible individuals aged ≥65 years who were (29 785) and were not (736 545) exposed to the zoster vaccine. Incidence rates for zoster in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals and hazard ratios for zoster comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated were determined for individuals with CKD. Time-updated Cox proportional hazards models were used, adjusting for relevant confounders. CKD was present in 183 762 (24%) of individuals (15% of vaccinees). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] in individuals with CKD was 0.49 (0.36-0.65). The adjusted vaccine effectiveness in participants with both CKD and diabetes mellitus was 0.46 (95% CI 0.09-0.68). Vaccine effectiveness estimates were similar to those previously reported for the general population [vaccine effectiveness 0.48 (95% CI 0.39-0.56)]. Zoster vaccine is effective against incident zoster in older individuals with CKD. Extra efforts are warranted to increase vaccine uptake in individuals with CKD given the known low uptake in these higher risk individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  16. Vaccination and treatment as control interventions in an infectious disease model with their cost optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, an optimal control problem with vaccination and treatment as control policies is proposed and analysed for an SVIR model. We choose vaccination and treatment as control policies because both these interventions have their own practical advantage and ease in implementation. Also, they are widely applied to control or curtail a disease. The corresponding total cost incurred is considered as weighted combination of costs because of opportunity loss due to infected individuals and costs incurred in providing vaccination and treatment. The existence of optimal control paths for the problem is established and guaranteed. Further, these optimal paths are obtained analytically using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. We analyse our results numerically to compare three important strategies of proposed controls, viz.: vaccination only; with both treatment and vaccination; and treatment only. We note that first strategy (vaccination only) is less effective as well as expensive. Though, for a highly effective vaccine, vaccination alone may also work well in comparison with treatment only strategy. Among all the strategies, we observe that implementation of both treatment and vaccination is most effective and less expensive. Moreover, in this case the infective population is found to be relatively very low. Thus, we conclude that the comprehensive effect of vaccination and treatment not only minimizes cost burden due to opportunity loss and applied control policies but also keeps a tab on infective population.

  17. The Yin-Yang arms of vaccines: disease-fighting power versus tissue-destructive inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, De-Chu Christopher; Nguyen, Huan Huu

    2014-03-01

    The disease-fighting power of vaccines has defeated many pathogens and has been credited with global reduction of mortality and morbidity. However, most vaccine developments focus on the enhancement of effector responses with systemic inflammation and the consequences overlooked. Recent evidence shows that systemic inflammatory phenotypes, acute or chronic, are both detrimental and should be avoided if possible. Since noninvasive vaccination by painless delivery of nasal vaccines and skin patch vaccines could elicit potent protective immunity without inducing systemic inflammation, it can be predicted that vaccinology will increasingly see the abandonment of the 'needle-injection' paradigm for vaccine development. The findings that specific viral particles could rapidly remodel the tissue environment postinfection in favor of some pathogens with the capacity to suppress others illustrate the pressing need for a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms in order to unlock the full potential of immunological intervention.

  18. Inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of a patient with Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenberg, Christina; Friis-Møller, Nina; Ulstrup, Thomas; Aalykke, Claus

    2016-08-29

    We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Following vaccination, the patient fell ill with influenza-like illness. Elevated transaminase levels and YF viremia were detected. Despite being immunocompromised, the patient did not develop more severe adverse effects. Neutralising antibodies to YF virus were detected on day 14 following vaccination and remained protective at least 10 months after vaccination. Limited data is available on outcomes of YFV in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, including biologics, and we report this case as a reminder of vigilance of vaccine recommendations in this population. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. A case suspected for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Eva M; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Richter, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed. Since 2001, 56 cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we report a new case suspected for YEL-AVD in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to determine the true incidence of YEL-AVD and to clarify host and vaccine-associated factors in the pathogenesis of YEL-AVD. Because of the potential adverse events, healthcare providers should carefully consider vaccination only in people who are truly at risk for YF infection, especially in primary vaccine recipients. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  20. Investing in vaccines for developing countries: How public-private partnerships can confront neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaïch, Mansour

    2009-06-01

    This commentary discusses the barrier of vaccine price on sustainable immunization programs in developing countries and offers examples of new mechanisms driven by public-private partnerships to overcome issues of affordability. These mechanisms include Advance Market Commitments with vaccine manufacturers, which take a demand-pull approach to ensure increased production of available vaccines or development of new vaccines for neglected diseases. A second approach applies a supply-push mechanism, such as technology transfer to developing-country manufacturers. A public-private partnership that set long-term, maximum public-sector pricing to increase access of a Japanese encephalitis vaccine for the developing world is highlighted. Lessons learned from this experience can be applied to address common obstacles to new vaccine introduction in resource-limited countries, including issues of affordability, manufacturing capacity, equity in access and quality assurance.

  1. From regional pulse vaccination to global disease eradication: insights from a mathematical model of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cameron J; Smith, Robert J; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    Mass-vaccination campaigns are an important strategy in the global fight against poliomyelitis and measles. The large-scale logistics required for these mass immunisation campaigns magnifies the need for research into the effectiveness and optimal deployment of pulse vaccination. In order to better understand this control strategy, we propose a mathematical model accounting for the disease dynamics in connected regions, incorporating seasonality, environmental reservoirs and independent periodic pulse vaccination schedules in each region. The effective reproduction number, Re, is defined and proved to be a global threshold for persistence of the disease. Analytical and numerical calculations show the importance of synchronising the pulse vaccinations in connected regions and the timing of the pulses with respect to the pathogen circulation seasonality. Our results indicate that it may be crucial for mass-vaccination programs, such as national immunisation days, to be synchronised across different regions. In addition, simulations show that a migration imbalance can increase Re and alter how pulse vaccination should be optimally distributed among the patches, similar to results found with constant-rate vaccination. Furthermore, contrary to the case of constant-rate vaccination, the fraction of environmental transmission affects the value of Re when pulse vaccination is present.

  2. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  3. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Development of transcutaneous vaccination system for infectious disease countermeasure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The recent vigorous transnational migration of people and materials reflecting the development of transportation facilities, changes in social structure, and war disasters has increased the global spread of emerging and re-emerging infections. Once, as the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, person-to-person transmission was achieved, the spread of pandemic cannot be contained in reality. Thus enhancement of the crisis-management structure against pandemic is critically important to maintain national function. On the basis of this social background, the development of vaccination, which is the only fundamental prophylaxis, is in attention, and earliest possible establishment of system that supply mass-vaccines in a short time is required. Even if, however, rapid manufacture of vaccine antigen is actualized, there are several problems that vaccine is not easily spread across the developing country and mass vaccination is not performed immediately at the time of the crisis, because conventional vaccination is performed mainly by injection. Our research group developed transcutaneous vaccine devices; a hydrogel patch and a dissolving microneedle array which delivered antigens to antigen-presenting cells in the epidermal layer. Our transcutaneous vaccination system receives a high evaluation as novel, easy-to-use, and less-invasive vaccination method against infections from home and abroad. In this review, we introduce the research progress resulted from our basic, preclinical, and clinical study for practical use.

  5. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  6. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gari, Getachew; Abie, Getnet; Gizaw, Daniel; Wubete, Alehegn; Kidane, Membere; Asgedom, Hagos; Bayissa, Berecha; Ayelet, Gelagay; Oura, Christopher A L; Roger, Francois; Tuppurainen, Eeva S M

    2015-06-22

    The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated animals in the field. The three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (Ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) Neethling and Kenyan sheep and goat pox (KSGP) O-180 strain vaccines) and a Gorgan goat pox (GTP) vaccine manufactured by Jordan Bio-Industries Centre (JOVAC). The latter vaccine was evaluated for the first time in cattle against LSDV. The Ethiopian Neethling and KSGPO-180 vaccines failed to provide protection in cattle against LSDV, whereas the Gorgan GTP vaccine protected all the vaccinated calves from clinical signs of LSD. There was no significant difference in protective efficacy detected between two dosage levels (P=0.2, P=0.25, and P=0.1 for KSGP, Neethling and Gorgan vaccines, respectively). Additionally, the Gorgan GTP vaccinated cattle showed stronger levels of cellular immune responses measured using Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions at the vaccination site indicating higher levels of immunogenicity produced by the GTPV vaccine in cattle, as opposed to the other two vaccines. This study indicated, for the first time, that the Gorgan GTP vaccine can effectively protect cattle against LSDV and that the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine were not protective. The results emphasise the need for molecular characterization of the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine seed viruses used for vaccine production in Ethiopia. In addition, the potency and efficacy testing process of the Ethiopian LSD Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccines should be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid Engineering of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine and Challenge Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yong; Lee, Yeo-Joo; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Park, Jeong-Nam; Park, Min-Eun; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Chu, Jia-Qi; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Seo, Min-Goo; Park, Jung-Won; Kim, Byounghan; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Jong-Soo; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-08-15

    There are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), each of which has intratypic variants. In the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. The capsid-encoding gene (P1) of the vaccine strain O1/Manisa/Turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the O, A, Asia1, C, SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 serotypes. Viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. Each chimeric FMDV with a replacement of P1 showed serotype-specific antigenicity and varied in terms of pathogenesis in pigs and mice. Vaccination of pigs with an experimental trivalent vaccine containing the inactivated recombinants based on the main serotypes O, A, and Asia1 effectively protected them from virus challenge. This technology could be a potential strategy for a customized vaccine with challenge tools to protect against epizootic disease caused by specific serotypes or subtypes of FMDV.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) causes significant economic losses. For vaccine preparation, the selection of vaccine strains was complicated by high antigenic variation. In the present study, we suggested an effective strategy to rapidly prepare and evaluate mass-produced customized vaccines against epidemic strains. The P1 gene encoding the structural proteins of the well-known vaccine virus was replaced by the synthetic or amplified genes of viruses of seven representative serotypes. These chimeric viruses generally replicated readily in cell culture and had a particle size similar to that of the original vaccine strain. Their antigenicity mirrored that of the original serotype from which their P1 gene was derived. Animal infection experiments revealed that the recombinants varied in terms of pathogenicity. This strategy will be a useful tool for rapidly generating customized FMD vaccines or challenge viruses for all serotypes, especially for FMD-free countries

  8. Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Kagucia, Eunice W.; Loo, Jennifer D.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Puhan, Milo A.; Cherian, Thomas; Levine, Orin S.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Moore, Matthew R.; Adegbola, Claire A.; Agocs, Mary; Ampofo, Krow; Andrews, Nick; Barton, Theresa; Benito, Javier; Broome, Claire V.; Bruce, Michael G.; Bulkow, Lisa R.; Byington, Carrie L.; Camou, Teresa; Cook, Heather; Cotter, Suzanne; Dagan, Ron; de Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Geneviève; Denham, Barbara; Edwards, Giles; Eskola, Juhani; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Garcia-Gabarrot, Gabriela; Garcia-Garcia, Juan J.; Gene, Amadeu; Gomez, Borja; Heffernan, Helen; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Heuberger, Sigrid; Hilty, Markus; Ingels, Helene; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Kellner, James D.; Klein, Nicola P.; Kormann-Klement, Andrea; Kozakova, Jana; Krause, Vicki; Kriz, Paula; Lambertsen, Lotte; Lepoutre, Agnès; Lipsitch, Marc; Lopez-Vega, Mariana; Lovgren, Marguerite; Maraki, Sofia; Mason, Edward O.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Menzies, Robert; Messina, Allison; Miller, Elizabeth; Mintegi, Santiago; Motlova, Jitka; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Mühlemann, Kathrin; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Murdoch, David R.; Park, Daniel E.; Reingold, Arthur L.; Sa-Leao, Raquel; Sanyal, Abanti; Smith, Peter G.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Thompson, Richard E.; Thoon, Koh C.; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; van der Ende, Arie; Vanderkooi, Otto G.; van der Linden, Mark P. G.; Varon, Emmanuelle; Verhaegen, Jan; Vestrheim, Didrik F.; Vickers, Imelda; von Gottberg, Anne; von Kries, Rüdiger; Waight, Pauline; Weatherholtz, Robert; Weiss, Susanne; Yee, Arnold; Zaidi, Anita K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccine-serotype (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates declined substantially following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into national immunization programs. Increases in non-vaccineserotype (NVT) IPD rates occurred in some sites, presumably

  9. Autoimmune thyroid disease elicited by NY-ESO-1 vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Agah, Ravin; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2014-02-01

    Immunotherapies and targeted therapies are frequently associated with thyroid dysfunction, which is in contrast with the rare thyroid abnormalities induced by cytotoxic agents. Immunotherapy with NY-ESO-1, a tumor-associated antigen expressed by a number of malignancies, was reported to trigger hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism in two HLA-A2 patients with ovarian cancer. We describe now a case of Graves' disease triggered by NY-ESO-1 in a HLA-A2-negative woman. A 32-year-old woman with a synovial sarcoma received radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and finally NY-ESO-1 vaccine. The patient was found to have HLA A11/A33(19), B13/B56(22), Cw3/-. One month after the beginning of immunotherapy, thyroid dysfunction was clinically suspected and Graves' disease was biochemically confirmed. Fearful of the antithyroid drugs' side effects, the patient was treated with a beta-blocker (propranolol, 80-20 mg/day). As hyperthyroidism progressively worsened, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. We hypothesized that NY-ESO-1 shared partial homology with thyroid autoantigens (the so-called molecular mimicry mechanism) and that at least one pair of homologous sequences contained amino acid sequence binding motifs to a restricted number of HLA molecules. We used BLAST software to search amino acid sequence homologies between NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens (thyrotropin receptor [TSH-R], thyroperoxidase, and thyroglobulin), and the HLA ligand/motif database to look for HLA/T-cell receptor binding motifs in the regions of NY-ESO-1 and thyroid autoantigens that were homologous. We found 15 epitopic regions of NY-ESO-1 homologous to 15 regions of thyroid autoantigens, some of which epitopic: 5 of TSH-R, 8 of thyroglobulin, and 2 of thyroperoxidase. These homologous sequences contain binding motifs belonging to several HLA class I antigens, including HLA A2 and the patient's A11 and A33. Genetically predisposed patients who receive NY-ESO-1 vaccination are at risk to develop thyroid

  10. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  11. Vaccines to Combat Livestock Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An easy-to-use vaccine that is inexpensive, safe, and easily stored and transported would reduce losses by small-scale livestock keepers in rural Africa, particularly women whose livelihoods rely heavily on small animals. This project is applying modern biotechnology to engineer a thermostable, single dose vaccine that ...

  12. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...

  13. Immunogenicity of trivalent influenza vaccines in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis: MF59-adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji Yun; Song, Joon Young; Choi, Won Suk; Lee, Jacob; Seo, Yu Bin; Kwon, Young Joo; Ko, Gang Jee; Cha, Dae Ryong; Kang, Young Sun; Lee, Young-Ki; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

    2016-11-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from influenza. However, the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine is known to be attenuated in these patients. In this study, the immunogenicity of MF59-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines was compared in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). During 2013-2014, 179 CKD patients undergoing HD participated in the study. The patients were randomized into either MF59-adjuvanted vaccine group or non-adjuvanted vaccine group and were immunized with the respective vaccine. Sera were collected prior to vaccination and at 1 month (88 patients in MF59-adjuvanted vaccine group and 86 patients in non-adjuvanted vaccine group) and 6 months post vaccination. Levels of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were measured. The seroconversion rate of all 3 vaccine strains at 1 month post-vaccination was significantly higher in the MF59-adjuvanted group than in the non-adjuvanted group (47.7% vs. 17.4%, A/H1N1; 42.0% vs. 16.3%, A/H3N2; 31.8% vs. 7.0%, B, P vaccination, the fold increase in geometric mean titer from pre-vaccination for A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B viruses was significantly greater in the MF59-adjuvanted group than in the non-adjuvanted group. In elderly patients (≥65 years), the seroconversion rate at 1 month post-vaccination against influenza B strain was higher in the MF59-adjuvanted group than in the non-adjuvanted group (33.3% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.03). The MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine showed better immunogenicity than the non-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in CKD patients undergoing HD.

  14. History of U.S. military contributions to the study of vaccines against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artenstein, Andrew W; Opal, Jason M; Opal, Steven M; Tramont, Edmund C; Peter, Georges; Russell, Phillip K

    2005-04-01

    The U.S. military has a long and illustrious history of involvement with vaccines against infectious diseases. For more than 200 years, the military has been actively engaged in vaccine research and has made many important contributions to the development of these products for use in disease prevention and control. Through the efforts of military researchers, numerous serious threats to the health of American troops and their families have been mitigated.

  15. Epidemiological impact of vaccination on the dynamics of two childhood diseases in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutin, Hélène; Mantilla-Beniers, Natalia B; Simondon, François; Aaby, Peter; Grenfell, Bryan T; Guégan, Jean-François; Rohani, Pejman

    2005-04-01

    Measles and pertussis are ubiquitous vaccine-preventable diseases, which remain an important public health problem in developing countries. Hence, developing a deep understanding of their transmission dynamics remains imperative. To achieve this, we compared the impact of vaccination at both individual and population levels in a Senegalese rural community. This study represents the first such comparative study in tropical conditions and constitutes a point of comparison with other studies of disease dynamics in developed countries. Changes in the transmission rates of infections are reflected in their mean ages at infection and basic reproductive ratio calculated before and after vaccination. We explored persistence of both infections in relation to population size in each village and found the inter-epidemic period for the whole area using wavelets analysis. As predicted by epidemiological theory, we observed an increase in the mean age at infection and a decrease in the reproductive ratio of both diseases. We showed for both the pre- vaccination and vaccine eras that persistence depends on population size. After vaccination, persistence decreased and the inter-epidemic period increased. The observed changes suggest that vaccination against measles and pertussis induced a drop in their transmission. Similarities in disease dynamics to those of temperate regions such as England and Wales were also observed.

  16. Effect of adding crushed Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa seeds and Thymus vulgaris mixture to antibiotics-free rations of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers on growth performance, antibody titer and haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Z. Athamneh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of crushed Pimpinella anisum (PA, Nigella sativa (NS seeds and Thymus vulgaris (TV mixture as a feed additive on growth performance and mortality rate (MR, selected antibodies titer (Ab’s and blood hematological profile of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Lohman male broiler chicks fed free-antibiotics ration. A total of 400 one-day old chicks were distributed into 16 groups (4 treatment x 4 replicates x 25chicks. The experiment lasted from one to 42 days of age. The statistical findings of this experiment prove that the use of medicinal plants mixture improves live body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and MR of vaccinated male broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. antibodies titer against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease of non-vaccinated and vaccinated male broilers were significantly improved at 21 and 42 days as a result of the addition of medicinal plant mixture to the basal ration. Concerning Newcastle disease, the use of PA, NS and TV mixture did not reflect in any additional improvement of Ab's than vaccines did. The addition of medicinal plants mixture increases WBC's, RBC's, thrombocytes count and Hb concentration of vaccinated and non-vaccinated male broilers at 21 days of age. Meanwhile, heterophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of vaccinated male broilers (VMB were significantly improved by adding medicinal plant mixture to their basal diet. Moreover, at 42 days of age the use of PA, NS seeds and TV mixture indicate significant increase in total WBC’s, lymphocytes and monocytes and monocytes count of VMB and non-vaccinated male broiler (NVMB. No significant differences were noticed in RBC’s and Hct as a result of feeding crushed medicinal plants mixture.

  17. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingying; Yuen, Pak-Wai; Lam, Jenny Ka-Wing

    2014-07-10

    Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT). Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents.

  18. Network-based vaccination improves prospects for disease control in wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmore, Julie; Caillaud, Damien; Hall, Richard J.; Stumpf, Rebecca M.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Altizer, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Many endangered wildlife populations are vulnerable to infectious diseases for which vaccines exist; yet, pragmatic considerations often preclude large-scale vaccination efforts. These barriers could be reduced by focusing on individuals with the highest contact rates. However, the question then becomes whether targeted vaccination is sufficient to prevent large outbreaks. To evaluate the efficacy of targeted wildlife vaccinations, we simulate pathogen transmission and control on monthly association networks informed by behavioural data from a wild chimpanzee community (Kanyawara N = 37, Kibale National Park, Uganda). Despite considerable variation across monthly networks, our simulations indicate that targeting the most connected individuals can prevent large outbreaks with up to 35% fewer vaccines than random vaccination. Transmission heterogeneities might be attributed to biological differences among individuals (e.g. sex, age, dominance and family size). Thus, we also evaluate the effectiveness of a trait-based vaccination strategy, as trait data are often easier to collect than interaction data. Our simulations indicate that a trait-based strategy can prevent large outbreaks with up to 18% fewer vaccines than random vaccination, demonstrating that individual traits can serve as effective estimates of connectivity. Overall, these results suggest that fine-scale behavioural data can help optimize pathogen control efforts for endangered wildlife. PMID:24872503

  19. [Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospital admission due to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-Capdevila, Josep; Godoy, Pere; Marsal, Josep-Ramon; Cruz, Inés; Solanes, Mònica

    2014-02-01

    The main objective was to determine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalization due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One secondary objective was to estimate the prevalence of vaccination, and to describe the factors that were associated with being vaccinated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted that included 1,323 patients diagnosed with COPD in the Health Centre of the Pla d'Urgell (Lleida, Spain). They were classified into two cohorts: cohort1, patients vaccinated against seasonal influenza (campaign 2011/12), and cohort2, non-vaccinated. The number of patients in both cohorts requiring hospital admission for exacerbation of the disease between the 12/01/2011 and the 03/15/2012 was quantified. Information about the variables of interest was recorded for each patient. A univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The effectiveness of vaccination was calculated with the formula: E=(1-OR)×100. The ORs and their 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were determined by multivariate logistic regression models. Just over half (55.3%) of the patients had been vaccinated. Vaccinated patients were older and had more associated comorbidity. At the same time, they were less hospitalized (3.0% versus 8.9%; P=.001). The crude and adjusted effectiveness of influenza vaccination in this population subgroup was 68.4% (95%CI: 47.5-81.0) and 90.8 (95%CI: 96.8-88.2), respectively. Influenza vaccination is effective in preventing hospitalization due to acute exacerbations in COPD patients. However, immunization coverage is not as high as desired. Designing programs to increase the rate of vaccination in this population would reduce the number of hospital admissions for COPD exacerbation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta B; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Ingels, Helene

    2013-01-01

    and 23F). One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13......A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule) in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction...... of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number) and 105 (55%) caused by one...

  1. Pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes following the introduction of conjugate vaccination in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitta B Harboe

    Full Text Available A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by PCV7-serotypes. We report the results from a nationwide population-based cohort study of laboratory confirmed IPD cases in children younger than 5 years during October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 and describe the characteristics of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number and 105 (55% caused by one of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F and 23F. One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13 serotypes had been vaccinated by PCV13 and there were therefore no PCV13-vaccine failures in the first 8-months after PCV13 introduction in Denmark.

  2. Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Vaccine Serotypes following the Introduction of Conjugate Vaccination in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Helene; Rasmussen, Jeppe N.; Andersen, Peter H. S.; Bjerre, Catherine C.; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Haston, Mitch; Konradsen, Helle B.; Lambertsen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (2+1 schedule) in October 2007, followed by PCV13 starting from April 2010. The nationwide incidence of IPD among children younger than 5 years nearly halved after the introduction of PCV7 in the program, mainly due to a decline in IPD caused by PCV7-serotypes. We report the results from a nationwide population-based cohort study of laboratory confirmed IPD cases in children younger than 5 years during October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 and describe the characteristics of children suspected to present with a vaccine failure. The period between April 19 and December 31, 2010 was considered a PCV7/PCV13 transitional period, where both vaccines were offered. We identified 45 episodes of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype (23% of the total number) and 105 (55%) caused by one of the 6 additional serotypes in PCV13. Ten children had received at least one PCV7 dose before the onset of IPD caused by a PCV7 serotype. Seven children were considered to be incompletely vaccinated before IPD, but only three cases fulfilled the criteria of vaccine failure (caused by serotypes 14, 19F and 23F). One case of vaccine failure was observed in a severely immunosuppressed child following three PCV7 doses, and two cases were observed in immunocompetent children following two infant doses before they were eligible for their booster. None of the IPD cases caused by the additional PCV13 serotypes had been vaccinated by PCV13 and there were therefore no PCV13-vaccine failures in the first 8-months after PCV13 introduction in Denmark. PMID:23365635

  3. Challenges of Generating and Maintaining Protective Vaccine-Induced Immune Responses for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Lyoo, Young S; King, Donald P; Paton, David J

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination can play a central role in the control of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by reducing both the impact of clinical disease and the extent of virus transmission between susceptible animals. Recent incursions of exotic FMD virus lineages into several East Asian countries have highlighted the difficulties of generating and maintaining an adequate immune response in vaccinated pigs. Factors that impact vaccine performance include (i) the potency, antigenic payload, and formulation of a vaccine; (ii) the antigenic match between the vaccine and the heterologous circulating field strain; and (iii) the regime (timing, frequency, and herd-level coverage) used to administer the vaccine. This review collates data from studies that have evaluated the performance of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccines at the individual and population level in pigs and identifies research priorities that could provide new insights to improve vaccination in the future.

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccination of adult women and risk of autoimmune and neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, A; Svanström, H; Scheller, N M; Grönlund, O; Pasternak, B; Arnheim-Dahlström, L

    2018-02-01

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been introduced in many countries worldwide. Whilst safety studies have been reassuring, focus has been on the primary target group, the young adolescent girls. However, it is also important to evaluate safety in adult women where background disease rates and safety issues could differ significantly. We took advantage of the unique Danish and Swedish nationwide healthcare registers to conduct a cohort study comparing incidence rate ratios (RRs) of 45 preselected serious chronic diseases in quadrivalent HPV (qHPV)-vaccinated and qHPV-unvaccinated adult women 18-44 years of age. We used Poisson regression to estimate RRs according to qHPV vaccination status with two-sided 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The study cohort comprised 3 126 790 women (1 195 865 [38%] Danish and 1 930 925 [62%] Swedish) followed for 16 386 459 person-years. Vaccine uptake of at least one dose of qHPV vaccine was 8% in the cohort: 18% amongst Danish women and 2% amongst Swedish. We identified seven adverse events with statistically significant increased risks following vaccination-Hashimoto's thyroiditis, coeliac disease, localized lupus erythematosus, pemphigus vulgaris, Addison's disease, Raynaud's disease and other encephalitis, myelitis or encephalomyelitis. After taking multiple testing into account and conducting self-controlled case series analyses, coeliac disease (RR 1.56 [95% confidence interval 1.29-1.89]) was the only remaining association. Unmasking of conditions at vaccination visits is a plausible explanation for the increased risk associated with qHPV in this study because coeliac disease is underdiagnosed in Scandinavian populations. In conclusion, our study of serious adverse event rates in qHPV-vaccinated and qHPV-unvaccinated adult women 18-44 years of age did not raise any safety issues of concern. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. Do subacromial ultrasonography findings predict efficacy of intra-bursal injection? Prospective study in 39 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, Y; Bouilleau, L; Dubois de Montmarin, G; Bacle, G; Favard, L

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasonography has become an investigation of choice in the management of shoulder pain. The objective of this study was to determine whether the efficacy of subacromial-subdeltoid bursa injection correlated with the ultrasound findings. We prospectively recruited patients who were seen between November 2012 and November 2013 for subacromial pain and whose rotator cuff was either intact or showed a full-thickness tear less than 1cm in length. A standardised physical examination of the shoulder was followed immediately by static and dynamic ultrasonography, intra-bursal injection of lidocaine, and a repetition of the same physical examination. Recorded ultrasonography features were the appearance of the bursa, shape of the coraco-acromial ligament, and bursal deformation induced by passage under the coraco-acromial ligament during dynamic imaging. A response to the injection was defined as greater than 75% improvements in at least three of the physical examination parameters. We included 39 patients with a mean age of 56.7 years. Ultrasonography showed abnormalities of the bursa in 30 patients, including 1 with an intra-bursal effusion, 10 with thickening, and 19 with both. Deformation of the bursa under the coraco-acromial ligament was noted in 26 patients. The proportions of patients with bursal effusion and with bursal thickening were similar in the 20 responders and 19 non-responders. Neither were any significant differences found for coraco-acromial ligament shape or bursal deformation under the ligament. No correlation was found between ultrasonography findings and the efficacy of a local anaesthetic injection into the subacromial bursa. These findings suggest that ultrasound abnormalities may constitute mere physiological changes, in keeping with earlier studies in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, subacromial impingement may be currently overdiagnosed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. R&D in Vaccines Targeting Neglected Diseases: An Exploratory Case Study Considering Funding for Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine Development from 2007 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theolis Costa Barbosa Bessa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an exploratory case study regarding the types of institutions funding the research and development to obtain new tuberculosis vaccines, this article intends to provoke discussion regarding the provision of new vaccines targeting neglected disease. Although our findings and discussion are mainly relevant to the case presented here, some aspects are more generally applicable, especially regarding the dynamics of development in vaccines to prevent neglected diseases. Taking into account the dynamics of innovation currently seen at work in the vaccine sector, a highly concentrated market dominated by few multinational pharmaceutical companies, we feel that global PDP models can play an important role throughout the vaccine development cycle. In addition, the authors call attention to issues surrounding the coordination of actors and resources in the research, development, manufacturing, and distribution processes of vaccine products arising from PDP involvement.

  7. Dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein vaccine provides help to a recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccine including mobilization of protective CD8+T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Loveline N; Nji, Nadesh N; Ambada, Georgia; Ngoh, Apeh A; Njambe Priso, Ghislain D; Tchadji, Jules C; Lissom, Abel; Magagoum, Suzanne H; Sake, Carol N; Tchouangueu, Thibau F; Chukwuma, George O; Okoli, Arinze S; Sagnia, Bertrand; Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca; Tebit, Denis M; Esimone, Charles O; Waffo, Alain B; Park, Chae G; Überla, Klaus; Nchinda, Godwin W

    2018-03-01

    Recombinant Newcastle Disease virus (rNDV) vectored vaccines are safe mucosal applicable vaccines with intrinsic immune-modulatory properties for the induction of efficient immunity. Like all viral vectored vaccines repeated inoculation via mucosal routes invariably results to immunity against viral vaccine vectors. To obviate immunity against viral vaccine vectors and improve the ability of rNDV vectored vaccines in inducing T cell immunity in murine air way we have directed dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein (DEC-Gag) vaccine; for the induction of helper CD4 + T cells to a Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing codon optimized HIV-1 Gag P55 (rNDV-L-Gag) vaccine. We do so through successive administration of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein plus polyICLC (DEC-Gag) vaccine and rNDV-L-Gag. First strong gag specific helper CD4 + T cells are induced in mice by selected targeting of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein vaccine to dendritic cells (DC) in situ together with polyICLC as adjuvant. This targeting helped T cell immunity develop to a subsequent rNDV-L-Gag vaccine and improved both systemic and mucosal gag specific immunity. This sequential DEC-Gag vaccine prime followed by an rNDV-L-gag boost results to improved viral vectored immunization in murine airway, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site. Thus, complementary prime boost vaccination, in which prime and boost favor distinct types of T cell immunity, improves viral vectored immunization, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site such as the murine airway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and DiseasePublished by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Attenuated strains of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis as vaccine candidates against Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Erik W; Kink, John A; Talaat, Adel

    2014-04-11

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Johne's disease has a severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. In an effort to combat this disease, we screened several transposon mutants that were attenuated in the murine model of paratuberculosis for the potential use as live attenuated vaccines. Using the murine model, two vaccine candidates (pgs1360, pgs3965 with mutations of fabG2_2 and umaA1, respectively) were at or below the limit of detection for tissue colonization suggesting their low level persistence and hence safety. Prior to challenge, both candidates induced a M. paratuberculosis-specific IFN-γ, an indication of eliciting cell-mediated immunity. Following challenge with a virulent strain of M. paratuberculosis, the two vaccine candidates significantly reduced bacterial colonization in organs with reduced histological scores compared to control animals. In addition, one of the vaccine candidates (pgs3965) also induced IL-17a, a cytokine associated with protective immunity in mycobacterial infection. Our analysis suggested that the pgs3965 vaccine candidate is a potential live-attenuated vaccine that could be tested further in ruminant models of paratuberculosis. The analysis also validated our screening strategy to identify effective vaccine candidates against intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in vaccination against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli respiratory disease: potentials and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunaim, Haitham; Abu-Madi, Marwan Abdelhamid; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2014-08-06

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most economically devastating pathogens affecting the poultry industry. This group of extra-intestinal E. coli causes a variety of clinical conditions including airsacculitis and cellulitis. The economic impact of APEC is mainly due to mortality, slower growth rates, and carcass downgrading. In commercial broiler operations, APEC infections are controlled indirectly by vaccination against other respiratory diseases and minimizing stress conditions, and directly by administration of antimicrobial agents to suppress the infection in already infected flocks. The fact that most APEC strains possess some common virulence factors suggests that an effective vaccine against APEC is a viable option. The most important virulence factors that have been investigated over the years include type I and P fimbriae, aerobactin iron-acquisition system, and serum resistance traits. Despite the potential for developing an efficacious vaccine to combat this economically important poultry disease, several obstacles hinder such efforts. Those obstacles include the cost, vaccine delivery method and timing of vaccination as the birds should be immune to APEC by 21 days of age. Herein, we review the various attempts to develop an effective vaccine against the respiratory form of APEC diseases in poultry. We also discuss in-depth the potentials and limitations of such vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaccines for Prevention of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Livestock: A North American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, D Scott; MacLachlan, N James

    2015-06-01

    Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) are noncontagious, insect-transmitted diseases of domestic and wild ruminants caused by related but distinct viruses. There are significant gaps in our scientific knowledge and available countermeasures to control an outbreak of orbivirus-induced disease, whether BT or EHD. Both BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus (EHDV) cause hemorrhagic fevers in susceptible ruminants; however, BT is principally a disease of domestic livestock whereas EHD is principally a disease of certain species of wild, non-African ungulates, notably white-tailed deer. The live-attenuated (modified live virus [MLV]) vaccines available in the United States for use in small ruminant livestock do provide good protection against clinical disease following infection with the homologous virus serotype. Although there is increasing justification that the use of MLV vaccines should be avoided if possible, these are the only vaccines currently available in the United States. Specifically, MLVs are used in California to protect sheep against infection with BTV serotypes 10, 11, and 17, and a MLV to BTV serotype 10 is licensed for use in sheep throughout the United States. These MLV vaccines may need to continue to be used in the immediate future for protective immunization of sheep and goats against BT. There are currently no licensed vaccines available for EHD in the United States other than autogenous vaccines. If there is a need to rapidly develop a vaccine to meet an emerging crisis associated with either BTV or EHDV infections, development of an inactivated virus vaccine in a conventional adjuvanted formulation will likely be required. With two doses of vaccine (and in some instances just one dose), inactivated vaccines can provide substantial immunity to the epizootic serotype of either BTV or EHDV. This strategy is similar to that used in the 2006-2008 BTV serotype 8 outbreaks in northern Europe that provided vaccine to the field within 2 years of

  11. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Pearson, Caroline R; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R; Lamien, Charles E; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of coccidial infection on vaccine- and vvIBDV in lymphoid tissues of SPF chickens as detected by RT-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Bisgaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating a potential effect caused by coccidia on the immune response to vaccine- and very virulent infectious bursal disase virus (vvIBDV) in SPF chickens. Methods: Two groups of three weeks old SPF chickens were vaccinated prior to inoculation with coccidia ...... coccidiosis and vvIBDV acting in concert....

  13. Quantitative genetics of disease resistance in vaccinated and unvaccinated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drangsholt, T M K; Gjerde, B; Ødegård, J; Finne-Fridell, F; Evensen, Ø; Bentsen, H B

    2011-01-01

    Furunculosis (Aeromonoas salmonicida) is an important disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming. Vaccination and selective breeding for increased resistance to the disease on the basis of challenge tests of unvaccinated fish are used as complementary prophylactic methods. An important issue is whether genetic predisposition to infection is consistent across vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. Hence, the main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of the genetic associations (correlations) between resistance to furunculosis in vaccinated and unvaccinated fish, and to estimate the magnitude of the correlation of resistance to furunculosis with resistance to the viral diseases infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). Sub-samples of unvaccinated and vaccinated salmon from 150 full-sib families were subjected to separate cohabitation challenge tests. Substantial genetic variation was found in resistance to furunculosis in both the unvaccinated (heritabilities of 0.51±0.05) and vaccinated (0.39±0.06) fish. However, the genetic correlation between resistance to furunculosis in the two groups was low (0.32±0.13), indicating a weak genetic association between resistance in the two groups. Hence, the current selection strategy on the basis of challenge tests of unvaccinated fish is likely to produce low genetic improvement in resistance to furunculosis under field conditions, where fish are vaccinated with an effective vaccine. Evidence was found of significantly favourable genetic associations of resistance to furunculosis in unvaccinated (but less so for vaccinated) fish with resistance to both IPN and ISA (unvaccinated fish), indicating that vaccination ‘mask' genetic associations between resistance to different diseases. PMID:21559049

  14. An australian audit of vaccination status in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catto-Smith Anthony G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are at increased risk of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD. This includes invasive pneumococcal disease and influenza. The primary aim of this study was to describe compliance with current Australian guidelines for vaccination of children and adolescents diagnosed with IBD. A secondary aim was to review the serological screening for VPD. Methods A random sample of patients (0-18 years at diagnosis, were selected from the Victoria Australia state based Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Register. A multi-faceted retrospective review of immunization status was undertaken, with hospital records audited, a telephone interview survey conducted with consenting parents and the vaccination history was checked against the primary care physician and Australian Childhood Immunization Register (ACIR records. The routine primary childhood vaccinations and administration of the recommended additional influenza and pneumococcal vaccines was clarified. Results This 2007 audit reviewed the immunization status of 101individuals on the Victorian Pediatric IBD database. Median age at diagnosis was 12.1 years, 50% were on active immunosuppressive therapy. 90% (38/42 [95% confidence intervals (CI 77%; 97%] with complete immunization information were up-to-date with routine primary immunizations. Only 5% (5/101 [95% CI 2%; 11%] received a recommended pneumococcal vaccine booster and 10% (10/101 [95% CI 5%; 17%] had evidence of having ever received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Those living in rural Victoria (p = 0.005 and younger at the age of diagnosis (p = 0.002 were more likely to have ever received an influenza vaccine Serological testing, reviewing historical protection from VPD, identified 18% (17/94 with evidence of at least one serology sample. Conclusion This study highlights poor compliance in IBD patients for additional recommended vaccines. A multi-faceted approach is

  15. Recurrent Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Serotype 12F in a Vaccinated Splenectomized Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Katrine; Schumacher, Anna Holst; Kantsø, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This is the first case report of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), specifically, due to serotype 12F. The patient described here was vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) due to previous splenectomy, and an anti-pneumococcal IgG test concluded...... that she had responded sufficiently to vaccination. Still, she had a fulminate recurrent infection with PPV23 serotype 12F. We investigated the anti-pneumococcal IgG test, and it turned out that it is based on the geometric mean value of only 12 of the serotypes included in PPV23; 12F is none of them...... vaccines, in order to get a more accurate estimation of the vaccination coverage for the individual patient. Therefore, more research on this area is warranted, along with a discussion of whether the laboratory answers to the clinicians should be more detailed....

  16. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight....... Results in this presentation were obtained building upon the model presented in: Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Kaare Græsbøll et al. Scientific Reports. 2:863 (2012)....

  17. Response to hepatitis A and B vaccination in pediatric patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urganci, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Thirty patients with CD ages 1 to 15 years were compared with 50 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls. Screening for hepatitis A and B serology was carried out before vaccination. Susceptible cases received 20 μg of recombinant DNA vaccine for hepatitis B (0,1, and 6 months) and 720 milliELISA units of inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine (0 and 6 months). Postvaccination serologic evaluation was performed 1 month after the last dose of primary vaccination, 1 month after the booster dose, and once every year during follow-up. Sixteen patients and 35 controls received hepatitis A vaccine; protective anti-HAV antibodies were developed in 12 (75%) of the patients and all of the controls (75% vs 100%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.92, P=0.007). Thirty patients and 50 controls received hepatitis B vaccine, and 70% of the patients vs 90% of the controls achieved seroprotection (anti-HBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL) 1 month after primary vaccination (95% CI 0.74-0.90, P=0.03). Four patients were unresponsive to both of the vaccines. The overall seroprotection rates were 96% in controls and 80% in patients after the whole hepatitis B vaccination series (95% CI 0.04-0.18, P=0.04). No significant reduction was observed in antibody response among patients and controls during follow-up period. The rate of seroconversion to the hepatitis B virus- and HAV vaccine is lower in patients with CD than in healthy controls.

  18. [Prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease using a four-component vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A; Barranco, D; Batalla, J; Bayas, J M; Campins, M; Gorrotxategi Gorrotxategi, P; Lluch, J; Martinón-Torres, F; Mellado, M J; Moreno-Pérez, D; Uriel, B; Vázquez, J A

    2014-04-01

    Meningococcal disease is an infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, and those of serogroup B are currently the most predominant. It has been difficult to create effective vaccines for this serogroup in order to modify or reduce its morbidity. The aim of this study was to review existing data on the new vaccine 4CMenB and its potential contribution to the prevention of this infection. A panel of 12 experts (from Pediatrics, Public Health and Vaccinology) conducted a literature search and prioritized 74 publications. A review of the vaccine was then prepared, which was discussed in a meeting and subsequently validated by e-mail. 4CMenB vaccine, based on four components (NadA, fHbp, NHBA and OMVnz), was designed by reverse vaccinology. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) shows a potential of 70-80% coverage of the strains in Europe. Clinical trials show that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic in infants, children, adolescents, and adults, and induces an anamnestic response. The incidence of fever is similar to systemic vaccines administered alone, but higher when co-administered with them, although the fever pattern is predictable and self-limited. It is compatible with the Spanish routine vaccines, and can be administered simultaneously with the currently available hexavalent and pentavalent vaccines, as well as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The 4CMenB vaccine is the only strategy currently available to prevent meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunogenecity of hepatitis A and B vaccination in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urganci, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya

    2013-04-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the response to hepatitis A and B vaccination in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A total of 47 patients with IBD (25 ulcerative colitis, 14 Crohn's disease, and 8 indeterminate colitis) ages 3 to 17 years were compared with 50 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Screening for hepatitis A and B serology was carried out before vaccination. Susceptible cases received 20 mg of recombinant DNA vaccine for hepatitis B (0, 1, and 6 months)and 720 milliELISA units of inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine (HAV) (0 and 6 months). Postvaccination serologic evaluation was performed 1 month after the last dose of primary vaccination, 1 month after the booster dose, and once every year during follow-up. A total of 23 patients and 35 controls received HAV and protective anti-HAV antibodies were developed in all of the patients and controls (P =1.00). Forty-seven patients and 50 controls received hepatitis B vaccine and 70.2% of the patients versus 90% of the controls achieved seroprotection(anti-HBs titers 10 mIU/mL) 1 month after primary vaccination (95% confidence interval 0.71–0.87, P = 0.02). The overall seroprotection rates were 96% in controls and 85.1% in patients after the whole hepatitis B vaccination series (95% confidence interval 0.83–0.95, P = 0.08). No significant reduction was observed in antibody response among patients and controls during the follow-up period. The rate of seroconversion to the hepatitis B vaccine was lower in pediatric patients with IBD than in healthy controls and hepatitis A vaccine was highly immunogenic among patients with IBD.

  20. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. [Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccination in Children and Adolescents at High Risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendais-Almeida, Marta; Ferreira-Magalhães, Manuel; Alves, Inês; Tavares, Margarida; Azevedo, Inês

    2015-01-01

    In Portugal, pneumococcal vaccination is free of charge and recommended by the Directorate-General of Health for the pediatric population at high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. Our main aim was to describe the vaccination uptake in a pediatric population attending a hospital outpatient clinic. Cross-sectional observational survey of a pediatric population attending a referral hospital outpatient clinic, from July to December 2014. Data was collected from clinical records, Individual Health Bulletin or the registry from Plataforma de Dados da Saúde®. Of the 122 participants, 95.9% had, at least, one shot of pneumococcal vaccine, but only 64.8% of these completed the age recommended vaccination scheme. Uptake was higher in children 5 years old had a higher uptake of 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine than the 2 to 5-years old ones (74.5% vs 40.5%; p < 0.001). Most of our pediatric population at high risk of IPD was vaccinated; nevertheless, only two-thirds had completed the scheme for their age. The main failure was on the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine administration. Although these results are better than those reported in other European countries with similar recommendations, it is essential to explore the causes for the observed flaws in order to optimize vaccination rates.

  2. Predicted outcomes of vaccinating wildlife to reduce human risk of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Kimberly; Fish, Durland; Galvani, Alison P

    2012-07-01

    Vaccination efforts for Lyme disease prevention in humans have focused on wildlife reservoirs to target the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, for elimination in vector ticks. Multiple host species are involved in the transmission and maintenance of the bacterium, but not all host species can be vaccinated effectively. To evaluate vaccinating a subset of hosts in the context of host-tick interactions, we constructed and evaluated a dynamic model of B. burgdorferi transmission in mice. Our analyses indicate that on average, a mouse-targeted vaccine is expected to proportionally reduce infection prevalence among ticks by 56%. However, relative to mouse vaccination, human risk of exposure is dominated by the number of tick bites received per person, the proportion of tick blood meals taken from the highly reservoir-competent white-footed mouse relative to other hosts, and the average number of tick bites per mouse. Variation in these factors reduces the predictability of vaccination outcomes. Additionally, contributions of nonmouse hosts to pathogen maintenance preclude elimination of B. burgdorferi through mouse vaccination alone. Our findings indicate that to increase the impact of wildlife vaccination, reducing tick populations by acaricide application, in addition to targeting additional reservoir-competent host species, should be employed.

  3. Engineering Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses with Improved Growth Properties for Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixue; Guo, Jianhong; Jin, Ye; Yang, Fan; He, Jijun; Lv, Lv; Zhang, Kesan; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Xiangtao; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    Background No licensed vaccine is currently available against serotype A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in China, despite the isolation of A/WH/CHA/09 in 2009, partly because this strain does not replicate well in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel plasmid-based reverse genetics system was used to construct a chimeric strain by replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09. The chimeric virus displayed growth kinetics similar to those of O/CHA/99 and was selected for use as a candidate vaccine strain after 12 passages in BHK cells. Cattle were vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine and humoral immune responses were induced in most of the animals on day 7. A challenge infection with A/WH/CHA/09 on day 28 indicated that the group given a 4-µg dose was fully protected and neither developed viremia nor seroconverted to a 3ABC antigen. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that the chimeric virus not only propagates well in BHK cells and has excellent antigenic matching against serotype A FMD, but is also a potential marker vaccine to distinguish infection from vaccination. These results suggest that reverse genetics technology is a useful tool for engineering vaccines for the prevention and control of FMD. PMID:23372840

  4. Vaccination against Foot-And-Mouth Disease: Do Initial Conditions Affect Its Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Auty, Harriet K.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2013-01-01

    When facing incursion of a major livestock infectious disease, the decision to implement a vaccination programme is made at the national level. To make this decision, governments must consider whether the benefits of vaccination are sufficient to outweigh potential additional costs, including further trade restrictions that may be imposed due to the implementation of vaccination. However, little consensus exists on the factors triggering its implementation on the field. This work explores the effect of several triggers in the implementation of a reactive vaccination-to-live policy when facing epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, we tested whether changes in the location of the incursion and the delay of implementation would affect the epidemiological benefit of such a policy in the context of Scotland. To reach this goal, we used a spatial, premises-based model that has been extensively used to investigate the effectiveness of mitigation procedures in Great Britain. The results show that the decision to vaccinate, or not, is not straightforward and strongly depends on the underlying local structure of the population-at-risk. With regards to disease incursion preparedness, simply identifying areas of highest population density may not capture all complexities that may influence the spread of disease as well as the benefit of implementing vaccination. However, if a decision to vaccinate is made, we show that delaying its implementation in the field may markedly reduce its benefit. This work provides guidelines to support policy makers in their decision to implement, or not, a vaccination-to-live policy when facing epidemics of infectious livestock disease. PMID:24204895

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of rotavirus VLP vaccines to a live homologous rotavirus vaccine in a pig model of rotavirus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Attar, L; Oliver, S L; Mackie, A; Charpilienne, A; Poncet, D; Cohen, J; Bridger, J C

    2009-05-21

    Rotavirus-like particles (VLPs) have shown promise as rotavirus vaccine candidates in mice, rabbits and pigs. In pigs, VLP vaccines reduced rotavirus shedding and disease but only when used in conjunction with live attenuated human rotavirus. Using a porcine rotavirus pig model, rotavirus antigen shedding was reduced by up to 40% after vaccination with VLPs including the neutralizing antigens VP7 and VP8* when used in combination with the adjuvant polyphosphazene poly[di(carbozylatophenoxy)phoshazene] (PCPP). In contrast, complete protection from rotavirus antigen shedding and disease was induced by vaccination with the virulent porcine rotavirus PRV 4F. This is the first study to demonstrate some post-challenge reductions in rotavirus antigen shedding in a pig model of rotavirus disease after vaccination with VLPs without combining with infectious rotavirus.

  6. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  7. Farming of Plant-Based Veterinary Vaccines and Their Applications for Disease Prevention in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pit Sze Liew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been studied for the production of pharmaceutical compounds for more than two decades now. Ever since the plant-made poultry vaccine against Newcastle disease virus made a breakthrough and went all the way to obtain regulatory approval, research to use plants for expression and delivery of vaccine proteins for animals was intensified. Indeed, in view of the high production costs of veterinary vaccines, plants represent attractive biofactories and offer many promising advantages in the production of recombinant vaccine proteins. Furthermore, the possibility of conducting immunogenicity and challenge studies in target animals has greatly exaggerated the progress. Although there are no edible plant-produced animal vaccines in the market, plant-based vaccine technology has great potentials. In this review, development, uses, and advantages of plant-based recombinant protein production in various expression platforms are discussed. In addition, examples of plant-based veterinary vaccines showing strong indication in terms of efficacy in animal disease prevention are also described.

  8. A systematic review and meta-analysis for the adverse effects, immunogenicity and efficacy of Lyme disease vaccines: Guiding novel vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Alaa; Shering, Maria; Rahman, Shusmita; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-04-20

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in North America. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent LB in humans, although monovalent and multivalent vaccines have been developed in the past. The aim of the current study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the findings from these two classes of vaccines for their reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy, in the hope this may assist in the development of future vaccines. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase). Search terms used were "vaccine/vaccination", "Lyme disease/Borreliosis", "clinical trial(s)" and "efficacy". Only seven clinical trials were included to compare the results of the monovalent vaccines to those of the multivalent one. Meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the two vaccine classes. Odds ratio (OR) for LB (and 95% confidence intervals; 95% CI) were calculated for the efficacy of the monovalent vaccine from three different clinical trials at different dose schedules. Incidence of redness (local adverse effect) and fever (systemic side effect) were, respectively, 6.8- and 2.9-fold significantly lower (p < 0.05) in individuals who received multivalent vaccines compared to those receiving the monovalent one. Incidences of all other local and systemic adverse effects were non-significantly lower in the multivalent vaccine compared to the monovalent vaccines. Seroprotection was comparable among individuals who received the two vaccine classes at the 30 μg dose level. Efficacy in the prevention of LB was only evaluated for the monovalent vaccines. OR of LB ranged from 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14-0.70; p < 0.005, vs. placebo) to 0.31 (95% CI: 0.26-0.63; p < 0.005) for the initial and final doses respectively, with an overall OR of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.26-0.63, p < 0.001). The current study further validates that the monovalent and multivalent

  9. Vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: Lessons from MERS coronavirus and Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-12-02

    The past decade and a half has been characterized by numerous emerging infectious diseases. With each new threat, there has been a call for rapid vaccine development. Pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the Zika virus represent either new viral entities or viruses emergent in new geographic locales and characterized by novel complications. Both serve as paradigms for the global spread that can accompany new pathogens. In this paper, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and Zika virus with respect to vaccine development. The challenges in vaccine development and the approach to clinical trial design to test vaccine candidates for disease entities with a changing epidemiology are discussed.

  10. Vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: Lessons from MERS coronavirus and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The past decade and a half has been characterized by numerous emerging infectious diseases. With each new threat, there has been a call for rapid vaccine development. Pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the Zika virus represent either new viral entities or viruses emergent in new geographic locales and characterized by novel complications. Both serve as paradigms for the global spread that can accompany new pathogens. In this paper, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and Zika virus with respect to vaccine development. The challenges in vaccine development and the approach to clinical trial design to test vaccine candidates for disease entities with a changing epidemiology are discussed. PMID:28846484

  11. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  12. The threat of human influenza: the viruses, disease impacts, and vaccine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiehui Kevin; Salkeld, Glenn; Heron, Leon; Khandaker, Gulam; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory illness that remains an important cause of excessive morbidity and mortality with substantial economic cost to the population. Influenza, being a virus that frequently mutates, is not amenable to elimination. Vaccination remains the most effective preventive measure. This review summarises the latest developments in the fields of biology and epidemiology relating to clinical and economic impacts of influenza disease, and vaccination. We suggest that future efforts should focus on developing safer, more effective, and cost-effective prophylactic vaccines for influenza.

  13. Influence of vaccine potency and booster administration of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on the antibody response in calves with maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çokçalışkan, Can; Türkoğlu, Tunçer; Uzunlu, Ergün; Sareyyüpoğlu, Beyhan; Hancı, İbrahim; İpek, Ahmet; Arslan, Abdullah; Babak, Ayca; İldeniz, Gülnur; Gülyaz, Veli

    2017-08-31

    Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the most important viral diseases of cloven-hoofed animals. Mass vaccination is an effective method to control the disease and is frequently utilized in endemic regions. Sufficient protection of young animals is important in mass vaccination campaigns. Maternal antibodies negatively affect the success of vaccination. Hence, determination of the optimal vaccination age is crucial for the uninterrupted protection of young animals. This study was performed to identify the effect of vaccine potency and booster administration on serum neutralizing antibody titers of calves with different levels of maternal antibodies. Calves (n = 111) on a state farm were used in this study. Oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccines with 3 PD50 and 6 PD50 potencies were used with or without booster administration. Serum samples were collected each month up to day 120 postvaccination. Virus neutralization tests were used to measure the serum neutralizing antibody titers and estimate the protection period by using pre-determined cut-off values for protection. The results revealed that a vaccination with a 6 PD50 potency vaccine, preferably followed by a booster dose, should be used to overcome maternal immunity for incessant protection.

  14. Meningococcal disease awareness and meningoccocal vaccination among Greek students planning to travel abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Katerelos, Panagiotis; Maltezou, Helena C

    2017-06-09

    Objective Students living in dormitories are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Our aim was to evaluate Greek students planning to study abroad about their level of meningococcal disease awareness and attitudes and practices towards meningococcal vaccination. Methods We studied 231 Greek ERASMUS students using a questionnaire. Results Students had a mean number of 4.1 correct answers out of six questions. In particular 66.5% 79.3%, 72.3% and 82.3% of them answered correctly about the etiology, transmission, epidemiology and treatment of meningococcal disease, respectively. Only 23.4% were vaccinated, whereas 14.7% were planning to do so in the near future. Students who answered correctly ≥5 questions were more likely to be male, vaccinated against meningococcal meningitis and science students. Conclusion We found an overall good level of knowledge about meningococcal disease among Greek students planning to study or already studying abroad. Knowledge about meningococcal disease was associated with vaccine uptake. However, vaccination rate against meningococcal disease was low.

  15. From regional pulse vaccination to global disease eradication: insights from a mathematical model of Poliomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Cameron; Bourouiba, Lydia; Smith?, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Mass-vaccination campaigns are an important strategy in the global fight against poliomyelitis and measles. The large-scale logistics required for these mass immunisation campaigns magnifies the need for research into the effectiveness and optimal deployment of pulse vaccination. In order to better understand this control strategy, we propose a mathematical model accounting for the disease dynamics in connected regions, incorporating seasonality, environmental reservoirs and independent perio...

  16. Effects of Immunosuppressants on Immune Response to Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Cao; Di Zhao; An-Tao Xu; Jun Shen; Zhi-Hua Ran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (nonimmunosuppressants and immunosuppressants). Data Sources: We completed an online systematic search using PubMed to identify all articles published in English between January 1990 and December 2013 assessing the effect of the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (with and without immunomodulators). The following terms were used: "inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)" OR "Crohn′s dise...

  17. [Does emergency vaccination make sense as a supporting element in control of foot-and-mouth disease in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, D; Dürr, S; Thür, B; Schwermer, H; Clemenz, C; Bruckner, L; Perler, L; Jemmi, T

    2013-07-01

    The outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Great Britain in 2001 let to discussions and especially emergency vaccination was deemed as an alternative to the culling of vast numbers of healthy animals. The project emergency vaccination for FMD in Switzerland was conducted to compare the effectiveness of conventional control strategies during a FMD outbreak alone and with ring vaccination of 3 km and 10 km, respectively. The results of this project showed that emergency vaccination conducted at the beginning of an epidemic was not favorable compared to conventional disease control strategy in Switzerland. In case of an advanced FMD epidemic, a 10 km ring vaccination could support the disease control in a positive way. However, the goal of emergency vaccination to save animal live can hardly be achieved due to actual legal basis and the consequent restriction measures within vaccination zones which will lead to welfare culling.

  18. Preferences for health outcomes associated with Group A Streptococcal disease and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay Charlene

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 26-valent Group A Streptococcus (GAS vaccine candidate has been developed that may provide protection against pharyngitis, invasive disease and rheumatic fever. However, recommendations for the use of a new vaccine must be informed by a range of considerations, including parents' preferences for different relevant health outcomes. Our objectives were to: (1 describe parent preferences for GAS disease and vaccination using willingness-to-pay (WTP and time trade-off (TTO methods; and (2 understand how parents' implied WTP for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained might vary depending on the particular health outcome considered (e.g. averted GAS disease vs. vaccine adverse events. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children diagnosed with GAS pharyngitis at 2 pediatric practice sites in the Boston metropolitan area. WTP and TTO (trading parental longevity for child's health questions for 2 vaccine and 4 disease-associated health states were asked using a randomly selected opening bid, followed by a 2nd bid and a final open-ended question about the amount willing to pay or trade. Descriptive analyses included medians and interquartile ranges for WTP and TTO estimates. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess differences in WTP/QALY values for vaccine adverse events vs. disease states. Results Of 119 respondents, 100 (84% and 96 (81% provided a complete set of responses for WTP and TTO questions, respectively. The median WTP and discounted (at 3% per year TTO values to avoid each health state were as follows: local reaction, $30, 0.12 days; systemic reaction, $50, 0.22 days; impetigo, $75, 1.25 days; strep throat, $75, 2.5 days; septic arthritis, $1,000, 6.6 days; and toxic shock syndrome, $3,000, 31.0 days. The median WTP/QALY was significantly higher for vaccine adverse events (~$60,000/QALY compared to disease states ($18,000 to $36,000/QALY. Conclusions Parents strongly prefer to prevent

  19. Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2010-06-11

    Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease II: Regaining FMD-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, J A; Engel, B; Dekker, A; van Roermund, H J W

    2012-11-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole. The preferred control strategy in the Netherlands has recently changed to vaccination-to-live, but - not have been applied before - this poses unprecedented challenges for effectively controlling an epidemic, regaining FMD-free status and minimizing economic losses. These three topics are addressed in an interdisciplinary model analysis. In this second part we evaluate whether vaccination-to-live poses a higher risk for regaining FMD-free status than non-vaccination strategies and whether the final screening can be improved to reduce this risk. The FMD transmission model that was developed in the first part, predicted the prevalence of infected animals in undetected herds for 1000 hypothetical epidemics per control strategy. These results serve as input for the final screening model that was developed in this part. It calculates the expected number of undetected infected herds and animals per epidemic after final screening, as well as the number of herds and animals to be tested. Our results show that vaccination strategies yield a larger number of undetected infected animals in the whole country per epidemic before final screening than preemptive culling (median values and 5-95% interval): 8 (0-42) animals for 1 km preemptive culling, 50 (7-148) for 2 km vaccination and 35 (6-99) for 5 km vaccination. But the final screening reduced these to comparably low numbers: 1.0 (0-9.1) for 1 km preemptive culling, 3.5 (0.3-15) for 2 km vaccination and 2.1 (0.3-9.4) for 5 km vaccination. Undetected infected animals were mainly found in non-vaccinated sheep herds and vaccinated cattle and sheep herds. As a consequence, testing more non-vaccinated cattle and pig herds will not reduce the expected number of undetected infected animals after the final screening by much, while the required testing resources drastically

  1. Effects of Immunosuppressants on Immune Response to Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (nonimmunosuppressants and immunosuppressants. Data Sources: We completed an online systematic search using PubMed to identify all articles published in English between January 1990 and December 2013 assessing the effect of the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (with and without immunomodulators. The following terms were used: "inflammatory bowel disease (IBD" OR "Crohn′s disease" OR "ulcerative colitis" AND ("vaccination" OR "vaccine" AND ("corticosteroids" OR "mercaptopurine" OR "azathioprine" OR "methotrexate [MTX]" AND "immunomodulators." Study Selection: The inclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1 Randomized controlled trials which included patients with a diagnosis of IBD (established by standard clinical, radiographic, endoscopic, and histologic criteria; (2 exposed patients received immunomodulators for maintenance (weight-appropriate doses of 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine or within 3 months of stopping, 15 mg or more MTX per week or within 3 months of stopping; (3 exposed patients received nonimmunomodulators (no therapy, antibiotics only, mesalazine only, biological agent only such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab or natalizumab or within 3 months of stopping one of these agents. The exclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1 History of hepatitis B virus (HBV, influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae infection; (2 patients who had previously been vaccinated against HBV, influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae; (3 any medical condition known to cause immunosuppression (e.g. chronic renal failure and human immunodeficiency virus infection; (4 individuals with positive hepatitis markers or liver cirrhosis; (5 patients with a known allergy to eggs or other components of the vaccines and (6 pregnancy. Results: Patients treated with immunomodulators were associated with lower response rates to

  2. Effects of immunosuppressants on immune response to vaccine in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Di; Xu, An-Tao; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhi-Hua

    2015-03-20

    To evaluate the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (nonimmunosuppressants and immunosuppressants). We completed an online systematic search using PubMed to identify all articles published in English between January 1990 and December 2013 assessing the effect of the response rate to vaccination in different treatment groups (with and without immunomodulators). The following terms were used: "inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)" OR "Crohn's disease" OR "ulcerative colitis" AND ("vaccination" OR "vaccine") AND ("corticosteroids" OR "mercaptopurine" OR "azathioprine" OR "methotrexate [MTX]") AND "immunomodulators." The inclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1) Randomized controlled trials which included patients with a diagnosis of IBD (established by standard clinical, radiographic, endoscopic, and histologic criteria); (2) exposed patients received immunomodulators for maintenance (weight-appropriate doses of 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine or within 3 months of stopping, 15 mg or more MTX per week or within 3 months of stopping; (3) exposed patients received nonimmunomodulators (no therapy, antibiotics only, mesalazine only, biological agent only such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab or natalizumab or within 3 months of stopping one of these agents). The exclusion criteria of articles were that the studies: (1) History of hepatitis B virus (HBV), influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae infection; (2) patients who had previously been vaccinated against HBV, influenza or streptococcus pneumoniae; (3) any medical condition known to cause immunosuppression (e.g. chronic renal failure and human immunodeficiency virus infection); (4) individuals with positive hepatitis markers or liver cirrhosis; (5) patients with a known allergy to eggs or other components of the vaccines and (6) pregnancy. Patients treated with immunomodulators were associated with lower response rates to vaccination. Immunomodulators may impair the immune

  3. Enhancing the role of veterinary vaccines reducing zoonotic diseases of humans: Linking systems biology with vaccine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Leslie G.; Khare, Sangeeta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Lewin, Harris A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Turse, Joshua E.; Wylie, Dennis C.; Bai, Yu; Drake, Kenneth L.

    2011-09-22

    The aim of research on infectious diseases is their prevention, and brucellosis and salmonellosis as such are classic examples of worldwide zoonoses for application of a systems biology approach for enhanced rational vaccine development. When used optimally, vaccines prevent disease manifestations, reduce transmission of disease, decrease the need for pharmaceutical intervention, and improve the health and welfare of animals, as well as indirectly protecting against zoonotic diseases of people. Advances in the last decade or so using comprehensive systems biology approaches linking genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and biotechnology with immunology, pathogenesis and vaccine formulation and delivery are expected to enable enhanced approaches to vaccine development. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the role of computational systems biology analysis of host:pathogen interactions (the interactome) as a tool for enhanced rational design of vaccines. Systems biology is bringing a new, more robust approach to veterinary vaccine design based upon a deeper understanding of the host pathogen interactions and its impact on the host's molecular network of the immune system. A computational systems biology method was utilized to create interactome models of the host responses to Brucella melitensis (BMEL), Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (STM), and a Salmonella mutant (isogenic *sipA, sopABDE2) and linked to the basis for rational development of vaccines for brucellosis and salmonellosis as reviewed by Adams et al. and Ficht et al. [1,2]. A bovine ligated ileal loop biological model was established to capture the host gene expression response at multiple time points post infection. New methods based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) machine learning were employed to conduct a comparative pathogenicity analysis of 219 signaling and metabolic pathways and 1620 gene ontology (GO) categories that defined the host

  4. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  5. Distribution and expression in vitro and in vivo of DNA vaccine against lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Xiuqin; Liu, Hongzhan; Wu, Xingan; Zhong, Nan; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocystis disease, caused by the lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), is a significant worldwide problem in fish industry causing substantial economic losses. In this study, we aimed to develop the DNA vaccine against LCDV, using DNA vaccination technology. We evaluated plasmid pEGFP-N2-LCDV1.3 kb as a DNA vaccine candidate. The plasmid DNA was transiently expressed after liposome transfection into the eukaryotic COS 7 cell line. The distribution and expression of the DNA vaccine (pEGFP-N2-LCDV1.3kb) were also analyzed in tissues of the vaccinated Japanese flounder by PCR, RT-PCR and fluorescent microscopy. Results from PCR analysis indicated that the vaccine-containing plasmids were distributed in injected muscle, the muscle opposite the injection site, the hind intestine, gill, spleen, head, kidney and liver, 6 and 25 days after vaccination. The vaccine plasmids disappeared 100 d post-vaccination. Fluorescent microscopy revealed green fluorescence in the injected muscle, the muscle opposite the injection site, the hind intestine, gill, spleen, head, kidney and liver of fish 48 h post-vaccination, green fluorescence did not appear in the control treated tissue. Green fluorescence became weak at 60 days post-vaccination. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mcp gene was expressed in all tested tissues of vaccinated fish 6-50 days post-vaccination. These results demonstrate that the antigen encoded by the DNA vaccine is distributed and expressed in all of the tissues analyzed in the vaccinated fish. The antigen would therefore potentially initiate a specific immune response. the plasmid DNA was injected into Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) intramuscularly and antibodies against LCDV were evaluated. The results indicate that the plasmid encoded DNA vaccine could induce an immune response to LCDV and would therefore offer immune protection against LCD. Further studies are required for the development and application of this promising DNA vaccine.

  6. Challenges to developing effective streptococcal vaccines to prevent rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abhinay Sharma, D Patric Nitsche-SchmitzDepartment of Medical Microbiology, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Braunschweig, GermanyAbstract: Acute rheumatic fever is a sequela of Streptococcus pyogenes and potentially of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis infections. Acute rheumatic fever is caused by destructive autoimmunity and inflammation in the extracellular matrix and can lead to rheumatic heart disease, which is the most frequent cardiologic disease that is acquired in youth. Although effective treatments are available, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain serious threats to human health, which affect millions and cause high economic losses. This has motivated the search for a vaccine that prevents the causative streptococcal infections. A variety of potential vaccine candidates have been identified and investigated in the past. Today, new approaches are applied to find alternative candidates. Nevertheless, several obstacles lie in the way of an approved S. pyogenes vaccine for use in humans. Herein, a subjective selection of promising vaccine candidates with respect to the prevention of acute rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease and safety regarding immunological side effects is discussed.Keywords: autoimmune disease, side effects, M protein vaccine, molecular mimicry, coiled-coil, collagen binding, PARF

  7. The effects of demographic change on disease transmission and vaccine impact in a household structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Nicholas; Glass, Kathryn; McCaw, James M; McBryde, Emma S; Korb, Kevin B; Keeling, Matt J; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: increases in life expectancy and declining fertility have led to older populations and smaller households. The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood. Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level. The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks. By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership. We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eblé, Phaedra Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Since the foot-and-mouth disease epidemics in Europe in 2001 the use of emergency vaccination, if an outbreak occurs, has become more prominent in EU legislation. Since pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) excrete huge amounts of virus they are considered as amplifiers of the

  9. Effects of pidotimod soluble powder and immune enhancement of Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shaoqi; Dai, Cunchun; Qiu, Mei; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Chunyuan; Cui, Liangliang; Hao, Zhihui

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare pidotimod (PDM) soluble powder and to investigate the immune enhancement properties of PDM in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus vaccine. In vivo experiment, 360 6-day-old chickens were averagely divided into 6 groups. The chickens, except blank control (BC) group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV). At the same time of the vaccination, the chickens in three PDM groups were given water with PDM for 5days, respectively, with the PDM at low, medium and high concentrations (0.25g/L, 0.5g/L, 1g/L), in control drug group was treated with 0.2ml/PDM dose via drinking water, in vaccination control (VC) and BC group, with equal volume physiological saline, once a day for five successive days. On days 14, 21 and 28 after the vaccination, the growth performance, the lymphocyte proliferation, serum antibody titer, the CD4/CD8 cell ratios and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were measured. The results showed that PDM at suitable dose could significantly promote growth performance, lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, CD4/CD8 cell ratios and improve serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations. It indicated that PDM could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine using doses of 0.5g/L, these results are consistent with the drug acting as an immunopotentiator. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  11. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

  12. The Effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis Bacterin on the Immune Response Against Influenza and Newcastle Disease Vaccines in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Talazadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In poultry production, improving immunity is very important to prevent infectious diseases. One solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious disease is administration of immunostimulants. Surveys have indicated that some bacteria can work as immunomodulators such as Mycobacterium vaccae and can promote Th1-mediated mechanisms, and switch off pre-existing Th2 preponderance (1. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin on the immune response against Influenza and Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chickens . Materials and Methods: A total of 170 day-old broiler chicks were purchased and divided randomly into 5 equal groups. Chickens of group A received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on two days before vaccination against Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Chickens of group B received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the first injection of bacterin. Chickens of group C received 106bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the second injection of bacterin. Chickens of group D, vaccinated against Newcastle disease and avian influenza but did not receive bacterin. Chickens of group E, did not vaccinate against Newcastle disease and avian influenza and did not receive bacterin. All groups except group E, were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2. Blood samples were collected and antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and avian influenza vaccine was determined by HI test. Results: The results of present study showed that receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin for 3 times, significantly increased the specific antibody response to avian influenza subtype H9N2 vaccine. Also about Newcastle vaccine, significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine at 21 and 28 days after vaccination. Conclusions: Receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin

  13. SEVERAL MUCOSAL VACCINATION ROUTES CONFER IMMUNITY AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE IN RAINBOW TROUT, BUT THE PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS ARE DIFFERENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    Vaccination is a keystone in prophylactic strategies preventing outbreaks of fish pathogenic bacterial diseases in aquaculture. The first commercial fish vaccine consisted of a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 1. The vaccine has been very successful and has been used for more than...... 35 years. A vast experience has been gained concerning the applications of the vaccine, which can be utilized through several mucosal immunization routes such as bath, oral and anal application, all resulting in significantly increased survival compared to un-vaccinated control groups during bath...... antibodies. Further, plasma from bath vaccinated fish kills significantly more Y. ruckeri in vitro than plasma from un-vaccinated control fish. Increased plasma antibody titer against Y. ruckeri seems to be an important part of the protective immune response obtained post bath vaccination. These results all...

  14. Economics of vaccinating extensively managed sheep flocks against Bluetongue disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue is a serious and recurring threat to sheep producers throughout the world. In the western United States, bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges in late summer and early autumn, just before lambs are sent to market. No vaccine is currently sold for the most common serotype ...

  15. Delivery of thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... vehicle. Echeonwu, G. O. N.1*, Iroegbu, C. U.2, Echeonwu, B. C.3, Ngene, A.4, Olabode, A. O.1, .... mass ND vaccination of free-range village chicken flock is ... dried carrier food in a bowl at a ratio of 1.0 ml of reconstituted.

  16. Locally produced mucosal IgG in chickens immunized with conventional vaccines for Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chimeno Zoth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV is the causative agent of an economically important disease, which affects all species of birds worldwide. Current vaccination programs for NDV include the use of either low-virulent live-virus vaccines or inactivated vaccines to induce protective immunity while producing minimal adverse effects in birds. In order to further characterize the immune response elicited by live virus and inactivated NDV conventional vaccines in chickens, we evaluated the presence of specific antibodies in different secretions and in tissue culture supernatants of immunized birds. To this end, we analyzed all the samples by ELISA, using an indirect assay set up in the laboratory. Specific anti-NDV IgG antibodies were detected in tracheal and cloacal swabs and tracheal and intestinal washes of immunized animals. We also found specific anti-NDV IgG antibodies in tracheal and intestinal tissue culture supernatants, indicating that the IgG found in swabs and washes was not transudated from serum or, at least, was not all transudated from serum. Knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the immune response of chickens to different NDV vaccines should increase our understanding of the mucosal response against the virus and, eventually, provide new useful information for the development and evaluation of synthetic vaccines.

  17. Cholera toxin B subunit modulation of mucosal vaccines for infectious and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, William; Dénes, Béla; Fodor, István

    2010-08-01

    Parenteral vaccination is generally considered to be the most effective form of therapy for protection against infectious diseases. In recent years, vaccination at mucosal surfaces and combinatorial vaccination strategies that link immunostimulatory molecules to antigens have been developed to enhance vaccine efficacy. Prominent among immunological enhancement strategies are the bacterial A and B toxins, which include the cholera toxin (CT)A and CTB subunits. In contrast to the toxic CTA subunit, the non-toxic CTB subunit displays both carrier and immunostimulatory properties. When linked to pathogen antigens, CTB can impart immunostimulatory properties that are characteristic of the linked antigen. Vaccination strategies have also been broadened to include 'self' proteins applied for the immunological suppression of autoimmunity. When CTB is linked to an autoantigen, the outcome might be considered paradoxical. In type 1 diabetes, self proteins become strongly immunosuppressive, while cancer CTB-autoantigen fusion proteins may exert a strong inflammatory response. This review discusses the immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive roles played by the CTB subunit in vaccine protection and therapy against infectious and autoimmune diseases.

  18. Vaccine-preventable disease and the under-utilization of immunizations in complex humanitarian emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Ryan M; Pearson, Catherine; Cohn, Jennifer

    2016-09-07

    Complex humanitarian emergencies affect 40-60 million people annually and are a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite efforts to provide medical and public health services to populations affected by complex emergencies, significant morbidity and mortality persist. Measles is a major communicable disease threat, but through vaccination of broader target age groups beyond the traditional immunization schedule, measles-related mortality has been significantly reduced during crises. Yet, a limited number of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to contribute disproportionately to morbidity and mortality in complex emergencies. The literature suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rotavirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type-b should be key targets for vaccination programs. Because of the significant contribution of these three pathogens to complex humanitarian emergencies in low and middle-income countries regardless of disaster type, geography, or population, their vaccines should be considered essential components of the standard emergency response effort. We discuss the barriers to vaccine distribution and provide evidence for strategies to improve distribution, including expanded target age-range and reduced dose schedules. Our review includes specific recommendations for the expanded use of these three vaccines in complex emergencies in low and middle-income countries as a way to guide future policy discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND) - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak-Wyspiańska, Jolanta; Nawotczyńska, Ewa; Kozubski, Wojciech

    Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, which is a serious and potentially fatal disease with no specific antiviral treatment that can be effectively prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). Despite the long history of safe and efficacious YF vaccination, sporadic case reports of serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported, including yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). YEL-AND usually appears within one month of YF vaccination, manifesting as meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). We report a case of YEL-AND with meningitis presentation in a 39-year-old Caucasian man without evidence of significant risk factors, which was confirmed by the presence of the YF virus and specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In conclusion, we should stress the importance of balancing the risk of SAEs associated with the vaccine and the benefits of YF vaccination for each patient individually. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Progression of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 upon vaccination in an industrial rabbitry: a laboratorial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Carvalho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2 emerged recently in several European countries, leading to extensive economic losses in the industry. In response to this new infection, specific inactivated vaccines were developed in Europe and full and rapid setup of protective immunity induced by vaccination was reported. However, data on the efficacy of these vaccines in an ongoing-infection scenario is unavailable. In this study we investigated an infected RHDV2 indoor industrial meat rabbitry, where fatalities continued to occur after the implementation of the RHDV2 vaccination, introduced to control the disease. The aim of this study was to understand if these mortalities were RHDV2-related, to discover if the dead animals showed any common features such as age or time distance from vaccination, and to identify the source of the outbreak. Anatomo-pathological analysis of vaccinated animals with the virus showed lesions compatible with systemic haemorrhagic disease and RHDV2-RNA was detected in 85.7% of the animals tested. Sequencing of the vp60 gene amplified from liver samples led to the recognition of RHDV2 field strains demonstrating that after the implementation of vaccination, RHDV2 continued to circulate in the premises and to cause sporadic deaths. A nearby, semi-intensive, RHDV2 infected farm belonging to the same owner was identified as the most probable source of the virus. The main risk factors for virus introduction in these two industries were identified. Despite the virus being able to infect a few of the vaccinated rabbits, the significant decrease in mortality rate observed in vaccinated adult rabbits clearly reflects the efficacy of the vaccination. Nonetheless, the time taken to control the infection also highlights the importance of RHDV2 vaccination prior to the first contact with the virus, highly recommendable in endemic areas, to mitigate the infection’s impact on the industry.

  1. Will vaccination against human papillomavirus prevent eye disease? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D S; Powell, N; Fiander, A N

    2008-04-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in eye disease is controversial. However, a recent case illustrates the possible role of HPV in conjunctival squamous carcinoma and the potentially devastating effects of this disease. The development of two vaccines to prevent infection with HPV types most commonly associated with anogenital cancers has led to debate about the pros and cons of a national immunisation programme to prevent cervical cancer. The introduction of such a vaccination programme may have an additional beneficial effect on the occurrence of some head and neck, including ocular, cancers. This review discusses the nature of papillomaviruses, mechanisms of infection and carcinogenesis, the possible role of HPV in eye disease, and finally the likely impact of the new prophylactic vaccines.

  2. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Dalby, Tine; Weinberger, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    incidence in the total population after PCV13's introduction, and a 71% reduction (95% CI, 62%-79%) in children aged vaccine effectiveness. We estimated a 28% reduction (95% CI, 18%-37%) in IPD-related 30-day mortality, from 3.4 deaths (95% CI, 3.2-3.6) per 100 000 population......BACKGROUND: The impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at the population level is unclear. We explored PCV13's effect in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-related morbidity and mortality, and whether serotype-specific changes were attributable to vaccination...... conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2008-2010), and PCV13 (2011-2013) periods were estimated. Predicted incidences of serotypes were estimated controlling for cyclical trends from historical patterns observed during the past 20 years. RESULTS: We observed a 21% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-25%) in IPD...

  3. First field trial of a transmissible recombinant vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J M; Sánchez, C; Ramírez, M A; Morales, M; Bárcena, J; Ferrer, J; Espuña, E; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2001-08-14

    As a novel approach for immunisation of wild rabbits, we have recently developed a transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) based on a recombinant myxoma virus (MV) expressing the RHDV capsid protein [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1114]. The efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been extensively evaluated under laboratory conditions. In this study, we report the first limited field trial of the candidate vaccine that was undertaken in an island of 34 Has containing a population of around 300 rabbits. Following administration by the subcutaneous route to 76 rabbits, the vaccine induced specific antibody responses against both myxomatosis and RHDV in all the inoculated rabbits. Furthermore, the recombinant virus exhibited a limited horizontal transmission capacity, promoting seroconversion of around 50% of the uninoculated rabbit population. No evidence of undesirable effects due to the recombinant virus field release was detected.

  4. Probabilistic Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vaccination for Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have increasingly gained attention since 1990s. However, there are pros (preventing of AD) and cons (incurred cost and side effects) regarding the administration of immunotherapy. Up to date, there has been lacking of economic evaluation for immunotherapy of AD. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness analysis of the vaccination for AD. A meta-analysis of randomized control trials after systemic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine. A Markov decision model was constructed and applied to a 120,000-Taiwanese cohort aged ≥65 years. Person years and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were computed between the vaccinated group and the the unvaccinated group. Economic evaluation was performed to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC). Vaccinated group gained an additional 0.84 life years and 0.56 QALYs over 10-years and an additional 0.35 life years and 0.282 QALYs over 5-years of follow-up. The vaccinated group dominated the unvaccinated group by ICER over 5-years of follow-up. The ICERs of 10-year follow-up for the vaccinated group against the unvaccinated group were $13,850 per QALY and $9,038 per life year gained. Given the threshold of $20,000 of willingness to pay (WTP), the CEAC showed the probability of being cost-effective for vaccination with QALY was 70.7% and 92% for life years gained after 10-years of follow-up. The corresponding figures were 87.3% for QALY and 93.5% for life years gained over 5-years follow-up. The vaccination for AD was cost-effective in gaining QALY and life years compared with no vaccination, under the condition of a reasonable threshold of WTP.

  5. Recent advances in the development of vaccines for Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohimain, Elijah Ige

    2016-01-04

    Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous microorganisms in the world causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic infection, which emerges and re-emerges in human populations. The 2014 outbreak was caused by the Zaire strain, which has a kill rate of up to 90%, though 40% was recorded in the current outbreak. The 2014 outbreak is larger than all 20 outbreaks that have occurred since 1976, when the virus was first discovered. It is the first time that the virus was sustained in urban centers and spread beyond Africa into Europe and USA. Thus far, over 22,000 cases have been reported with about 50% mortality in one year. There are currently no approved therapeutics and preventive vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD). Responding to the devastating effe1cts of the 2014 outbreak and the potential risk of global spread, has spurred research for the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review is therefore aimed at presenting the progress of vaccine development. Results showed that conventional inactivated vaccines produced from EBOV by heat, formalin or gamma irradiation appear to be ineffective. However, novel vaccines production techniques have emerged leading to the production of candidate vaccines that have been demonstrated to be effective in preclinical trials using small animal and non-human primates (NHP) models. Some of the promising vaccines have undergone phase 1 clinical trials, which demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity. Many of the candidate vaccines are vector based such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Rabies Virus (RABV), Adenovirus (Ad), Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). Other platforms include virus like particle (VLP), DNA and subunit vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergency Vaccination to Control Foot-and-mouth Disease: Implications of its Inclusion as a U.S. Policy Option

    OpenAIRE

    Hagerman, Amy D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Carpenter, Tim E; Ward, Michael P.; Joshua O'Brien

    2012-01-01

    Emergency animal vaccination has been used in recent international foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks, but current USDA policy favors emergency vaccination use only if standard culling practices alone may not be enough to control spread of the disease. Using simulation modeling, we examine implications of standard culling plus emergency ring vaccination strategies on animal loss and economic welfare loss compared to a standard culling base. Additionally, breakeven risk aversion coefficient anal...

  7. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Bøtner, Anette

    2015-01-01

    -scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self....... The development and use of such improved vaccines should assist in the global efforts to control this important disease...

  8. The use of serosurveys following emergency vaccination, to recover the status of "foot-and-mouth disease free where vaccination is not practised".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, D J; Füssel, A-E; Vosloo, W; Dekker, A; De Clercq, K

    2014-12-12

    To eliminate incursions of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) quickly, a combination of measures, including emergency vaccination, can help block the spread of infection. For the earliest recovery of the FMD-free status for trade, without the slaughter of uninfected vaccinated animals, a serosurvey for antibodies to FMD virus non-structural proteins (NSP) must be used to substantiate absence of occult virus infections. Areas of doubt over requirements for post-vaccination serosurveillance and its feasibility include the required and achievable confidence, the amount of sampling necessary, and the appropriate responses to and consequences of different seropositive findings. This derives largely from uncertainty over the extent of localised pockets of virus infection that may remain within vaccinated populations and the circumstances that permit this. The question therefore remains whether tests are sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect and eliminate infected animals, without excessive culling of uninfected animals, before vaccinated animals mix with non-vaccinated livestock when movement restrictions are lifted. It is recommended to change the rationale for serosurveillance after emergency vaccination. Only when emergency vaccination is used in limited outbreaks is it possible to test and cull comprehensively, an approach compatible with a three-month minimum period to recover the FMD-free status. In other situations, where emergency vaccination is used, such as dealing with large outbreaks in animal-dense regions and where the onset of vaccination has been delayed, post-vaccination serosurveys should be targeted and focus on providing an assurance to detect higher levels of infection, in case of inadequate control measures. As this provides less assurance of absence of infection, the approach would be compatible with a six-month waiting period for free-status recovery and should be complemented by other methods to provide evidence that vaccination and control

  9. History of the First-Generation Marek's Disease Vaccines: The Science and Little-Known Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, Karel A

    2016-12-01

    Shortly after the isolation of Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDV) in the late 1960s vaccines were developed in England, the United States, and The Netherlands. Biggs and associates at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in England attenuated HPRS-16, the first cell-culture-isolated MDV strain, by passaging HPRS-16 in chick kidney cells. Although HPRS-16/Att was the first commercially available vaccine, it never became widely used and was soon replaced by the FC126 strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine developed by Witter and associates at the Regional Poultry Research Laboratory (now Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory [ADOL]) in East Lansing, MI. Ironically, Kawamura et al. isolated a herpesvirus from kidney cell cultures from turkeys in 1969 but never realized its potential as a vaccine against MD. Rispens of the Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) developed the third vaccine. His associate, Maas, had found commercial flocks of chickens with MDV antibodies but without MD. Subsequently, Rispens isolated a very low pathogenic strain from hen number 988 from his MD antibody-positive flock, which was free of avian leukosis virus and clinical MD. This isolate became the CVI-988 vaccine used mostly in The Netherlands. During the late 1970s, HVT was no longer fully protective against some new emerging field strains. The addition of SB-1, isolated by Schat and Calnek, to HVT improved protection against the emerging very virulent strains. In the 1990s CVI-988 became the worldwide vaccine gold standard. This review will present data from published papers and personal communications providing additional information about the exciting 15-yr period after the isolation of MDV to the development of the different vaccines.

  10. Use of pre-travel vaccine-preventable disease serology as a screening tool to identify patients in need of pre-travel vaccination: a retrospective audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David P; McGuinness, Sarah L; Cohen, Jonathan; Waring, Lynette J; Leder, Karin

    2017-05-01

    Vaccination is a safe and effective public health intervention that not only protects individual travellers from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), but prevents them from becoming a source of disease in their destination and on their return. Obtaining an accurate vaccination history from travellers during a pre-travel review can be difficult; serology may be used to identify patients who are non-immune to specific diseases in order to guide vaccination requirements. Clinically relevant data about the usefulness of serology in this setting are lacking. We performed a retrospective audit of pre-travel VPD serology requested by practitioners of a busy community-based travel clinic. All serological results for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella zoster virus, hepatitis A and B requested over a 5-year period were extracted and analysed. Results were stratified by gender and year of birth and compared using Stata. Four thousand four hundred and fifty-one serological assays from 1445 individual were assessed. Overall, 47% of patients tested had at least one negative serological result. High rates of seropositivity for measles, mumps and rubella were seen in those born prior to 1966 but >10% of travellers born after 1966 lacked serological evidence of protection against these diseases. Hepatitis A and B serological results revealed broadly lower rates of immunity in our community likely reflecting the absence of these vaccines from historical vaccine protocols. Serology can be a useful tool in the identification of non-immune travellers to enable targeted vaccination prior to travel. We recommend that travel health clinicians assess patients' vaccination and infection histories, and strongly consider serology or vaccination where there is doubt about immunity. This will help protect the traveller and prevent importation of disease into destination or home communities.

  11. The Dangerous Decline in the Department of Defense’s Vaccine Program for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    of Defense (DOD) responded by partitioning its bio­ defense and infectious­disease vaccine ac­ quisition programs, with biodefense vac­ cines ...US mili­ tary infectious­disease vaccine program has taken a backseat to countering the bio­ terrorism threat since the mid­1990s. Begin­ ning with...its stand­up of the Joint Program Office for Biological Defense in 1993 and formalized requirements for biodefense vac­ cines in 1995, the DOD—with a

  12. Haemophilus influenzae type b diseases in children: a pre-vaccination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, M; el-Khadir, A; Devadas, K; Farrukh, A S; Uduman, S A

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can now be prevented by vaccination. We present the clinical and laboratory characteristics of acute invasive H. influenzae diseases in children admitted over a 4-year period to a tertiary paediatric ward of the Al-Ain medical district hospital, before vaccination became available in the United Arab Emirates. In all, 38 children had bacteriologically proven H. influenzae invasive diseases and all the isolates were serotype b. Meningitis was diagnosed in 60.5% of the children and 66% of the studied children were under 12 months. There were no deaths but substantial morbidity occurred in 12 children.

  13. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B.; Specht, L.; Henrichsen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in antib......Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase...

  14. Modelling studies to estimate the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease carriers after reactive vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, M.E; Paton, D.J; Ryan, E; Cox, S.J; Wilesmith, J.W

    2007-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically significant viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination can be used to help restrict the spread of the infection, but evidence must be provided to show that the infection has been eradicated in order to regain the FMD-free status. While serological tests have been developed, which can identify animals that have been infected regardless of vaccination status, it is vital to know the probable prevalence of herds with F...

  15. Herd Immunity Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Under Different Vaccination Practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G K; Mahajan, S; Matura, R; Biswal, J K; Ranjan, R; Subramaniam, S; Misri, J; Bambal, R G; Pattnaik, B

    2017-08-01

    A systematic vaccination programme is ongoing in India to control the three prevailing serotypes (A, O, Asia1) of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Under the programme, more than 120 million bovine (term bovine applicable to both cattle and buffalo in this study) population of 221 of the 666 districts in the country are being bi-annually vaccinated with trivalent vaccine since 2010. Although clinical disease has reduced in these districts because of the systematic vaccinations, an abrupt increase in the number of FMD cases was recorded in 2013. Hence, a longitudinal field study was conducted in the year 2014 to estimate the serological herd immunity level in bovines, the impact of systematic vaccinations and field efficacy of the vaccines used. Serum samples (n = 115 963) collected from 295 districts of the 18 states of the country were analysed to estimate antibody titres against structural proteins of the three serotypes. The efficacy of the vaccine was demonstrated in the control group (group-D) where animals of the group were identified by ear tags for the purpose of repeated sampling after vaccination. Progressive building of the herd immunity in the field after systematic vaccination was demonstrated. The mean antibody titre against the serotypes O, A and Asia1 was estimated as log10 1.93 (95% CI 1.92-1.93), 2.02 (2.02-2.02) and 2.02 (2.02-2.02), respectively, in the states covered under the control programme. However, in other states herd immunity was significantly low [mean titre log10 1.68 (95% CI 1.67-1.69), 1.77 (1.76-1.78) and 1.85 (1.84-1.86) against the three serotypes]. Inverse relationship between the herd immunity and FMD incidences was observed the states following different vaccination practices. The study helped in demarcation of FMD risk zones in the country with low herd immunity. Estimation of herd immunity kinetics in the field helped in refining the vaccination schedule under the control programme. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Equity in disease prevention: Vaccines for the older adults - a national workshop, Australia 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina MacIntyre, C; Menzies, Robert; Kpozehouen, Elizabeth; Chapman, Michael; Travaglia, Joanne; Woodward, Michael; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Poulos, Christopher J; Gronow, David; Adair, Timothy

    2016-11-04

    On the 20th June, 2014 the National Health and Medical Research Council's Centre for Research Excellence in Population Health "Immunisation in under Studied and Special Risk Populations", in collaboration with the Public Health Association of Australia, hosted a workshop "Equity in disease prevention: vaccines for the older adults". The workshop featured international and national speakers on ageing and vaccinology. The workshop was attended by health service providers, stakeholders in immunisation, ageing, primary care, researchers, government and non-government organisations, community representatives, and advocacy groups. The aims of the workshop were to: provide an update on the latest evidence around immunisation for the older adults; address barriers for prevention of infection in the older adults; and identify immunisation needs of these groups and provide recommendations to inform policy. There is a gap in immunisation coverage of funded vaccines between adults and infants. The workshop reviewed provider misconceptions, lack of Randomised Control Trials (RCT) and cost-effectiveness data in the frail elderly, loss of autonomy, value judgements and ageism in health care and the need for an adult vaccination register. Workshop recommendations included recognising the right of elderly people to prevention, the need for promotion in the community and amongst healthcare workers of the high burden of vaccine preventable diseases and the need to achieve high levels of vaccination coverage, in older adults and in health workers involved in their care. Research into new vaccine strategies for older adults which address poor coverage, provider attitudes and immunosenescence is a priority. A well designed national register for tracking vaccinations in older adults is a vital and basic requirement for a successful adult immunisation program. Eliminating financial barriers, by addressing inequities in the mechanisms for funding and subsidising vaccines for the older

  17. An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Huntimer, Lucas; Falkenberg, Shollie; Henningson, Jamie; Lechtenberg, Kelly; Halbur, Tom

    2017-02-01

    Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought to investigate the efficacy of an inactivated IDV vaccine. Vaccinated calves seroconverted with hemagglutination inhibition titers 137-169 following two doses. Non-vaccinated calves challenged with a homologous virus exhibited signs of mild respiratory disease from days four to ten post challenge which was significantly different than negative controls at days five and nine post challenge. Peak viral shedding of approximately 5 TCID50/mL was measured in nasal and tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids four to six days post challenge. Viral titers were significantly (Prespiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates and trachea by immunohistochemistry from all unvaccinated calves but in significantly fewer vaccinates. Inflammation characterized by neutrophils was observed in the nasal turbinate and trachea but not appreciably in lungs. Together these results support an etiologic role for IDV in BRD and demonstrate that partial protection is afforded by an inactivated vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delivery of thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of 256 birds fed with first dose of the vaccine, 130 (50.8%) produced detectable HI antibody but only 16 (6.3%) attained serum antibody level of log2 3.0 adjudged protective. From the locations, Igumale (74 birds), Kuru (88 birds) Riyom (94 birds), only 1 (1.4%), 8 (9.1%) and 7 (7.4%) attained log2 titre 3.0, respectively.

  19. Ascaridia galli infection influences the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity after Newcastle Disease vaccination in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2014-01-01

    blood three weeks after the first ND vaccination as compared to non-parasitized chickens. Finally, A. galli significantly increased local mRNA expression of IL-4 and IL-13 and significantly decreased TGF-ß4 expression in the jejunum two weeks after infection with A. galli. At the time of vaccination......Potent vaccine efficiency is crucial for disease control in both human and livestock vaccination programmes. Free range chickens and chickens with access to outdoor areas have a high risk of infection with parasites including Ascaridia galli, a gastrointestinal nematode with a potential influence...... on the immunological response to vaccination against other infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether A. galli infection influences vaccine-induced immunity to Newcastle Disease (ND) in chickens from an MHC-characterized inbred line. Chickens were experimentally infected with A. galli...

  20. The Ebola Vaccine Team B: a model for promoting the rapid development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious disease threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael; Moore, Kristine; Ostrowsky, Julie; Kimball-Baker, Kathleen; Farrar, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In support of accelerated development of Ebola vaccines from preclinical research to clinical trials, in November, 2014, the Wellcome Trust and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota established the Wellcome Trust-CIDRAP Ebola Vaccine Team B initiative. This ongoing initiative includes experts with global experience in various phases of bringing new vaccines to market, such as funding, research and development, manufacturing, determination of safety and efficacy, regulatory approval, and vaccination delivery. It also includes experts in community engagement strategies and ethical issues germane to vaccination policies, including eight African scientists with direct experience in developing and implementing vaccination policies in Africa. Ebola Vaccine Team B members have worked on a range of vaccination programmes, such as polio eradication (Africa and globally), development of meningococcal A disease vaccination campaigns in Africa, and malaria and HIV/AIDS vaccine research. We also provide perspective on how this experience can inform future situations where urgent development of vaccines is needed, and we comment on the role that an independent, expert group such as Team B can have in support of national and international public health authorities toward addressing a public health crisis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Tine Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the consequences of a national immunization program with HPV vaccine for both boys and girls in Denmark, including the prophylactic effects on all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-associated diseases in male and female. Methods: The study...... focussed on the quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the vaccine's protection against genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anogenital cancer (anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer) and head and neck cancer (oral cavity, oropharyngeal......, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects...

  2. Adenovirus-vectored drug-vaccine duo as a potential driver for conferring mass protection against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Tarbet, E Bart; Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C

    2011-11-01

    The disease-fighting power of vaccines has been a public health bonanza credited with the worldwide reduction of mortality and morbidity. The goal to further amplify its power by boosting vaccine coverage requires the development of a new generation of rapid-response vaccines that can be mass produced at low costs and mass administered by nonmedical personnel. The new vaccines also have to be endowed with a higher safety margin than that of conventional vaccines. The nonreplicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine holds promise in boosting vaccine coverage because the vector can be rapidly manufactured in serum-free suspension cells in response to a surge in demand, and noninvasively administered by nasal spray into human subjects in compliance with evolutionary medicine. In contrast to parenteral injection, noninvasive mucosal vaccination minimizes systemic inflammation. Moreover, pre-existing adenovirus immunity does not interfere appreciably with the potency of an adenovirus-vectored nasal vaccine. Nasal administration of adenovirus vectors encoding pathogen antigens is not only fear-free and painless, but also confers rapid and sustained protection against mucosal pathogens as a drug-vaccine duo since adenovirus particles alone without transgene expression can induce an anti-influenza state in the airway. In addition to human vaccination, animals can also be mass immunized by this class of vectored vaccines.

  3. Duration of immunity of a four-valent vaccine against bovine respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Philippe-Reversat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the duration of immunity over 6 months of a vaccine against key bovine respiratory disease pathogens: Parainfluenza 3, Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea and Mannheimia haemolytica. This was performed by challenge on colostrum-deprived calves at the age of 2 weeks. Recent European field isolates were used as challenge strains. Clinical signs and pathogen excretion or presence were monitored. Field relevance of the viral challenge strains was analysed using phylogenic analysis. Significant reduction of excretion of the 3 viruses in vaccinated animals was a consistent finding, demonstrating the efficacy of the vaccine. Reducing shedding is indeed key to interrupting the infection transmission chain and helping to achieve the protective effects of immunisation that extend beyond the individual. A significant reduction of clinical signs and lung lesions following the Mannheimia haemolytica challenge was also observed in vaccinated animals versus controls. Comparison of the challenge strains to an array of global and European strains, including recent ones, demonstrated a high genetic proximity, supporting the potential for the vaccine to maintain similar levels of efficacy in the field over a 6-month period post vaccination.

  4. Mucosal Immune Responses against Live Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Immunosuppressed Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengui Yan, Yijun Du1, Qingyou Zhao, Ruifeng Fan, Wenlong Guo, Rongde Ma, Xinjian Wang and Ruiliang Zhu*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate mucosal immunity of normal and immunosuppressed chickens vaccinated with live Newcastle disease (ND vaccine, cyclophosphamide (CY was used to generate immunosuppressed chickens. Normal and immunosuppressed chickens were vaccinated with the Lasota ND vaccine by ocular-nasal route at three weeks of age and challenged with virulent ND virus (vNDV at day 28 post-vaccination (pv. The immunosuppressed chickens had significantly lower relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and serum antibody HI titers compared to CY-untreated chickens. Compared with normal chickens, significant lower levels of IgA antibodies were detected in tracheal washings, duodenal washings and bile of immunosuppressed chickens in the whole experimental period. Immuno-histochemical experiment also showed that small numbers of IgA positive cells were found in intestinal tissues of immunosuppressed chickens at day 28 pv. There was only a partial protective effect on immunosuppressed chickens post challenge with virulent ND virus (vNDV. These findings increase our understanding of the protective mucosal immune response against ND vaccine and suggest that mucosal immunity play an important role against NDV infection.

  5. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common and serious health ... to 60 died. Since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, hospitalizations and emergency visits for rotavirus have dropped ...

  6. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çokçalışkan, Can; Türkoğlu, Tunçer; Sareyyüpoğlu, Beyhan; Uzunlu, Ergün; Babak, Ayca; Özbilge, Banu B; Gülyaz, Veli

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and aluminium hydroxide are used. However, the use of saponin with an oil adjuvant is not common and is sometimes linked to toxicity. QS-21, which is less toxic than Quil A, has been presented as an alternative for use with saponin. In this study, the addition of QS-21 to a commercially available foot-and-mouth disease water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccine was evaluated in cattle. After vaccination, serum samples were collected periodically over 3 months. Sera of the QS-21 and normal oil vaccine groups were compared via serum virus neutralization antibody titre and liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titre. The results showed that there was a significant early antibody increase in the QS-21 group. Strong early virus neutralizing antibody response will be useful for emergency or ring vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease in target animals.

  7. Impact of the antipneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the occurrence of infectious respiratory diseases and hospitalization rates in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderci Marys Oliveira Abrão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, to reduce the occurrence of serious pneumococcal disease, the Ministry of Health in Brazil incorporated the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the immunization schedule of children younger than two years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of vaccination on the incidence of infectious respiratory diseases in infants before and after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved primary care and hospital networks from a city in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: A 40% reduction in the prevalence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was observed after introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Male children were 28% more likely to develop the disease. The prevalence ratio ([PR] = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.53, p < 0.05 suggested that not being vaccinated was associated with the occurrence of pneumonia. The prevalence of CAP was 70% lower (PR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.37, p<0.05 in children vaccinated as recommended compared to children with delayed vaccination, suggesting that the updated vaccine schedule improves protection. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine appeared to reduce the number of pneumonia cases in children during the study period. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of the vaccine against the occurrence of pneumococcal pneumonia.

  8. THE APPROACHES TO DESIGNING OF NEW GENERATION VACCINES AGAINST THE SHEEP POX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Yilmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyzed the sheep pox disease, which occurs outbreaks all over the world particularly in Asia and Africa causing substantial losses in trade of animal and animal products. They categorized the sheep pox disease is one of the prioritized groups of diseases against which the World Organization for Animal Health is fighting. Data concerning a sheep poxes’ history, epidemiology, epizootiology, mortality and economic impact, clinical and pathological signs, features of capripoxvirus that forms the disease are given. Diagnosis treatment and vaccine have been investigated as well. The main conclusion is done according which the designing of new vaccine generation against the sheep pox disease could be as an alternative approach against sheep pox.

  9. Vaccination practices in patients with inflammatory bowel disease among general internal medicine physicians in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Lan, Gloria; Tan, Amy; Weissman, Arlene

    2017-06-01

    Increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses significant challenges to medical community. Preventive medicine, including vaccination against opportunistic infections, is important in decreasing morbidity and mortality in patients with IBD. We conduct first study to evaluate general awareness and adherence to immunisation guidelines by primary care physicians in the USA. We administered an electronic questionnaire to the research panel of the American College of Physicians (ACP) assessing current vaccination practices, barriers to vaccination and provider responsibility for administering vaccinations and compared responses with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization consensus guidelines and expert opinion from the USA. All of surveyed physicians (276) had experience with patients with IBD and spent majority of their time in direct patient care. 49% of physicians took immunisation history frequently or always, and 76% reported never or rarely checking immunisation antibody titres with only 2% doing so routinely. 65% of physicians believed that primary care providers (PCPs) were responsible for determining patient's immunisation. Vaccine administration was felt to be the duty of primary care doctor 80% of the time. 2.5% of physicians correctly recommended vaccinations all the time. Physicians were more likely to recommend vaccination to immunocompetent than immunocompromised patients. Up to 23% of physicians would incorrectly recommend live vaccine to immunocompromised patients with IBD. Current knowledge and degree of comfort among PCPs in the USA in preventing opportunistic infections in IBD population remain low. Management of patients with IBD requires structured approach to their healthcare maintenance in everyday practice, including enhanced educational policy aimed at primary care physicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF FIVE DIFFERENT BRANDS OF COMMERCIAL NEWCASTLE DISEASE LASOTA VIRUS VACCINES IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ABBAS, M. A. MUNEER, M. D. AHMED, M. A. KHAN, M. YOUNUS AND I. KHAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Five commercial LaSota strain Newcastle disease (ND vaccines namely A, B, C, D and E were evaluated for their potency, efficacy, thermostability and influence on productivity in broilers. A 3-log10 difference of EID50 and two-to-eight fold difference of HA activity was found among the various vaccines tested. One hundred and fifty day-old broiler chicks were divided into six equal groups tagged as I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The birds in groups I, II, III, IV and V were actively immunized against ND on days 7 (eye drop method and 21 (drinking water using vaccines A, B, C, D and E, respectively. The birds in group VI served as unvaccinated control. The serum HI antibody response to five vaccines was determined 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-vaccination. Fifteen birds from each group including unvaccinated control were challenged at day 35 with local virulent ND field isolate. The HI serum antibody profile and post-challenge mortality pattern revealed a dose-response relation between the virus content, humoral antibody response and clinical protection. To compare the heat stability, the vaccines were incubated at 4, 25 and 400C for a period of 24 hours. There was no remarkable reduction in HA titer, however slight dips (less than 2 logarithmic units in EID50 values were found in all the vaccines. All the vaccines caused significant suppression in weight gain, leading to a poor performance in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR and European Efficiency Factor (EEF.

  11. A Review of OIE Country Status Recovery Using Vaccinate-to-Live Versus Vaccinate-to-Die Foot-and-Mouth Disease Response Policies II: Waiting Periods After Emergency Vaccination in FMD Free Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geale, D W; Barnett, P V; Clarke, G W; Davis, J; Kasari, T R

    2015-08-01

    For countries with OIE status, FMD free country where vaccination is not practised, vaccinate-to-live policies have a significant economic disincentive as the trade restriction waiting period is double that of vaccinate-to-die policies. The disposal of healthy vaccinated animals strictly for the purpose of regaining markets with debatable scientific justification is a global concern. The feasibility of aligning the waiting periods to facilitate vaccinate-to-live is explored. The first article of this two-part review (Barnett et al., 2015) explored the qualities of higher potency Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccines, performance of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) diagnostic assays particularly in vaccinates and carriers, as well as aspects of current limitations of post-outbreak surveillance. Here, the history behind the OIE waiting periods for FMD free status is reviewed as well as whether the risk of vaccinated animals and their subsequent products differ appreciably at 3 versus 6 months. It is concluded that alignment is feasible for vaccinate-to-live using higher potency FMD vaccines within the current OIE waiting period framework of 3 and 6 months blocks of time. These waiting periods reflect precedence, historical practicalities and considered expert opinion rather than a specific scientific rationale. The future lies in updated epidemiological and diagnostic technology to establish an acceptable level of statistical certainty for surveillance or target probability of freedom of FMDV (infection or circulation) not time restricted waiting periods. The OIE Terrestrial Code limits trade from a FMD free country where vaccination is not practiced to animal products and live non-vaccinated animals. The risk of FMDV in products derived from higher potency vaccinated animals is appreciably less than for countries with infected FMD status or even from a FMD free country where vaccination is practised for which the Code has Articles with

  12. Which Dengue Vaccine Approach Is the Most Promising, and Should We Be Concerned about Enhanced Disease after Vaccination? There Is Only One True Winner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B

    2017-07-17

    The scientific community now possesses information obtained directly from human beings that makes it possible to understand why breakthrough-enhanced dengue virus (DENV) infections occurred in children receiving Sanofi Pasteur's Dengvaxia tetravalent live attenuated vaccine and to predict the possibility of breakthrough-enhanced DENV infections following immunization with two other tetravalent live attenuated vaccines now in phase III testing. Based upon recent research, Dengvaxia, lacking DENV nonstructural protein antigens, did not protect seronegatives because it failed to raise a competent T-cell response and/or antibodies to NS1. It is also possible that chimeric structure does not present the correct virion conformation permitting the development of protective neutralizing antibodies. A premonitory signal shared by the Sanofi Pasteur and the Takeda vaccines was the failure of fully immunized subhuman primates to prevent low-level viremia and/or anamnestic antibody responses to live DENV challenge. The vaccine developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health [NIH]) has met virtually all of the goals needed to demonstrate preclinical efficacy and safety for humans. Each monovalent vaccine was comprehensively studied for reactogenicity and immunogenicity in human volunteers. Protective immunity in subjects receiving tetravalent candidate vaccines was evidenced by the fact that when vaccinated subjects were given further doses of vaccine or different strains of DENV the result was "solid immunity," a nonviremic and nonanamnestic immune response. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Li, Wei; Huang, Tingting; Luo, Xiaomei; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Chen; Dai, Chunxiao; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Yan; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Although the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines and attenuated live vaccines have been used to prevent and control Newcastle disease (ND) for years, there are some disadvantages. Recently, newly developed DNA vaccines have the potential to overcome these disadvantages. The low delivery efficiency, however, hindered the application of DNA vaccines for ND in practice. The eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1-F (o) DNA that expressed the F gene of NDV encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (pFNDV-PLGA-NPs) were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimal preparation conditions of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were determined. Under the optimal conditions, the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were produced in good morphology and had high stability with a mean diameter of 433.5 ± 7.5 nm, with encapsulation efficiency of 91.8 ± 0.3% and a Zeta potential of +2.7 mV. Release assay in vitro showed that the fusion gene plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs up to 93.14% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed and maintained its bioactivity. Immunization results showed that better immune responses of SPF chickens immunized with the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were induced compared to the chickens immunized with the DNA vaccine alone. In addition, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs was also tested in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The pFNDV-PLGA-NPs could induce stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and reached the sustained release effect. These results laid a foundation for further development of vaccines and drugs in PLGA nanoparticles.

  14. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Newcastle disease virus (NDV inactivated vaccines and attenuated live vaccines have been used to prevent and control Newcastle disease (ND for years, there are some disadvantages. Recently, newly developed DNA vaccines have the potential to overcome these disadvantages. The low delivery efficiency, however, hindered the application of DNA vaccines for ND in practice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1-F (o DNA that expressed the F gene of NDV encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimal preparation conditions of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were determined. Under the optimal conditions, the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were produced in good morphology and had high stability with a mean diameter of 433.5 ± 7.5 nm, with encapsulation efficiency of 91.8 ± 0.3% and a Zeta potential of +2.7 mV. Release assay in vitro showed that the fusion gene plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs up to 93.14% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed and maintained its bioactivity. Immunization results showed that better immune responses of SPF chickens immunized with the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were induced compared to the chickens immunized with the DNA vaccine alone. In addition, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs was also tested in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pFNDV-PLGA-NPs could induce stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and reached the sustained release effect. These results laid a foundation for further development of vaccines and drugs in PLGA nanoparticles.

  15. Quantification and phenotypic characterisation of peripheral IFN-γ producing leucocytes in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Henrik; Vervelde, Lonneke; Sutton, Kate

    2017-01-01

    controls, one group was vaccinated intramuscularly twice with a commercial inactivated ND virus (NDV) vaccine, and the last group was vaccinated orally twice with a commercial live attenuated NDV vaccine. PBMC were ex vivo stimulated with ConA or with NDV antigen. The ICS assay was used to determine......The aim of this study was to optimise and evaluate an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay for assessment of T cell IFN-γ responses in chickens vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND). We aimed to validate currently available antibodies to chicken IFN-γ using transfected CHO cells......-γ responses, with significantly elevated levels of IFN-γ producing cells in the B19 chickens vaccinated orally with live attenuated NDV vaccine. This was not the case in the B21 animals, indicating a haplotype restricted variation. In contrast, the CD3+TCR1γδ−CD4+ (Th) population did not show a significant...

  16. The effect of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination on virus transmission and the significance for the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, Karin; Bouma, Annemarie

    2009-10-01

    Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) might be one of the control measures used during an FMD epidemic depending on the local epidemiological situation, the status of the country, and the opinion of policy makers. A sound decision on vaccination can be made only if there is sufficient scientific knowledge on the effectiveness of vaccination in eliminating the virus from the population. An important question is whether a single vaccination applied as an emergency vaccine can contribute to the control of an epidemic. This paper presents the results of transmission experiments on vaccine efficacy in groups of cattle, pigs, and sheep and concludes that vaccination seemed to be effective in cattle and sheep, but was less effective in pigs. The possible implications for application to field conditions are discussed.

  17. Prospects of a vaccine for the prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachter, Bodo

    2016-12-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is one leading cause of childhood disabilities. Prevention of congenital HCMV disease by vaccination has consequently been identified as a priority public healthcare goal. Several vaccine candidates have been introduced in the past that aimed at the prevention of primary HCMV infection in pregnancy. None of these has provided complete protection, and no licensed vaccine is thus far available. An additional level of complexity has been reached by recent studies indicating that the burden of HCMV transmission and disease following non-primary infections in pregnancy may be higher than previously anticipated. Substantial progress in our understanding of the immunobiology of HCMV infection in pregnancy has fostered studies to test revised or novel vaccine strategies. Preventing HCMV transmission has been identified a surrogate endpoint, rendering the conduction of vaccine studies feasible with reasonable effort. Identification of the glycoprotein complex gH/gL/UL128-131 as a mediator of HCMV host cell tropism and evaluation of that complex as a major target of the neutralizing antibody response made manufacturers consider vaccine candidates that include these proteins. Detailed structural analyses of the neutralizing determinants on HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) have revived interest in using this protein in its pre-fusion conformation for vaccine purposes. Studies in pregnant women and in animal models have provided evidence that addressing the T lymphocyte response by vaccination may be crucial to prevent HCMV transmission to the offspring. CD4 T lymphocytes may be of particular importance in this respect. A simultaneous targeting of both the humoral and cellular immune response against HCMV by vaccination thus appears warranted in order to prevent congenital HCMV infection. There is, however, still need for further research to be able to define an immunological correlate of protection against HCMV transmission during

  18. Immunogenicity of DNA- and recombinant protein-based Alzheimer disease epitope vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Hayk; Bacon, Andrew; Petrushina, Irina; Zagorski, Karen; Cribbs, David H; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Agadjanyan, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) process involves the accumulation of amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain, nevertheless the attempts at targeting the main culprits, neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, have thus far proven unsuccessful for improving cognitive function. Important lessons about anti-Aβ immunotherapeutic strategies were learned from the first active vaccination clinical trials. AD progression could be safely prevented or delayed if the vaccine (1) induces high titers of antibodies specific to toxic forms of Aβ; (2) does not activate the harmful autoreactive T cells that may induce inflammation; (3) is initiated before or at least at the early stages of the accumulation of toxic forms of Aβ. Data from the recent passive vaccination trials with bapineuzumab and solanezumab also indicated that anti-Aβ immunotherapy might be effective in reduction of the AD pathology and even improvement of cognitive and/or functional performance in patients when administered early in the course of the disease. For the prevention of AD the active immunization strategy may be more desirable than passive immunotherapy protocol and it can offer the potential for sustainable clinical and commercial advantages. Here we discuss the active vaccine approaches, which are still in preclinical development and vaccines that are already in clinical trials.

  19. The Quest for a Vaccine Against Coccidioidomycosis: A Neglected Disease of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo N. Kirkland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever is a disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. This neglected disease has substantial public health impact despite its geographic restriction to desert areas of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, Central and South America. The incidence of this infection in California and Arizona has been increasing over the past fifteen years. Several large cities are within the endemic region in the U.S. Coccidioidomycosis accounts for 25,000 hospital admissions per year in California. While most cases of coccidioidomycosis resolve spontaneously, up to 40% are severe enough to require anti-fungal treatment, and a significant number disseminate beyond the lungs. Disseminated infection involving the meninges is fatal without appropriate treatment. Infection with Coccidioides spp. is protective against a second infection, so vaccination seems biologically plausible. This review of efforts to develop a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis focuses on vaccine approaches and the difficulties in identifying protein antigen/adjuvant combinations that protect in experimental mouse models. Although the quest for a vaccine is still in the early stage, scientific efforts for vaccine development may pave the way for future success.

  20. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  1. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  2. Repeated challenge with virulent Newcastle Disease Virus does not decrease the efficacy of vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the field, well-vaccinated birds may be repeatedly exposed to challenges with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (vNDV), which may infect macrophages and cause damage to the immune system. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that daily challenges with high doses of vNDV may overwh...

  3. Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease II: regaining FMD-free status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J.A.; Engel, B.; Dekker, A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can have devastating effects on animal welfare, economic revenues, the export position and society as a whole. The preferred control strategy in the Netherlands has recently changed to vaccination-to-live, but – not have been applied before – this poses

  4. Implications of differential age distribution of disease-associated meningococcal lineages for vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehony, Carina; Trotter, Caroline L.; Ramsay, Mary E.; Chandra, Manosree; Jolley, Keith A.; van der Ende, Arie; Carion, Françoise; Berthelsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Steen; Harðardóttir, Hjördís; Vazquez, Julio A.; Murphy, Karen; Toropainen, Maija; Caniça, Manuela; Ferreira, Eugenia; Diggle, Mathew; Edwards, Giles F.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Stefanelli, Paola; Kriz, Paula; Gray, Steve J.; Fox, Andrew J.; Jacobsson, Susanne; Claus, Heike; Vogel, Ulrich; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Heuberger, Sigrid; Caugant, Dominique A.; Frosch, Matthias; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2014-01-01

    New vaccines targeting meningococci expressing serogroup B polysaccharide have been developed, with some being licensed in Europe. Coverage depends on the distribution of disease-associated genotypes, which may vary by age. It is well established that a small number of hyperinvasive lineages account

  5. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...

  6. Food-Based Newcastle Disease V 4 Vaccine In Guinea Fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy trial of the feed-based Newcastle disease V4 (NDV4HR) vaccine was carried out on guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas) in Maiduguri, Nigeria between December 2000 and March 2001. Eighty-five guinea fowls divided into 17 experimental groups of 5 birds per group were used in the study. The trial ...

  7. Disease Prevention: An Opportunity to Expand Edible Plant-Based Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Christopher; Cañas, Raúl; Macuer, Johan; Torres, María José; Herrada, Andrés A.; Jamett, Fabiola; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term “edible vaccine” refers to the use of edible parts of a plant that has been genetically modified to produce specific components of a particular pathogen to generate protection against a disease. The aim of this review is to present and critically examine “edible vaccines” as an option for global immunization against pathogenic diseases and their outbreaks and to discuss the necessary steps for their production and control and the list of plants that may already be used as edible vaccines. Additionally, this review discusses the required standards and ethical regulations as well as the advantages and disadvantages associated with this powerful biotechnology tool. PMID:28556800

  8. An Appraisal of the Use of Vaccination for Disease Prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has become almost practically impossible to engage in commercial poultry production without the challenges of diseases. Farmers therefore, have intensified efforts on various preventive measures including vaccination but with varying degree of success. This study was undertaken to assess the use and effectiveness of ...

  9. Strategies for differentiating infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA) for foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Parida, Satya; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2010-01-01

    The prophylactic use of vaccines against exotic viral infections in production animals is undertaken exclusively in regions where the disease concerned is endemic. In such areas, the infection pressure is very high and so, to assure optimal protection, the most efficient vaccines are used. However......, in areas considered to be free from these diseases and in which there is the possibility of only limited outbreaks, the use of Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) or marker vaccines allows for vaccination while still retaining the possibility of serological surveillance...... for the presence of infection. This literature review describes the current knowledge on the use of DIVA diagnostic strategies for three important transboundary animal diseases: foot-and-mouth disease in cloven-hoofed animals, classical swine fever in pigs and avian influenza in poultry....

  10. A New Approach to a Lyme Disease Vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livey, I.; Dunn, J.; O' Rourke, M.; Traweger, A.; Savidis-Dacho, H.; Crowe, B. A.; Barrett, P. N.; Yang, X.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    A single recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) antigen designed to contain protective elements from 2 different OspA serotypes (1 and 2) is able to induce antibody responses that protect mice against infection with either Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (OspA serotype-1) or Borrelia afzelii (OspA serotype-2). Protection against infection with B burgdorferi ss strain ZS7 was demonstrated in a needle-challenge model. Protection against B. afzelii species was shown in a tick-challenge model using feral ticks. In both models, as little as .03 {micro}g of antigen, when administered in a 2-dose immunization schedule with aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant, was sufficient to provide complete protection against the species targeted. This proof of principle study proves that knowledge of protective epitopes can be used for the rational design of effective, genetically modified vaccines requiring fewer OspA antigens and suggests that this approach may facilitate the development of an OspA vaccine for global use.

  11. Synovial chondromatosis of the subacromial bursa causing a bursal-sided rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Julie A; Garrigues, Grant E

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon condition, and involvement of the shoulder is even more rare. We report on a 39-year-old female who presented with symptoms, radiographic features, and intraoperative findings consistent with multiple subacromial loose bodies resulting in a partial-thickness, bursal-sided rotator cuff tear of the supraspinatus muscle. She was treated with an arthroscopic removal of loose bodies, complete excision of the subacromial/subdeltoid bursa, acromioplasty, and rotator cuff repair. To our knowledge, this is the first report of arthroscopic treatment for a bursal-sided, partial-thickness rotator cuff tear treated with greater than two-year clinical and radiographic follow-up. We utilized shoulder scores, preoperative and postoperative range of motion, and imaging to assess the results of treatment and surveillance for recurrence in our patient after two-year follow-up.

  12. Production of vaccines for treatment of infectious diseases by transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina LEDL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first pathogen antigen was expressed in transgenic plants with the aim of producing edible vaccine in early 1990s, transgenic plants have become a well-established expression system for production of alternative vaccines against various human and animal infectious diseases. The main focus of plant expression systems in the last five years has been on improving expression of well-studied antigens such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV, bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV, footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, rabies G protein, rotavirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP, avian influenza virus H5N1, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LT-B, cholera toxin B (CT-B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, artherosclerosis, ebola and anthrax. Significant increases in expression have been obtained using improved expression vectors, different plant species and transformation methods.

  13. A Q Method Approach to Evaluating Farmers’ Perceptions of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Bao Truong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the farmers’ perceptions of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccination using a reflexive research method called Q methodology. A structured sample was composed of 46 farmers selected according to gender, farming experience, level of education, and production type. Statements relevant to the farmers’ perceptions of and attitudes toward FMD vaccination, related to confidence, logistics, costs, and impacts of vaccination were developed. Results were analyzed by principal component analysis and factor analysis. The influence of demographics and characterized variables on the respondent’s contribution to each factor was also tested. Regarding the different beliefs and behavior toward FMD vaccination, the common perceptions held by Vietnamese cattle and pig farmers were divided into three discourses named Confidence (24 subjects, Belief (12 subjects, and Challenge (6 subjects. The identified discourses represented 57.3% of the variances. Consensus points were found, such as the feeling of being more secure after FMD vaccination campaigns; the fact that farmers take vaccination decisions themselves without being influenced by other stakeholders; the opinion that FMD vaccination is cheaper than the costs of treating a sick animal; and that vaccines provided by governmental authorities are of high quality. Part of the studied population did not consider vaccination to be the first choice strategy in prevention. This raises the question of how to improve the active participation of farmers in the FMD vaccine strategy. Taking into consideration farmers’ perceptions can help to implement feasible vaccination strategies at the local level.

  14. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress

  15. Preparation of mucosal nanoparticles and polymer-based inactivated vaccine for Newcastle disease and H9N2 AI viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Heba M. El Naggar; Mohamed Sayed Madkour; Hussein Ali Hussein

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. Materials and Methods: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific...

  16. Extracellular Vesicles: Role in Inflammatory Responses and Potential Uses in Vaccination in Cancer and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, João Henrique; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro; Ribeiro, Kleber; Cronemberger Andrade, André; Batista, Wagner Luiz; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events. Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26380326

  17. Economic studies applied to vaccines against invasive diseases: An updated budget impact analysis of age-based pneumococcal vaccination strategies in the elderly in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bonanni, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Many evaluations have been performed on the economic impact of pneumococcal vaccination in older adults (>64 y of age) in several countries, including Italy. However, these studies did not include the new data on the effectiveness of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in the elderly reported by the CAPiTA Study. The aim of the present study was to update our previous budget impact analysis of multi-cohort PCV13 vaccination in adults in Italy by including new scientific evidence. We also compared single-cohort vaccination strategies per year, in order to identify the cohort with the most favorable economic profile, in the event of the multi-cohort approach not being economically sustainable for the National Health System (NHS). The new impact analysis highlights that the vaccination of one, two or three adult cohorts per year in Italy would lead to a considerable reduction in pneumococcal disease and its related costs over 5 y. The strategies proved cost-effective (ICERs ranging from €14,605 to €15,412/QALY), i.e. well below the threshold of €50,000/QALY. The ICERs were slightly lower than those calculated in the first published analysis and vaccination continued to be economically favorable. In the case of a mono-cohort strategy, the vaccination of 65-year-old subjects, albeit more expensive, proved to be more favorable than the vaccination of 70- or 75-year-old cohorts. Finally, after the inclusion of the recent clinical evidence, the age-based PCV13 vaccination of the elderly in Italy continued to be economically justified from the NHS perspective in the short period. Vaccination of the elderly should therefore be strongly recommended nationwide in Italy.

  18. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Jill B; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2-8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines.

  19. Myc oncogene-induced genomic instability: DNA palindromes in bursal lymphomagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Neiman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic instability plays a key role in the formation of naturally occurring cancer. The formation of long DNA palindromes is a rate-limiting step in gene amplification, a common form of tumor-associated genetic instability. Genome-wide analysis of palindrome formation (GAPF has detected both extensive palindrome formation and gene amplification, beginning early in tumorigenesis, in an experimental Myc-induced model tumor system in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. We determined that GAPF-detected palindromes are abundant and distributed nonrandomly throughout the genome of bursal lymphoma cells, frequently at preexisting short inverted repeats. By combining GAPF with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we found a significant association between occupancy of gene-proximal Myc binding sites and the formation of palindromes. Numbers of palindromic loci correlate with increases in both levels of Myc over-expression and ChIP-detected occupancy of Myc binding sites in bursal cells. However, clonal analysis of chick DF-1 fibroblasts suggests that palindrome formation is a stochastic process occurring in individual cells at a small number of loci relative to much larger numbers of susceptible loci in the cell population and that the induction of palindromes is not involved in Myc-induced acute fibroblast transformation. GAPF-detected palindromes at the highly oncogenic bic/miR-155 locus in all of our preneoplastic and neoplastic bursal samples, but not in DNA from normal and other transformed cell types. This finding indicates very strong selection during bursal lymphomagenesis. Therefore, in addition to providing a platform for gene copy number change, palindromes may alter microRNA genes in a fashion that can contribute to cancer development.

  20. Myc oncogene-induced genomic instability: DNA palindromes in bursal lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Paul E; Elsaesser, Katrina; Loring, Gilbert; Kimmel, Robert

    2008-07-18

    Genetic instability plays a key role in the formation of naturally occurring cancer. The formation of long DNA palindromes is a rate-limiting step in gene amplification, a common form of tumor-associated genetic instability. Genome-wide analysis of palindrome formation (GAPF) has detected both extensive palindrome formation and gene amplification, beginning early in tumorigenesis, in an experimental Myc-induced model tumor system in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. We determined that GAPF-detected palindromes are abundant and distributed nonrandomly throughout the genome of bursal lymphoma cells, frequently at preexisting short inverted repeats. By combining GAPF with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we found a significant association between occupancy of gene-proximal Myc binding sites and the formation of palindromes. Numbers of palindromic loci correlate with increases in both levels of Myc over-expression and ChIP-detected occupancy of Myc binding sites in bursal cells. However, clonal analysis of chick DF-1 fibroblasts suggests that palindrome formation is a stochastic process occurring in individual cells at a small number of loci relative to much larger numbers of susceptible loci in the cell population and that the induction of palindromes is not involved in Myc-induced acute fibroblast transformation. GAPF-detected palindromes at the highly oncogenic bic/miR-155 locus in all of our preneoplastic and neoplastic bursal samples, but not in DNA from normal and other transformed cell types. This finding indicates very strong selection during bursal lymphomagenesis. Therefore, in addition to providing a platform for gene copy number change, palindromes may alter microRNA genes in a fashion that can contribute to cancer development.

  1. Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ≥3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10 km or 50 km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ≥3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if

  2. Genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elizabeth J; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J; Jann, Oliver C

    2012-07-15

    Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforward as it generally requires large numbers of animals with linked phenotypes and genotypes. Investigation of genes underlying complex traits such as resistance or response to viral pathogens requires several genetic approaches including candidate genes deduced from knowledge about the cellular pathways leading to protection or pathology, or unbiased whole genome scans using markers spread across the genome. Evidence for host genetic variation exists for a number of viral diseases in cattle including bovine respiratory disease and anecdotally, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). We immunised and vaccinated a cattle cross herd with a 40-mer peptide derived from FMDV and a vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Genetic variation has been quantified. A candidate gene approach has grouped high and low antibody and T cell responders by common motifs in the peptide binding pockets of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) DRB3 gene. This suggests that vaccines with a minimal number of epitopes that are recognised by most cattle could be designed. Whole genome scans using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has revealed many novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNP markers controlling both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, some of which are in genes of known immunological relevance including the toll-like receptors (TLRs). The sequencing, assembly and annotation of livestock genomes and is continuing apace. In

  3. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Tine Rikke

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the consequences of a national immunization program with HPV vaccine for both boys and girls in Denmark, including the prophylactic effects on all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-associated diseases in male and female. The study focussed on the quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the vaccine's protection against genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anogenital cancer (anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer) and head and neck cancer (oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects was performed. The model did not include naturally-acquired immunity to HPV in the simulations. In the base case result (i.e. vaccination of girls only, 85% vaccination rate, private market price at € 123 per dose ex. VAT) an ICER of 3583 €/QALY (3-dose regime) is estimated when all HPV-related diseases are taken into account. Vaccination of girls & boys vs. vaccination of girls only an ICER of 28,031 €/QALY (2-dose regime) and 41,636 €/QALY (3-dose regime) is estimated. Extension of the current HPV programme in Denmark to include boys and girls is a cost effective preventive intervention that would lead to a faster prevention of cancers, cancer precursors and genital warts in men and women.

  4. Vaccination coverage of children with inflammatory bowel disease after an awareness campaign on the risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurier, Aude; Pelatan, Cecile; Willot, Stephanie; Ginies, Jean-Louis; Breton, Estelle; Bridoux, Laure; Segura, Jean-Francois; Chaillou, Emilie; Jobert, Agathe; Darviot, Estelle; Cagnard, Benoit; Delaperriere, Nadege; Grimal, Isabelle; Carre, Emilie; Wagner, Anne-Claire; Sylvestre, Emmanuelle; Dabadie, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Children with inflammatory bowel disease are at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases mostly due to immunosuppressive drugs. To evaluate coverage after an awareness campaign informing patients, their parents and general practitioner about the vaccination schedule. Vaccination coverage was firstly evaluated and followed by an awareness campaign on the risk of infection via postal mail. The trial is a case-control study on the same patients before and after the awareness campaign. Overall, 92 children were included. A questionnaire was then completed during a routine appointment to collect data including age at diagnosis, age at data collection, treatment history, and vaccination status. Vaccination rates significantly increased for vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis (92% vs. 100%), Haemophilus influenzae (88% vs. 98%), hepatitis B (52% vs. 71%), pneumococcus (36% vs. 57%), and meningococcus C (17% vs. 41%) (pChildren who were older at diagnosis were 1.26 times more likely to be up-to-date with a minimum vaccination schedule (diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis, pertussis, H. influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella, tuberculosis) (p=0.002). Informing inflammatory bowel disease patients, their parents and general practitioner about the vaccination schedule via postal mail is easy, inexpensive, reproducible, and increases vaccination coverage. This method reinforces information on the risk of infection during routine visits. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic Olecranon Bursal Resection for Olecranon Bursitis: A Comparative Study for Septic and Aseptic Olecranon Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyou, In Hyeok; Park, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Kyung Chul; Lee, Ji-Ho; Kim, Seung Yeon

    2016-06-01

    Open excision of the olecranon bursa has been performed traditionally. However, surgical complications such as wound healing problems and recurrence may occur after the surgery. The purpose of this study was to report on the clinical outcomes of endoscopic olecranon bursal resection performed in both septic and aseptic olecranon bursitis. We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients who underwent endoscopic olecranon bursal resection from June 2007 to January 2012. There were 20 males and 10 females. The ages ranged from 22 to 80 years, with an average age of 57.4 years and the average follow-up was 21.1 months (6-61.5 months). There were 15 cases in the septic group. The treatment outcome was measured according to the following; the rate of recurrence, range of motion, complications associated with surgery, VAS and QuickDASH. There were no complications such as postoperative infection or neurovascular injuries. In the septic group, the VAS and QuickDASH scores were significantly improved from 5.6 to 0.1 and from 28 to 1.3, respectively. In the aseptic group, the VAS and QuickDASH scores were improved from 0.6 to 0.1 and from 25.7 to 0.5, respectively. In all cases, there were no recurrences and no limitations of joint motion until the final follow-up. We were able to obtain excellent outcomes without recurrence by performing endoscopic olecranon bursal resection in both septic and aseptic olecranon bursitis.

  6. A history of fish vaccination: science-based disease prevention in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudding, Roar; Van Muiswinkel, Willem B

    2013-12-01

    Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an important part in the successful development of the fish-farming industry. The first vaccine for aquaculture, a vaccine for prevention of yersiniosis in salmonid fish, was licensed in USA in 1976. Since then the use of vaccines has expanded to new countries and new species simultaneous with the growth of the aquaculture industry. This paper gives an overview of the achievements in fish vaccinology with particular emphasis on immunoprophylaxis as a practical tool for a successful development of bioproduction of aquatic animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. VACCINATION AGAINST THE FLU AMONG CHILDREN WITH DISTURBANCES IN STATES OF HEALTH AND CHRONIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present textbook for the doctors highlights the latest data on the flu spread, its clinical manifestations, as well as opportunities for its prevention and treatment. The authors especially carefully described the methods of immunoprophylaxis, including specific like type. They listed all the registered vaccines and vaccines of local and foreign origin to be registered in the Russian federation, methods of their injection, probable undesirable phenomena. Specific stress was laid onto the own personal data of the authors as to application of the vaccines against the flu among both healthy children and those, who suffer from various disturbances or chronic diseases, including pernicious run. The textbook was approved at the meeting of the scientific council of the general directorate, scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences, on September 14, 2006.

  8. VACCINATION AGAINST THE FLU AMONG CHILDREN WITH DISTURBANCES IN STATES OF HEALTH AND CHRONIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present textbook for the doctors highlights the latest data on the flu spread, its clinical manifestations, as well as opportunities for its prevention and treatment. The authors especially carefully described the methods of immunoprophylaxis, including specific like type. They listed all the registered vaccines and vaccines of local and foreign origin to be registered in the russian federation, methods of their injection, probable undesirable phenomena. Specific stress was laid onto the own personal data of the authors as to application of the vaccines against the flu among both healthy children and those, who suffer from various disturbances or chronic diseases, including pernicious run. The textbook was approved at the meeting of the scientific council of the general directorate, scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences, on September 14, 2006.

  9. Vaccination and screening programs: harmonizing prevention strategies for HPV-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliusi Sonia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HPV vaccine is an exciting promise of the preventive medicine. Although HPV-immunization programs still reveal a number of unanswered questions, they represent a novel opportunity for primary prevention against cervical cancer and other HPV-related pre-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases. It is reasonable that the short and long-term benefits of vaccination on cervical and vulvo-vaginal HPV-related pathology will emerge when assuring over time a clear and complete information to the community and harmonizing the prevention strategies. Indeed, HPV-vaccination programs will require an understanding of new paradigms of infection and cancer control, and thus will require a rationale integration with the currently operating screening systems.

  10. Risk of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease among the elderly: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Ellen; Duclos, Philippe; Yactayo, Sergio; Schuster, Melanie

    2013-12-02

    Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) is a rare and serious adverse event of the yellow fever (YF) vaccine that mimics wild-type YF. Research shows there may be an increased risk of YEL-AVD among the elderly population (≥ 60-65 years old), however this research has yet to be accumulated and reviewed in order to make policy recommendations to countries currently administering the YF vaccine. This paper systematically reviewed all information available on YEL-AVD to determine if there is an increased risk among the elderly, for both travelers and endemic populations. Age-specific reporting rates (RRs) were re-calculated from the literature using the Brighton Collaboration case definition for YEL-AVD and were then analyzed to determine if there was a significant difference between the RRs of younger and older age groups. Two out of the five studies found a significantly higher rate of YEL-AVD among the elderly population. Our findings suggest unexposed elders may be at an increased risk of developing YEF-AVD, however the evidence remains limited. Therefore, our findings for YF vaccination of elderly populations support the recommendations made by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) in their April 2013 meeting, mainly vaccination of the elderly should be based on a careful risk-benefit analysis. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization (WHO). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Levamisole as an adjuvant to hepatitis B vaccination in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Somi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High risk of blood-borne infections is one of the problems of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, above which, there is hepatitis B. One of the ways to prevent this disease is vaccination against hepatitis B besides observing standard precautions. Lack of response to vaccine in uremic patients has been reported up to 33.0%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levamisole as an adjuvant in improving vaccination response in patients suffering from CKD. Methods: In this cohort study, 30 patients suffering from the chronic renal disease who had undergone levamisole plus hepatitis B vaccine were included in the study as exposed group (Group A. Then 30 equivalent patients who had just underwent hepatitis B vaccination were in the study as a unexposed group (Group B. Antibody titer against hepatitis B virus (HBV was compared between two groups monthly, then data was analyzed. Results: Mean age of all investigated patients was 58.1 ± 14.9 years old, and it ranged from 26 to 82. 23 patients (38.3% were female, and 37 patients (61.7% were male. None of the patients in both groups had a history of previous hepatitis B vaccination. Mean antibody titer was higher in group A than that of the group B after the first and second stages of hepatitis B vaccination. However, the difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.14 and P = 0.46 respectively. Also, the mean antibody titer after the third stage was 98.8 ± 61 u/l in group A and 86.2 ± 49 u/l in group B where the difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.38. Side effects resulted from levamisole was not observed in any of patients in group A. Conclusion: According to the results it is possible to express that levamisole pill could be used as a proper adjuvant in improving the response of hepatitis B vaccination in patients suffering from CKD. However, further studies in this field are recommended according to the

  12. Previous vaccination modifies both the clinical disease and immunological features in children with measles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Measles that develops in previously vaccinated cases has been reported to be associated with modified disease, although severity has usually been assessed by the presence or absence of symptoms. To date no studies have attempted to subjectively grade the severity of the clinical features. AIM: To investigate both the objective and subjective severity of measles in vaccinated and unvaccinated cases in the context of a community outbreak. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study conducted in Christchurch in 2009 using notified data compared the presentation of measles in 14 confirmed cases that had received at least one MMR (measles, mumps, rubella vaccination and 14 age-matched unvaccinated confirmed cases. Additional details on the subjective and objective severity of the illness were obtained from parents/guardians using a standardised telephone questionnaire. RESULTS: The vaccinated group had significantly fewer clinical features on presentation (p=0.01, RR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6 and a less severe illness objectively, as measured by height and duration of fever, the number of days needing medication other than paracetamol and days required in bed. Unvaccinated cases were 2.8 times more likely to have more severe clinical features than vaccinated cases (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.0. Unvaccinated cases were 3.0 times more likely to develop IgM antibody (RR=3.0, 95% CI 0.9-9.3. DISCUSSION: Previously vaccinated children who develop measles are likely to have less severe disease and serology results that may be inconclusive, particularly for IgM antibody if tested in the first few days after the rash onset.

  13. Effects of immunomodulators on the response induced by vaccines against autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J

    2017-11-01

    A promising treatment for T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases is the induction of immune tolerance by modulating the immune response against self-antigens, an objective that may be achieved by vaccination. There are two main types of vaccines currently under development. The tolerogenic vaccines, composed of proteins formed by a cytokine fused to a self-antigen, which usually induce tolerance by eliminating the T-cells that are immune reactive against the self-antigen. The immunogenic vaccines, comprised of a self-antigen plus a sole Th2 adjuvant either free or conjugated, that alleviate autoimmunity by switching the immune response against the self-antigen, from a damaging pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 immunity. Another type of vaccines is the DNA vaccines, where cells transiently express the self-antigen encoded by DNA, which induces a Th2 immunity. Actually, DNA vaccines can benefit from the presence of an adjuvant that elicits a systemic sole Th2 immunity to enhance the initially weak immune response characteristic of these vaccines. While in the tolerogenic vaccines, cytokines are the endogenous immunomodulators, in the immunogenic vaccines, the adjuvants are exogenous agents that elicit Th2 immunity with a production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antibodies against the self-antigen. Because the commonly used Th2 adjuvant alum, fails to induce an effective immunity in the elderly population, it is unlikely that it would be widely used. Another Th2 adjuvant, the oil/water emulsions mixed with the antigen, while effective in vaccines against infectious agents, due to potential aldehydes in their formulation may be not suitable for autoimmune vaccines. A unique compound is glatiramer, which seems to be both a random polypeptide antigen and an immune modulator that biases the response to Th2 immunity. Its mechanism of action seems to implicate binding to MHC-II, which alters the outcome of T-cell signaling, leading to anergy

  14. Differentiating infection from vaccination in foot-and-mouth-disease: evaluation of an ELISA based on recombinant 3ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruderer, U.; Swam, H.; Haas, B.; Visser, N.; Brocchi, E.; Grazioli, S.; Esterhuysen, J.J.; Vosloo, W.; Forsyth, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Cox, S.; Armstrong, R.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent devastating outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe have reopened the discussion about the adequacy of the non-vaccination strategy implemented by the EU in 1991. Here we describe the evaluation of a new commercially available test kit for the discrimination between vaccination

  15. 77 FR 41985 - Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... hypothetical influenza vaccine, and to seek from a range of experts, feedback on the current version of the... influenza vaccine benefit/risk; and (3) discuss possible applications of quantitative benefit/risk... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate...

  16. [A short history of infectious diseases since the fifties of the last century and the importance of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marešová, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination in the Czech lands has a long history; it begun during the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1803 by vaccination against smallpox, and in the late 19th century by vaccination against rabies. In the second half of the 20th century, the basic vaccination included also other vaccines. Thanks to paediatricians, vaccination coverage of children was so high that in addition to the immunity of individuals the collective immunity was also significant. The incidence of infectious diseases has dropped significantly. Today the population, both medical and lay, almost does not know the classic childrens infectious diseases or their risk of complications. This creates a feeling in recent years that vaccination is unnecessary and that it is a source of complication and, therefore, better not to vaccinate. However, diseases, except for smallpox, have not disappeared, and for the susceptible unvaccinated individuals they represent a great risk. There are now occurring at atypical age groups where their diagnosis is even not considered. Therefore, it is important to return to the course of disease as well as to the potentially serious complications in unvaccinated people.

  17. Bacterial toxin's DNA vaccine serves as a strategy for the treatment of cancer, infectious and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Elham; Halabian, Raheleh; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-11-01

    DNA vaccination -a third generation vaccine-is a modern approach to stimulate humoral and cellular responses against different diseases such as infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity. These vaccines are composed of a gene that encodes sequences of a desired protein under control of a proper (eukaryotic or viral) promoter. Immune response following DNA vaccination is influenced by the route and the dose of injection. In addition, antigen presentation following DNA administration has three different mechanisms including antigen presentation by transfected myocytes, transfection of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) and cross priming. Recently, it has been shown that bacterial toxins and their components can stimulate and enhance immune responses in experimental models. A study demonstrated that DNA fusion vaccine encoding the first domain (DOM) of the Fragment C (FrC) of tetanus neurotoxin (CTN) coupled with tumor antigen sequences is highly immunogenic against colon carcinoma. DNA toxin vaccines against infectious and autoimmune diseases are less studied until now. All in all, this novel approach has shown encouraging results in animal models, but it has to go through adequate clinical trials to ensure its effectiveness in human. However, it has been proven that these vaccines are safe, multifaceted and simple and can be used widely in organisms which may be of advantage to public health in the near future. This paper outlines the mechanism of the action of DNA vaccines and their possible application for targeting infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children children

  19. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease in children--host factors and vaccination response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Helene Andrea Sinclair

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a leading cause of septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in young children world-wide with over half a million children dying annually from pneumococcal disease.  Some children are prone to repeated episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) because of an underlying predisposing disease. Recurrent IPD (rIPD) is a rarity and published reports on rIPD are limited by having few children included, selected groups of patients or short follow-up periods. Deficiencies in the innate or adaptive immune system have been described in children with rIPD, but the frequency of immunodeficiency among such patients is unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to examine paediatric cases of laboratory-confirmed rIPD, over a 33-year period in Denmark, to determine risk factors and study aspects of the immunological background for this problem in children. In October 2007, a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was implemented in the Danish infant immunization programme. An additional aim of the thesis was to examine the impact of vaccination on a population level, following the first three years of general PCV7 vaccination in Denmark. The thesis consists of three papers, which are all directly or indirectly based on data retrieved from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry. This registry is nationwide and dates back to 1938. The registry contains data from all laboratory-confirmed cases of IPD in Denmark and is continually updated for national surveillance. In Paper 1, we conducted a 33-year retrospective nationwide study of paediatric rIPD. By using data from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry combined with clinical data from hospital records, we could describe one of the largest known cohorts of children (n:59) with rIPD . We covered epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of this clinical entity. Of all children experiencing rIPD, 47% had a known predisposing underlying disease at the time of

  20. Diagnostic and vaccine strategies to prevent infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Giovanni; Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Adamoli, Lucia; Renna, Sara; Cascio, Antonio; Orlando, Ambrogio

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been revolutionized by the use of immunomodulatory agents. Although these potent drugs are effective in controlling disease activity, they also cause an increased risk of new infections or reactivation of latent infections. On these premises, we aimed to provide guidance on the definitions of immunocompromised patients, opportunistic infections and the risk factors associated with their occurrence in an IBD context, and to suggest the proper screening tests for infectious diseases and the vaccination schedules to perform before and/or during therapy with immunomodulators. All the most recent evidences - filtered by the combined work of gastroenterologists and infectious disease experts - were summarized with the aim to provide a practical standpoint for the physician. A systematic screening of all infections which may arise during therapy with immunomodulator drugs is necessary in all patients with IBD. The ideal timing to perform screening tests and vaccinations is at the diagnosis of the disease, regardless of its severity at onset, because the course of IBD and its treatment may vary over time, and an immunocompromised status may hamper efficacy and/or possibility to perform all necessary vaccines. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-07-01

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine: A Review in the Prevention of Dengue Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2016-09-01

    Tetravalent, live-attenuated, dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia(®); CYD-TDV) is the first vaccine approved for the prevention of dengue disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1-4 in individuals aged 9-45 or 9-60 years living in high dengue endemic areas. This narrative review discusses the immunogenicity, protective efficacy, reactogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV in the prevention of dengue disease. In Latin American and Asian phase 3 trials in children and adolescents (n > 30,000), the recommended three-dose CYD-TDV regimen was efficacious in preventing virologically-confirmed dengue (VCD) during the period from 28 days after the last dose (month 13) to month 25, meeting the primary endpoint criteria. Protective efficacy against VCD in the respective individual trials was 60.8 and 56.5 % (primary analysis). During the 25-month active surveillance phase, CYD-TDV also provided protective efficacy against VCD, severe dengue, any grade of dengue haemorrhagic fever and VCD-related hospitalization in children aged 9 years and older. CYD-TDV was generally well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified after up to 4 years' follow-up (i.e. from post dose 1) in ongoing long-term studies. Based on evidence from the dengue clinical trial program, the WHO SAGE recommended that countries with high dengue endemicity consider introducing CYD-TDV as part of an integrated disease prevention strategy to lower disease burden. Pharmacoeconomic considerations will be pivotal to implementing dengue vaccination prevention strategies in these countries. The availability of a dengue vaccine is considered essential if the 2012 WHO global strategy targets for reducing the burden of dengue disease by 2020 are to be attained. Hence, CYD-TDV represents a major advance for the prevention of dengue disease in high dengue endemic regions.

  3. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination and risk of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Nikolai Madrid; Svanström, Henrik; Pasternak, Björn; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sundström, Karin; Fink, Katharina; Hviid, Anders

    2015-01-06

    Case reports have suggested a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and development of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. To investigate if quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination is associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. Using nationwide registers we identified a cohort of all females aged 10 years to 44 years in Denmark and Sweden, followed up from 2006 to 2013, information on qHPV vaccination, and data on incident diagnoses of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. The primary analysis used a cohort design including vaccinated and unvaccinated study participants. A secondary analysis used a self-controlled case-series design including only cases. Both analyses used a 2-year risk period following vaccination. Information on qHPV vaccination was obtained through the national vaccination and prescription registers. The primary outcomes were multiple sclerosis and a composite end point of other demyelinating diseases. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression, comparing rates of events in the 2-year risk periods following vaccination and in unvaccinated time periods. The study included 3,983,824 females, among whom 789,082 received a total of 1,927,581 qHPV vaccine doses. During follow-up, 4322 multiple sclerosis cases and 3300 cases of other demyelinating diseases were identified, of which 73 and 90, respectively, occurred within the risk period. In the cohort analysis, there was no increased risk of multiple sclerosis (crude incidence rates, 6.12 events/100,000 person-years [95% CI, 4.86-7.69] and 21.54 events/100,000 person-years [95% CI, 20.90-22.20] for the vaccinated and unvaccinated periods; adjusted rate ratio, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.70-1.15]) or other demyelinating diseases (crude incidence rates, 7.54 events/100,000 person-years [95% CI, 6.13-9.27] and 16.14 events/100,000 person-years [95% CI, 15.58-16.71]; adjusted rate ratio, 1.00 [95% CI, 0

  4. Celebrating 50 years of polio elimination in New Zealand: but inadequate progress in eliminating other vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Baker, Michael G

    2012-11-09

    New Zealanders can now reflect on and celebrate 50 years of polio elimination in this country. This success was followed by eliminating two other infectious diseases, brucellosis and hydatids, and an imported potential disease vector, the southern saltmarsh mosquito. However, this country has made inadequate progress in eliminating several other vaccine-preventable diseases. These include measles, mumps, and rubella, which are priority candidates for elimination, and potentially Hib disease and rotavirus infection. To achieve such successes almost certainly requires that the country: (i) builds national leadership for elimination goals; (ii) develops detailed plans; (iii) continues recent successes in enhancing routine vaccination coverage; (iv) introduces rotavirus vaccine into the childhood immunisation schedule; and (v) strengthens surveillance and research (on such questions as the cost-effectiveness of new vaccines, measures to enhance uptake, and effective border controls to reduce the risk of disease importation).

  5. Antibody persistence after serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra R; Maruyama, Claudia M; Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; Lopes, Marta H; Azevedo, Raymundo S; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Weckx, Lily Y

    2016-08-05

    A decline of protective antibody titers after MCC vaccine has been demonstrated in healthy children, this may be an issue of concern for risk groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of bactericidal antibodies after MCC vaccine in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The type of vaccine used and booster response were also analyzed. SCD patients (n=141) previously immunized with MCC vaccines had blood drawn 2-8 years after the last priming dose. They were distributed according to age at primary immunization into groups: vaccination (2-3, 4-5 and 6-8). Serum bactericidal antibodies with baby rabbit complement (rSBA) and serogroup C-specific IgG concentrations were measured. The correlate of protection was rSBA titer ⩾8. Subjects with rSBA children primed under 2years of age rSBA titer ⩾8 was demonstrated in 53.3%, 21.7% and 35.0%, 2-3, 4-5, 6-8years, respectively, after vaccination, compared with 70.0%, 45.0% and 53.5%, respectively, for individuals primed at ages 2-13years. rSBA median titers and IgG median levels were higher in the older group. Six to eight years after vaccination the percentage of patients with rSBA titers ⩾8 was significantly higher in the group primed with MCC-TT (78.5%) compared with those primed with MCC-CRM197 [Menjugate® (33.3%) or Meningitec® (35.7%)] (p=0.033). After a booster, 98% achieved rSBA titer ⩾8. Immunity to meningococcal serogroup C in SCD children declines rapidly after vaccination and is dependent on the age at priming. Booster doses are needed to maintain protection in SCD patients. Persistence of antibodies seems to be longer in individuals primed with MCC-TT vaccine comparing to those immunized with MCC-CRM197. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing vaccination sentiments with online social media: implications for infectious disease dynamics and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the dynamics of health behaviors in social networks and how they affect collective public health outcomes, but measuring population health behaviors over time and space requires substantial resources. Here, we use publicly available data from 101,853 users of online social media collected over a time period of almost six months to measure the spatio-temporal sentiment towards a new vaccine. We validated our approach by identifying a strong correlation between sentiments expressed online and CDC-estimated vaccination rates by region. Analysis of the network of opinionated users showed that information flows more often between users who share the same sentiments - and less often between users who do not share the same sentiments - than expected by chance alone. We also found that most communities are dominated by either positive or negative sentiments towards the novel vaccine. Simulations of infectious disease transmission show that if clusters of negative vaccine sentiments lead to clusters of unprotected individuals, the likelihood of disease outbreaks is greatly increased. Online social media provide unprecedented access to data allowing for inexpensive and efficient tools to identify target areas for intervention efforts and to evaluate their effectiveness.

  7. Induction of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Killing by Vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patch, J.R.; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Toka, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus (FMDV), which infects cloven-hoofed animals including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine str...... of MHC matched target cells in an antigen specific manner. Further, we confirm these results by MHC tetramer staining. This work presents the first demonstration of FMDV specific, CTL killing and confirmation by MHC tetramer staining in response to vaccination against FMDV.......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be a significant threat to the health and economic value of livestock species. This acute infection is caused by the highly contagious FMD virus (FMDV), which infects cloven-hoofed animals including large and small ruminants and swine. Current vaccine...... cytopathic virus. Here, we have used recombinant human adenovirus vectors as a means of delivering FMDV antigens in a T cell-directed vaccine in pigs. We tested the hypothesis that impaired processing of the FMDV capsid would enhance cytolytic activity, presumably by targeting all proteins for degradation...

  8. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD): emerging epidemiology and the need for a vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathyraj, S; Arunkumar, G; Alidjinou, E K; Hober, D

    2016-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). In the recent years, coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A10 have been widely associated with both sporadic cases and outbreaks of HFMD worldwide, particularly in India, South East Asia and Europe with an increased frequency of neurological complications as well as mortality. Currently, there is no pharmacological intervention or vaccine available for HFMD. A formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine has completed clinical trial in several Asian countries. However, this vaccine cannot protect against other major emerging etiologies of HFMD such as CV-A16, CV-A6 and CV-A10. Therefore, the development of a globally representative multivalent HFMD vaccine could be the best strategy.

  9. Newcastle disease vaccines- a solved problem or a continuous challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organization for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND m...

  10. Early immune responses to Marek’s disease vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic 'alpha-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek’s disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. The latently infected CD4+ T cells carry the vir...

  11. Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J

    2014-10-07

    Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ≤11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ≥56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic models of pneumococcal carriage and the impact of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmunds W John

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been introduced in national immunisation programmes of most industrialised countries and recently in two African GAVI eligible countries (Rwanda and The Gambia. However the long term effects of PCV are still unclear, as beneficial direct and herd immunity effects might be countered by serotype replacement. Method A dynamic, age-structured, compartmental model of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission was developed to predict the potential impact of PCV7 on the incidence of invasive disease accounting for both herd immunity and serotype replacement effects. The model was parameterised using epidemiological data from England and Wales and pre and post-vaccination surveillance data from the US. Results Model projections showed that serotype replacement plays a crucial role in determining the overall effect of a PCV7 vaccination programme and could reduce, negate or outweigh its beneficial impact. However, using the estimate of the competition parameter derived from the US post-vaccination experience, an infant vaccination programme would prevent 39,000 IPD cases in the 20 years after PCV7 introduction in the UK. Adding a catch-up campaign for under 2 or under 5 year olds would provide a further reduction of 1,200 or 3,300 IPD cases respectively, mostly in the first few years of the programme. Conclusions This analysis suggests that a PCV vaccination programme would eradicate vaccine serotypes from circulation. However, the increase in carriage of non-vaccine serotypes, and the consequent increase in invasive disease, could reduce, negate or outweigh the benefit. These results are sensitive to changes in the protective effect of the vaccine, and, most importantly, to the level of competition between vaccine and non-vaccine types. The techniques developed here can be used to assess the introduction of vaccination programmes in developing countries and provide the basis for cost

  13. Dual proinflammatory and antiviral properties of pulmonary eosinophils in respiratory syncytial virus vaccine-enhanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yung-Chang; Townsend, Dijana; Herrero, Lara J; Zaid, Ali; Rolph, Michael S; Gahan, Michelle E; Nelson, Michelle A; Rudd, Penny A; Matthaei, Klaus I; Foster, Paul S; Dent, Lindsay; Tripp, Ralph A; Lee, James; Simson, Ljubov; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of morbidity and severe lower respiratory tract disease in the elderly and very young, with some infants developing bronchiolitis, recurrent wheezing, and asthma following infection. Previous studies in humans and animal models have shown that vaccination with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) leads to prominent airway eosinophilic inflammation following RSV challenge; however, the roles of pulmonary eosinophilia in the antiviral response and in disease pathogenesis are inadequately understood. In vivo studies in mice with eotaxin and/or interleukin 5 (IL-5) deficiency showed that FI-RSV vaccination did not lead to enhanced pulmonary disease, where following challenge there were reduced pulmonary eosinophilia, inflammation, Th2-type cytokine responses, and altered chemokine (TARC and CCL17) responses. In contrast to wild-type mice, RSV was recovered at high titers from the lungs of eotaxin- and/or IL-5-deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of eosinophils to FI-RSV-immunized eotaxin- and IL-5-deficient (double-deficient) mice challenged with RSV was associated with potent viral clearance that was mediated at least partly through nitric oxide. These studies show that pulmonary eosinophilia has dual outcomes: one linked to RSV-induced airway inflammation and pulmonary pathology and one with innate features that contribute to a reduction in the viral load. This study is critical to understanding the mechanisms attributable to RSV vaccine-enhanced disease. This study addresses the hypothesis that IL-5 and eotaxin are critical in pulmonary eosinophil response related to FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced disease. The findings suggest that in addition to mediating tissue pathology, eosinophils within a Th2 environment also have antiviral activity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Effects of interferon-γ knockdown on vaccine-induced immunity against Marek's disease in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Kamran; Wootton, Sarah K; Barjesteh, Neda; Golovan, Serguei; Bendall, Andrew; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ has been shown to be associated with immunity to Marek's disease virus (MDV). The overall objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between IFN-γ and vaccine-conferred immunity against MDV in chickens. To this end, 3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting chicken IFN-γ, which had previously been shown to reduce IFN-γ expression in vitro, and a control siRNA were selected to generate recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) expressing short-hairpin small interfering RNAs (shRNAs). An MDV challenge trial was then conducted: chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), administered the rAAAV expressing shRNA, and then challenged with MDV. Tumors were observed in 4 out of 10 birds that were vaccinated with HVT and challenged but did not receive any rAAAV, 5 out of 9 birds that were administered the rAAAV containing IFN-γ shRNA, and 2 out of 10 birds that were administered a control enhanced green fluorescent protein siRNA. There was no significant difference in MDV genome load in the feather follicle epithelium of the birds that were cotreated with the vaccine and the rAAAV compared with the vaccinated MDV-infected birds. These results suggest that AAAV-based vectors can be used for the delivery of shRNA into chicken cells. However, administration of the rAAAV expressing shRNA targeting chicken IFN-γ did not seem to fully abrogate vaccine-induced protection.

  15. Vaccine induced Hepatitis A and B protection in children at risk for cystic fibrosis associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Esther, Charles R; Leigh, Margaret W; Dellon, Elisabeth P

    2013-01-30

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) infections can cause serious morbidity in patients with liver disease, including cystic fibrosis associated liver disease (CFALD). HAV and HBV vaccinations are recommended in CFALD, and maintenance of detectable antibody levels is also recommended with chronic liver disease. A better understanding of factors predicting low HAV and HBV antibodies may help physicians improve protection from these viruses in CFALD patients. We examined HAV and HBV vaccine protection in children at risk for CFALD. Clinical and vaccine histories were reviewed, and HAV and HBV antibody titers measured. Those with no vaccination history or low HAV or HBV titers received primary or booster vaccinations, and responses were measured. Thirty-four of 308 children were at risk for CFALD per project criteria. Ten had previous HAV vaccination, of which 90% had positive anti-HAV antibodies. Thirty-three of 34 had previously received primary HBV vaccination (most in infancy), but only 12 (35%) had adequate anti-HBs levels (≥10mIU/mL). Children with adequate anti-HBs levels were older at first HBV vaccine (median 2.3 vs. 0.1 years, pvaccine (median 4.0 vs. 0.8 years, p=0.01). Fourteen of 19 (74%) responded to HBV boosters. Z-scores for BMI at HBV booster were significantly lower in booster non-responders (p=0.04). Children at increased risk of CFALD have inadequate HAV and HBV antibody levels, and HBV antibody protection can be enhanced through vaccine boosters. HBV antibody titers should be assessed in CFALD patients with a history of vaccination, particularly in those who received HBV vaccines in infancy or who are malnourished. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental knowledge, attitudes and perception of pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Singapore: a questionnaire-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon How How

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the National Childhood Immunisation Schedule (NCIS in Singapore most vaccines are provided free while some, including pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV, added to the NCIS in October 2009, are not free. In contrast to ≥95 % coverage achieved for recommended childhood vaccines that are free, 2013 coverage of the PCV booster dose was 58.9 % (for unclear reasons. To date, no population impact on pneumococcal disease (PD has been observed. We conducted a questionnaire-based study of parents of young children to assess the value of PCV to parents, and to quantify the extent to which vaccine cost is a barrier to PCV uptake in Singapore. Methods A single, trained interviewer administered a questionnaire to 200 parents ≥21 years of age with young children attending the Singapore Sengkang Polyclinic. The questionnaire asked closed-ended questions on parents’ knowledge about PD and PCV. A 5-point Likert scale measured perceived benefits and barriers to PCV vaccination. Results There were 162 parents whose children were either PCV-vaccinated or who intended to vaccinate their child with PCV (Vaccinated group, and 38 whose children were non-PCV vaccinated or who did not intend to vaccinate (Unvaccinated group. The odds ratio for PCV vaccination among parents who perceived cost as a barrier was 0.16 (95%CI 0.02–1.23. Compared to the Vaccinated group, parents in the Unvaccinated group were less willing to pay for PCV (50.0 %/94.4 %. Compared to the Vaccinated group, fewer parents in the Unvaccinated group had heard about PD (34.2 %/82.1 % or PCV (36.8 %/69.1 %, or perceived that PD was a threat to their child. Fewer parents in the Unvaccinated group knew that vaccination could prevent PD (28.9 %/77.8 %, or reported that PCV vaccination was recommended to them by any source (63.2 % had no PCV recommendation, versus 20.4 %. When informed that PCV is included in the NCIS only 65.8 % of parents in the Unvaccinated

  17. Vaccines and Photodynamic Therapies for Oral Microbial-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoid...

  18. Advances in combating fungal diseases: vaccines on the threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, Jim E.; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    The dramatic increase in fungal diseases in recent years can be attributed to the increased aggressiveness of medical therapy and other human activities. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of contracting fungal diseases in healthcare settings and from natural environments. Increased prescribing of antifungals has led to the emergence of resistant fungi, resulting in treatment challenges. These concerns, together with the elucidation of the mechanisms of protective immunity against fungal d...

  19. Immunity Response of Gumboro and ND Vaccination Result Which Given with TIME Spacing in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Endro Yuwono; SJA Setyawati

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was planed to know  the possibility of negative effect on Gumboro vaccination program. This program has a possibility to cause “Sick” condition on fabrious bursal of broiler chicken. From that case, it need time spacing for subsequent vaccination program, for instance ND vaccination program.  Time spacing is very importance to broiler chicken for recovering that “Sick” condition because of Gumboro vaccination effect. The purpose of his research was to know the best time spacing ...

  20. Impact of routine PCV7 (Prevenar) vaccination of infants on the clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunid, Syed; Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Ahmed, Zafar; Sulong, Saperi; Nur, Amrizal Muhd; Goh, Adrian

    2011-09-21

    Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7. A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population. At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million). Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million) to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261) per life year gained. PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261). This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922).

  1. Simultaneous immunization of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and live anthrax vaccines do not interfere with FMD booster responses

    OpenAIRE

    Trotta, Myrian; Lahore, Juan; Cardoso, Nancy; Melucci, Osvaldo; Catena, María; Pérez-Filgueira, Mariano; Fernández, Fernando; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in Argentina is compulsory for most of the cattle population and conducted by certified veterinarians. This organized campaign may facilitate the controlled application of other vaccines against endemic diseases, provided immune responses against FMD are not hindered. There is no published information on the interference of immunity against FMD vaccines when applied together with a live bacterial vaccine. In this study we evaluated if the simultaneous ...

  2. Infliximab and/or immunomodulators inhibit immune responses to trivalent influenza vaccination in adults with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Yoshie; Ohfuji, Satoko; Watanabe, Kenji; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kamata, Noriko; Sogawa, Mitsue; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hirota, Yoshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-03-01

    Appropriate influenza vaccination is important for patients with inflammatory bowel disease under immunosuppressive therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of immunosuppressive therapy on the immune response to the trivalent influenza vaccine in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In this cohort study, 91 participants received a single dose of influenza vaccine for the 2010/2011 season. Serum samples were collected at 3 different times (pre-vaccination, 3 weeks post-vaccination, and after flu season) to measure hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. Immune responses were compared based on immunosuppressive therapy. Among the 88 subjects who completed the study, the influenza vaccine induced a more than 4-fold increase in the mean antibody level for all flu strains. The overall seroprotection proportion (post-vaccination titer ≥ 1:40) was 81% for H1N1, 61% for H3N2, and 86% for B. Treatment with an immunomodulator reduced the immune response to the H1N1 strain (OR=0.20, p=0.01), and treatment with infliximab reduced the immune response to the other strains (H3N2 strain: OR=0.37, p=0.02; B strain: OR=0.18, p=0.03). Combination therapy with azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine and infliximab significantly inhibited the immune response to H1N1 (OR=0.056, p=0.02). Infliximab and/or immunomodulators inhibit immune responses to some strains of trivalent influenza vaccination in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. For optimization of the trivalent influenza vaccination for patients with adult inflammatory bowel disease treated with immunosuppressive agents, establishing an effective vaccination method is crucial. © 2013.

  3. Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Army Public Health Center (Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD), and the NHRC FRI program have provided...The Army Public Health Center collected weekly ARD-SP data from the Ar- my’s 4 IET sites (Fort Benning, GA; Fort Jackson, SC; Fort Leonard Wood...Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine1 Author affiliations: US Army Public Health Center , Aberdeen

  4. Developing and financing neglected disease vaccines in our new era of "blue marble health" and the anthropocene epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J

    2017-09-25

    New findings of widespread neglected diseases among the poor living in wealthy group of 20 (G20) economies and the concept of "blue marble health" offer innovative mechanisms for financing urgently new vaccines, especially for vector-borne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). This approach could complement or parallel a recently suggested global vaccine development fund for pandemic threats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation between Vaccinal and Iranian Virulent Isolates of Newcastle Disease Virus based on F Region Genotyping by HRM Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahdad Dibazar; Nariman Sheikhi; Farhid Hemmatzadeh; Saeed Charkhkar; Seyed Ali Pourbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is investigate Differentiation Between Vaccinal and Iranian Virulent Isolates of Newcastle Disease Virus based on F Region Genotyping by HRM Analysis. Discrimination of circulating virulent strains of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) from low pathogenic and vaccine stains is the basis for implementation of strategies to control and eradication of that aims at the eradication of NDV in poultry. At the present study the applicability of Real time RT-PCR followed High-Reso...

  6. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Influenza Vaccines for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD005050].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Daniel; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infections are associated to increased risk of cardiovascular events. The systematic review of Cochrane Collaboration evaluated the role of influenza vaccination on primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. The meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials with moderate quality, including 1 682 patients with coronary artery disease, showed a 55% risk reduction on cardiovascular mortality. Data evaluating the role of vaccination in primary cardiovascular prevention were not robust. Portuguese and international recommendations for influenza vaccination in patients with coronary artery disease are then supported by this systematic review.

  7. Sustained Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine Against Very Severe Rotavirus Disease Through the Second Year of Life, Bolivia 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kimberly D; Patzi, Maritza; Tate, Jacqueline E; Iniguez Rojas, Volga; Patel, Manish; Inchauste Jordan, Lucia; Montesano, Raul; Zarate, Adolfo; De Oliveira, Lucia; Parashar, Umesh

    2016-05-01

    In Bolivia, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2008 and a previous evaluation reported a vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 77% with 2 doses of vaccine in children aged 5 years after its introduction in Bolivia. Although VE appears to wane in children aged ≥1 year, it still provides significant protection, and does not wane against severe disease. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Global Diffusion Pattern and Hot SPOT Analysis of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Fan, F.; Zanoni, I. Holly; Li, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Spatial characteristics reveal the concentration of vaccine-preventable disease in Africa and the Near East and that disease dispersion is variable depending on disease. The exception is whooping cough, which has a highly variable center of concentration from year to year. Measles exhibited the only statistically significant spatial autocorrelation among all the diseases under investigation. Hottest spots of measles are in Africa and coldest spots are in United States, warm spots are in Near East and cool spots are in Western Europe. Finally, cases of measles could not be explained by the independent variables, including Gini index, health expenditure, or rate of immunization. Since the literature confirms that each of the selected variables is considered determinants of disease dissemination, it is anticipated that the global dataset of disease cases was influenced by reporting bias.

  9. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992-2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld's Quellung method. Among children vaccination (1997-2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007-2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010-2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups vaccination period (1992-2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013-2014, as compared to 2010-2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing among adults. Eight years of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination have had a strong effect on the pneumococcal population in Germany, both among the target group for vaccination as well as among older children and adults.

  10. A modified vaccination technique for the prevention and treatment of an experimental autoimmune kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabas, Arpad Zsigmond; Cole, Chad Douglas; Barabas, Arpad David; Lafreniere, Rene

    2007-09-01

    The main purpose of this article is to introduce a promising new vaccination technique and to outline its efficacy and safety as demonstrated in an experimental autoimmune kidney disease. We have found that antigen (AG)-specific downregulation and/or upregulation of immune responses can be achieved by injections of immune complexes (ICs) which contain prepackaged information. This result is attained with the new vaccination method, a method developed in our laboratory which we have called "modified vaccination technique" (MVT). This MVT not only enables the prevention of pathogenic autoimmune events leading to the development of an experimental autoimmune kidney disease; it also allows, with equal effectiveness, therapeutic intervention to terminate the disease. With an injected IC containing predetermined immune response-inducing components, the process effectuates a specific antibody information transfer conferring advantages that go beyond its prophylactic and therapeutic applicability. Its specificity can induce a precise immune response to correct mishaps, for example, in conditions where the immune system overreacts to an autologous antigen or fails to recognize unwanted self (as in autoimmune disorders, cancer, etc.) Preformed ICs are nontoxic and nonirritant, evoke a predetermined antibody response without the use of adjuvants, cause no disturbance in the overall regulatory function of the immune system, and produce no side effects. We firmly believe that proper implementation of the MVT will be able to induce and maintain specific preventive and/or curative responses in a way that is both natural and more effective in patients with chronic ailments presently treatable only with drugs.

  11. Altered adjuvant of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine improves immune response and protection from virus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Eun Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD generally use oil adjuvants. For better immunization and safety, an adjuvant should be selected only after careful consideration. In this study, we produced vaccines for O, A, and Asia1 serotypes by mixing oil adjuvants, Emulsigen-D (ED, ISA 201, and ISA 206 with and without an aluminum hydroxide (AL gel and measured their immunogenicity and safety to obtain information regarding critical differences (survival or weight loss of vaccine quality in mice; the goal of this test was to overcome the difficulties associated with experiments large or medium-sized animals. The groups immunized with the vaccines containing only the oil adjuvants (ED, ISA 201, and ISA 206 had similar or higher levels of neutralizing antibodies and structural protein antibodies for the FMD virus (FMDV than the groups immunized with the vaccines including the oil adjuvants mixed with the gel. However, in a challenge test using a mouse model, the protection rate showed the highest results in ISA 201 and ISA 206 mixed with AL. The mice immunized with vaccines containing ED showed temporary weight loss in the early postvaccination stages. Cell-mediated immunity was formed relatively strongly in the group vaccinated with vaccines including ISA 201 and ISA 206. We proposed that combinations of these adjuvants represent candidates for future FMD vaccines.

  12. Immune Efficacy of a Genetically Engineered Vaccine against Lymphocystis Disease Virus: Analysis of Different Immunization Strategies

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    Fengrong Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the construction of a vaccine against lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV using nucleic acid vaccination technology. A fragment of the major capsid protein encoding gene from an LCDV isolated from China (LCDV-cn was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N2, yielding a recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N2-LCDV-cn0.6 kb. This plasmid was immediately expressed after liposomal transfer into the Japanese flounder embryo cell line. The recombinant plasmid was inoculated into Japanese flounder via two routes (intramuscular injection and hypodermic injection at three