Sample records for burns

  1. Burns (United States)

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the skin ...

  2. Burning Feet (United States)

    Symptoms Burning feet By Mayo Clinic Staff Burning feet — the sensation that your feet are painfully hot — can be mild or severe. In some cases, your burning feet may be so painful that the pain interferes ...

  3. Burns dressings. (United States)

    Douglas, Helen E; Wood, Fiona


    Burn injuries are common and costly; each year, there are more than 200,000 cases, costing the Australian community $150 million. Management of smaller burn injuries in the community can be improved by appropriate first aid, good burn dressings and wound management. This can reduce the risk of the burn becoming deeper or infected, and can potentially reduce the requirement for specialist review or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide healthcare professionals with information about the pathophysiology of burn wound progression. This information includes the aims of burn wound dressings and indications for different types of dressings in different burn depths, advantages of blister debridement, and the reasoning behind advice given to patients after healing of the burn wound. This article provides a framework used by the State Burn Service of Western Australia, by which clinicians can understand the needs of a specific burn wound and apply these principles when choosing an appropriate burn dressing for their patient. Every intervention in the journey of a patient with a burn injury affects their eventual outcome. By managing all burn injuries effectively at every single step, we can reduce burn injury morbidity as a community.

  4. Iatrogenic Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Kaya


    Full Text Available Iatrogenic burns are rare complications that can occur after using medical devices and chemicals in hospitals. Usually, these burns are deep and cause additional morbidity to patients. In this article, 6 iatrogenic burn patients referred to our department are presented, and predisposing factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  5. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  6. [Ocular burns]. (United States)

    Merle, H; Gérard, M; Schrage, N


    Ocular or thermal burns account for 7.7%-18% of ocular trauma. The majority of victims are young. The burns occur in the setting of accidents at work or in the home, or during a physical attack. Chemical burns by strong acids or bases are responsible for the most serious injuries. Associated with the destruction of limbal stem cells, they present as recurrent epithelial ulcerations, chronic stromal ulcers, deep stromal revascularization, conjunctival overlap, or even corneal perforation. The initial clinical exam is sometimes difficult to perform in the presence of burning symptoms. Nevertheless, it enables the physician to classify the injury, establish a prognosis, and most importantly, guide the therapeutic management. The Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system is the most widely utilized, broken down into stages based on the size of the stromal opacity and the extent of possible limbal ischemia. This classification is now favorably supplemented by those proposed by Dua and Wagoner, which are based on the extent of the limbal stem cell deficiency. The prognosis of the more serious forms of ocular burns has markedly improved over the last decade because of a better understanding of the physiology of the corneal epithelium. Surgical techniques aimed at restoring the destroyed limbal stem cells have altered the prognosis of severe corneal burns. In order to decrease the incidence of burns, prevention, particularly in industry, is essential.

  7. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns (United States)

    ... to injury. , as your immune system shifts into gear. “The immune system response is intended to limit ... maintain blood pressure. Grafting—placing healthy skin on top of the burn wound—might help promote new ...

  8. Burns: dressings (United States)


    Introduction Burns are classified according to depth. This overview concerns the treatments for partial-thickness burns, which can be expected or have the potential to heal spontaneously (superficial partial-thickness and mid-dermal partial-thickness burns). Injuries that involve the deeper part of the dermis and require surgical treatments to achieve healing are not the focus of this overview. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for partial-thickness burns? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 322 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 193 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 160 studies and the further review of 33 full publications. Of the 33 full articles evaluated, two systematic reviews and two RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 30 PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 10 interventions, based on information relating to the effectiveness and safety of alginate dressing, biosynthetic dressing, chlorhexidine-impregnated paraffin gauze dressing, hydrocolloid dressing, hydrogel dressing, paraffin gauze dressing, polyurethane film, silicone-coated nylon dressing, silver-impregnated dressing, and silver sulfadiazine cream. PMID:26173045

  9. Chemical burn or reaction (United States)

    ... this page: // Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on ... the burned area from pressure and friction. Minor chemical burns will generally heal without further treatment. However, if ...

  10. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... to the Gynecologist? Blood Test: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  11. Minor burns - aftercare (United States)

    ... If this is not possible, put a cool, clean wet cloth on the burn, or soak the burn in a cool water bath for 5 minutes. ... After the burn is cooled, make sure it is a minor burn. If it is deeper, ... You may put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum ...

  12. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark....... METHODS: We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. RESULTS: A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most...... common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines...

  13. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  14. Burns - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Burns URL of this page: Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  15. Economics of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G


    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  16. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan


    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  17. Burn mortality in Iraq. (United States)

    Qader, Ari Raheem


    Mortality rates are important outcome parameters after burn, and can serve as objective end points for quality control. Causes of death after severe burn have changed over time. In a prospective study, eight hundred and eighty-four burn patients were admitted to the Burns and Plastic surgery Hospital in Sulaimani-Kurdistan region of Iraq in 2009. Age, gender, nationality, cause of burn, extent of injury, cause of death and mortality rate were tabulated and analyzed, 338 (38.2%) were male and 546 (61.8%) were female. The highest number of cases occurred in January, with the highest short period incidence occurring in April. Out of 884 cases, 260 persons died. Burn injuries were more frequent and larger with higher mortality in females than in males. Flame was the major cause of burns. Self-inflicted burns were noted mainly in young women. A large number of burns which affect children and females, occur in the domestic setting and could have been prevented. Therefore, it is necessary to implement programs for health education relating to prevention of burn injuries focusing on the domestic setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional Therapy in Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmuş


    Full Text Available A burn is characterized by the damage to one’s body tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. The incidence of burn injuries has recently been decreasing. However, it is a fact that burns constitute a significant problem all over the world, with a few million people being affected by burns each year. A burn is an extensive trauma that affects the whole organism and determines the prognosis through its physiopathology. The case of the burn patient is also characterized by the acute phase response. Since burn patients have a non-functional skin barrier, they experience loss of liquids, minerals, proteins and electrolytes. They can also develop protein, energy and micro-nutrition deficiencies due to intense catabolic processes, infections and increased bodily needs in case of wound healing. Therefore, nutritional therapy is one of the major steps that need to be monitored from the initial moments of the burn injury through to the end of the burn treatment. This study focuses on the significance of nutritional therapy for burn patients in the light of current literature.

  19. [The pain from burns]. (United States)

    Latarjet, J


    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  20. Burns and epilepsy. (United States)

    Berrocal, M


    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  1. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak


    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  2. Pediatric facial burns. (United States)

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K


    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes.

  3. Burns and military clothing. (United States)

    McLean, A D


    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  4. Burns and Fire Safety (United States)

    ... Cairns BA, et al. Etiology and outcome of pediatric burns. J Pediatr Surg. 1996; 31(3): 329-33. ... RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): 1-7. 10 Baptiste MS, ...

  5. Are burns photographs useful? (United States)

    Nelson, L; Boyle, M; Taggart, I; Watson, S


    Routine photography of all patients admitted to the West of Scotland Regional Burns Unit was introduced in 2003. To date, there are few burns units to evaluate the usefulness of photographs taken. To assess the usefulness of photographs of patients admitted to the burns unit to various members of the multidisciplinary team. A questionnaire was completed by hospital staff involved in the management of burns patients over a 3-month period. A total of 43 questionnaires were completed. The majority of questionnaires were completed by nursing staff (55%) followed by medical staff (23%); physiotherapy (5%); anaesthetists (7%); theatre staff (5%); students (2%); dietician (2%). About 98% of respondents agreed that photographs were useful overall, particularly for teaching purposes. About 9% disagreed that photographs were useful for assessment due to difficulty in assessing depth of burn. About 72% agreed that the photographs were useful for patient management and improve patient care. About 88% agreed that all patients should have photographs available in future. Advantages of photographs include; moving and handling of patients; patient positioning in theatre; reviewing wound healing and complications. They are useful for assessing site, size and type of burn. Disadvantages include difficulty in assessing depth of burn, technical factors, and unavailability out of hours. Photographs of burns patients are useful overall to all members of the multidisciplinary team.

  6. Treating and Preventing Burns (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Burn Treatment & Prevention Tips for Families Page Content ​There are many different causes of serious burns in children, including sunburn , hot water or other hot liquids, and those due to ...

  7. Pain in burn patients. (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M


    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  8. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts]. (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L


    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  9. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  10. Burning mouth and saliva. (United States)

    Chimenos-Kustner, Eduardo; Marques-Soares, Maria Sueli


    Stomatodynia is the complaint of burning, tickling or itching of the oral cavity, and can be associated with other oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. However, the oral mucosa often appears normal, with no apparent underlying organic cause to account for the symptomatology. The etiology is unknown, though evidence points to the participation of numerous local, systemic and psychological factors. Among the local factors, saliva may play an important role in the symptoms of burning mouth. Saliva possesses specific rheological properties as a result of its chemical, physical and biological characteristics - these properties being essential for maintaining balanced conditions within the oral cavity. Patients with burning mouth present evidence of changes in salivary composition and flow, as well as a probable alteration in the oral mucosal sensory perception related particularly to dry mouth and taste alterations. On the other hand, alterations in salivary composition appear to reflect on its viscosity and symptomatology of burning mouth. Saliva is a field open to much research related to burning mouth, and knowledge of its properties (e.g., viscosity) merits special attention in view of its apparent relationship to the symptoms of burning mouth. The present study describes our clinical experience with burning mouth, and discusses some of the aspects pointing to salivary alterations as one of the most important factors underlying stomatodynia.

  11. Improving burn care and preventing burns by establishing a burn database in Ukraine. (United States)

    Fuzaylov, Gennadiy; Murthy, Sushila; Dunaev, Alexander; Savchyn, Vasyl; Knittel, Justin; Zabolotina, Olga; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N


    Burns are a challenge for trauma care and a contribution to the surgical burden. The former Soviet republic of Ukraine has a foundation for burn care; however data concerning burns in Ukraine has historically been scant. The objective of this paper was to compare a new burn database to identify problems and implement improvements in burn care and prevention in this country. Retrospective analyses of demographic and clinical data of burn patients including Tukey's post hoc test, analysis of variance, and chi square analyses, and Fisher's exact test were used. Data were compared to the American Burn Association (ABA) burn repository. This study included 1752 thermally injured patients treated in 20 hospitals including Specialized Burn Unit in Municipal Hospital #8 Lviv, Lviv province in Ukraine. Scald burns were the primary etiology of burns injuries (70%) and burns were more common among children less than five years of age (34%). Length of stay, mechanical ventilation use, infection rates, and morbidity increased with greater burn size. Mortality was significantly related to burn size, inhalation injury, age, and length of stay. Wound infections were associated with burn size and older age. Compared to ABA data, Ukrainian patients had double the length of stay and a higher rate of wound infections (16% vs. 2.4%). We created one of the first burn databases from a region of the former Soviet Union in an effort to bring attention to burn injury and improve burn care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Making of a burn unit: SOA burn center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kumar Dash


    Full Text Available Each year in India, burn injuries account for more than 6 million hospital emergency department visits; of which many require hospitalization and are referred to specialized burn centers. There are few burn surgeons and very few burn centers in India. In our state, Odisha, there are only two burn centers to cater to more than 5000 burn victims per year. This article is an attempt to share the knowledge that I acquired while setting up a new burn unit in a private medical college of Odisha.

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome (United States)

    ... NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  14. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  15. American Burn Association (United States)

    ... is the premier educational event for the entire burn care team. Submit an abstract or session idea, exhibit or sponsor the meeting, or plan to attend. Find out more about the 50th Annual Meeting in Chicago, ...

  16. Burns (For Parents) (United States)

    ... oven. The liquid may heat unevenly, resulting in pockets of breast milk or formula that can scald a baby's mouth. Screen fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. Radiators and electric baseboard heaters may ...

  17. Management of burn wounds. (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin


    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Burn Wise Awareness Kit (United States)

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  19. Smartphone applications in burns. (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P


    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Ball lightning burn. (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip


    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications.

  1. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  2. Management of pediatric hand burns. (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Kisch, Tobias; Mauss, Karl L; Senyaman, Oezge; Kraemer, Robert; Mailänder, Peter; Wünsch, Lutz; Stang, Felix


    Hand burns are common in the pediatric population. Optimal hand function is a crucial component of a high-quality survival after burn injury. This can only be achieved with a coordinated approach to the injuries. The aim of this study was to review the management algorithm and outcomes of pediatric hand burns at our institution. In total, 70 children fulfilling our study criteria were treated for a burn hand injury in our Burn Care Center between January 2008 and May 2013. 14 of the 70 pediatric patients underwent surgery because of the depth of the hand burns. The management algorithm depending on the depth of the burn is described. Two patients underwent correction surgery due to burn contractures later. For a successful outcome of the burned hand, the interdisciplinary involvement and cooperation of the plastic and pediatric surgeon, hand therapist, burn team, patient and their parents are crucial.

  3. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses


    Sibel Yilmaz sahin; Umran Dal; Gulsen Vural


    AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Servic...

  4. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala


    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  5. Burn injuries and pregnancy. (United States)

    Kennedy, Betsy B; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H


    Although burn injuries during pregnancy are considered relatively rare, the exact incidence is not known. Multiple factors influence morbidity and mortality resulting from burn injuries during pregnancy. These factors include the depth and size of the burn, the woman's underlying health and age, and the estimated gestational age of the fetus. Associated inhalation injury and development of other significant secondary complications also influence maternal and fetal outcomes. Successful burn care requires a team approach in which almost every healthcare discipline is represented. Initial care is almost always provided by a specially trained emergency medical team in an out-of-hospital setting. During this phase, the ability of the team to communicate with emergency hospital personnel facilitates appropriate clinical management at the scene. In addition, continued communication regarding the woman's status and responses to treatment allows critical care specialists within the hospital to ensure that necessary personnel and resources are available when the patient arrives. From the time the pregnant woman is admitted to a hospital for additional acute and critical care through the extensive process of rehabilitation from burn injuries, providing care often evokes strong emotions and requires specialized skills to achieve the most positive outcomes.

  6. Hand chemical burns. (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby


    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P


    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  8. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  9. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  10. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil


    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  11. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D


    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  12. Propagation of Cigarette Static Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K


    Full Text Available A propagation model of cigarette static burn at the cigarette periphery is proposed. Propagation of cigarette static burn is characterized by intermittent burn of the cigarette paper. The burning rate depends on the period of flash burn of the paper and is independent of the burning width. By measuring the local temperature near the front line of the burning propagation, the rate-determining step was identified as the time required to ignite the paper. A mathematical analysis was performed by calculating the heat transfer at the periphery during the paper heating period, and it was revealed that the thermal properties of the cigarette are the dominant factors of cigarette static burn. Modeling results showed good agreement with measured data.

  13. Accumulative eschar after burn


    Ma, Fushun


    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb?bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  14. One Burn, One Standard (United States)


    law , no person shall be...Johannes Kepler University Linz Software GmbH Research Department Medical Informatics Hagenberg, Austria Herbert L. Haller, MD Trauma Hospital Linz of...0000000000000004 Address correspondence to M. Giretzlehner, PhD, Johannes Kepler University Linz, RISC Software GmbH, Research Department Medical Informatics, Softwarepark 35, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria. One Burn, One Standard LETTER TO THE EDITOR

  15. Fatal Burn due to Solarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Sever


    Full Text Available Radiation burns are uncommon and their etiologies are various. The ultraviolet lights are also a source of radiation burns. We present a case of life-threatening radiation burn caused by long wave ultraviolet lights (UV at the solarium center. Up to now, despite its widespread use, fatal radiation burns caused by the indoor tanning device at the solarium center have not been reported. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed.

  16. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  17. Air-Freshener Burns: A New Paradigm in Burns Etiology? (United States)

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.


    Objectives: We report a rare case of burns following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to burns associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the burns team following burns secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained burns to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The burns were treated conservatively. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale. PMID:22174972

  18. Chemical Debridement of Burns (United States)

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli


    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  19. Fluid replacement in burned patients. (United States)

    Bortolani, A; Governa, M; Barisoni, D


    Burn injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the burn wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 burned patients admitted in Verona Burn Center within 4 hours after burn, with burns over 30% of the body surface area. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan Burn Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p electrolytes balance with lower fluid load, reducing tissue oedema and complication rate. Mortality rate was higher in HLS, may be for an higher Roy index in this group.

  20. Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control

  1. Fungal Burn Wound Infection (United States)


    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  2. Antiseptics for burns. (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C


    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non

  3. Ocular burns in eye traumatology emphatically on chemical burns


    Farský, Lukáš


    Burns to the sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, and eyelid are considered ocular burns. Ocular burn injuries are classified by etiologic agents as either chemical injuries (ie, acid, alkali) or radiant energy injuries (ie, thermal, ultraviolet). Chemical injuries to the eye represent one of the true ophthalmic emergencies. While almost any chemical can cause ocular irritation, serious damage generally results from either strongly basic (alkaline) compounds or acidic compounds. Alkali injuries are m...

  4. Burn Burn Burn - er du skræmt? - en analyse af Kræftens Bekæmpelses kampagnefilm Burn Burn Burn


    Knigge Kæstel-Hansen, Camilla; Wittrup Stæger, Cæcilie


    This project examines how to organize a health campaign to a specific target audience of 15-25 year olds. This audience very quickly filters out information they find irrelevant, and quickly moves on to new things. Thereby, this audience has high demands regarding health campaigns and their relevance. Conclusions will be based on Danish organization Kræftens Bekæmpelse’s campaign film Burn Burn Burn. The film target audience are youths aged 15- 25, and the film’s message is, that the use of t...

  5. Burns, biofilm and a new appraisal of burn wound sepsis. (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter; Brammah, Susan; Wills, Edward


    Following a burn, the wound may become colonized and septic complications may ensue. Many organisms, commonly isolated from burn wounds produce biofilms, which are defined as a collection of organisms on a surface surrounded by a matrix. Biofilms are associated with development of antibiotic resistant organisms and are refractory to the immune system. The presence of biofilm in the burn wound has not been documented. A study was undertaken using light and electron microscopy to determine the presence of biofilm in the burn wound. Specific stains were used to detect the presence of micro-organisms and associated carbohydrate, a major constituent of the biofilm matrix. A concurrent microbiological study of the burn wound was also carried out. Biofilm was detected in ulcerated areas of the burn wound. Bacterial wound invasion with mixed organisms was also commonly detected. The finding of biofilm in the burn wound has significance in our understanding of burn wound sepsis and supports the evidence for early excision and closure of the burn wound. Due to the recalcitrant nature of biofilm associated sepsis and the difficulty in disrupting biofilm it has implications for the future development of wound care dressings. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. [The organization of burn care]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques


    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  7. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns. (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K


    Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Perceived fatigue was assessed in 23 children and adolescents (15 boys and 8 girls, aged 6-18 years, with burns covering 10-46% of the total body surface area, 1-5 years post burn) using both child self- and parent proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Outcomes were compared with reference values of non-burned peers. At group level, pediatric burn survivors did not report significantly more symptoms of fatigue than their non-burned peers. Individual assessments showed, however, that four children experienced substantial symptoms of fatigue according to the child self-reports, compared to ten children according to the parent proxy reports. Furthermore, parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue than the children themselves. Age, gender, extent of burn, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries could not predict the level of perceived fatigue post-burn. Our results suggest that fatigue is prevalent in at least part of the pediatric burn population after 1-5 years. However, the fact that parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue then the children themselves, hampers evident conclusions. It is essential for clinicians and therapists to consider both perspectives when evaluating pediatric fatigue after burn and to determine who needs special attention, the pediatric burn patient or its parent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. [Epidemiology of burns in France]. (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François


    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  9. Kenya cardinal burns condoms. (United States)


    Kenya's top Roman Catholic church official burned condoms and safe sex literature in a ceremony organized by a group opposed to contraception and sex education. About 250 people watched as Cardinal Maurice Otunga and two gynecologists prayed and sang before setting fire to several boxes of condoms and 100 copies of pamphlets promoting safe sex. The pamphlets encouraged condom use to fight the spread of HIV. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1 million of Kenya's 26 million people are infected with HIV or AIDS. full text

  10. Peat Bog Ecosystems: Burning


    Lindsay, Richard; Birnie, Richard; Clough, Jack


    Fires occur naturally on bogs through lightning strikes, but for any given location this is a rare occurrence - perhaps once every 200 or 300 years. Current burning practice for grazing or to encourage grouse means that ground is burnt 10x more frequently than this, resulting in loss of natural peat bog biodiversity and peat-forming species. Full recovery may take considerably more than a century.\\ud \\ud This briefing note is part of a series aimed at policy makers, practitioners and academic...

  11. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  12. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan


    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  13. Prevention and management of outpatient pediatric burns. (United States)

    O'Brien, Shannon P; Billmire, David A


    Burns are common injuries in the pediatric population, with an estimated 250,000 pediatric burn patients seeking medical care annually. A relative few require inpatient management. This article discusses suggestions for burn prevention, as well as acute burn care and long-term management of small burns.

  14. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients (United States)


    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  15. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  16. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.


    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  17. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose: Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods: Perceived fatigue was

  18. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Purpose Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods Perceived fatigue was

  19. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burns surgery has traditionally been somewhat of a. “Cinderella” subspecialty, with the burn surgeon regularly being faced with significant physical and emotional demands. In addition, this branch of surgery has neither complicated surgical procedures nor a plethora of technological equipment to pique the interest of ...

  20. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2010 ... management of burns within a general hospital setting. Causes. About 90% of childhood burns are preventable. Informal housing, overcrowding and lack of electricity are underlying problems.4. The most frequent ... injury is not important from a wound treatment perspective, NAI has far-reaching social and ...

  1. The year in burns 2013. (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D


    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Deaths related to chemical burns. (United States)

    Pavelites, Joseph J; Kemp, Walter L; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Prahlow, Joseph A


    The authors present a series of 6 deaths due to the uncommon cause of chemical burns. Of the 6 deaths due to chemical burns, 4 deaths were due to ingestion of a chemical, 1 death was caused by chemical burns of the skin, and 1 death resulted from rectal insufflation of a chemical. Seven additional cases where chemical burns may have been a contributing factor to the death or an incidental finding are also presented. Four cases are related to an incident involving chemical exposure during an industrial explosion. Three cases involve motor fuel burns of the skin. Two cases concern a plane crash incident, and 1 case involved a vehicular collision. Cases are derived from the records of the Dallas County Medical Examiner's Office and those of the authors' consultation practices. Each of the cases is presented, followed by a discussion of the various mechanisms of chemical injury.

  3. Why burn patients are referred? (United States)

    Latifi, Noor-Ahmad; Karimi, Hamid


    Many burn patients are needed to be referred to a tertiary burn hospital according to the American Burn Association (ABA) criteria. The purpose of this study was to verify the reasons for referring of the burn patients to the hospital. For 2 years, we prospectively surveyed the burn patients referred to a tertiary teaching burn hospital. Data for the following variables were collected and analyzed with SPSS software V21.0: causes of burn; age; gender; total body surface area (TBSA) measured at the referring center; TBSA measured at the receiving center; concomitant diseases and traumas; the reason for referral; condition of patients before and during the transportation; transportation time; presence of infection; presence of inhalation injury, electrical injury, and chemical injury; child abuse; insurance coverage; and results and outcomes of patients. A total of 578 burn patients (33.6% of the total admissions) were referred in the study period. Among these patients, 70.9% were females. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 35.3 (19.69) years. The mean (SD) of TBSA was 45.2 (26.3). Of the 578 patients, 45% were referred by request of the family or patients; 9% were referred because lack of diagnostic facility, approximately 43% were referred because of the need to be admitted in a tertiary burn center, 0.7% were referred because of a lack of capacity at other hospitals, and 0.5% were referred because of an error in the estimation of TBSA. A total of 45% of the referrals were by request of the family and patients. Tele-medicine may help to establish a direct contact between expert burn physicians and the patients and thus reduce unnecessary transfers. Approximately 9% of the referrals were because of lack of some diagnostic facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas


    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  5. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona


    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  6. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  7. Burns treatment in ancient times. (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija


    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  8. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation. (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David


    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients. (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C


    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (United States)


    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  11. Honey dressing in pediatric burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangroo A


    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of honey have been recognized since antiquity. Although used as an adjuvant method of accelerating wound healing from ancient times, honey has been sporadically used in the treatment of burns. Honey acts mainly as a hyperosmolar medium and prevents bacterial growth. Because of its high viscosity, it forms a physical barrier, and the presence of enzyme catalase gives honey an antioxidant property. Its high-nutrient content improves substrate supply in local environment promoting epithelialization and angiogenesis. In pediatric burn patients no exclusive study has been conducted using honey as a burn dressing. An attempt is being made to evaluate the effect of honey in the management of burns in pediatric patients.

  12. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors (United States)

    ... Harman Award Hickey Award Advocacy Award Edge Servant Leadership Award Contact Information News & Media Phoenix Blog Who We Are Get Involved Ways to Give Our Vision | Uniting the voice of the burn community around the globe to profoundly advance lifelong ...

  13. Prescribed burning: a topical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G


    Full Text Available Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.

  14. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P


    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  15. Electrothermal Ring Burn - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil


    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring.

  16. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment. (United States)

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P


    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master


    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  18. Chemical and Common Burns in Children. (United States)

    Yin, Shan


    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  19. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette


    Miura K; Nagao A; Ueyama K


    We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smolder...

  20. Chemical burns: Diphoterine untangled. (United States)

    Alexander, K Skaria; Wasiak, Jason; Cleland, Heather


    Diphoterine is a hypertonic, amphoteric, polyvalent and chelating decontamination solution used in the treatment of cutaneous and ocular chemical burns. Due to infrequent use by emergency physicians along with the small number of available studies, its debate in the literature as to its efficacy and safety remains inconclusive. A structured literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and TOXNET to June 2016 for original English-language studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of Diphoterine. Methodological and reporting quality of pre-clinical animal studies was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk of bias tool and Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Clinical studies were assessed using Chambers' criteria. 13 studies (seven in the pre-clinical, five in the clinical setting and one mixed) met the study inclusion criteria. Pre-clinical studies showed a faster resolution of pH and reduced tissue necrosis with Diphoterine. Clinical studies showed reduced tissue necrosis/severity of symptoms, faster pH resolution and a reduction in pain when using Diphoterine. No adverse events were attributable to Diphoterine. Reporting and methodology of the studies was poor or showed a high risk of bias. Diphoterine appears to be safe to use and is probably superior to other rinsing solutions. However, immediate decontamination is imperative and if Diphoterine is not available a different rinsing solution should be used. The methodology of the published literature for Diphoterine is generally poor and future publications should use the frameworks given as templates. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Burn plasma transfer induces burn edema in healthy rats. (United States)

    Kremer, Thomas; Abé, Dorotheé; Weihrauch, Marc; Peters, Christopher; Gebhardt, Martha Maria; Germann, Guenter; Heitmann, Christoph; Walther, Andreas


    Thermal injuries greater than 20% body surface area (BSA) result in systemic shock with generalized edema in addition to local tissue destruction. Burn shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. This experimental study evaluates if burn shock can be induced in healthy rats by transfer of burn plasma (BP) with mediators. Thermal injury was induced by hot water (100 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA) in male syngenic Wistar rats. Donor rats were killed 4 h posttrauma, and BP was harvested. Burn plasma was transferred to healthy animals by continuous intravenous infusion in three types of dilution (100%, 10%, and 1%). Positive controls were directly examined 4 h after thermal injury, and negative control rats had a continuous infusion done with sham burn (SB) plasma (37 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA). Afterwards, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed in postcapillary mesenteric venules at 0, 60, and 120 min. Edema formation was assessed by relative changes over time in fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin in the intravascular versus the extravascular space. The interactions of leucocytes and endothelium were evaluated by quantification of leukocyte sticking. Additionally, microhemodynamic (volumetric blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, venular wall shear rate, venular diameters) and macrohemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart frequency, temperature) were assessed online (arterial catheter). For statistics, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni adjustment procedure. Differences were considered significant when P edema formation remains uncertain and requires further investigation.

  2. LA50 in burn injuries (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K.; Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Safari, R.; Ghadarjani, M.


    Summary Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months – 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country PMID:27857645

  3. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin


    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  4. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Nasri-Heir


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  5. Lethal triad in severe burns. (United States)

    Sherren, P B; Hussey, J; Martin, R; Kundishora, T; Parker, M; Emerson, B


    Hypothermia, acidaemia and coagulopathy in trauma is associated with significant mortality. This study aimed to identify the incidence of the lethal triad in major burns, and describe demographics and outcomes. Patients admitted during a 71 month period with a total body surface area burn (TBSA)≥30% were identified. A structured review of a prospective database was conducted. The lethal triad was defined as a combination of coagulopathy (International normalised ratio>1.2), hypothermia (temperature≤35.5°C) and acidaemia (pH≤7.25). Fifteen of 117 patients fulfilled the criteria for the lethal triad on admission. Lethal triad patients had a higher median (IQR) abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) (12 (9-13) vs. 8.5 (6-10), p=0.001), mean (SD) TBSA burn (59.2% (18.7) vs. 47.9% (18.1), p=0.027), mean (SD) age (46 (22.6) vs. 33 (28.3) years, p=0.033), and had a higher incidence of inhalational injury (p0.05). The lethal triad was associated with increased mortality (66.7% vs. 13.7%, plethal triad was not shown to be a predictor of mortality (p>0.05). Burn patients with the lethal triad have a high mortality rate which reflects the severity of the injury sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise behaviors after burn injury. (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank


    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  7. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J


    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  8. The changing pattern of pediatric burns. (United States)

    Abeyasundara, Sandun L; Rajan, Vasant; Lam, Lawrence; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    After scalds, flame burns have been considered the next most common mode of burn injury in childhood. Recent experience in the authors' unit suggested that contact burns were becoming more frequent. The authors sought to determine the contemporary frequency of different burn modalities in children presenting to a burns unit. A retrospective review of 3621 children treated in the burns unit, both ambulatory and inpatient, at the authors' institution between January 2003 and December 2007 was performed. Patients were identified using the Burns Unit database. Data collected included age, gender, burn etiology and site, TBSA, and whether operative surgery was required. Of the 3515 patients eligible for inclusion, scalds accounted for 55.9%, contact 30.5%, and flame 7.9% of all burns. Contact burns were shown to be consistently more frequent than flame burns for every year of the study (z = 17.30, P burns, reflecting the variety of mechanisms involved. The data suggest a change in the historical pattern of pediatric burns previously reported in the literature. These findings have implications for public health awareness and burns prevention campaigns.

  9. Heat Emission from a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura K


    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the smoldering burn rate and the heat transfer from a burning cigarette by measuring the heat emitted by radiation and convection, separately. The net heat generated and the net heat emitted by a burning cigarette did not vary with a change of the cigarette smoldering burn rate. The total heat emitted from a statically burning cigarette was about 50% of the total combustion heat. About 50% of the heat emitted was released as radiation heat. The smoldering burn rate did not affect the total amount of heat emitted nor the ratio of radiated heat to convected heat.

  10. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  11. [Burn out syndrome in oncology]. (United States)

    Schraub, Simon; Marx, E


    SEPS or burnout syndrome was described among health care workers. Oncology care givers--physicians and nurses--can be concerned. Burnout is a chronical stress reaction. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are more prevalent than low personal accomplishment. Burnout is essentially assessed by questionnaires. Oncologists report an higher level of burnout, than AIDS medical or palliative care staff. Causes of burn out are numerous: insufficient personal time, sense of failure,... followed by poorly management and difficulties in staff or institution relationships. Prevention and therapy of burn out can be considered on three levels: personal, (psychotherapy, advices on health way of life), team (improvement in communication) and institution (support meetings and talking groups).

  12. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out from December 2010 to February 2011 at Yekatit 12 hospital burn center. Periodic wound swabs and blood samples were collected on 1st, 7th, and 14th days of hospital stay and processed with conventional culture and biochemical tests. Isolates ...

  13. Air-freshener burns: A new paradigm in burns etiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Sarwar


    Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of burns as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale.

  14. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety (United States)

    ... the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns from fires and scalding: Be " ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  15. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings (United States)

    Packer, Kathleen J.


    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  16. Burning effigies with Bakhtinian laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttke, F.


    The hanging or burning of effigies as an expression of dissent is a well-established genre of playful political protest. It is enacted in a variety of ways, accessing the conventions of various traditional rituals and social practices, and can function either as a progressive force demanding change,

  17. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya


    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  18. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of ...

  19. The Burn-Out Syndrome. (United States)

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ


    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  20. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found outside of the burns theatre. Challenges include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic monitoring and positioning, impaired temperature regulation, altered drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, renal dysfunction and sepsis.2 To be able to effectively ...

  1. Clinker Burning Kinetics and Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira

    dimensions, rotation velocity, temperature, gas composition, heat transfer phenomena, etc. These conditions can only be partly simulated in ordinary lab-scale experiments. Thus, the objectives of this project have been to establish test equipment to simulate the industrial clinker burning process...

  2. Antibiotics and the burn patient. (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard


    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'. (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E


    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  4. Management of post burn hand deformities


    Sabapathy S; Bajantri Babu; Bharathi R


    The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of s...

  5. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients (United States)


    PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 2. Keywords: burn, smoke inhalation, vitamin E, patients, oxidative stress, pulmonary function, ICU days 3. Accomplishments: a...Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit (PHHS-BU) in Dallas. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...Galveston, the Burn Intensive Care Unit at Memorial Hermann Hospital (BICU-MHH) in Houston, and the Parkland Health and Hospital System Burn Unit

  6. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Fifteen (5.3%) occurred in vehicles following road traffic accidents. Flame constituted the largest source of burn in 147 (49.1%) patients while scald burn from hot fluids( water, soup, hot tea, pap{custard} )constituted the next large group of 108. (37,9%). Twenty patients (7.0%) were due to chemical burns while electrical ...

  8. Costs of burn care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.J.; Polinder, S.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Middelkoop, E.; van Baar, M.E.


    Burn care is traditionally considered expensive care. However, detailed information about the costs of burn care is scarce despite the increased need for this information and the enhanced focus on healthcare cost control. In this study, economic literature on burn care was systematically reviewed to

  9. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phone have been described.[3]. We report on a case of first‑degree burn due to overheating of. Compaq Presario cq50 on the patient's left foot. So far, there have been a few case reports about portable computer causing burns, but until now burning induced in such a quick succession of time (3 days) has not been reported.

  10. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue. (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W


    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  11. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.


    Chitkara, D. K.; McNeela, B. J.


    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  12. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study. (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J


    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  13. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol


    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Prescribed burning and its effect on plant biomass and species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three burning regime (fire protected, early burning, late burning) and their effects on plant biomass and species diversity in Dabagi forest Reserve of Sokoto State were investigated. Prescribed burning was carried out on randomly selected plots (10 m x 10 m) in November (early burn) and March (late burn) 2004.

  15. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  16. The NBT test in burned patients. (United States)

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.


    The number of polymorphs which stained with the dye nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT "Positive") increased sharply during the first week after burning, reaching levels 4--5 times above values for healthy volunteers. In burns of more than 20% of the body surface a second, smaller increase in the number of NBT "positives" occurred 4 to 6 weeks after burning. The high levels of NBT "positive" polymorphs occurred independently of infection on the burns. A burned patient who died from septicaemia had very low numbers of NBT "positive" polymorphs for 3 weeks before death. PMID:444418

  17. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S


    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  18. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations. (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard


    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical burns in children: Aetiology and prevention. (United States)

    D'Cruz, Rachel; Pang, Tony C Y; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Chemical burns account for a small proportion of total burns in children, but may require specific first aid and different modes of prevention. A retrospective study between 2006 and 2012 of children ≤16 years treated with chemical burns at a specialist paediatric burn centre. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. 56 episodes of chemical burns occurred during the study period. The majority (54%) occurred in boys. There were 39 (72%) patients chemical burns occurred in the domestic setting, especially in the chemicals by an unattended child accounted for half of all (n=22, 49%) chemical burns burns in patients ≥10 years resulted from self-harm. The most common aetiological agents were household cleaners and aerosols in the younger and older age groups respectively. Chemical burns remain infrequent but potentially preventable. These burns mainly occur in the domestic setting due to non-intentional exposure of household chemicals in children burns in children <10. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley


    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  2. Burn severity mapping in Australia 2009 (United States)

    McKinley, Randy; Clark, J.; Lecker, Jennifer


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  3. [Burns care following a nuclear incident]. (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T


    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries.

  4. Pediatric hand burns: thermal, electrical, chemical. (United States)

    Choi, Mark; Armstrong, Milton B; Panthaki, Zubin J


    Young children often use their hands for exploration of their surroundings, and this often leads to the hand being the primary site of injury. Because of this and many associated factors, burns of the pediatric hands are relatively common, with thermal injuries being the most frequent. Electrical and chemical etiologies contribute a minor portion of the burn injuries in the pediatric population. Some key differences should be considered in the management of hand burns in a pediatric patient versus an adult. In general, minor superficial burns will heal satisfactorily only with topical care. Deeper partial-thickness and full-thickness burns, however, require surgical interventions. Special care should always be taken in the management of electrical and chemical burns because the pathophysiology of these injuries are unique. Treatment of pediatric hand burns should also involve close and thorough follow-up to assess not only for healing and restoration of function of the injury but also for psychologic and emotional trauma.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra G Patil


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by chronic orofacial pain without any mucosal abnormalities or other organic disease. There are numerous synonyms for this ailment such as stomatodynia, stomatopyrosis, glossodynia, glossopyrosis, sore mouth, sore tongue, oral dysesthesia, and scalding mouth syndrome. Patients usually present with burning, stinging, or numbness on the tongue or other areas of oral mucosa. The complex etiology and lack of characteristic signs and symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult. As a result of which managing such patients become a herculean task. Moreover, lack of understanding of the disease leads to misdiagnosis and unnecessary referral of patients. In this article, the authors have described the etiopathogenesis, diagnostic algorithm and management of this confusing ailment.

  6. Repeated expansion in burn sequela. (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo


    This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars.

  7. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns


    Medi Eslani; Alireza Baradaran-Rafii; Asadolah Movahedan; Djalilian, Ali R.


    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts wit...

  8. Burn Treatment for the Unburned (United States)


    5. Prasad JK, Feller I, Thomson PD: Use of amnion for the treatment of dressing is more rapid in patients with TEN-simple loss of Stevens - Johnson ...dermatologists, increases the risk of infection, Heimbach et al and other pediatricians, neurologists ( phenytoin [Dilantin] is a common authors quite... syndrome . J Trauma 1986;26:945-946. the epidermis is not the equivalent of a burn. As is the case in 6. Halebian PH, Madden MR, Finklestein JL, et al

  9. [Treatment of burns in infants]. (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L


    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  10. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention. (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin


    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  11. Chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid. (United States)

    Dahlin, Jakob; Engfeldt, Malin; Svedman, Cecilia; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Isaksson, Marléne; Hindsén, Monica; Bruze, Magnus


    Trifluoroacetic acid is a very strong carboxylic acid. The acid has been suspected to have similar toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid on skin contact. Hydrofluoric acid is highly toxic, owing to skin penetration by fluoride ions. A spill of hydrofluoric acid on the skin may be fatal. As trifluoroacetic acid contains fluorine, patients with chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid have been given particular attention when treated in the hospital. To gather the known cases of trifluoroacetic acid burns from our department to give an overview of how they were exposed, the clinical presentation, and treatment. Five patients with chemical skin burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid were reviewed with regard to the extent of the burn, treatment, blood samples taken, and systemic effects. The chemical burns reported were limited (burns healed as expected for chemical burns caused by acids. None of the patients showed any symptoms or signs that are typical for hydrofluoric acid burns. Localized chemical burns caused by trifluoroacetic acid should be regarded as being similar to burns from other acids, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid. To our knowledge, there are no indications that trifluoroacetic acid causes the same toxic effects as hydrofluoric acid. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept (United States)

    Menikoff, R.; Shaw, M. S.

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i) the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t) = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps) = [Nbc(Ps)]-1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t) = ∫t0 D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P) is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  13. Self-inflicted burns: a case series. (United States)

    Henderson, Antony; Wijewardena, Aruna; Streimer, Jeff; Vandervord, John


    Self-inflicted burns are regularly admitted to burns units worldwide. Most of these patients are referred to psychiatric services and are successfully treated however some return to hospital with recurrent self-inflicted burns. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of the recurrent self-inflicted burn patients admitted to the Royal North Shore Hospital during 2004-2011. Burn patients were drawn from a computerized database and recurrent self-inflicted burn patients were identified. Of the total of 1442 burn patients, 40 (2.8%) were identified as self-inflicted burns. Of these patients, 5 (0.4%) were identified to have sustained previous self-inflicted burns and were interviewed by a psychiatrist. Each patient had been diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder and had suffered other forms of deliberate self-harm. Self-inflicted burns were utilized to relieve or help regulate psychological distress, rather than to commit suicide. Most patients had a history of emotional neglect, physical and/or sexual abuse during their early life experience. Following discharge from hospital, the patients described varying levels of psychiatric follow-up, from a post-discharge review at a local community mental health centre to twice-weekly psychotherapy. The patients who engaged in regular psychotherapy described feeling more in control of their emotions and reported having a longer period of abstinence from self-inflicted burn. Although these patients represent a small proportion of all burns, the repeat nature of their injuries led to a significant use of clinical resources. A coordinated and consistent treatment pathway involving surgical and psychiatric services for recurrent self-inflicted burns may assist in the management of these challenging patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents in burns. (United States)

    Ollstein, R N; McDonald, C


    Infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in burns. Burn wound infection is defined as burn wound bacterial proliferation in a density equal to or greater than 10(5) bacteria per gram of tissue. Gram-negative bacteria, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as staphylococci and fungal opportunists, have been identified as prominent invaders. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents are essential adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection. Topical antimicrobial therapy is indicated in all hospitalized burn patients. Short-term use of systemic antimicrobials for prophylaxis and treatment is required in all moderate and major burns, specifically for early prophylaxis, perioperative prophylaxis, and clinical infection. Antimicrobial choice is based on specific patient or environmental bacteriological data.

  15. Micronutrients after burn injury: a review. (United States)

    Nordlund, Megan J; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S


    Supplementation of micronutrients after burn injury is common practice in order to fight oxidative stress, support the immune system, and optimize wound healing. Assessing micronutrient status after burn injury is difficult because of hemodilution in the resuscitation phase, redistribution of nutrients from the serum to other organs, and decreases in carrier proteins such as albumin. Although there are many preclinical data, there are limited studies in burn patients. Promising research is being conducted on combinations of micronutrients, especially via the intravenous route.

  16. Infection control in severely burned patients


    Coban, Yusuf Kenan


    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  17. Burns (United States)

    ... or grabbing hot items such as irons and oven doors. Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove so that children can't grab them and they can't accidentally be knocked over. Place fire extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and ...

  18. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)


    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  19. Management of the Chronic Burn Wound. (United States)

    Elkins-Williams, Stephen Tyler; Marston, William A; Hultman, Charles Scott


    This article reviews the current evidence in using hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in burn wounds. There is also separate consideration of diabetic foot burns and a protocol for use of HBOT in a specific case. The challenges of using HBOT in an acute burn care setting are reviewed. Next the pathophysiology of Marjolin ulcers is reviewed. The current thinking in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Marjolin ulcers is discussed. Finally, a background in using topical growth factors (tGF) is provided, followed by a summary of the current evidence of tGF in burn wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad


    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  1. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  2. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza


    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  3. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde


    In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... scale fires can overcome these heat losses, as they typically have higher burning rates, which increase the heat feedback to the fuel surface and therefore can result in the higher burning efficiencies....

  4. A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients (United States)


    objectives were met and study equipment was distributed. • Reliability testing of goniometry measurement methods within and between investigators...1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0148 TITLE: A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients...SUBTITLE A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0148 5c

  5. Burns: The epidemiological pattern, risk and safety awareness at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many burns are preventable but there is no published local prospective data on the epidemiological pattern of burns that would form the basis of care and formulation of burn prevention strategies. Objectives: To determine the epidemiological pattern of burns and assess the awareness of burn risk and ...

  6. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.


    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  7. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han


    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: Clinical dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan R Patil


    Full Text Available Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS is a chronic orofacial burning pain condition usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings that affects many adults worldwide, yet its etiology and treatment remain poorly understood. Though it has been associated with numerous oral and systemic conditions, there has been no clear consensus on its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment. As a result, patients with inexplicable oral complaints are often referred from one health care professional to another without effective management having significant emotional impact on patients. As the dental profession expands its scope of care to oral medicine and geriatrics, BMS will be more effectively diagnosed and managed by these dental surgeons. Hence, they should be more involved in evaluation and management of these patients. The present article provides updated information on BMS including possible etiological factors and current treatment options, although data on the effectiveness of these treatment modalities remain limited. Recently researchers found that treatment with a familiar nutritional supplement- lipoic acid- is of remarkable benefit with minimal adverse effects. ALA (alpha-lipoic acid may be the effective treatment modality in management of BMS.

  9. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  10. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J


    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  11. Increased admissions for diabetes mellitus after burn. (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; O'Halloran, Emily; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M


    Currently, limited long-term data on hyperglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in burn patients are available and the data that do exist are primarily related to paediatric severe burns. The aim of this study was to assess if burn is associated with increased post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalized for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Crude admission rates and summed length of stay for diabetes mellitus were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had 2.21 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-1.56) as many admissions and almost three times the number of days in hospital with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis (IRR, 95% CI: 2.94, 2.12-4.09) than the uninjured cohort. Admission rates were significantly elevated for those burned during childhood (diabetes mellitus in the burn cohort provide evidence that burns have longer term effects on blood glucose and insulin regulation after wound healing. The first five years after burn discharge appears to be a critical period with significantly elevated incident admissions for diabetes mellitus during this time. Results would suggest prolonged clinical management after discharge and or wound healing to minimise post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of Critical Burn Injuries: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Dries


    Full Text Available Background Burn injury and its subsequent multisystem effects are commonly encountered by acute care practitioners. Resuscitation is the major component of initial burn care and must be managed to restore and preserve vital organ function. Later complications of burn injury are dominated by infection. Burn centers are often called to manage problems related to thermal injury, including lightning and electrical injuries. Methods A selected review is provided of key management concepts as well as of recent reports published by the American Burn Association. Results The burn-injured patient is easily and frequently over resuscitated, with ensuing complications that include delayed wound healing and respiratory compromise. A feedback protocol designed to limit the occurrence of excessive resuscitation has been proposed, but no new “gold standard” for resuscitation has replaced the venerated Parkland formula. While new medical therapies have been proposed for patients sustaining inhalation injury, a paradigm-shifting standard of medical therapy has not emerged. Renal failure as a specific contributor to adverse outcome in burns has been reinforced by recent data. Of special problems addressed in burn centers, electrical injuries pose multisystem physiologic challenges and do not fit typical scoring systems. Conclusion Recent reports emphasize the dangers of over resuscitation in the setting of burn injury. No new medical therapy for inhalation injury has been generally adopted, but new standards for description of burn-related infections have been presented. The value of the burn center in care of the problems of electrical exposure, both manmade and natural, is demonstrated in recent reports.

  13. Satisfaction with life after burn: A Burn Model System National Database Study. (United States)

    Goverman, J; Mathews, K; Nadler, D; Henderson, E; McMullen, K; Herndon, D; Meyer, W; Fauerbach, J A; Wiechman, S; Carrougher, G; Ryan, C M; Schneider, J C


    While mortality rates after burn are low, physical and psychosocial impairments are common. Clinical research is focusing on reducing morbidity and optimizing quality of life. This study examines self-reported Satisfaction With Life Scale scores in a longitudinal, multicenter cohort of survivors of major burns. Risk factors associated with Satisfaction With Life Scale scores are identified. Data from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) Burn Model System (BMS) database for burn survivors greater than 9 years of age, from 1994 to 2014, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures were the individual items and total Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) scores at time of hospital discharge (pre-burn recall period) and 6, 12, and 24 months after burn. The SWLS is a validated 5-item instrument with items rated on a 1-7 Likert scale. The differences in scores over time were determined and scores for burn survivors were also compared to a non-burn, healthy population. Step-wise regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SWLS scores at different time intervals. The SWLS was completed at time of discharge (1129 patients), 6 months after burn (1231 patients), 12 months after burn (1123 patients), and 24 months after burn (959 patients). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in terms of medical or injury demographics. The majority of the population was Caucasian (62.9%) and male (72.6%), with a mean TBSA burned of 22.3%. Mean total SWLS scores for burn survivors were unchanged and significantly below that of a non-burn population at all examined time points after burn. Although the mean SWLS score was unchanged over time, a large number of subjects demonstrated improvement or decrement of at least one SWLS category. Gender, TBSA burned, LOS, and school status were associated with SWLS scores at 6 months

  14. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  15. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı


    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  16. EPiderniolo y and bacterial colonization of burn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKOOl) '. Bacterial isolates. Figure 2 shows the range of bacteria isolated from burn wounds. S. alfl'fl/J', P. mlmlaz'lz's and streptococci were the commonest isolates. The other Gram negatives were. Paeruglnara (4.5%). Salmonella, E. roll and Klebsz'ella app. Discussion. The epidemiology of burns reported from this study is.

  17. Experimental Proteus mirabilis Burn Surface Infection (United States)


    mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of...William J1. Northam. Peter A. lDorsaneo, and Paulette langlinais MS. model may be useful in evaluation of experimental antibi - prov ided technical support

  18. Zelfzorg als buffer voor burn-out


    Damman, Caroline; Dewaele, Bart


    Burn-out komt vaak voor bij hulpverleners. Door hun eigenheid durven ze niet snel hulp vragen. In geen enkele missietekst van een organisatie staat dat de organisatie zelfzorg bij hulpverleners als kerntaak opneemt. Zelfzorg is de beste buffer tegen burn-out.

  19. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci


    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  20. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly☆ (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid


    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  1. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud


    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  2. Burned Oaks: Which Ones Will Survive?


    McCreary, Doug; Nader, Glenn


    Wildfire in an oak woodland can kill some trees outright and leave others with burn damage that may or may not eventually kill them, too. Here is a quick method for assessing the extent of burn damage and the likelihood that an affected tree will survive.

  3. Prescribed burning in southwestern ponderosa pine (United States)

    Stephen S Sackett; Sally M Haase; Michael G Harrington


    Prescribed burning is an effective way of restoring the fire process to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems of the Southwest. If used judiciously, fire can provide valuable effects for hazard reduction, natural regeneration, thinning, vegetation revitalization, and in general, better forest health. Relatively short burning...

  4. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline


    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  5. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr......) a depression of leukocytes in the peripheral blood was found of the burned mice. This depression was due to a reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells. The burned mice were not able to clear a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection, since the infection spread to the blood as compared to mice only infected...... with P. aeruginosa subcutaneously. The burn model offers an opportunity to study infections under these conditions. The present model can also be used to examine new antibiotics and immune therapy. Our animal model resembling the clinical situation is useful in developing new treatments of burn wound...

  6. Burn out: Cognitieve problemen, stress en vermoeidheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.


    Veel burn-out patiënten rapporteren cognitieve problemen. Presteren burn-out patiënten ook minder goed op cognitieve taken? En met welke mechanismen hangen deze problemen samen? Onderzoek laat zien dat deze cognitieve problemen objectief zijn aan te tonen en dat ze meer met stress lijken samen te

  7. Prevention of Burn in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Kursun


    Full Text Available Abstract: In the last century, advances in medical care and longevity have resulting in an increase in the elderly population, and the world and Turkey populations have become older. In parallel with the aging population, problems seen in old people have been increasing. Burn, one of these problems, causes more serious injuries and high level of mortality in people aged 65 years and over compared to the general population. Reduction in sensory/cognitive functions, slowing reflexes, limited movements and accompanying situations (chronic diseases, alcoholism, used medication, neurological and psychiatric disorders which are due to physiology of elderly people increase the burn incidence and the severity of burn. In addition, these factors could also raise the ventilation requirement, complications and hospitalization period in burnt patients. Despite the recent developmetns in burn treatment and care, burn is still a serious health problem for elderly people. As the majority of the burn injuries are preventable, the essential point of burn administration in elderly people should be related to the prevention of burn incidence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 251-254

  8. Thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patient. (United States)

    Warner, Petra; Fields, Amanda L; Braun, Lindsay C; James, Laura E; Bailey, J Kevin; Yakuboff, Kevin P; Kagan, Richard J


    Thrombocytopenia is initially seen in patients with burn injury as a transient occurrence during the first week after injury. Subsequent decreases occur later in the course of treatment and are commonly due to sepsis, dilutional effects, and medication exposure. Although studies have demonstrated that thrombocytopenia in the critically ill patients is associated with a worse prognosis, there is limited literature as to the significance of thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patients. In this study, the authors evaluate the prognostic implications of thrombocytopenia in the pediatric burn patients. They performed a 5-year retrospective chart of patients aged 18 years or younger with burns >20% TBSA admitted to their institution. Data collected included patient demographics, burn etiology and %TBSA involvement, length of stay, pertinent laboratory values, and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Of the 187 patients studied, thrombocytopenia occurred in 112 patients. Eighty-two percent demonstrated thrombocytopenia within the first week of injury and 18% demonstrated additional episodes of thrombocytopenia after this time. A reactive thrombocytosis occurred in 130 (70%) patients. The incidence of thrombocytopenia could not be attributed to age, gender, or burn etiology. However, patients with thrombocytopenia were more likely to have inhalation injury and extensive TBSA involvement than those without (P thrombocytosis in the pediatric burn patient is associated with increased mortality risk and is influenced by the extent of burn, inhalation injury, and the development of sepsis.

  9. Nutritional management of the burn patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of these metabolic alterations include increased gluconeogenesis, increased proteolysis, increased ureagenesis, sequestration of micronutrients and altered lipid metabolism. The magnitude of the response parallels the extent of the burn injury and reaches a maximum of about twice normal when the burn size exceeds ...

  10. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food? (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won


    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  11. Referral patterns in pediatric burn patients. (United States)

    Doud, Andrea N; Swanson, John M; Ladd, Mitchell R; Neff, Lucas P; Carter, Jeff E; Holmes, James H


    Though multiple studies have demonstrated superior outcomes amongst adult burn patients at verified burn centers (VBCs) relative to nondedicated burn centers (NBCs), roughly half of such patients meeting American Burn Association (ABA) referral guidelines are not sent to these centers. We sought examine referral patterns amongst pediatric burn patients. Retrospective review of a statewide patient database identified pediatric burn patients from 2000 to 2007 using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) discharge codes. These injuries were crossreferenced with ABA referral criteria to determine compliance with the ABA guidelines. 1831 children sustained burns requiring hospitalization during the study period, of which 1274 (70%) met ABA referral criteria. Of 557 treated at NBCs, 306 (55%) met criteria for transfer. Neither age, gender, nor payer status demonstrated significant association with treatment center. VBCs treated more severely injured patients, but there was no difference in survival or rate of discharge home from NBCs versus VBCs. Studies to evaluate differences in functional outcomes between pediatric burn patients treated at VBCs versus NBCs would be beneficial to ensure optimization of outcomes in this population.

  12. An Approach to Modeling a Burning Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muramatsu M


    Full Text Available The temperature and smoke components distributions inside a burning cigarette have been briefly reviewed. Then, focusing on our mathematical model to explain the natural smoldering mechanism of a cigarette and new mathematical models recently published by other authors, an approach to modeling a burning cigarette has been outlined.

  13. Emergency burn rehabilitation: cost, risk, effectiveness (United States)

    Scott R. Miles; Donald M. Haskins; Darrel W. Ranken


    The fires of 1987 had a heavy impact on the Hayfork Ranger District. Over 50,000 acres were burned within the South Fork Trinity River watershed, which contains an important anadromous fishery. Major problems within the burned area were found to be: (1) slopes having highly erodible soils where intense wildfire resulted in a total loss of ground cover, and (2) burnout...

  14. Epidemiology and trends in severe burns in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, J.; Vloemans, A.F.; Beerthuizen, G.I.J.M.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Boxma, H.; Breederveld, R.; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; Middelkoop, E.; van Baar, M.E.


    Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of severe burns in the Netherlands, including trends in burn centre admissions, non burn centre admissions and differences by age.

  15. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risks Burns and Scalds Type Video Audience Parents You are here Home Safety Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this ...

  16. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Video Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch ... learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. ...

  17. Stubble Burning and Consciousness Level of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülistan Erdal


    Full Text Available This study analyses the consciousness levels, attitudes and behaviours of farmers against stubble burning and the damages of stubble burning which is a part of land misuse. 86 farmers from 9 villages in Zile county of Tokat province were surveyed for the study. These data was used to state farmers' socio-demographical characteristics and their behaviours against stubble burning was analysed. According to the study results, 99% of the farmers says that stubble burning is a wrong application. They states that stubble burning causes natural damages and the most importantly it is harmful by 76% to the living creatures in the nature. 57% of them prefers the method of mixing stubble to the soil.

  18. Prophylactic antibiotic use in pediatric burn units. (United States)

    Ergün, O; Celik, A; Ergün, G; Ozok, G


    Prophylactic antibiotic use in childhood burns is controversial. The efficiency of antibiotic prophylaxis in 77 pediatric burn patients was evaluated. Forty-seven patients received prophylactic antibiotics (Group AP), while 30 patients received no prophylaxis (Group NP). Age, wound depth, day of admission, mechanism of burn injury, type of dressings were similar for both groups (p > 0.05). Wound infection rates were 21.3 % in Group AP and 16.7 % in Group NP (p > 0.05). S. aureus, Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, and E. coli were the most common microorganisms. Patients with wound colonization and infection had a larger burned total body surface area (BTBSA) in both groups (p beneficial and cost-effective results in the treatment of childhood burns is recommended.

  19. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne


    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury......; and 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  20. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review. (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis


    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation.

  1. Early management of the burned pediatric hand. (United States)

    Feldmann, Mark E; Evans, Jill; O, Seung-Jun


    Unique anatomic and pathophysiologic features of the thermally burned pediatric hand are reviewed, with a focus on direct management of the injured tissue in the early phases of the treatment process. A nonoperative approach to most pediatric hand burns is advocated, and principles of early wound care, including antimicrobial therapy, and escharotomy are described. Specific emphasis is placed on distinctive characteristics of the fifth digit which make it prone to contracture patterns resembling a boutonniere-type deformity and on newer wound care technologies that simplify the application process without loss of antimicrobial and barrier function. The technical principles of full-thickness burn excision, as well as considerations in selecting suitable graft for burn closure, are also discussed. Finally, basic techniques for splinting, positioning, and exercising the burned pediatric hand are described. When properly applied, the principles discussed herein have rendered the severely scarred, functionless hand a rarity after thermal injury.

  2. Modeling thermal burns due to airbag deployment. (United States)

    Mercer, G N; Sidhu, H S


    Automotive airbags are now a widely accepted safety measure designed to reduce morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Their usage is increasing with multiple airbags (driver, passenger and side curtain) being fitted to many vehicles. However the deployment of airbags has been identified as causing injuries in some instances including minor burns. There are three mechanisms for thermal burns due to an airbag; contact with the hot expelled gases from the airbag, contact with the hot airbag itself and melting of clothing from either of these contacts. A mathematical model is used here to predict the likelihood and severity of the first two types of burns. It is shown that direct contact with high temperature exhaust gases venting from the airbag can indeed lead to burns and that burns from contacting the hot airbag material are possible but far less likely to occur.

  3. Paediatric Burns in the Acute Phase: Specific Aspects


    Grisolia, G.A.; Pinzauti, E.; Pancani, S.; Pavone, M.


    This paper deals with specific aspects of paediatric burns in the acute phase and considers how the treatment of burned children differs from that of burned adults. The epidemiology of paediatric burns is reviewed. Particular aspects of the treatment of burned children are presented, with regard to treatment at the site of the accident, first aid, resuscitation, and local treatment. The importance of the accurate assessment of paediatric burns is stressed.

  4. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra


    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  5. The ocular surface chemical burns. (United States)

    Eslani, Medi; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Movahedan, Asadolah; Djalilian, Ali R


    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients' needs.

  6. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

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    Medi Eslani


    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.


    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.


    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  8. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

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    Shaw M.S.


    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  9. Prevention-oriented epidemiology of burns in Ardabil provincial burn centre, Iran. (United States)

    Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R


    In preventing burns, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burns leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 burn victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial burn centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe burns occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame burns, women suffered more severe burns and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame burns of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of burns occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of burns were scalds and 47% were flame burns. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame burns in the distribution of burns in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck burns were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting burned while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-burning appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic burns among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes

  10. Management of difficult pediatric facial burns: reconstruction of burn-related lower eyelid ectropion and perioral contractures. (United States)

    Egeland, Brent; More, Sunita; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S


    Despite significant burn treatment advances, modern multidisciplinary care, and improved survival after burns, facial burn scars remain clinically challenging. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. Pediatric facial burns present the same reconstructive challenges seen in adults, with additional developmental and psychologic concerns. In this paper, we describe the basic principals of facial burn care in the pediatric burn population, with a specific focus on lower-eyelid burn ectropion and oral commissure burn scar contracture leading to microstomia. Several cases are demonstrated.

  11. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients. (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M


    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting. (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered.

  13. Research in burns - Present and future

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    Burd Andrew


    Full Text Available There have been tremendous advances in burns care over the past 50 years. Much of this, but not all, can be attributed to basic science and clinically related research. Out of the best centres in the world, centres that are fully funded and richly resourced, best practice guidelines result in impressive outcomes not only in terms of survival but also in terms of a quality of survival. Indeed the remaining clinical challenges in these centres are the elderly, the inhalational burns, and the very extensive burns. There are however other challenges when looking at burns care in a global context and in particular is the provision of even minimal standards of acceptable care for burns patients in many parts of the world. Whilst the justification for research funding in the wealthy countries becomes increasingly esoteric, for example looking at the immunology of face transplantation, the global health challenges of burns care still remain. Perhaps, the greatest research challenge in burns care in the 21st century lies not in furthering our understanding of the phenomenon we observe but the global application of the knowledge we already possess.

  14. Infections in critically ill burn patients. (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P


    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

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    Wei-tao Yang


    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  16. The trends of burns epidemiology in a tropical regional burns centre. (United States)

    Hwee, Jolie; Song, Christopher; Tan, Kok Chai; Tan, Bien Keem; Chong, Si Jack


    Singapore General Hospital (SGH) is a regional burns centre in Southeast Asia and is the only dedicated burns facility providing specialized burns care in Singapore. A cohort study was performed for burns patients admitted to SGH from 2011 to 2013. We compared our data with earlier studies and observed the trends of burns epidemiology in Singapore. Results were analyzed using the SPSS programme. 655 patients were admitted during this study period, a 35.9% increase from 2003 to 2005. Scalding by water and flame injury remain the top causes of burns and the mean extent of burn is 9.5%. TBSA correlates with the incidence of burn infection, bacteremia and mortality. Patients with ≥20% TBSA are at a higher risk of bacteremia, and ≥ 34% TBSA is a predictor of mortality. 4.9% (n=32) of our patients developed bacteremia. Bacteremia was associated with a surgical duration of ≥80min. Patients with bacteremia incurred longer hospitalization, and had higher mortality rates. Overall mortality rate of our burns patients has decreased from 4.5% to 2.7% (n=18). Key factors of mortality include inhalational injury, bacteremia and ≥20% TBSA. This is a large epidemiology study of a tropical region burns centre. A total of 655 burns cases over a 3-year period were analyzed. We analysed the key factors associated with adverse outcomes including burns infection, bacteremia and mortality, factors associated with mortality, and discussed strategies on the optimization of burns care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow? (United States)

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A


    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed.

  18. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

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    Okoro Philemon


    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  19. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers


    Sharma, G


    Laptop burn is a real condition and medical reports indicate that using a laptop across the legs can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. A 24-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic reddish brown pigmentation on the thighs. After an extensive work-up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed. Burning was induced in 3 days by using laptop for 4 h daily. Laptop should be used in properly ventilated and air-conditioned rooms. The ...

  20. Burn injury caused by laptop computers. (United States)

    Sharma, G


    Laptop burn is a real condition and medical reports indicate that using a laptop across the legs can indeed cause it. in very rare cases, the condition can cause damage leading to skin cancer. A 24-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic reddish brown pigmentation on the thighs. After an extensive work-up, burning caused by use of a laptop was observed. Burning was induced in 3 days by using laptop for 4 h daily. Laptop should be used in properly ventilated and air-conditioned rooms. The most effective way of preventing erythema is to use the laptop on the table or desk.

  1. Post-burn scars and scar contractures

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    Goel Arun


    Full Text Available The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management.

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation Complicated by Skin Burn (United States)

    Huffman, S.D.; Huffman, N.P.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Brown, Daniel B.


    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been increasingly utilized as a minimally invasive treatment for primary and metastatic liver tumors, as well as tumors in the kidneys, bones, and adrenal glands. The development of high-current RF ablation has subsequently led to an increased risk of thermal skin injuries at the grounding pad site. The incidence of skin burns in recent studies ranges from 0.1–3.2% for severe skin burns (second-/third-degree), and from 5–33% for first-degree burns.1–3 PMID:22654258

  3. The Bradford Burn Study: the epidemiology of burns presenting to an inner city emergency department (United States)

    Khan, A A; Rawlins, J; Shenton, A F; Sharpe, D T


    Objective The Bradford Burn Study prospectively reviewed all burn attendances at a single emergency department in the UK over a 1 year period. The study reviewed the epidemiology, demographics and outcomes of all patients entered into the study. Design and setting A 12 month prospective study of burn injuries attending an inner city emergency department serving a population of 1 million people. Results 460 patients were enrolled into the study. Average patient age was 22.7 years, male: female ratio was 1:1.4, and children burn units. Conclusions Emergency departments manage patients with burns well, and referrals to plastic surgery departments are appropriate. The majority of burns can be prevented by addressing educational issues and vulnerable sections of the population. PMID:17652679

  4. Accuracy of burn size estimation in patients transferred to adult Burn Units in Sydney, Australia: an audit of 698 patients. (United States)

    Harish, Varun; Raymond, Andrew P; Issler, Andrea C; Lajevardi, Sepehr S; Chang, Ling-Yun; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter


    The purpose of this study was to compare burn size estimation between referring centres and Burn Units in adult patients transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia. A review of all adults transferred to Burn Units in Sydney, Australia between January 2009 and August 2013 was performed. The TBSA estimated by the referring institution was compared with the TBSA measured at the Burns Unit. There were 698 adults transferred to a Burns Unit. Equivalent TBSA estimation between the referring hospital and Burns Unit occurred in 30% of patients. Overestimation occurred at a ratio exceeding 3:1 with respect to underestimation, with the difference between the referring institutions and Burns Unit estimation being statistically significant (Pburn-injured patients as well as in patients transferred more than 48h after the burn (Pburn (Ppatients, severe burns (≥20% TBSA) were found to have more satisfactory burn size estimations compared with less severe injuries (burn size assessment by referring centres. The systemic tendency for overestimation occurs throughout the entire TBSA spectrum, and persists with increasing time after the burn. Underestimation occurs less frequently but rises with increasing time after the burn and with increasing TBSA. Severe burns (≥20% TBSA) are more accurately estimated by the referring hospital. The inaccuracies in burn size assessment have the potential to result in suboptimal treatment and inappropriate referral to specialised Burn Units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. [Chemical and Thermal Eye Burns]. (United States)

    Struck, H-G


    Background: This review gives a therapeutic approach for the early treatment of chemical and thermal burns of the ocular surface (CTOS). Method: Based on a review of international literature, the experiences of University Hospital Aachen and Halle/Saale, Eye Clinic Cologne as well as experimental data of the research institute (An-Institut) at RWTH Aachen University are considered and discussed. Results: As the risk depends on the stage of CTOS, recommendations are given for acute treatment for different stages. Pathophysiological considerations will be discussed. Special treatment options for exceptional situations and for late phase CTOS are demonstrated. Conclusion: According to the latest data, the most important clinical recommendation for the acute phase of CTOS is the application of a suitable rinsing solution. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory treatment is of central importance. For the therapy of severe CTOS, approved and advanced surgical methods need to be applied. In this way, anti-inflammatory and tissue-protecting mechanisms are activated simultaneously. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Sediment availability on burned hillslopes (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Moody, John A.; Smith, Hugh G.; Noske, Philip J.; Lane, Patrick N. J.


    describes the inherent resistance of soil to erosion. Hillslope erosion models typically consider erodibility to be constant with depth. This may not be the case after wildfire because erodibility is partly determined by the availability of noncohesive soil and ash at the surface. This study quantifies erodibility of burned soils using methods that explicitly capture variations in soil properties with depth. Flume experiments on intact cores from three sites in western United States showed that erodibility of fire-affected soil was highest at the soil surface and declined exponentially within the top 20 mm of the soil profile, with root density and soil depth accounting for 62% of the variation. Variation in erodibility with depth resulted in transient sediment flux during erosion experiments on bounded field plots. Material that contributed to transient flux was conceptualized as a layer of noncohesive material of variable depth (dnc). This depth was related to shear strength measurements and sampled spatially to obtain the probability distribution of noncohesive material as a function of depth below the surface. After wildfire in southeast Australia, the initial dnc ranged from 7.5 to 9.1 mm, which equated to 97-117 Mg ha-1 of noncohesive material. The depth decreased exponentially with time since wildfire to 0.4 mm (or fire effects on erodibility as a function of the production and depletion of the noncohesive layer overlying a cohesive layer.

  7. Interaction of Burning Metal Particles (United States)

    Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Hoffmann, Vern K.


    Physical characteristics of the combustion of metal particle groups have been addressed in this research. The combustion behavior and interaction effects of multiple metal particles has been studied using a microgravity environment, which presents a unique opportunity to create an "aerosol" consisting of relatively large particles, i.e., 50-300 m diameter. Combustion behavior of such an aerosol could be examined using methods adopted from well-developed single particle combustion research. The experiment included fluidizing relatively large (order of 100 m diameter) uniform metal particles under microgravity and igniting such an "aerosol" using a hot wire igniter. The flame propagation and details of individual particle combustion and particle interaction have been studied using a high speed movie and video-imaging with cameras coupled with microscope lenses to resolve individual particles. Interference filters were used to separate characteristic metal and metal oxide radiation bands from the thermal black body radiation. Recorded flame images were digitized and various image processing techniques including flame position tracking, color separation, and pixel by pixel image comparison were employed to understand the processes occurring in the burning aerosol. The development of individual particle flames, merging or separation, and extinguishment as well as induced particle motion have been analyzed to identify the mechanisms governing these processes. Size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of combustion products were characterized and used to link the observed in this project aerosol combustion phenomena with the recently expanded mechanism of single metal particle combustion.

  8. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi


    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habeeb Mohamed


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Burn injury is a serious preventable health problem. Unlike developed countries, in India, most burns occur in the domestic environment. The mortality is high. The social, psychological (disfigurement and physical trauma in those who survive is high and the quality of life is greatly reduced. The present study was undertaken to study the epidemiology and the outcome of patients admitted with burn injury in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done to assess the profile and the proportion of percentage of burns with morbidity and mortality in a tertiary care hospital of north Kerala in the year 2007. RESULTS The commonest cause of burns were found to be accidental accounting for 73%. Among the study subjects, 45% survived while 49% died and 6% were discharged against medical advice. The mortality was high in patients with more than 60% of body surface area affected by burns. The mortality increased with percentage of burns even in a tertiary care center. The mortality also increased with increase in age of the patient. CONCLUSION The mortality increased with age and percentage of burns even in a tertiary care hospital. The management of burns needs well-equipped burn centres and other facilities, which demand a lot of economic commitment. Setting up of a well-equipped referral burn centre with a trained team with good economic support from the government and non-governmental agencies and strengthening of peripheral healthcare facilities can produce promising results in burn management.

  10. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Rosanova


    Conclusions: In this series of burn children age ≤ 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  11. Acute burns of the hands - physiotherapy perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunpath, Tanuja; Chetty, Verusia; Van Der Reyden, Dain


    .... Five focus groups consisting of physiotherapists and physiotherapy assistants working with burn injured patients from each of the five selected public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal were recruited...

  12. Silver Sulfadiazine Nanosystems for Burn Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi; Nagarsenker, Mangal


    The objective of the present study was to formulate stable silver sulfadiazine (SSD) nanosuspensions and nanogels suitable for topical delivery with a view to increase bactericidal activity in burn therapy...

  13. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman


    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  14. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A


    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  15. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...... and secondary hyperalgesia. RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant increases in erythema (P burn did not differ between dexamethasone and placebo treatments (P >.6). There were no significant...

  16. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn may...

  17. Photographic assessment of burn size and depth: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.; Moues, C.; Bogomolova, K.; Nieuwenhuis, M.; Oen, I.; Middelkoop, E.; Breederveld, R.; de Baar, M.


    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of using photographs of burns to assess both burn size and depth. Method: Fifty randomly selected photographs taken on day 0-1 post burn were assessed by seven burn experts and eight referring physicians. Inter-rater

  18. Rehabilitation of burn patients: an underestimated socio-economic burden. (United States)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Sander, Jan-Thorben; Weyand, Birgit; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver


    Patients with burns utilise intensive medical care and rehabilitation. Deep dermal burns lead to scar contractures. Virtually no published data exists on costs for treatment of acute burns in comparison to burn sequelae. Our purpose was to collect financial data on burn therapy to estimate the socio-economic burden of thermal injuries. German-DRG for in-patient treatment of burns was collected from our burn center. DRG-related T95.- coding served as a search tool for burn associated sequelae. To include rehabilitation costs, data from the largest health care insurance and a workmen compensation fund were acquired. Acute burn treatment comprised 92% of costs for intensive care with approximately 4.600 EUR per percent total burned surface area (TBSA). Expenses for non-intensive care patients were significantly lower than for burn sequelae. Rehabilitation expenses were 4.4-fold higher than costs for acute burns including 59% for manual therapy and 37% for auxiliary material. TBSA multiplied by factor 4600 could serve for cost calculation of severely burned patients. Approximately 0.3 billion EUR in total or 270.000 EUR per patient/year were spent on burn sequelae. Early admission to specialized burn centers is advocated with state-of-the-art treatment to minimize burn sequelae and health care expenses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of burning intensity on soil water storage and transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four levels of biomass burn were considered: (i) slight burn (SB), (ii) moderate burn (MB) and (iii) heavy burn (HB) versus (iv) control or noburn (NB), corresponding to ... Moreover, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (6.6 – 3.2 cm / sec) between 5 and 25 cm depths and infiltration rates at 0.5 minute during the first year were ...

  20. Pediatric genital burns: a 15-year retrospective analysis of outcomes at a level 1 burn center. (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Go, Pauline H; Mansour, E Hani; Marano, Michael A; Petrone, Sylvia J; Houng, Abraham P; Chamberlain, Ronald S


    Burns involving the genitalia and perineum are commonly seen in the context of extensive total body surface area (TBSA) burns and rarely as isolated injuries because of protection provided by the thighs and the abdomen. Genital burns usually result in extended hospital stays and are accompanied by severe morbidity and increased mortality. A retrospective analysis of consecutive pediatric (burns involving the genitalia admitted to the Saint Barnabas Medical Center Level 1 Burn Unit from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2009, was performed. One hundred sixty pediatric patients (8.3%) had a genital burn, including 105 patients younger than 5 years (65.6%) and 55 patients between 5 and 18 years (34.4%). Overall mean TBSA was 13.8% ± 16.8%, mean TBSA (genitalia) was 0.84% ± 0.25%, mean length of stay (LOS) was 11.9 ± 11.9 days, and mean burn intensive care unit LOS was 4.9 ± 9.7 days. In patients younger than 5 years, a TBSA burn more than 10% with extensive genitalia involvement is almost always the result of a scald injury. Younger patients (2 weeks). Patients 5 years or older are more often male and usually have a TBSA burn more than 15%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre. (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E


    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Total Intravenous Anesthesia for Major Burn Surgery (United States)


    anesthesia, analgesia, and amnesia achievable. On the other hand, use of ketamine without a concomitant benzodiazepine has been associated with... benzodiazepine or propofol effectively prevents these phenomena, and they have not been a problem in our experience [4, 33]. Also, the S(+) enantiomer has a...Anaesthesia for burns in children: a review of procedures practised at Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town. Burns 1994; 20: 241-3

  3. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas


    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  4. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters (United States)


    leading out of the town were clogged by refugees, preventing the rescue of patients. Response to this disaster was aided by the activation of the...surgeon. These authors commented that in order to prevent the burn centre from becoming overloaded, patients with non-survivable injuries as well as those...Triage As in other types of mass casualty events, triage is an essential component of burn disastermanagement : ‘for the surgeon facing 30 victims of urban

  5. Infection control in severely burned patients (United States)

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan


    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood stream infections. Universal application of early excision of burned tissues has made a substantial improvement in the control of wound-related infections in burns. Additionally, the development of new technologies in wound care have helped to decrease morbidity and mortality in severe burn victims. Many examples can be given of the successful control of wound infection, such as the application of an appropriate antibiotic solution to invasive wound infection sites with simultaneous vacuum-assisted closure, optimal preservation of viable tissues with waterjet debridement systems, edema and exudate controlling dressings impregnated with Ag (Silvercel, Aquacell-Ag). The burned patient is at high risk for NI. Invasive interventions including intravenous and urinary chateterization, and entubation pose a further risk of NIs. The use of newly designed antimicrobial impregnated chateters or silicone devices may help the control of infection in these immunocomprimised patients. Strict infection control practices (physical isolation in a private room, use of gloves and gowns during patient contact) and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy guided by laboratory surveillance culture as well as routine microbial burn wound culture are essential to help reduce the incidance of infections due to antibiotic resistant microorganisms. PMID:24701406

  6. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients (United States)


    SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin E deficiency in burn patients and supplementation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b ) to prevent or reverse oxidative...improve our understanding of the metabolism of alpha-tocopherol in thermally injured patients, and B ) demonstrate the mechanism by which vitamin E

  7. Public communication in unplanned biomass burning events. (United States)

    Damon, Scott A; Naylor, Roger; Therriault, Shannon


    Public communication related to emergency, unplanned, or "wildfire" biomass burning is best understood as a function of the audience for that communication. Two enduring communication models, the Health Belief Model and the Stages of Change or Transtheoretical Model, are instructive in analyzing and preparing differing communication response strategies that are indicated for communities with varying degrees of experience in responding to unplanned biomass burning smoke events.

  8. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf


    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....



    McKinley, R; Clark, J.; J. Lecker


    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-der...

  10. [Treatment of pain in children burns]. (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Pommier, C; Robert, A; Comparin, J P; Foyatier, J L


    Burn injury is considered by children as one of the most painful traumas (just after bone factures). Burn pain in children can and must be controlled as well as for adult patients, with almost identical techniques. Continuous pain from injury and intermittent pain caused by therapeutic procedures must be evaluated and treated separately. Due to very high levels of nociception, satisfactory management of procedural pain requires the use of opioid therapy. Non pharmacological methods are meaningless if pharmacological treatment is not optimal.

  11. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients]. (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel


    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu


    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  13. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...... as oil spill response method. The parameters studied were the initial slick thickness of the oil, the vaporization order of burning crude oil, the ignition of fresh and weathered crude oils on water, the influence of the burning area, the effect of the water layer below the burning oil and the use...

  14. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane


    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  15. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2

  16. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel


    Arnon D. Cohen; R. Gurfinkel; R. Glezinger; Y. Kriger; N. Yancolevich; L. Rosenberg


    Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0%) had burns involving less than 20% of the body surfac...

  17. A Burn Injury Due To 800 Degrees Molten Aluminum


    TUNCEL, Umut


    Molten metal burn cases are preventable injuries. The burns are common among foundry workers. Our case was reported of a foundry worker who suffered from molten metal burn injury. The patient have received a foot injury especially on his dorsolateral foot. The burn wound was second degree and has been recovered only daily wound care in 4 weeks. We suggested that the molten metal burn injury could easily have been prevented by the use of protective footwear.

  18. Burning in Outer Space: Microgravity (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard; Aldushin, Anatoly


    A better understanding of combustion can lead to significant technological advances, such as less polluting, more fuel-efficient vehicles. Unfortunately, gravity can interfere with the study of combustion. Gravity drags down gases that are cooler- and, therefore, denser-than heated gases. This movement mixes the fuel and the oxidizer substance that promotes burning. Because of this mixing, an observer cannot necessarily distinguish what is happening as a result of the natural combustion process and what is caused, by the pull of gravity. To remove this uncertainty, scientists can conduct experiments that simulate the negation of gravity through freefall. This condition is known as a microgravity environment. A micro-gravity experiment may take place in a chamber that is dropped down a hole or from a high-speed drop tower. The experiment also be conducted in an airplane or a rocket during freefall in a parabolic flight path. This method provides less than a minute of microgravity at most. An experiment that requires the prolonged absence of gravity may necessitate the use of an orbiting spacecraft as a venue. However, access to an orbital laboratory is difficult to acquire. High-end computing centers such as the NCCS can provide a practical alternative to operating in microgravity. Scientists can model phenomena such as combustion without gravitys observational interference. The study of microgravity combustion produces important benefits beyond increased observational accuracy. Certain valuable materials that are produced through combustion can be formed with a more uniform crystal structure-and, therefore, improved structural quality-when the pull of gravity is removed. Furthermore, understanding how fires propagate in the absence of gravity can improve fire safety aboard spacecraft.

  19. The epidemology of burn injuries of children and the importance of modern burn centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Mohar


    Full Text Available Background: Burns represent the major percentage of injuries to children. Their incidence level, injury mechanisms and treatment often differ from the burn injuries of adults.Methods: From the medical records of the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre we gathered, analyzed and compared the burn injuries of children up to the age of 15 who were admitted to hospital in the year 2003 to those who were treated as outpatients. Moreover, we compared the burn injuries of hospitalized children at the same department in the years 2003, 1993 and 1983 respectively. We compared their gender, age, the total body surface area of burns, the depth of burns, frequency of the mechanisms of injury, the affected parts of the body and the length and mode of treatment. Finally, we compared our results with the results of similar studies from other burn centres.Results: The number of children treated for burns at the department has declined. In all the years studied, the injured children were younger than 5 and the majority of them were boys. The number of children admitted with substantial total body surface areas of burns was also declining. However, there was an increase in the number of children admitted with burns less than 10 % of their total body surface area. The number of burns treated by surgery slightly increased over the years studied. There was a similar sex and age distribution among the hospitalized children and those treated as outpatients.Conclusions: The number of children hospitalized with burns is in decline. In the years 1983, 1993 and 2003, there was no significant difference in the percentage of children who were treated surgically and those who were treated conservatively (P = 0.247. The Burn Centre at the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre which together with the Burn Department of the Maribor General Hospital covers the population of two million

  20. Epidemiology and outcome of burns: early experience at the country's first national burns centre. (United States)

    Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid


    This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of burn injuries in the country's first national burn centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at Burns Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all burn injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major burns, high voltage electric burns and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor burns were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining burn injury, type and extent (total body surface area (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of burn and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of burns (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest burns (42.48%), followed by flame burns (39%) and electrical burns (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the burns were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the burns were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder

  1. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions. (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung


    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  2. Burn-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric burn patients: Time distribution of etiologic agents. (United States)

    Devrim, İlker; Kara, Ahu; Düzgöl, Mine; Karkıner, Aytaç; Bayram, Nuri; Temir, Günyüz; Şencan, Arzu; Sorguç, Yelda; Gülfidan, Gamze; Hoşgör, Münevver


    Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with burns in burn units. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with burns may result from burn wound infection, use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters, and translocation of the gastrointestinal flora. In this study, we investigated the distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance of causative pathogens in children with burns and the durational changes of microorganisms in the distribution of BSIs in children. This study was conducted at the Pediatric Burn Unit (PBU) of Dr. Behçet Uz Children Research and Training Hospital during the period of November 2008-April 2015. The study subjects were all the patients admitted to the PBU, in whom microorganisms were isolated at least from one of the cultures, including blood and catheter cultures. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common causative agents of BSI in patients with burns (66.4%), followed by gram-negative bacteria (22.1%) and fungi (11.5%). The median duration of development of BSIs caused by gram-positive bacteria from the time of burn was 5 days (ranging from 2 to 54 days of burn), which was significantly shorter than that of BSIs caused by gram-negative bacteria (12 days) and fungal pathogens (13 days). The etiologic agents of BSIs in children may differ from those in adults. Gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria such as multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were important agents of BSI in patients with burns, especially in the long term; however, gram-positive bacteria should also be considered while deciding the antimicrobial therapy, especially in the early periods of burn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Burns in a major burns center in East China from 2005 to 2014: Incidence and outcome. (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoming; Ma, Bing; Zeng, Ding; Fang, Xiao; Li, Haihang; Xiao, Shichu; Wang, Guangyi; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan


    Information about epidemiology on burns is rare in China. The aim of this article is to describe the pattern of burns in East China during a 10-year time period. A retrospective data analysis was performed on all hospitalized patients to the burn center at the Changhai hospital, one of major burn centers in East China, from 2005 to 2014. We included 3376 patients in this study. Among them, 48.1% were from 27 provinces out of Shanghai and nearly 90% were from East China. August saw the most admissions and November saw the fewest. Spring and summer separately dominated in number of female and male patients. Children aged 2-5 and working-age adult were the most commonly treated. Home was the commonest place of injury, followed by industrial-related places, outdoors, public buildings, and vehicles or roads. Scalds remained the primary reason, followed by fire, contact burns, electricity, and chemicals. The average %TBSA of male patients was 14.2±21.3, significantly different from that of female patients (10.4±16.9). Extremities were the most vulnerable body region burned, followed by the trunk, face and hands. The average hospital length of stay in male patients was 25.4±72.4 days, significantly different from that of females' 19.9±27.6 days. The total mortality was 1.8% and the lethal area burned resulting in 50% mortality was 96.5% TBSA. Compared with published data, these result are encouraging, which demonstrate that burn care and treatment has made significant progress. Burn clinicians should bear not only the responsibility to treat and cure burns, but also the popularization of knowledge about burn precautions and emergency treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick


    Full Text Available Objective: Normal iron handling appears to be disrupted in critically ill patients leading to hypoferremia that may contribute to systemic inflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp, an acute phase reactant protein that can convert ferrous iron to its less reactive ferric form facilitating binding to ferritin, has ferroxidase activity that is important to iron handling. Genetic absence of Cp decreases iron export resulting in iron accumulation in many organs. The objective of this study was to characterize iron metabolism and Cp activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients to determine if changes in Cp activity are a potential contributor to the observed hypoferremia. Material and Methods: Under Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board approved protocols, serum or plasma was collected from burn and non-burn trauma patients on admission to the ICU and at times up to 14 days and measured for indices of iron status, Cp protein and oxidase activity and cytokines. Results: Burn patients showed evidence of anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission and increased to control levels by day 3, particularly in burn patients. Plasma cytokines were elevated throughout the 14 days study along with evidence of an oxidative stress. No significant differences in soluble transferrin receptor were noted among groups on admission, but levels in burn patients were lower than controls for the first 5 days after injury. Conclusion: This study further established the hypoferremia and inflammation associated with burns and trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an early decrease in Cp oxidase activity in burn and non-burn trauma patients. The results support the hypothesis that transient loss of Cp activity contributes to hypoferremia and inflammation. Further studies are warranted to determine if decreased Cp activity increases the risk of

  5. Dressings for superficial and partial thickness burns. (United States)

    Wasiak, Jason; Cleland, Heather; Campbell, Fiona; Spinks, Anneliese


    An acute burn wound is a complex and evolving injury. Extensive burns produce systemic consequences, in addition to local tissue damage. Treatment of partial thickness burn wounds is directed towards promoting healing and a wide variety of dressings are currently available. Improvements in technology and advances in understanding of wound healing have driven the development of new dressings. Dressing selection should be based on their effects on healing, but ease of application and removal, dressing change requirements, cost and patient comfort should also be considered. To assess the effects of burn wound dressings on superficial and partial thickness burns. For this first update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 8 November 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10); Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to October Week 4 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, November 07, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2012 Week 44); AND EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 2 November 2012). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of burn wound dressings on the healing of superficial and partial thickness burns. Two authors extracted the data independently using standardised forms. We assessed each trial for internal validity and resolved differences by discussion. A total of 30 RCTs are included in this review. Overall both the quality of trial reporting and trial conduct were generally poor and meta analysis was largely precluded due to study heterogeneity or poor data reporting. In the context of this poor quality evidence, silver sulphadiazine (SSD) was consistently associated with poorer healing outcomes than biosynthetic (skin substitute) dressings, silver-containing dressings and silicon-coated dressings. Burns treated with hydrogel dressings appear to heal more quickly than those treated with usual care. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence regarding the

  6. Is there a threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury?


    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R.; Amini-Nik, Saeid


    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an eld...

  7. Beyond pediatric burns : a family perspective on the psychological consequences of burns in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407714081


    In this dissertation, we focused on the psychological consequences of pediatric burns on children and parents, relationships within the family (parent-child, mother-father subsystems), and potential benefits from burn camp participation. Results of a literature review study showed that many children

  8. How disabling are pediatric burns? Functional independence in Dutch pediatric patients with burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by

  9. A review of burn care at an emerging centralised burns unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lightning. Burn size and anatomical areas involved. The distribution of injuries according to anatomical area is summarised in Table II. Fig. 3 shows the relationship between percentage TBSA burnt and mortality rate. .... keeping home and public water heater temperatures to 55oC may go a long way in reducing burn ...

  10. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults. (United States)

    Peck, Michael D


    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.


    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  12. Cold burn injuries in the UK: the 11-year experience of a tertiary burns centre. (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; Vickers, Tobias; Segaren, Nicholas; Barnes, David; Dziewulski, Peter


    Guidance for the management of thermal injuries has evolved with improved understanding of burn pathophysiology. Guidance for the management of cold burn injuries is not widely available. The management of these burns differs from the standard management of thermal injuries. This study aimed to review the etiology and management of all cold burns presenting to a large regional burn centre in the UK and to provide a simplified management pathway for cold burns. An 11-year retrospective  analysis (1 January 2003-31 December 2014)  of all cold injuries presenting to a regional burns centre in the UK was conducted. Patient case notes were reviewed for injury mechanism, first aid administered, treatment outcomes and time to healing. An anonymized nationwide survey on aspects of management of cold burns was disseminated between 13 July 2015-5 October 2015 to British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS) and Plastic Surgery Trainees Association (PLASTA) members in the UK. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were performed to identify relevant literature to provide evidence for a management pathway for cold burn injuries. Twenty-three patients were identified. Age range was 8 months-69 years. Total body surface area (TBSA) burn ranged from 0.25 to 5 %. Twenty cases involved peripheral limbs. Seventeen (73.9 %)cases were accidental, with the remaining six (26.1 %) cases being deliberate self-inflicted injuries. Only eight patients received first aid. All except one patient were managed conservatively. One case required skin graft application due to delayed healing. We received 52 responses from a total of 200 questionaires. Ninety percent of responders think clearer guidelines should exist. We present a simplified management pathway based on evidence identified in our literature search. Cold burns are uncommon in comparison to other types of burn injuries. In the UK, a disproportionate number of cold

  13. The Parameters Controlling the Burning Efficiency of In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde


    Parameters that control the burning efficiency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water were identified by studying the influence of the initial slick thickness, vaporization order, oil slick diameter, weathering state of the oil, heat losses to the water layer and heat flux to the fuel surface...... on the burning efficiency for light and heavy crude oils. These parameters were studied in several small scale and intermediate scale experimental setups. The results showed that the heat losses to the water layer increase with increasing burning time because the components in a crude oil evaporate from volatile...... oil. It can be concluded that the pool fire diameter is the key parameter that determines the burning efficiency of crude oil fires on water, which was partially attributed to the increasing heat flux (in kW/m2) to the fuel surface with increasing diameter. Increasing the heat flux to the fuel surface...

  14. A New Metric for Quantifying Burn Severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Parks


    Full Text Available Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat. There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR and its relativized form (RdNBR, is most suitable for quantifying burn severity; each has its critics. In this study, we propose and evaluate a new Landsat-based burn severity metric, the relativized burn ratio (RBR, that provides an alternative to dNBR and RdNBR. For 18 fires in the western US, we compared the performance of RBR to both dNBR and RdNBR by evaluating the agreement of these metrics with field-based burn severity measurements. Specifically, we evaluated (1 the correspondence between each metric and a continuous measure of burn severity (the composite burn index and (2 the overall accuracy of each metric when classifying into discrete burn severity classes (i.e., unchanged, low, moderate, and high. Results indicate that RBR corresponds better to field-based measurements (average R2 among 18 fires = 0.786 than both dNBR (R2 = 0.761 and RdNBR (R2 = 0.766. Furthermore, the overall classification accuracy achieved with RBR (average among 18 fires = 70.5% was higher than both dNBR (68.4% and RdNBR (69.2%. Consequently, we recommend RBR as a robust alternative to both dNBR and RdNBR for measuring and classifying burn severity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabathula Durga Prasad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND With the advances in technology, electrical injuries are becoming more common and are the leading cause of work-related traumatic death. One third of all electrical traumas and most high-voltage injuries are job related and more than 50% of these injuries result from power line contact. The management of the major burn injury represents a significant challenge to every member of the burns team. Most of electrical burns present with gangrene of toes and limbs with eschar over body parts. Their presentation is mostly due to contact with high-voltage electricity at their work places. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was made to study the clinico-social profile of patients suffering electric burns admitted into Department of General Surgery. RESULTS 92 cases were evaluated and studied. Majority of patients developed gangrene of limbs and toes. Amputations and skin grafting was done. Most patients who suffered electric burns were males of age group 21 to 40 years. All cases are accidental and mostly occurred at work places. Most electric burns are high-voltage based and caused deep burns. Major complications like acute renal failure and septicaemia were encountered. Most of them suffered 16 to 30% burns. Most commonly isolated organism from wounds is pseudomonas. Most of them suffered a hospital stay of 1 to 2 months. CONCLUSION Electric burns are a burden to the society. Prevention is the best way to deal with them. Electricity-based employees have to be trained properly regarding safety measures to be taken. General education of public regarding safety measures can prevent electrical burn injuries.

  16. Improved Survival of Patients With Extensive Burns: Trends in Patient Characteristics and Mortality Among Burn Patients in a Tertiary Care Burn Facility, 2004-2013. (United States)

    Strassle, Paula D; Williams, Felicia N; Napravnik, Sonia; van Duin, David; Weber, David J; Charles, Anthony; Cairns, Bruce A; Jones, Samuel W

    Classic determinants of burn mortality are age, burn size, and the presence of inhalation injury. Our objective was to describe temporal trends in patient and burn characteristics, inpatient mortality, and the relationship between these characteristics and inpatient mortality over time. All patients aged 18 years or older and admitted with burn injury, including inhalation injury only, between 2004 and 2013 were included. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relationship between admit year and inpatient mortality. A total of 5540 patients were admitted between 2004 and 2013. Significant differences in sex, race/ethnicity, burn mechanisms, TBSA, inhalation injury, and inpatient mortality were observed across calendar years. Patients admitted between 2011 and 2013 were more likely to be women, non-Hispanic Caucasian, with smaller burn size, and less likely to have an inhalation injury, in comparison with patients admitted from 2004 to 2010. After controlling for patient demographics, burn mechanisms, and differential lengths of stay, no calendar year trends in inpatient mortality were detected. However, a significant decrease in inpatient mortality was observed among patients with extensive burns (≥75% TBSA) in more recent calendar years. This large, tertiary care referral burn center has maintained low inpatient mortality rates among burn patients over the past 10 years. While observed decreases in mortality during this time are largely due to changes in patient and burn characteristics, survival among patients with extensive burns has improved.

  17. Paediatric burn injuries in Sub Saharan Africa--an overview. (United States)

    Albertyn, R; Bickler, S W; Rode, H


    Paediatric burn injuries in Sub Saharan Africa are common and often lead to devastating consequences. Unfortunately relevant and accurate data regarding these injuries is sketchy and incomplete. This paper reviews the available information on the epidemiology of paediatric burns in Africa, associated health problems and contributing environmental factors responsible for these burns. The current status of burn care, the lack of infrastructure, and traditional methods of treatment, further contribute to the unsatisfactory status of overall burn management, prevention, and rehabilitation of burn survivors. A strategy for improving burn care in Africa has been formulated. The management of childhood burns will only be successful if educational, social, fiscal and infrastructure standards are improved. Traditional beliefs and methods cannot be discarded as they play an important role in the management of these children. It is furthermore essential that local and central government organisations support these initiatives. Clearly, the children of Africa deserve better burn care.

  18. Acute burns of the hands - physiotherapy perspective. (United States)

    Dunpath, Tanuja; Chetty, Verusia; Van Der Reyden, Dain


    Acute burns of the hands are complex and may impact on various aspects of a person's life. Physiotherapy rehabilitation and restoration of hand function is critical for the patient's independence and re-integration into society. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of physiotherapists in the management of patients with their hand burn injuries. Five focus groups consisting of physiotherapists and physiotherapy assistants working with burn injured patients from each of the five selected public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal were recruited. An explorative qualitative approach was adopted. Physiotherapists emphasised that the acute management of the hand was trivialised due to a primary focus on the survival of the burn sufferer. Therapists identified several factors that determined the patients' level of participation and motivation in therapy one of which was the procedural pain experienced. The role of the therapists' within the rehabilitation framework was found to be critical to their recovery however there appeared to be a breakdown in the collaboration and communication among health care professionals to the detriment of effective intervention. A multidisciplinary team approach is the foundation in the management of acute burn injuries and during the trajectory of the trauma care continuum.

  19. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients (United States)

    Namdar, Thomas; Siemers, Frank; Stollwerck, Peter L.; Stang, Felix H.; Mailänder, Peter; Lange, Thomas


    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA) >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A) or with (Group B) hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046). Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance. PMID:20577644

  20. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas


    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  1. Bilateral maculopathy following electrical burn: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dario Faustino

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Electrical burns are an important etiology in dealing with patients suffering from burns. In situations of extensive deep lesions of multiple organs and systems affecting young and economically active people, there is a need for expensive multidisciplinary treatment, with a high socioeconomic cost for the community. Among the permanent injuries that explain this high cost, eye injuries stand out, since they are widely disabling. Although rare, lesions of the posterior segment of the eye are associated with higher incidence of major sequelae, and thus deserve special attention for dissemination and discussion of the few cases observed.CASE REPORT: The authors report the case of a patient who suffered high-voltage electrical burns and presented bilateral maculopathy, which evolved with a need for a surgical approach to repair retinal detachment and permanent low visual acuity.CONCLUSION: This report highlights the rarity of the etiology of maculopathy and the need for campaigns for prevention not only of burns in general, but also especially of electrical burns.

  2. Effects of candidaemia on outcome of burns. (United States)

    Vinsonneau, C; Benyamina, M; Baixench, M T; Stephanazzi, J; Augris, C; Grabar, S; Paugam, A; Wassermann, D


    To evaluate the diversity and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates from wounds and blood of burn victims, and the associated mortality rates compared with those of controls without candidaemia. We performed a nested case-control study within a database of clinical data for all patients admitted to our burn unit from January 2001 to December 2005. Each candidaemic patient was compared with two matched controls. Bloodstream cultures were performed if the core temperature was >39 degrees C, and three sites were cultured weekly for fungal identification (burn wound, pharynx, urinary tract). At least one episode of candidaemia was diagnosed among 20 of 851 persons admitted during the study period. Isolates in bloodstream infection were Candida albicans (65%), C. parapsilosis (25%) and C. tropicalis (10%). The median time between admission and onset of candidaemia was greater with C. albicans infection (42.6+/-31 days) than with infection by other yeasts (18+/-12 days). Candidaemia was associated with more extensive burn and longer duration of hospital stay but with similar mortality, compared with controls. Candidaemia in burn cases is mostly due to fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans and is not associated with increased mortality.

  3. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari


    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  4. Management of electrical and chemical burns in children. (United States)

    Alemayehu, Hanna; Tarkowski, Amanda; Dehmer, Jeffrey J; Kays, David W; St Peter, Shawn D; Islam, Saleem


    Pediatric electrical and chemical burns are rare injuries, and the care of these patients varies significantly. We reviewed our experience in management of electrical and chemical burns to analyze the clinical course, management, and outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted on children with chemical and electrical burns presenting to two large regional pediatric burn centers over a 10-y period (2002-2012). Clinical data including patient demographics, nature of burns, management, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. There were 50 cases, 25 chemical and electrical burns each. Overall, the mean±standard deviation age was 6.2±5.6 y, and the mean total body surface area burn was 4.3±3.2%. Chemical burns were larger, had less depth, and shorter length of stay, whereas electrical burns were smaller, deeper, and had a longer length of stay. Two chemical burns and six electrical burns required grafting. Twelve percent of electrical burns required rehabilitation, and 20% required compression garments for hypertrophic scars. Six percent required late surgeries. Pediatric electric and chemical burns are rare and require specialized care. Graft rates are not high but are mostly noted in electrical burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology, etiology and outcomes of burn patients in a Referral Burn Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal


    Full Text Available Background: Burns and its complications are regarded as a major problem in the society. Skin injuries resulted from ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals as well as respiratory damage from smoke inhalation are considered burns. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and outcome of burn patients admitted to Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: Two hundred patients with second-degree burns admitted to Motahari Referral Center of Burn in Tehran, Iran. They were studied during a period of 12 months from May 2012 to May 2013. During the first week of treatment swabs were collected from the burn wounds after cleaning the site with sterile normal saline. Samples were inoculated in blood agar and McConkey agar, then incubation at 37 C for 48 hours. Identification was carried out according to standard conventional biochemical tests. Treatment continued up to epithelial formation and wound healing. Results of microbial culture for each patient was recorded. Healing time of the burn wounds in patients was recorded in log books. Chi-square test and SPSS Software v.19 (IBM, NY, USA were used for data analysis. Results: Our findings indicate that the most causes of burns are hot liquids in 57% of cases and flammable liquid in 21% of cases. The most cases of burns were found to be in the range of 21 to 30 percent with 17.5% and 7% in male and female respectively. Gram-negative bacteria were dominated in 85.7% and among them pseudomonas spp. with 37.5% were the most common cause of infected burns, followed by Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the most cause of burns in both sex is hot liquid. Men were more expose to burn than women and this might be due to the fact that men are involved in more dangerous jobs than female. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism encountered in burn infection.

  6. Epidemiologic study of scald burns in victims in Tehran burn hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani


    Full Text Available Background: Damages caused by scald burns are common and can cause severe complications and death. The purpose of this study was to define risk groups and then methods of prevention and treatment is designed to fit. Methods: Data for this retrospective study of hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran from 2007-2011 were compiled. Data including age, sex, cause of burn, and degree of burn and ultimate fate of the victims were collected from scald burns. Burns caused by boiling water and hot food (Scald , in two age groups : 12 and under 12 years ( children and more than 12 years ( adults were compared in terms of statistics . Results: A total of 1150 patients consisting of males (57.9% and females (42.1% were studied. The most common age was 1 year old and 50% of patients were under 3 years of age. 87.9% burned with boiling water and 12.1% had experienced burns with hot food. Incentive to burn was 0.3% cross burning and 99.7% incident. A maximum number of burns in children 12 years and younger males (42.1% and a minimum number in men over 12 years (15.7% were observed. Mean percentage of burns was 11% in over 12 years group and 30.9% in 12 and under 12 years group. The average hospital stay was 11.4 days and the mortality rate was 4.8%. The final status of the patients was as fallows: full recovery 904 cases (78.6%, partial recovery 134 (11.7%, clearance with personal consent 41 (3.6%, death 55 (4.8% and 16 cases (3.1% were among other reasons. Conclusion: In general it can be said, scald burns incidence in individuals aged 12 and younger were more than the older ones and the mean of burns was lower in individuals with over 12 years old. There was a sexual preference for males under 12 years. Mortality rate in the two groups has not any statistically significant difference. There was no statistically significant association between sex and mortality rate. Some of our findings are depending on cultural, social and economic

  7. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy after a burn injury. (United States)

    van der Laan, L; Goris, R J


    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a disease that can appear after minor trauma or operation to an extremity. The injury may vary from a simple contusion to a fracture. The prevalence of burns as a cause of RSD, within a population of 829 patients with RSD, was studied retrospectively. Prospectively, we documented the medical history, signs and symptoms of all patients with RSD, seen by our department during the period from January 1984 to 31 December 1994. Four patients had developed RSD after a burn injury, resulting in a prevalence of 0.5 per cent. Though the clinical signs of early RSD are similar to those of a (thermal) burn, alertness to recognize inflammatory signs, in combination with the increase in complaints after exercise, is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of the complicating RSD.

  8. Brief cognitive interventions for burn pain. (United States)

    Haythronthwaite, J A; Lawrence, J W; Fauerbach, J A


    This study tested the efficacy of 2 brief cognitive interventions in supplementing regular medical treatment for pain during burn dressing change. Forty-two burn inpatients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: sensory focusing, music distraction, and usual care. Patients reported pain, pain relief satisfaction with pain control, and pain coping strategies. The sensory focusing group reported greater pain relief compared to the music distraction group and a reduction in remembered pain compared to the usual care group, although group differences were not observed on serial pain ratings. In addition, after controlling for burn size and relevant covariates, regression analyses indicated that catastrophizing predicted pain, memory for pain, and satisfaction with pain control. Refinement of the sensory focusing intervention is warranted to reduce catastrophic thinking and improve pain relief

  9. Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management. (United States)

    Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja


    Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.

  10. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)


    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  11. Microsurgical Reconstruction of the Burned Hand and Upper Extremity. (United States)

    De la Garza, Mauricio; Sauerbier, Michael; Günter, Germann; Cetrulo, Curtis L; Bueno, Reuben A; Russell, Robert C; Neumeister, Michael W


    Improvements in critical care and burn victim resuscitation have led to increased survival of burned patients. Initial resuscitation, early excision of burned tissues, prevention of burn wound sepsis, and wound coverage remain mainstays of care. Many burn wounds require complex reconstruction. This is particularly important in the hand. Coverage of tendons, ligaments, joints, vessels, nerves, and bones of the hand requires healthy vascularized tissue to maintain viability and function. Local flaps or regional flaps may be within the burn zone of injury. Refined microvascular free tissue transfer techniques offer free tissue transfer as a procedure that can be safely performed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Severe burns related to steam inhalation therapy]. (United States)

    Belmonte, J A; Domínguez-Sampedro, P; Pérez, E; Suelves, J M; Collado, J M


    Despite lack of proven effectiveness and its potential to cause severe burns, steam inhalation therapy (SIT) is still used as a treatment for benign respiratory conditions. To characterize cases of burns related to steam inhalation therapy (BRSIT) in order to formulate appropriate preventive criteria. A review was conducted on cases of BRSIT admitted to a Burns Unit between 2006 and 2012, analysing epidemiological data, clinical aspects, severity and course. A total of 530 patients were admitted; 375 (70%) with scalds, and 15 with BRSIT (2.8% of burns; 4% of scalds). SIT was indicated in most cases for mild upper airway infections. The median age of patients was 7 years (2.5m-14 y). The burned area (BA) was ≥10% in 60% of cases (max. BA 22%). Injuries involved trunk, genital area, and extremities; only in one case was the face affected. The mean hospital length-of-stay was 14 days (3-30 d). Five patients (33%) were admitted to the PICU, most of them (60%) younger than 3 years. Eight patients (53%) underwent surgical treatment (skin grafting). In a 12-year-old patient whooping cough was diagnosed in the Burns Unit, and a 2.5-year-old patient developed staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. No patient died. The final course was satisfactory in all patients. BRSIT can be severe and cause significant use of health resources. Professionals caring for children, particularly paediatricians, should seriously consider their prevention, avoiding treatments with SIT, and educating parents in order not to use it on their own. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne


    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  14. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor Malini


    Full Text Available Burn wound infection (BWI is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA (30-60%, full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC, hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI, in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly

  15. Effect of Topical Platelet-Rich Plasma on Burn Healing After Partial-Thickness Burn Injury. (United States)

    Ozcelik, Umit; Ekici, Yahya; Bircan, Huseyin Yuce; Aydogan, Cem; Turkoglu, Suna; Ozen, Ozlem; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet


    BACKGROUND To investigate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on tissue maturation and burn healing in an experimental partial-thickness burn injury model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 (platelet-rich plasma group) was exposed to burn injury and topical platelet-rich plasma was applied. Group 2 (control group) was exposed to burn injury only. Group 3 (blood donor group) was used as blood donors for platelet-rich plasma. The rats were killed on the seventh day after burn injury. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured and histopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the control group (P=.03). Histopathologically, there was significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration (P=.005) and there were no statistically significant differences between groups in fibroblast development, collagen production, vessel proliferations, or epithelization. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma seems to partially improve burn healing in this experimental burn injury model. As an initial conclusion, it appears that platelet-rich plasma can be used in humans, although further studies should be performed with this type of treatment.

  16. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory


    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  17. Hemodynamic Monitorization of the Burn Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Coşar


    Full Text Available Hemodynamic monitorization is the basic component of the medical care of the burn patients. It provides valuable information of the cardiopulmonary performance which is essential in the rapid diagnosis and treatment in the case of hemodynamic disturbance. The clinical importance of any monitorization parameter, associated risks – benefits, cost effectivity, and also assessment and management skills of the health care providers should be taken into consideration in the selection process of the monitorization method. This paper reviews the methods of the hemodynamic monitorization for the clinical care of the burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 11-20

  18. Managing a patient with burning mouth syndrome


    Cheung, Danny; Trudgill, Nigel


    A 64-year-old woman presented with an increasing frequency of symptoms of heartburn and retrosternal pain over the last few months, and a constant and intense burning pain affecting her tongue tip, mouth and lips for the past 5 years. She found consuming hot drinks exacerbated the burning oral pain and chewing gum seemed to alleviate some of her symptoms. She thought these oral sensations were caused by frequently licking her finger tips to separate prints in her work in publishing. She had b...

  19. Pediatric burns mortality risk factors in a developing country’s tertiary burns intensive care unit (United States)

    Agbenorku, Pius; Agbenorku, Manolo; Fiifi-Yankson, Papa Kwesi


    Aim: This study aimed at identifying risk factors related to pediatric burns mortality in a middle income country such as Ghana. Methods: The data for the three years retrospective study (May 2009 – April 2012) was obtained from the pediatric burn admissions records and patients’ folders of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery & Burns Unit (RPSBU), Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Data retrieved included: Demographic features, Total Burned Surface Area (TBSA) incurred; Aetiology of burns; Duration of the admission; Outcome of admission; Part of the body affected and Cost incurred. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the KNUST-SMS/KATH Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Information on 197 patients was completely retrieved for the study. Burns mortality rate for the study was identified to be 21.3% (N=42). The mean age of the 42 dead patients was 3.7±0.3 years, ranging from 0-13 years, while, males (54.8%, N= 23) outnumbered females (45.2%, N=19). The TBSA burned interquartile range was 48%. In terms of etiology of burns Scald (73.8%, N=31) was the commonest cause of injury. Mortality risk factors identified were Age 36% (P=0.028) and Inhalation injury (P=0.040). Conclusion: Age, scald, TBSA and Inhalation Injury were identified as pediatric burns mortality risk factors in a developing country such as Ghana’s RPSBU. These identified factors will serve as a guideline for plastic surgeons and other health professionals practicing in countries such as Ghana. PMID:23875121

  20. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study. (United States)

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid


    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (pBurn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (pburn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Descriptive epidemiological study of burn admissions to the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Agbenorku


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the trends in burn admissions, and aetiology, severity and mortality of patients admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital from May 2009 to April 2016 (7 years. Methods: Patients’ data used in this longitudinal and retrospective study were accessed from the records of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit. Processed data were depicted in tables and figures as appropriate. Univariate and multivariate analysis and Pearson’s rank correlation were used in comparing relevant groups. Data analysis was conducted using Excel version 2013 and SPSS version 17.0. Results: A total of 681 patients, with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1.0, were analysed. The average annual incidence was 97.28 with a progressive decline in incidence. Mortality rate was 24.2%. Majority of the patients were children less than 10 years (43.5% with scalds as the main aetiology in this group. Open flame was the major aetiology of burns (49.9%. Majority of the patients spent less than 10 days on admission (67.1%. Mean total body surface area was 30.54%. There was correlation between TBSA and disposition, total body surface area and aetiology and number of days in the Burns Intensive Care Unit, total body surface area and aetiology, and aetiology and number of days in the Burns Intensive Care Unit. Conclusions: Children below 10 years were the main victims. There was a shift from scald to open flame burns in this current study. Mean total body surface area and mortality rate have increased. There is urgent need for prevention campaign of flame burn and first aid education on intensive burns.

  2. Predictors of re-epithelialization in pediatric burn. (United States)

    Brown, Nadia J; Kimble, Roy M; Gramotnev, Galina; Rodger, Sylvia; Cuttle, Leila


    An important treatment goal for burn wounds is to promote early wound closure. This study identifies factors associated with delayed re-epithelialization following pediatric burn. Data were collected from August 2011 to August 2012, at a pediatric tertiary burn center. A total of 106 burn wounds were analyzed from 77 participants aged 4-12 years. Percentage of wound re-epithelialization at each dressing change was calculated using Visitrak™. Mixed effect regression analysis was performed to identify the demographic factors, wound and clinical characteristics associated with delayed re-epithelialization. Burn depth determined by laser Doppler imaging, ethnicity, pain scores, total body surface area (TBSA), mechanism of injury and days taken to present to the burn center were significant predictors of delayed re-epithelialization, accounting for 69% of variance. Flame burns delayed re-epithelialization by 39% compared to all other mechanisms (p = 0.003). When initial presentation to the burn center was on day 5, burns took an average of 42% longer to re-epithelialize, compared to those who presented on day 2 post burn (p Burn depth, mechanism of injury and TBSA are always considered when developing the treatment and surgical management plan for patients with burns. This study identifies other factors influencing re-epithelialization, which can be controlled by the treating team, such as effective pain management and rapid referral to a specialized burn center, to achieve optimal outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Jaggery: an avoidable cause of severe, deadly pediatric burns. (United States)

    Light, T D; Latenser, B A; Heinle, J A; Stolpen, M S; Quinn, K A; Ravindran, V; Chacko, J


    Jaggery is the non-industrial refinement of sugar cane into a sugar product. Sugar cane cultivation, harvest and refinement are central aspects of rural Indian life. We present a retrospective review of pediatric burns at a single institution in Southern India, drawing special attention to scald burns incurred when young children fall into the cauldron of boiling jaggery. Descriptive statistics comparing children burned by jaggery and children burned by other mechanisms were performed. Multivariable logistic regression including burn size and mechanism of burn (jaggery and non-jaggery) was performed to determine the increased risk of death when burned by jaggery. Children burned by jaggery immersions are older, more likely male, and have larger burns. They have longer hospital stays, more operations, and are more likely to die. When controlling for age, gender, size of burn, and mechanism, jaggery exposure was associated with a higher mortality. Jaggery burns are deadly, devastating burns which could be prevented. While jaggery and sugar cane production can lead to economic independence for rural Indian villages, the cost it exacts from burns and death to the youngest and most vulnerable children must be addressed and prevented.

  4. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Almostafa


    Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.

  5. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Special Needs Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video ... holiday season, be especially careful of kids and families in parking lots when backing in or pulling ...

  6. Reality Therapy as an Antidote to Burn-Out. (United States)

    Wubbolding, Robert E.; Kessler-Bolotin, Else


    Counselor burn-out is characterized by feelings of frustration, rigidity, omnipotence, and the like. Reality therapy uses systematic plans to increase love, worth, fun, and self-discipline to deal effectively with burn-out. (Author)

  7. Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moody, J.A.; Ebel, B.A.; Stoof, C.R.; Nyman, P.; Martin, D.A.; McKinley, R.


    Wildfire can affect soil hydraulic properties, often resulting in reduced infiltration. The magnitude of change in infiltration varies depending on the burn severity. Quantitative approaches to link burn severity with changes in infiltration are lacking. This study uses controlled laboratory

  8. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ... You Know? Over the past 10 years, a child visited the emergency room every 45 minutes because ...

  9. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.


    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  10. Raman Spectroscopy Studies of Normal and Burned Biological Tissue (United States)

    Zarnani, Faranak; Maass, David; Idris, Ahamed; Glosser, Robert


    Burn injuries are a significant medical problem, and need to be treated quickly and precisely. Burned skin needs to be removed early, within hours (less than 24 hrs) of injury, when the margins of the burn are still hard to define. Studies show that treating and excising burn wounds soon after the injury prevents the wound from becoming deeper, reduces the release of proinflammatory mediators, and reduces or prevents the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome. Also, removing burned skin prepares the affected region for skin grafting. Raman spectroscopy could be used as an objective diagnostic method that will assist burn surgeons in removing burned skin precisely. As a first step in developing a diagnostic tool, we present Raman spectroscopy information from normal and burned ex vivo rat skin, and a comparison of our findings. Raman spectroscopy is explored for its specificity and sensitivity.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of High-Temperature Hole Burning Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bommareddi, Rami


    .... Hole burning efficiency depends on the glass composition as well. We investigated persistent spectral hole burning studies in europium doped glasses such as sodium borates, silicates, borosilicates, germinates and tellurites...

  12. Acute and Perioperative Care of the Burn-Injured Patient (United States)

    Bittner, Edward A.; Shank, Erik; Woodson, Lee; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra


    Care of burn-injured patients requires knowledge of the pathophysiologic changes affecting virtually all organs from the onset of injury until wounds are healed. Massive airway and/or lung edema can occur rapidly and unpredictably after burn and/or inhalation injury. Hemodynamics in the early phase of severe burn injury are characterized by a reduction in cardiac output, increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Approximately 2–5 days after major burn injury, a hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic state develops. Electrical burns result in morbidity much higher than expected based on burn size alone. Formulae for fluid resuscitation should serve only as guideline; fluids should be titrated to physiologic end points. Burn injury is associated basal and procedural pain requiring higher than normal opioid and sedative doses. Operating room concerns for the burn-injured patient include airway abnormalities, impaired lung function, vascular access, deceptively large and rapid blood loss, hypothermia and altered pharmacology. PMID:25485468

  13. Protect the Ones You Love From Burns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from burns, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  14. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burn surgery is associated with significant blood loss and fluid shifts that cause rapid haemoglobin (Hb) changes during and after surgery. Understanding the relationship between intraoperative and postoperative (day 1) Hb changes may assist in avoiding postoperative anaemia and unnecessary ...

  15. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin


    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  16. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deepening of energy poverty in South. Africa. Energy poverty, i.e. the lack of access to modern energy, is a key driver of burn injury in South Africa (SA). Energy poverty is prevalent in dense low-income settlements in developing countries, including SA.[1-4] The dirty fuels that the energy-poor depend on are burnt in ...

  17. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesions, typically found on the thighs, are mainly due to the heat generated in central ... A 24‑year‑old boy with reddish brown pigmented and painful dry skin, with no blisters, on his left leg was reported [Figure 1]. Burning caused by the laptop ...

  18. 'I have seen Königsberg burning'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Thomas Schwarz


    It is December 1944 in East Prussia, and a German mother with the four youngest of her thirteen children is fleeing from the Red Army. Some thirty years later one of her sons talks about his memories, using the phrase: ‘I have seen Königsberg burning.’ – What a sentence. The city of Immanuel Kant...

  19. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest childhood burn mortality and hospitalisation rates are reported in the first 3 years of a ... Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. ... While paraffin stoves, wood, and cand les have been ...

  20. Robert Burns Woodward (1917-1979)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Robert Burns Woodward (1917-1979). Featured Scientist Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 130-130. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Resonance – Journal of ...

  1. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn surgery is associated with significant peri-operative haemoglobin. (Hb) changes. During surgery, blood loss mainly occurs owing to wound debridement and skin harvesting. However, administration of clear fluid, required to maintain intravascular volume status during anaesthesia and surgery, leads to haemodilution ...

  2. Managing a patient with burning mouth syndrome. (United States)

    Cheung, Danny; Trudgill, Nigel


    A 64-year-old woman presented with an increasing frequency of symptoms of heartburn and retrosternal pain over the last few months, and a constant and intense burning pain affecting her tongue tip, mouth and lips for the past 5 years. She found consuming hot drinks exacerbated the burning oral pain and chewing gum seemed to alleviate some of her symptoms. She thought these oral sensations were caused by frequently licking her finger tips to separate prints in her work in publishing. She had been previously diagnosed with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), and her heartburn symptoms had been controlled until recently with lansoprazole 15 mg daily. Her past medical history included irritable bowel syndrome and depression, for which she had been treated with mebeverine and paroxetine for a number of years. She was a non-smoker and did not consume alcohol. Clinical examination was unremarkable with no oral lesions on examination. Her routine laboratory tests, including autoimmune serology, haematinics and thyroid function tests were all within normal limits. She underwent a gastroscopy, which revealed moderate reflux oesophagitis, and following commencing omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, her heartburn resolved. However, her oral burning symptoms were not affected and a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) was made. Following explanation and reassurance concerning the cause of her BMS symptoms, she chose not to receive treatment for this but to access cognitive behavioural therapy in the future if her symptoms worsened.

  3. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy (United States)

    Fried, Jane


    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  4. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning. (United States)


    ... retained.) (5) Kings County APCD. (i) Rules 416.1 and 417.1, submitted on November 4, 1977. (6) Lake County... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.273 Open burning. (a) The following rules or portions of...) Amador County APCD. (i) Rules 308 and 312, submitted on April 21, 1976. (ii) Rule 304, submitted on...

  5. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan (United States)

    R. J. Yokelson; J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; T. Karl; S. Urbanski; E. Atlas; T. Campos; Y. Shinozuka; V. Kapustin; A. D. Clarke; A. Weinheimer; D. J. Knapp; D. D. Montzka; J. Holloway; P. Weibring; F. Flocke; W. Zheng; D. Toohey; P. O. Wennberg; C. Wiedinmyer; L. Mauldin; A. Fried; D. Richter; J. Walega; J. L. Jimenez; K. Adachi; P. R. Buseck; S. R. Hall; R. Shetter


    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/ US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle...

  6. Parents' perceived quality of pediatric burn care. (United States)

    Willebrand, Mimmie; Sjöberg, Folke; Huss, Fredrik; Sveen, Josefin


    To describe parents' perceived quality of pediatric burn care and evaluate factors associated with differences in perceived quality among parents. 62 parents of children with burns were recruited on a Swedish national basis 0.8 to 5.6years after the child's injury. Measures were an adaptation of the Quality of Care Indices - Parent questionnaire consisting of 8 subscales and one overall question, the Impact of Event Scale -Revised, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and Injury-specific fear-avoidance. Ratings of quality of care were high, especially regarding Staff Attitudes, Medical Treatment, and Caring Processes. Overall satisfaction rated from 1 to 10 was on average 9.1 (SD=1.2). Overall satisfaction and specific indices of Quality of care were not associated with burn severity, parent gender, or parent age. However, Quality of care was associated with current symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression, and parents of girls expressed being less satisfied with Participation. Parents' perceived quality of care is associated with psychological health, but not with characteristics of the child's injury or age. The results suggest that burn care can improve by involving parents of girls more and by being more attentive towards parents who themselves appear stressed or worried. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh


    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  8. Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns. (United States)

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick


    We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  10. Iatrogenic burns injury complicating neonatal resuscitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La blessure dans les membres inférieurs a une surface d'environ 4%. Cette communication souligne la mauvaise méthode traditionnelle de la réanimation chez des nouveau nés. Keywords: Asphyxia, Burns, Newborn, Perinatal care, Resuscitation, Traditional medical practice. West African Journal of Medicine Vol.

  11. Silica Derived from Burned Rice Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. de Souza


    Full Text Available Three new processes to obtain silica having high specific surface area from burned pre-treated rice hulls are presented and discussed. These procedures allow for the simultaneous recovery of biomass energy and the production of high quality silica at thermoelectric plants, without the risk of using corrosive substances in the burning process. The first method involves treatment of the hull with hot organic acid solutions before burning, the second with boiling water, both using an autoclave at temperatures close to150 °C, while the third method renders the hull fragile by treating it at 250 °C and reducing it to a fine powder before burning. The first two methods result in white amorphous silica that can show 500 m²/g of specific surface area. The third method, which does not remove the alkaline elements from the hull, produces an amorphous gray carbon-free powder whose specific surface area can be as high as 250 m²/g. An investigation of the specific surface area of the prepared silica indicates the alkaline elements are not mixed with silica in the hulls or combined as insoluble compounds. A comparison is made of these processes and the dissolution of silica by sodium hydroxide solutions is discussed.

  12. Electric field effects on droplet burning (United States)

    Patyal, Advitya; Kyritsis, Dimitrios; Matalon, Moshe


    The effects of an externally applied electric field are studied on the burning characteristics of a spherically symmetric fuel drop including the structure, mass burning rate and extinction characteristics of the diffusion flame. A reduced three-step chemical kinetic mechanism that reflects the chemi-ionization process for general hydrocarbon fuels has been proposed to capture the production and destruction of ions inside the flame zone. Due to the imposed symmetry, the effect of the ionic wind is simply to modify the pressure field. Our study thus focuses exclusively on the effects of Ohmic heating and kinetic effects on the burning process. Two distinguished limits of weak and strong field are identified, highlighting the relative strength of the internal charge barrier compared to the externally applied field, and numerically simulated. For both limits, significantly different charged species distributions are observed. An increase in the mass burning rate is noticed with increasing field in either limit with negligible change in the flame temperature. Increasing external voltages pushes the flame away from the droplet and causes a strengthening of the flame with a reduction in the extinction Damkhöler number.

  13. Burning sewage sludge in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrist, A.


    Full-scale industrial trial burning of sewage sludge in cement kilns in Switzerland is reported. Tests with dried sludge, kiln operation, chimney emissions, clinker and cement are discussed, and possibilities open to Swiss cement industry, and significance within the overall scope of waste disposal are outlined.

  14. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea


    Christmas, Richard


    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment...

  15. Burn Injuries in Children and the Use of Biological Dressings (United States)


    through the subcuta- neous tissue into underlying structures such as fascia, muscle, and bone are sometimes termed fourth-degree burns. BURN SURFACE...the drug of choice for bacterial burn wound infections. It has the disadvantages of pain on application, no antifungal TABLE 4. Dressings for...mesh structure that allows drainage of exudate from the burned surface Mepitel (Mölnlycke Health Care US) Biosynthetic skin substitutes Dressings

  16. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Erdoğan


    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  17. Accelerant-related burns and drug abuse: Challenging combination. (United States)

    Leung, Leslie T F; Papp, Anthony


    Accelerants are flammable substances that may cause explosion when added to existing fires. The relationships between drug abuse and accelerant-related burns are not well elucidated in the literature. Of these burns, a portion is related to drug manufacturing, which have been shown to be associated with increased burn complications. 1) To evaluate the demographics and clinical outcomes of accelerant-related burns in a Provincial Burn Centre. 2) To compare the clinical outcomes with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. 3) To analyze a subgroup of patients with history of drug abuse and drug manufacturing. Retrospective case control study. Patient data associated with accelerant-related burns from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the British Columbia Burn Registry. These patients were compared with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. Clinical outcomes that were evaluated include inhalational injury, ICU length of stay, ventilator support, surgeries needed, and burn complications. Chi-square test was used to evaluate categorical data and Student's t-test was used to evaluate mean quantitative data with the p value set at 0.05. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate factors affecting burn complications. Accelerant-related burns represented 28.2% of all burn admissions (N=532) from 2009 to 2014. The accelerant group had higher percentage of patients with history of drug abuse and was associated with higher TBSA burns, ventilator support, ICU stay and pneumonia rates compared to the non-accelerant group. Within the accelerant group, there was no difference in clinical outcomes amongst people with or without history of drug abuse. Four cases were associated with methamphetamine manufacturing, all of which underwent ICU stay and ventilator support. Accelerant-related burns cause significant burden to the burn center. A significant proportion of these patients have history of drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  18. CASE REPORT Playing Football Burns More Than Just Calories


    Wain, Richard A. J.; Shah, Syed H. A.


    Objective: To highlight the case of a sports-related alkali burn due to a common household chemical and emphasize the importance of a detailed medical history in chemical burns patients. Methods: A single-patient case study is presented along with references from existing literature. Results: Alkaline burn injuries associated with sports have previously been described in the literature; however, this case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a chemical burn with a readily available househo...

  19. Continental cement trial burn strategy follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. [Gossman Consulting, Inc., Springboro, OH (United States); Winders, H. [Continental Cement Company, Hannibal, MO (United States); Constans, D.L. [Gossman Consulting, Inc., Peachtree City, GA (United States)


    The Continental Trial Burn strategy, presented at the 1995 BIF Conference, included the use of {open_quotes}data-in-lieu-of{close_quotes} from previous compliance testing conducted at the facility. Since the submission of the Trial Burn Plan and the 1995 presentation, Continental Cement has completed their two campaign trial burn. This paper will update the implementation of the Continental Trial Burn strategy. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. An unusual burn caused by hot argy wormwood leaf water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo


    Full Text Available An unusual burn case caused by hot wormwood leaf water was discussed. A 29-year-old woman sustained a 7% second-degree burn on both buttocks and left thigh. This case report highlights a rare cause of a chemical burn that may become more common with increasing use of this Chinese traditional medicine. The prevention measures of this burn injury were also presented.

  1. Biomass burning contribution to Beijing aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cheng


    Full Text Available Biomass burning, the largest global source of elemental carbon (EC and primary organic carbon (OC, is strongly associated with many subjects of great scientific concern, such as secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon which exert important effects on the environment and on climate in particular. This study investigated the relationships between levoglucosan and other biomass burning tracers (i.e., water soluble potassium and mannosan based on both ambient samples collected in Beijing and source samples. Compared with North America and Europe, Beijing was characterized by high ambient levoglucosan concentrations and low winter to summer ratios of levoglucosan, indicating significant impact of biomass burning activities throughout the year in Beijing. Comparison of levoglucosan and water soluble potassium (K+ levels suggested that it was acceptable to use K+ as a biomass burning tracer during summer in Beijing, while the contribution of fireworks to K+ could be significant during winter. Moreover, the levoglucosan to K+ ratio was found to be lower during the typical summer period (0.21 ± 0.16 compared with the typical winter period (0.51 ± 0.15. Levoglucosan correlated strongly with mannosan (R2 = 0.97 throughout the winter and the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio averaged 9.49 ± 1.63, whereas levoglucosan and mannosan exhibited relatively weak correlation (R2 = 0.73 during the typical summer period when the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio averaged 12.65 ± 3.38. Results from positive matrix factorization (PMF model analysis showed that about 50% of the OC and EC in Beijing were associated with biomass burning processes. In addition, a new source identification method was developed based on the comparison of the levoglucosan to K+ ratio and the levoglucosan to mannosan ratio among different types of biomass. Using this method, the major source of biomass burning aerosol in Beijing was suggested to be the combustion of crop residuals, while the

  2. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Milton S [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  3. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning. (United States)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive


    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  4. Burns in mobile home fires--descriptive study at a regional burn center. (United States)

    Mullins, Robert F; Alarm, Badrul; Huq Mian, Mohammad Anwarul; Samples, Jancie M; Friedman, Bruce C; Shaver, Joseph R; Brandigi, Claus; Hassan, Zaheed


    Death from fires and burns are the sixth most common cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. More than (3/4) of burn deaths occurring in the United States are in the home. Mobile home fires carry twice the death rate as other dwellings. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of deaths and injuries in mobile home fire admitted in a regional Burn Center and to identify possible risk factors. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out among all burn patients admitted to a regional Burn Center between January 2002 and December 2004 (3469 patients). The study included patients who suffered a burn injury from a mobile home fire. The demographic characteristics of the patients, location of mobile home, associated inhalation injury, source of fire, comorbidity of the victims, employment status, insurance status, family history of burns, and outcomes of the treatment were incorporated in a data collection record. There were 65 burn patients in mobile home fires admitted to the Burn Center during the studied period. The average age of the patients was 39 years (ranging from 2 to 81 years, SD=16.06), 77% were male, 67% were white, and 79% were the residents in the suburban areas of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida. The average TBSA of burns was about 21% (ranging from 1 to 63%, SD=17.66), 63% of the patients had associated inhalation, three inhalation injury only, and 69% patients required ventilator support. The average length of stay per TBSA percentage of burn was 1.01 days (P=0.00), controlling for age, preexisting medical comorbidities, and inhalation injury. About 88% of the patients had preexisting medical comorbid conditions, 74% were smokers, 64% reported as alcoholic, and 72% had at least some form of health insurance coverage. In 40% of the cases, the cause of the fire was unknown, 31% were caused by accidental explosions, such as electric, gasoline, or kerosene appliances, and 29% were due to other

  5. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  6. Burns functional disabilities among burn survivors: a study in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. (United States)

    Agbenorku, Pius


    To determine the types of functional disabilities in adult and paediatric burns survivors, with specific emphasis on potential risk and socio-economic factors of burn disabilities present in Ghana. The descriptive study was carried out in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana from May 2011 to April 2012. Burn survivors who came for follow-up visits after been discharged home and had functional disability were the participants of the study. They were physically examined and interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire after their informed consent/or that of their parents (in the cases of paediatrics burns survivors) was sought. A total of 70 participants consented for the study. Their ages ranged from 8/12 - 78 years, with a mean age of 12±1.7 years. Majority (60.0%, N=42) of the participants had third degree burns. The nature of disabilities of participants were mostly scar contractures (42.9%, N=30) of which 36.7% (N=11) had impeded arm elevation; 23.3% (N=7) could not fold the palm or move the digits. From the multiple regression analysis risk factors for burn victim to have disability were paediatric age (OR=11.1, P=0.043), third degree of burn (OR=6.2, P=0.001) and anatomical part affected (OR=18.3, P=0.031). Socio-economic factors that affected burn disability victims were nuclear family compensation (OR=4.2, P=0.021), community mockery/stigmatization (OR=0.1, P=0.052) and caretakers time and finance (OR=5.2, P=0.033). The commonest functional disabilities recorded were scar contractions of the axilla region which had impeded the ability of the patients to lift the arm. Risk factors for burns disability included childhood age, third degree of burn incurred and anatomical part affected. Social factors influencing the lives of burn survivors with disability were good family and negative community interactions. Significant economical factors recorded were caretakers' time and financial constrains.

  7. Solar burn reactivation induced by methotrexate. (United States)

    DeVore, Kelli J


    Solar burn reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects areas of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and experienced a second-degree solar burn reactivation reaction to methotrexate. The patient had a mild sunburn on her face and shoulders the day she went to the oncology clinic for her interim maintenance chemotherapy with vincristine 1.5 mg/m(2)/dose and methotrexate 100 mg/m(2)/dose. Three days later, she returned to the clinic with a 2-day history of fever (dehydration, methotrexate toxicity, and second-degree solar burn reactivation reaction. She was admitted to the children's hospital and treated with sodium bicarbonate, acetaminophen with codeine, ondansetron, and silvadene cream. On hospital day 3, the patient's methotrexate level decreased to less than 0.1 mM. The sunburn continued to heal, and after a 14-day hospital stay, complicated by a streptococcal infection, grade 3 mucositis, bacteremia, and mild gastritis and duodenitis, the patient recovered and was discharged. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's solar burn reactivation and methotrexate. Although methotrexate-induced solar burn reactivation is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction and consider delaying administration of methotrexate by 5-7 days if a patient reports ultraviolet-related erythema in the past 2-4 days or presents with a notable sunburn.

  8. Symmetrically converging plane thermonuclear burn waves (United States)

    Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.


    Five variants of a one-dimensional problem on synchronous bilateral action of two identical drivers on opposite surfaces of a plane layer of DT fuel with the normal or five times greater initial density, where the solution includes two thermonuclear burn waves propagating to meet one another at the symmetry plane, are simulated. A laser pulse with total absorption of energy at the critical density (in two variants) and a proton bunch that provides for a nearly isochoric heating (in three variants) are considered as drivers. A wide-range equation of state for the fuel, electron and ion heat conduction, self-radiation of plasma and plasma heating by α-particles are taken into account. In spite of different ways of ignition, various models of α-particle heat, whether the burn wave remains slow or transforms into the detonation wave, and regardless of way of such a transformation, the final value of the burn-up factor depends essentially on the only parameter Hρ0, where H is the half-thickness of the layer and ρ0 is the initial fuel density. This factor is about 0.35 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 0.7 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. The expansion stage of the flow (after reflecting the burn or detonation wave from the symmetry plane) gives the main contribution in forming the final values of the burn-up factor and the gain at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and increases them approximately two times at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the proton driver, the final value of the gain is about 200 at Hρ0 ≈ 1 g cm-2 and about 2000 at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g cm-2. In the case of the laser driver, the above values are four times less in conformity with the difference between the driver energies.

  9. Burn Scar Biomechanics Following Pressure Garment Therapy (United States)

    Kim, Jayne Y.; Willard, James J.; Supp, Dorothy M.; Roy, Sashwati; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Sen, Chandan K.; Powell, Heather M.


    Background The current standard of care for the prevention and treatment of scarring following burn injury is pressure garment therapy (PGT). Although this therapy has been used clinically for many years, controversy remains regarding its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PGT in a female Red Duroc pig (fRDP) burn model where wound depth could be tightly controlled. Methods Full-thickness burn wounds were generated on fRDPs. At day 28 post-burn, PGT was applied to half of the wounds (10 mmHg), with control wounds covered with garments exerting no compression. Scar area, perfusion, hardness, and elasticity were quantified at days 0, 28, 42, 56, and 72 using computerized planimetry, Laser Doppler and torsional ballistometry. Scar morphology was assessed at days 28, 56 and 76 using histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results Pressure garment therapy significantly hindered scar contraction with control scars contracting to 64.6 + 13.9% original area at day 72 while PGT scars contracted to 82.7 + 17.9% original area. PGT significantly reduced skin hardness and increased skin strength by 1.3X. No difference in perfusion or blood vessel density was observed. Average collagen fiber diameter was greater in control burns than PGT. Conclusions PGT was effective at reducing scar contraction and improving biomechanics compared to control scars. These results confirm the efficacy of pressure garments and highlight the need to further investigate the role of pressure magnitude and time of therapy application to enhance their efficacy for optimal biomechanics and patient mobility. PMID:25989300

  10. Should pyogenic granulomas following burns be excised? (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing


    Patients with pygenic granuloma following burns (PGB) presents dramatic clinical features which are different from those with classic pyogenic granuloma. This review aims to discuss whether pyogenic granuloma following burns (PGB) need excision or not. Using the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and web of science databases. All articles which discussed diagnosis and treatment of pyogenic granuloma following burns with histological results were included from 1978 to 2013. Reports from meetings were not included. Only articles published in English were included. Twenty one articles excluded from a total of 32 studies. One study was excluded from the 11 descriptive studies because of typical histological results. The rest, 10 studies were case reports. Only one article was published in French, whose abstract was published in French and English. Patients with PGB presented six distinctive clinical features. First, all the patients had burns initially. The second, PGB acutely erupted between 1 and 4 weeks in patients' burned area, which may be infected by bacteria, fungus and virus. The fourth, PGB can be classified into proliferative and shrivelling stages. The fifth, three hisiological characteristics including hyperkeratosis or acanthosis, numerous newly formed proliferative vascular, edematous stroma with infiltration by plasma cells and lymphocytes. Finally, recurrence, 6 out of 16 patients with PGB involuted spontaneously with no recurrence. Three out of 16 patients were conservatively managed with no recurrence, neither patients (5) who had surgery and 2 patients treated with electro coagulation had recurrence. PGB lesions are benign based on clinical features and histological examinations. The clinical process of PGB could be divided into proliferative and shrivelling stages. Conservative treatment including wound management and antibiotic could be chosen firstly, especially when large PGBs are on the face or other important area of one's body. When conservative

  11. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J.


    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  12. [Burn shock, diagnostics, monitoring and fluid therapy of severe burns--new look]. (United States)

    Drozdz, Łukasz; Madry, Ryszard; Struzyna, Jerzy


    Pathomechanism of burn shock is associated with an important endocrine disorder and cytokines storm. As a result of the burns are released to bloodstream kinins such as: histamine, serotonin and bradykinin and also inflammatory mediators such as: tromboxans, prostacyclins, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Arises temporary endothelial failure. Comes to the escape of liquid blood to the tissues and a sudden decrease in the quantity of the fluid in the vessels and appear symptoms of burn shock. Offset of fluids by vascular wall to the extravascular space described mathematically with Landis-Starling law. Treatment of burn shock relies on intensive fluid therapy to fill vessels. Fluid rules are based on infusion crystalloids, colloids, hypersaline or plasma. Effect of fluid resuscitation after severe burn are edemas of whole body. Severe burn receives up to 25 000 ml of fluids intravenous in the first 48 hours after injury. The quantity of water defaulting tissue after 48 hours is even 13 000-18 500 ml which is 300-400% of the volume of blood flow. From 3rd day after burn this may produce symptoms of acute circulatory insufficiency or polycompartment syndrom. Enforces this restrictive fluid treatment and removing significant quantities of water from the bloodstream. In East Poland Burn Center and Reconstructive Surgery we remove even 300-350 ml fluid/h by ultrafiltration during CVVHD CiCa. Additional application hemodynamic monitoring such Vigileo-Flotrac has considerably reduce the amount of complications such as: intra-abdominal hypertension IAH, acute heart syndrome, cerebral edema and pulmonary edema.

  13. Yeast from burn patients at a major burn centre of China. (United States)

    Luo, Gaoxing; Peng, Yizhi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Wenguang; Wu, Jun; Fitzgerald, Mark


    This study presents fungi and their characteristics identified from burn patients at a major Chinese burn centre. All burns patients admitted to our Burn Research Institute from 2003 to 2006 inclusive were included in this study. Once fungal infection was suspected clinically, samples including wound tissue, blood, urine, stool and sputum were harvested for the culture of yeast. The sensitivities of the identified yeast were determined and the positive samples and cases were analysed. Out of a total of 3909 cases, 467 patients were clinically suspected of fungal infection, of which 1970 samples were taken for yeast culture. A total of 38 samples and 36 patients tested positive. The three most positive samples were urine, blood and catheter. Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common yeast type (42.1%), followed by Candida albicans (31.6%), Candida famata (T. Famata) (10.5%) and Candida glabrata (T. Glabrata) (7.9%). Except for C. galbrata, most of the yeast strains found in the study were sensitive to the routine antimycotic agents. There were eight deaths in the 36 positive patients. As much as 83.3% of the positive cases suffered burns of more than 50% total body surface area (TBSA) and half of the positive cases were greater than 80% TBSA. A total of 78.95% of the positive samples were taken from patients after 2 weeks post-burn injury. A profile of the fungi isolated from burn patients in a major Chinese burn centre is presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting and managing sepsis in burn patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunez Lopez O


    Full Text Available Omar Nunez Lopez,1,2 Janos Cambiaso-Daniel,1–3 Ludwik K Branski,1,2 William B Norbury,1,2 David N Herndon1,2,4 1Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, 2Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, TX, USA; 3Division of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA Abstract: Modern burn care has led to unprecedented survival rates in burn patients whose injuries were fatal a few decades ago. Along with improved survival, new challenges have emerged in the management of burn patients. Infections top the list of the most common complication after burns, and sepsis is the leading cause of death in both adult and pediatric burn patients. The diagnosis and management of sepsis in burns is complex as a tremendous hypermetabolic response secondary to burn injury can be superimposed on systemic infection, leading to organ dysfunction. The management of a septic burn patient represents a challenging scenario that is commonly encountered by providers caring for burn patients despite preventive efforts. Here, we discuss the current perspectives in the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis and septic shock in burn patients. Keywords: burn injury, thermal injury, burn sepsis, procalcitonin, antibiotics, biomarkers, cytokines

  15. Surgical management and hypermetabolic modulation of pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret Nerín, Juan Pedro


    The purpose of the present thesis is to test the hypothesis that immediate burn wound excision of massive pediatric burns is safe and efficacious, presenting with negligible postoperative complications and with salutary effects on the inflammatory and catabolic response after burn injury.

  16. The hospital costs associated with acute paediatric burn injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimal, holistic care to patients with burns and complex wounds, it requires dedicated, multidisciplinary specialist personnel and well-equipped facilities. To date, no studies have been undertaken to investigate the true cost of managing paediatric burn injuries and their sequelae in South Africa (SA). Managing a major burn ...

  17. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim To determine the etiology and outcome of pediatric burns (0-12 years). Design A retrospective study of burn victims hospitalized at the Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya from April 2004 to March 2007. Method Charts of all children hospitalized for burn injury were reviewed for patient demographics, ...

  18. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical/female burn ward were eligible. On average the ward admits 680 patients a year out of which 170 pa- tients (25.7 %) are due to pediatric burns. The Hospital attracts patients mostly from low socioeconomic status. Pediatric Burns at The Rift Valley. Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru,. Kenya. Author: Oduor P.R. ...

  19. The psychosocial impact of burns and multiple reconstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pediatric burn injuries with devastating consequences are common in sub Saharan Africa; however few studies in the sub region have addressed the psychosocial problems in burn survivors. Against a backdrop of limitations in the armamentarium of the burn surgeon and the resources of the patient we ...

  20. Introducing banked allograft skin to burn surgery in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Edendale Hospital Burn Service, Pietermaritzburg; and Department of Surgery, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences,. Nelson R Mandela ... Ann. Burns Fire Disasters 2011;24(1):7-8. 2. Rogers AD, Price CE, Wallis L, Rode H. Towards a national burns disaster plan. S Afr J Surg 2012;49(4):174-177. 3.

  1. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.T.; van der Werf, G.R.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Detmers, R.G.; Ruecker, G.; French, N.H.F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho Jr., J.A.; Cook, G.D.; de Groot, J.W.; Hely, C.; Kasischke, E.S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J.L.; Pettinari, M.L.; Savadogo, P.


    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions.

  2. Plasticized polyvinylchloride as a temporary dressing for burns.


    Wilson, G.; French, G


    Plasticized polyvinylchloride film has been used in this burns unit for a long time for dressings before the ward round, before surgery, and when the burned patient is transferred from the casualty department to the burns unit. Plasticized polyvinylchloride film is easy to use, safe, and causes no pain. Most importantly, in the present financial climate, it is cheap.

  3. New Scientific Aspects of the "Burning Candle" Experiment (United States)

    Massalha, Taha


    The "burning candle" experiment is used in middle school education programs to prove that air contains a component that is essential to burning (i.e., oxygen). The accepted interpretation taught by teachers in middle school is this: when burning occurs, oxygen is used up, creating an underpressure that causes a rise in water level inside…

  4. Towards a national burns disaster plan | Rogers | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Burns Injuries (ISBI) has published guidelines for the management of multiple or mass burns casualties, and recommends that 'each country has or should have a disaster planning system that addresses its own particular needs. The need for a national burns disaster plan integrated with ...

  5. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Hospitalized Burn Patients in Gaza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUNG: Burns are serious health problems and leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study aimed to overview the epidemiological profile and to present outcomes among hospitalized burn patients in AL Alamy burn center in Gaza. METHODS: This was a ...

  6. The pattern of paediatric burn injuries in Southwestern, Saudi Arabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Burn injuries constitute a major concern in the paediatric age group with respect to morbidity and mortality particularly among children in developing countries. Burn injuries represent an extremely stressful experience for both the burn victims as well as their families. Objectives: To identify the pattern and ...

  7. The trend of acute burns pre-hospital management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Hamdiya


    Conclusions: Burn injuries are common in our settings, a more reason for all to know the immediate intervention to give to victims of such accidents. The kind of first aid administered to burns victims possibly affects the burns management outcome. Thus, the earlier the right intervention implemented, the lesser the complications.

  8. Epidemiology of burn injuries in Mekele Town, Northern Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Epidemiological study on burn injuries and exploration of the risk factors in different settings is important for effective intervention. Very little is known about burn injuries in Ethiopia. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the annual incidence of burn injuries and to describe the local knowledge about ...

  9. Epidermal-dermal crosstalk during burn wound scar maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Hakvoort (Eveline)


    textabstractBurn injuries arc among the worst traumas which can happen to man. The larger a burn injury, the more severe the consequences and the highcr the chance of an adverse outcome or even death. In The Netherlands each year 40,000 people visit a general practitioner for treatment of a burn

  10. A model of ponderosa pine growth response to prescribed burning (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; W. Wallace Covington; Steve Andariese


    Our objective was to model the radial growth response of individual ponderosa pines to prescribed burning in northern Arizona. We sampled 188 trees from two study areas, which were burned in 1976. Within each study area, control and burned trees were of similar age, vigor, height, and competition index. At Chimney Spring, trees were older, less vigorous, and taller and...

  11. Plasticized polyvinylchloride as a temporary dressing for burns. (United States)

    Wilson, G; French, G


    Plasticized polyvinylchloride film has been used in this burns unit for a long time for dressings before the ward round, before surgery, and when the burned patient is transferred from the casualty department to the burns unit. Plasticized polyvinylchloride film is easy to use, safe, and causes no pain. Most importantly, in the present financial climate, it is cheap. PMID:3103775

  12. The effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Soo; Jeon, Jong Hyun; Hong, Aram; Yang, Hyeong Tae; Yim, Haejun; Cho, Yong Suk; Kim, Do-Hern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chun, Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Seo, Cheong Hoon


    To evaluate the effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn. One hundred and forty-six burn patients with hypertrophic scar(s) were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. All patients received standard rehabilitation therapy for hypertrophic scars and 76 patients (massage group) additionally received burn scar rehabilitation massage therapy. Both before and after the treatment, we determined the scores of visual analog scale (VAS) and itching scale and assessed the scar characteristics of thickness, melanin, erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum, and elasticity by using ultrasonography, Mexameter(®), Tewameter(®), Sebumeter(®), and Cutometer(®), respectively. The scores of both VAS and itching scale decreased significantly in both groups, indicating a significant intragroup difference. With regard to the scar characteristics, the massage group showed a significant decrease after treatment in scar thickness, melanin, erythema, TEWL and a significant intergroup difference. In terms of scar elasticity, a significant intergroup difference was noted in immediate distension and gross skin elasticity, while the massage group significant improvement in skin distensibility, immediate distension, immediate retraction, and delayed distension. Our results suggest that burn rehabilitation massage therapy is effective in improving pain, pruritus, and scar characteristics in hypertrophic scars after burn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacteriological profile of burn wound isolates in a burns center of a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankwa Richcane


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of burn wound isolates. Methods: Swabs were taken from burn wound of patients admitted to Ward D2C and Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU from December 2014 to November 2015. Samples were processed at the Microbiology Laboratory for identification and sensitivity. Bacteria isolated were identified using their morphological characteristics, Gram staining reaction and biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using KirbyBauer disc diffusion method. Questionnaires were also administered to study participants to obtain information on demography, kind of first aid received, antibiotics received prior to culture and sensitivity. Results: A total of 86 patients comprising 45 patients from Ward D2C and 41 from BICU participated in the study. Males were 51(59.3% and females 35 (40.7%. Age of participants ranged from 0–56+ years. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen isolated 26(30.2%, followed by Pseudomonas spp. 21(24.4%, Escherichia coli 17(19.8%, Klebsiella spp. 12(14.0%. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus accounted for 2(2.3%. Overall prevalence of infection in the study was 90.7%. Conclusions: Burn wound infection continues to be a major challenge in burn centers. Regular surveillance of commonly identified pathogens in the ward and their antimicrobial susceptibility will guide proper empiric selection of antibiotics for management of burn wounds.

  14. New treatment strategies to reduce burn wound progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss, Daniel


    Full Text Available [english] Background: After a burn injury certain superficial partial-thickness burn wounds spontaneously progress into deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. This poorly understood phenomenon is called burn wound progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment strategies using warm water (preservation of microcirculation on the one side and erythropoietin (EPO (molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory and neoangiogenic properties can prevent, delay and/or reduce secondary burn wound progression in a rat model.Methods: We used a burn comb model in 63 rats, creating eight rectangular contact burns (2x1 cm each intercalated by unburned zones (2x0.5 cm prone to burn wound progression. In a first experimental set we treated burn wounds with locally applied warm (37°C or cold (17°C water for 20 minutes.In a second experimental set, animals were treated systemically with EPO at two different dosages of 500 and 2,500 IU/kg bodyweight (bw and initiated at 2 different time-points (45 minutes vs. 6 hours after burn injury. Evaluation of microcirculatory perfusion, interspace necrosis and burn depth was performed using respectively laser Doppler flowmetry, planimetry and histology. For statistical analysis the two-way ANOVA-test followed by an adequate post-hoc test (Bonferroni were used. Results: In untreated control animals a conversion from superficial to full-thickness burns was observed within 24 hours. Warm and cold water treatment significantly delayed burn depth progression, nevertheless after 4 days, burn depth was similar in all three groups. Warm water significantly reduced interspace necrosis compared to untreated controls and cold water with a significantly improved perfusion in the warm water group. Surface extension and particularly burn depth progression were significantly decreased by EPO only if administered at a dosage of bw and initiated 45 minutes after burn injury. EPO

  15. Thermal burn in a 30-minute-old newborn: report on the youngest patient with iatrogenic burn injury


    Abboud, L.; Ghanimeh, G.


    Burns in infants are rare. The majority of neonatal burns occur in the hospital setting. The immaturity of their immune system, their fragile and thin skin, difficulties in resuscitation, engraftment paucity limited by donor sites, and long-term complications make taking care of burned newborns extremely difficult. We present the case of a newborn burned 30 minutes after his birth over a total body surface of 35%, when the hot water bottle used in the hospital accidentally burst. This is the ...

  16. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns. (United States)

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F


    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. In the media: Burns as a method of assault. (United States)

    O'Halloran, E; Duke, J; Rea, S; Wood, F


    The aims of this study were to determine whether a change occurred in the pattern of assault burn injury cases hospitalised to the adult state burns unit, Western Australia, from 2004 to mid-year of 2012, and to compare patient and burn characteristics of adult assault burns with those admitted for unintentional burns. Study data were obtained from the Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) Burns Minimum Dataset (BMDS). Aggregated data of unintentional burn admissions during the same period were provided by the BMDS data manager to enable comparisons with assault burn patients. Assault burn admissions during 2004-2012 accounted for approximately 1% of all adult burn hospitalisations. All assault victims were burned by either thermal or scald agents. A high rate of intubation (24%) and ICU admission (1 in 3 cases) was observed in the fire assault group. The six assault cases undergoing intubation were severe burns, median TBSA 50%, most commonly affecting the face, head and torso, half of these cases had inhalational injuries and also required escharotomies. Comparison of admissions by calendar period showed no statistically significant differences in demographic, burn cause or TBSA%. However, statistically significant differences were found for pre-morbid psychiatric history (15% vs. 58%, p=0.025) and concomitant fractures or dislocations (46% vs. 2%), p=0.011). While the proportion of assault burn admissions per total burn admissions steadily increased from 0.4% in 2009 to 1.5% in mid-2012, this proportion did not exceed that peak level observed of 2.1% for 2004. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood transfusion trigger in burns: a four-year retrospective analysis of blood transfusions in eleven burn centers in Ukraine (United States)

    Fuzaylov, G.; Anderson, R.; Lee, J.; Slesarenko, S.; Nagaychuk, V.; Grigorieva, T.; Kozinec, G.


    Summary One focus of improvement of burn care in Ukraine was the management of blood loss and blood transfusions in burn patients. The aim of this project was to analyze blood transfusion triggers in burn patients and outcomes at eleven major burn centers in Ukraine. This multicenter retrospective study reviewed four years of data on blood-transfused burn patients admitted to eleven major burn centers in Ukraine. Data analyzed included: demographics, characteristics of the burns, complications of burn injury, triggers for blood transfusions and outcomes. A total of 928 burn patients who received 2,693 blood transfusions from 11 major burn centers over a four-year period, were studied. Regardless of the total body surface area (TBSA) that was burned, blood transfusions were administered with a hemoglobin (Hb) trigger value of around 9 g/dL. Roughly one third (30.5%) of all transfusions were given in patients with a TBSA ≤ 10%. We demonstrated that Ukrainian doctors were using the same Hb trigger for blood transfusions for all Ukrainian burn patients, which suggested a need to change blood transfusion policy. PMID:27279803

  19. Epidemiology of burns undergoing hospitalization to the National Burns Unit in the Sultanate of Oman: a 25-year review. (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor


    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of burns admitted to the National Burns Unit (NBU) in the Sultanate of Oman between 1987 and 2011. This is a retrospective review of burn patients admitted to Oman's National Burns Unit (NBU) between 1987 and 2011. The data extracted from the national burn registry. The study describes the admission rate by gender and age groups, occupation, causes of burns, time-to-admission, length of stay and in-hospital mortality of burns between 1987 and 2011. During a 25-year from 1987 to 2011, there were 3531 burn patients admitted to the National Burns Unit in Oman. The average admission rate to NBU is 7.02 per 100,000 persons per year. On average, males were more likely to be admitted to the NBU than females during the study period (P value burns. About half of all patients admitted to the NBU have burns to more than 11% of total body surface area (TBSA). The average stay in hospital was estimated to be 15.3 days per patient. The average in-hospital mortality rate was estimated to be 8.2% per year (range 1.9-22%). Burns are significant public health issue in the Sultanate of Oman. Children are disproportionately over-represented in this study. Prevention programmes are urgently needed to address this "silent and costly epidemic." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards more efficient burn care: Identifying factors associated with good quality of life post-burn. (United States)

    Finlay, V; Phillips, M; Allison, G T; Wood, F M; Ching, D; Wicaksono, D; Plowman, S; Hendrie, D; Edgar, D W


    As minor burn patients constitute the vast majority of a developed nation case-mix, streamlining care for this group can promote efficiency from a service-wide perspective. This study tested the hypothesis that a predictive nomogram model that estimates likelihood of good long-term quality of life (QoL) post-burn is a valid way to optimise patient selection and risk management when applying a streamlined model of care. A sample of 224 burn patients managed by the Burn Service of Western Australia who provided both short and long-term outcomes was used to estimate the probability of achieving a good QoL defined as 150 out of a possible 160 points on the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) at least six months from injury. A multivariate logistic regression analysis produced a predictive model provisioned as a nomogram for clinical application. A second, independent cohort of consecutive patients (n=106) was used to validate the predictive merit of the nomogram. Male gender (p=0.02), conservative management (p=0.03), upper limb burn (p=0.04) and high BSHS-B score within one month of burn (pgood outcome at six months and beyond. A Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis demonstrated excellent (90%) accuracy overall. At 80% probability of good outcome, the false positive risk was 14%. The nomogram was validated by running a second ROC analysis of the model in an independent cohort. The analysis confirmed high (86%) overall accuracy of the model, the risk of false positive was reduced to 10% at a lower (70%) probability. This affirms the stability of the nomogram model in different patient groups over time. An investigation of the effect of missing data on sample selection determined that a greater proportion of younger patients with smaller TBSA burns were excluded due to loss to follow up. For clinicians managing comparable burn populations, the BSWA burns nomogram is an effective tool to assist the selection of patients to a streamlined care pathway with the aim

  1. Using online blogs to explore positive outcomes after burn injuries. (United States)

    Garbett, Kirsty; Harcourt, Diana; Buchanan, Heather


    This study uses blog analysis, a new and novel technique, to explore the positive outcomes experienced by burn survivors. This study examined 10 burn survivor blogs to offer a unique, longitudinal insight into burn survivor recovery. Using thematic analysis, three themes emerged: shift in self-perception, enhanced relationships and a change in life outlook. Many of these themes contained stories and experiences unique to a traumatic burn injury, suggesting that standardised trauma scales are not effectively measuring the impact of a burn in this population. Reflections on blog analysis are discussed, along with a recommendation that health researchers utilise the vast amount of data available from online blogs.

  2. Epidemiology of burns caused by moxibustion in Korea. (United States)

    Yoon, Cheonjae; Cho, Young Soon; Park, Seungchoon; Chung, Sung Phil; Choi, Young Hwan


    Moxibustion, a traditional Chinese treatment that uses dried Artemisia argyi, is a common cause of burns treated in Korean hospitals. We aimed to examine the characteristics of moxibustion-induced burns. This retrospective study examined the records of 59 patients who were treated for moxibustion-induced burns (April 2014-October 2015). All patients completed a questionnaire regarding their general characteristics and moxibustion use. The patients included 16 men and 43 women (average age: 49.1 years, 68 burn sites). Superficial second-degree burns were present at 21 sites, deep second- or third-degree burns at 44 sites, and unknown burns at 3 sites. The most common sites were the lower extremities, abdomen, and upper extremities. The most common practitioners were the patients (27/59, 45.7%) and Oriental medicine practitioners (23/59, 38.9%). The most common locations were the patient's home, Oriental medicine clinic, and moxibustion clinic. The most common reason for moxibustion was pain. Only the burn site was significantly associated with burn depth, and non-abdominal sites were 9.37-fold more likely to involve deep burns (vs. abdominal sites). Korean patients routinely undergo moxibustion, and care must be taken when using moxibustion at non-abdominal sites, due to the risk of deep burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease in burn children]. (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Wei-ren; Wang, Wei


    We try to discuss the relationship between burn and Kawasaki disease (KD), and to study the diagnosis and treatment of KD in burn children. The medical records of one burn child with KD from our pediatric ward together with those of 5 burn children with KD retrieved from foreign literature were analyzed. The clinical features of KD, including bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, skin rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, changes in the distal part of extremities, were enrolled in the study. Six patients were male and younger than 5 years old, with 2 suffering from mild burn, 2 with moderate burn, and 2 with severe burn. Two days after second degree burn, all burn children had fever and skin rash with 4 or 5 clinical symptoms and signs of KD. Among them, coronary artery dilatation was found in 1 case as detected by echocardiography, positive wound culture was found in 2 cases, negative blood culture was found in 6 cases. All patients were given high-dose gamma globulin or (and) aspirin within 10 days after the first fever, followed by control and amelioration of the disease. We conclude that the pathogenesis of KD may be related with burn wound and reabsorption of edema. KD may be suspected in burn children younger than 5 years when they had fever and skin rash at the same time.

  4. Burn surgeons in South Africa: A rare species. (United States)

    Allorto, Nikki Leigh; Zoepke, Simone; Clarke, Damian L; Rode, Heinz


    The high burden of burn injuries in South Africa (SA) requires surgeons skilled in burn care. However, there are few dedicated burn surgeons and properly equipped units or centres. To quantify the involvement of surgeons in burn care in SA hospitals, identify factors that attract surgeons to pursue burn care as a career and deter them from doing so, and understand the challenges of hospitals treating burn patients around the country. This was a prospective, qualitative study. Questionnaires were handed out at the South African Burn Society Congress in September 2013 and a trade symposium in March 2014. One hundred questionnaires were handed out, and there was a 70% response rate. Twenty-six (39%) of the respondents had a specialist surgical qualification. Only half the units had registrars (48%) and interns (51%) on their staff. Only 30% of the respondents were dedicated to burn care alone, the majority being involved on a part-time basis. The most common factor respondents suggested was needed to recruit future burn care providers, cited by 76%, was better facilities and resources. Other factors included training and skills development (59%), subspecialist training (55%), development of a diploma in burn care (52%), development of research (52%) and healthcare worker psychological support (45%). We have demonstrated that current workforce resources for burn care are inadequate, the major deficit being lack of training and the resource-restricted environment. This survey provides basic information towards workforce planning, which can be used to inform the necessary strategic decisions.

  5. Epidemiology and referral patterns of burns admitted to the Burns Centre at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban. (United States)

    den Hollander, Daan; Albert, Malin; Strand, Anna; Hardcastle, Timothy C


    The epidemiology, referral patterns and outcome of patients admitted to a tertiary burns unit in southern Africa were reviewed. The charts of all patients with thermal injury presenting to the Burns Centre at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH) between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010 were reviewed. Information collected included age, gender, past medical history, cause of burn, size of burn, presence of inhalation injury, time before admission, time to excision, length of hospital stay, complications and mortality. Four hundred and sixty two patients were admitted, 296 (58%) children and 193 (42%) adults. The female-male ratio was 1:1.13. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 12% (interquartile range 8-25%) for children and 18% (interquartile range 10-35%) for adults. Common causes for the burns were in children: hot liquids (71%) and open flame (24%). Major causes in adults were: open fire (68%) and hot liquids (25%). Epilepsy was a contributing factor in 12.7%. Inhalation injury was seen in 13.6% of adults and 14.3% of children with a flame burn. Forty-four percent of referrals from general surgical units were for burns burns burn for all burns in children and for burns between 10 and 49% in adults. The epidemiology and outcome of severe burns referred to the Burns Centre at IALCH is similar to those in other units in Africa. The management and referral of burns patients by other hospitals are inappropriate in a significant number of patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Assessment of burn-specific health-related quality of life and patient scar status following burn. (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Boo, Sunjoo


    This study assessed patient-perceived levels of scar assessment and burn-specific quality of life (QOL) in Korean burn patients admitted to burn care centers and identified differences in scar assessment and QOL based on various patient characteristics. A cross-sectional descriptive study using anonymous paper-based survey methods was conducted with 100 burn patients from three burn centers specializing in burn care in South Korea. Mean subject age was 44.5 years old, and 69% of the subjects were men. The overall mean QOL was 2.91 out of 5. QOL was lowest for the work subdomain (2.25±1.45) followed by the treatment regimen subdomain (2.32±1.16). The subjects' mean total scar assessment score was 35.51 out of 60, and subjects were most unsatisfied with scar color. Subjects with low income, flame-source burns, severe burns, visible scars, and scars on face or hand reported significantly lower QOL. Subjects with severe burn degree and burn range perceived their burn scar condition to be worse than that of others. The results show that burn subjects experience the most difficulties with their work and the treatment regimen. Subjects with severe burn and visible scarring have a reduced QOL and a poor scar status. Scar management intervention may improve QOL of burn patients especially those with severe burn and visible scars. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the relationship between scar assessment and QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. A retrospective review of burn dressings on a porcine burn model. (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M


    This is a study to compare wound healing among three types of dressings on a porcine model with deep-dermal-partial-thickness burns. The burns in this study were from eight animal trials conducted in the past for other purposes and only burns with a uniform pale appearance that had served as controls in original experiments were selected. In total, there were 57 burns in 33 pigs, using one of following three dressings: Acticoat (Silver) (3 trials), Jelonet (Gauze) (3 trials), and Solosite Gel/Jelonet (Gel/Gauze) (2 trials). The wound healing assessments included wound re-epithelialisation during a 6-week period, clinical and histological scar assessments at week 6 after burn. Of all wound healing/scar assessments, only re-epithelialisation showed statistical difference between dressings. Earlier re-epithelialisation was observed in Gel/Gauze dressings compared to Silver and/or Gauze dressings. However, this study revealed huge variation in wound healing outcome between 3 trials within both Silver and/or Gauze dressings, supported by significant differences on re-epithelialisation, clinical and histological scar measurements. In addition, it was found that larger animals healed better than smaller ones, based on weights from 21 pigs. Of all dressings, Silver delivers the best protection for wound colonization/infection. Wound colonization/infection was found to confine wound healing and lead to thinner RND in scars. From this study, we cannot find enough evidence to suggest the beneficial effect of one dressing(s) over others on burn wound healing outcome on a porcine model with small deep-dermal-partial-thickness burns with a relative small sample size.

  8. Protocol for a systematic review of quantitative burn wound microbiology in the management of burns patients. (United States)

    Kwei, Johnny; Halstead, Fenella D; Dretzke, Janine; Oppenheim, Beryl A; Moiemen, Naiem S


    Sepsis from burn injuries can result from colonisation of burn wounds, especially in large surface area burns. Reducing bacterial infection will reduce morbidity and mortality, and mortality for severe burns can be as high as 15 %. There are various quantitative and semi-quantitative techniques to monitor bacterial load on wounds. In the UK, burn wounds are typically monitored for the presence or absence of bacteria through the collection and culture of swabs, but no absolute count is obtained. Quantitative burn wound culture provides a measure of bacterial count and is gaining increased popularity in some countries. It is however more resource intensive, and evidence for its utility appears to be inconsistent. This systematic review therefore aims to assess the evidence on the utility and reliability of different quantitative microbiology techniques in terms of diagnosing or predicting clinical outcomes. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. Bibliographic databases and ongoing trial registers will be searched and conference abstracts screened. Studies will be eligible if they are prospective studies or systematic reviews of burn patients (any age) for whom quantitative microbiology has been performed, whether it is compared to another method. Quality assessment will be based on quality assessment tools for diagnostic and prognostic studies and tailored to the review as necessary. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analysis may be considered where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Given the increasing use of quantitative methods, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base. As far as the authors are aware, it will be the first to address this topic. PROSPERO, CRD42015023903.

  9. An overview of acute burn management in the Emergency Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaira Landry


    Full Text Available Despite the frequency and severity of burns in Low Income Countries, including many in Africa, there is a paucity of research and funding for these populations to aid in prevention, treatment and recovery of burn patients. The objectives of this paper are four-fold. First, by addressing the pathophysiology of burns the reader may strengthen understanding of the clinical progression of burns. Second, through describing proper assessment of burn patients one will learn how to decide if patients can be discharged, admitted or transferred to burn centre. Third, the inclusion of treatments solidifies the steps necessary to manage a patient in a hospital setting. Lastly, the overall goal of the paper, is to raise awareness that more research, publication and funding is required to create a better understanding of burns in Africa and why they continue to be devastating social and economic burdens.

  10. Brain tumour presenting with burns: Case report and discussion. (United States)

    Sawyer, Oliver; O'Boyle, Ciaran P


    Descriptions of burns as the presenting features of underlying neurological pathology are very rare, with only two previously published case reports available. Both of these reports featured meningioma as the pre-existing pathology and both described burn excision and wound healing, prior to surgical tumour ablation. The authors describe the case of a 35-year-old female, who presented with 25% total body surface area burns and recent global neurological deterioration. MRI imaging revealed a large intracranial tumour. Multidisciplinary management included rigorous non-surgical burn wound care and early craniotomy and tumour excision. This proceeded without complication. Burn excision and skin grafting was carried out successfully, two weeks later. This case differs from the previous two reported cases, which both described burn excision, as a pre-requisite to neurosurgery. This case establishes that the presence of a burn wound is not a total contra-indication to intracranial surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries? (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef


    The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score

  12. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L


    demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model......Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...... is an example of such a model, and several groups have performed studies of analgesics and pain mechanisms based on the model. The thesis aims to provide a critical review of the human burn model as a tool in pain research, and to give suggestions for development of the model and future research. The pain...

  13. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fear, helplessness, concerns and expectations of “being-in-the-world”. Conclusion: respect, understanding and care from the health team were fundamental for the adaptation and the confrontation demanded by the consequent suffering of the event.

  14. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles


    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  15. Pediatric Treadmill Burns: Assessing the effectiveness of prevention strategies. (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Connolly, Siobhan; Meyerowitz-Katz, Daniel; Allan, James; Maitz, Peter K M


    Legislative changes in 2008 in Australia mandated that all new treadmills display a warning sticker about the risk of friction burns in children. This was accompanied by a health promotion campaign advising of the risks of treadmills to children. Analyses of pediatric burns data identified all cases of treadmill burns occurring between 2005 and 2014. The incidence of treadmill burns, associations with age and gender, characteristics of the burns and the adequacy of first aid provided immediately after the burn was examined. There were 298 cases of treadmill burns over the 10-year period (3.5% of all pediatric burns). The incidence rose until the introduction of legislation and health promotion in 2008, and then declined over the remaining study period. The majority of treadmill burns in children were inflicted on the upper limbs (91%), and 93% involved the hands. Most burns were full thickness (62%, n=182) and 49% (n=148) required skin grafts. Approximately one-third of treadmill burns (35%, n=105) occurred while someone else was using the treadmill. In the vast majority of treadmill burn injuries (74%, n=223), there was either no first aid or inadequate first aid provided immediately after the injury. A significant number of treadmill burns occur in children, and these often result in serious injuries that are not treated with appropriate first aid. A reduction in the incidence of these burns was associated with the introduction of legislation and health promotion targeted at child safety around treadmills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecological consequences of shifting the timing of burning tallgrass prairie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gene Towne

    Full Text Available In the Kansas Flint Hills, grassland burning is conducted during a relatively narrow window because management recommendations for the past 40 years have been to burn only in late spring. Widespread prescribed burning within this restricted time frame frequently creates smoke management issues downwind. A potential remedy for the concentrated smoke production in late spring is to expand burning to times earlier in the year. Yet, previous research suggested that burning in winter or early spring reduces plant productivity and cattle weight gain while increasing the proportion of undesirable plant species. In order to better understand the ecological consequences of burning at different times of the year, plant production and species abundance were measured for 20 years on ungrazed watersheds burned annually in autumn, winter, or spring. We found that there were no significant differences in total grass production among the burns on either upland or lowland topographic positions, although spring burned watersheds had higher grass culm production and lower forb biomass than autumn and winter burned watersheds. Burning in autumn or winter broadened the window of grass productivity response to precipitation, which reduces susceptibility to mid-season drought. Burning in autumn or winter also increased the phenological range of species by promoting cool-season graminoids without a concomitant decrease in warm-season grasses, potentially widening the seasonal window of high-quality forage. Incorporating autumn and winter burns into the overall portfolio of tallgrass prairie management should increase the flexibility in managing grasslands, promote biodiversity, and minimize air quality issues caused by en masse late-spring burning with little negative consequences for cattle production.

  17. Is there an increased risk of burns to Amish children? (United States)

    Rieman, Mary T; Hunley, Melissa; Woeste, Lori; Kagan, Richard J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, causes, and demographics of burn injuries in Amish children, treated at a pediatric burn center located in close proximity to the Midwestern Amish country. After Institutional Review Board approval, we used our TRACS Burn Registry to identify burn injuries in Amish and non-Amish children. We then compared the groups formed by gender and culture. We identified 37 Amish children (1.25%) among the 2972 acute burn patients admitted over the 12-year period of review. Importantly, Amish girls sustained significantly more extensive and deeper burns than Amish boys or non-Amish children of either gender (P Amish girls than for the non-Amish groups (P Amish girls was likely because of their significantly larger burn size. There were also overall significant differences in burn causes among Amish and non-Amish children (P = .002). Amish patients had a higher incidence of burns, by hot liquids not related to cooking, ignition of clothing, or ignition of flammable materials, than non-Amish children. Of note, Amish girls had a relatively shorter delay in admission to our burn center than did Amish boys and non-Amish children. Burn injuries to Amish children requiring inpatient treatment seem to be quite uncommon. When they do occur, burns in Amish children tend to be more extensive than similar injuries in non-Amish children. The data suggest that there may be significant and specific educational opportunities for burn prevention in Amish children in our burn center's referral area.

  18. Burn prevention in Zambia: a work in progress. (United States)

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin


    The aim of this study was to assess both burn prevention knowledge and the effectiveness of educational intervention in alleviating the current knowledge deficit in Zambian youth. In one rural Zambian district, a burn prevention program was implemented in June 2011. Children at two elementary schools completed a 10-question survey that aimed to assess knowledge regarding burn injuries. After completing the survey, children received a burn and fire safety presentation and a burn prevention coloring book. Children were reassessed in May 2012 using the same survey to determine program efficacy and knowledge retention. Burn knowledge assessments were also completed for children at other schools who did not receive the burn prevention program in 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used for statistical adjustment for confounding variables. Between June 2011 and May 2012, 2747 children from six schools were assessed for their burn knowledge, with 312 of them resurveyed after educational intervention since initial survey. Reassessed children performed significantly better on three questions after controlling for confounders. They did better on five questions but their performance on these failed to achieve statistical significance. Children performed significantly worse on one concept about first aid treatment of a burn. A majority of the children demonstrated knowledge deficit in three concepts, even after educational intervention. There is a large variation in first burn knowledge survey performance of children from different schools, with inconsistency between concepts. With half the questions, knowledge deficit did not improve with advancement in school grade. Low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs) face the largest burns burden. With the lack of adequate burn care facing LMICs, burn injury prevention is of particular importance in those countries. This study shows that burn educational intervention could be effective in reducing burn knowledge deficit; however

  19. A review of the evidence for threshold of burn injury. (United States)

    Martin, N A; Falder, S


    Burn injury is common and depth is one measure of severity. Although the depth of burn injury is determined by many factors, the relationship between the temperature of the injurious agent and exposure duration, known as the time-temperature relationship, is widely accepted as one of the cornerstones of burn research. Moritz and Henriques first proposed this relationship in 1947 and their seminal work has been cited extensively. However, over the years, readers have misinterpreted their findings and incorporated misleading information about the time-temperature relationship into a wide range of industrial standards, burn prevention literature and medicolegal opinion. The purpose of this paper is to present a critical review of the evidence that relates temperature and time to cell death and the depth of burn injury. These concepts are used by researchers, burn prevention strategists, burn care teams and child protection professionals involved in ascertaining how the mechanism of burning relates to the injury pattern and whether the injury is consistent with the history. This review explores the robustness of the currently available evidence. The paper summarises the research from burn damage experimental work as well as bioheat transfer models and discusses the merits and limitations of these approaches. There is broad agreement between in vitro and in vivo studies for superficial burns. There is clear evidence that the perception of pain in adult human skin occurs just above 43°C. When the basal layer of the epidermis reaches 44°C, burn injury occurs. For superficial dermal burns, the rate of tissue damage increases logarithmically with a linear increase in temperature. Beyond 70°C, rate of damage is so rapid that interpretation can be difficult. Depth of injury is also influenced by skin thickness, blood flow and cooling after injury. There is less clinical evidence for a time-temperature relationship for deep or subdermal burns. Bioheat transfer models are

  20. Burn Rate Modification with Carborane Polymers (United States)


    is also advantageous over boron powders because it does not have a glassy boron oxide layer at ambient or burn conditions. Dispersion of the boron... advantages . The production of carboranes originally began by reacting sodium borohydride with a catalyst to form decaborane. This intermediate...polymer synthesis was confirmed through the analysis of FTIR spectra ( app . A, fig. A-2) acquired for the co-polymers. Key peaks present in both

  1. Accuracy of references in burns journals. (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Rajgarhia, Prachi; Ahmed, Safraz; Sheikh, Zeeshan


    To study the incidence and risk factors for citation and quotation errors in two major burns surgery journals. 120 references were randomly selected from original articles published in the following two journals - January to December 2006 issues of Burns and Journal of Burn Care & Research. For each reference, the ease of retrieval on PubMed and the presence of citation errors were noted. Two independent observers analysed each reference for quotation errors. The characteristics of the root article, that is, type of study, author numbers, number of references and article word count were noted. Of the 120 selected references, 117 referred to articles from indexed medical journals published in English. Among these, 4 articles could not be retrieved due to fatal citation errors (3.3%). A further 12 citation errors were noted giving a total citation error rate of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.74-19.93%). Of the 117 references analysed, the quotation error rate was 13.7% (95% CI: 8.6-19.5%) half of which were major errors. There was no significant association between the combined error rate per article and the journal (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.861, type of study (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.717), author numbers (Spearman's rho=0.197, p=0.423), article length (Spearman's rho=0.118, p=0.705) or references per article (Spearman's rho=0.229, p=0.189). Significant numbers of citation and quotation errors still appear in current burns literature. Incorrect spelling of author names and partial omissions of article titles were the two most common errors. No observable underlying factors were identified in this study. The present results serve as a reminder to authors, editors and peer reviewers for more care of citation accuracy when striving for their common goal of scientific excellence.

  2. Subeschar Treatment of Burn-Wound Infection (United States)


    patients (31.5%) had suffered inhalation in- burn wound, after the course of subeschar antibiotic infusion, jury, a diagnosis established by some...combination of history, All surviving patients were Infected with Pseudomonas physical examination, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, xenon Xe aeruglnosa... Inhalation Organism In Initial Posttreatment Age/Sex Trotl Full Injury Biopsy Specimen (No.)t Biopsy Results Outcome$ Autopsy 23 yr/M 83.0 67.5 Yes

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for thermal burns. (United States)

    Villanueva, E; Bennett, M H; Wasiak, J; Lehm, J P


    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) consists of intermittently administering 100% oxygen at pressures greater than 1 atmosphere in a pressure vessel. This technology has been used to treat a variety of disease states and has been described as helping patients who have sustained burns. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) for the treatment of thermal burns. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2002), MEDLINE (Ovid 1966 to November Week 2, 2003), CINAHL (Ovid 1982 to December Week 2 2003), EMBASE (Ovid 1980 to September 2003), DORCTHIM (Database of Randomised Controlled Trials in Hyperbaric Medicine) from inception to 2003, and reference lists of articles. We included all randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of HBOT with no HBOT (no treatment or sham). Two authors using standardised forms extracted the data independently. Each trial was assessed for internal validity with differences resolved by discussion. Data was extracted and entered into RevMan 4.2.3. Four randomised controlled trials were identified, of which two satisfied the inclusion criteria. The trials were of poor methodological quality. As a result, it was difficult to have confidence in the individual results and it would not have been appropriate to attempt to pool the data. One trial reported no difference in length of stay, mortality, or number of surgeries between the control and HBO-treated groups once these variables were adjusted for the patient's condition. The second trial reported mean healing times that were shorter in patients exposed to HBOT (mean: 19.7 days versus 43.8 days). This systematic review has not found sufficient evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of HBOT for the management of thermal burns. Evidence from the two randomised controlled trials is insufficient to provide clear guidelines for practice. Further research is needed to better define

  4. Hemodynamic Monitorization of the Burn Patient


    Ahmet Coşar; Burak Eşkin


    Hemodynamic monitorization is the basic component of the medical care of the burn patients. It provides valuable information of the cardiopulmonary performance which is essential in the rapid diagnosis and treatment in the case of hemodynamic disturbance. The clinical importance of any monitorization parameter, associated risks – benefits, cost effectivity, and also assessment and management skills of the health care providers should be taken into consideration in the selection process of ...

  5. Burn Treatment: Annual Research Progress Report. (United States)


    Model 208 W.L. Brown, E.G. Bowler, A.D.Mason,Jr, B.A. Pruitt, Jr. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Absorption and Nutritional Efficacy of Standard High...included gastritis in 35 patients, duodenitis in 12 patients, esophagitis in 29 patients and esophageal ulcerations in 10 patients. Acute acalculous...TX 21 Feb 74. McGranahan BG: Burn Treatment. R.N. Club, Randolph AFB, TX 25 Feb 74. Wilmore DVI: Energy Balance in Acute Illness. Tex State Nutritional

  6. Management of severe ocular burns with symblepharon. (United States)

    Shi, Weiyun; Wang, Ting; Gao, Hua; Xie, Lixin


    To evaluate the effect of lamellar keratoplasty combined with limbal stem cells, using amniotic membrane, autologous conjunctiva, and pseudopterygium to reconstruct external eyes for severe ocular burns with symblepharon. Thirty eyes of 29 patients had severe symblephara resulting from eye burns. According to the range of the symblepharon and the loss of limbal stem cells, partial lamellar keratoplasty combined with partial limbal stem cell treatment was performed in 19 eyes, and total lamellar keratoplasty with total limbus was performed in 11 eyes. All patients had amniotic membrane and autologous conjunctival transplantation, and the pseudopterygium was preserved to reconstruct the fornix. Symblephara were completely relieved in 19 eyes. They remained partially in ten eyes in strip-like form, but seven of these were completely relieved after further autologous conjunctival transplantation. One eye was treated with tarsorrhaphy for eyelid malformation. The remaining pseudopterygium became thinner after the operation and showed no symblepharon. Immune rejection occurred in eight corneal grafts; clarity was restored in four of these, while there was graft neovascularization in the remaining four. Depending on the area of symblepharon and the loss of limbal stem cells, partial or total lamellar keratoplasty combined with limbal stem cells, using amniotic membrane, autologous conjunctiva and pseudopterygium to reconstruct external eyes appears to be effective in treating severe ocular burns with symblepharon. Pseudopterygium can partly substitute autologous conjunctiva in ocular surface reconstruction.

  7. Treatment of acute ocular chemical burns. (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Kaur, Manpreet; Agarwal, Tushar; Sangwan, Virender S; Vajpayee, Rasik B


    Ocular chemical burns are an ophthalmic emergency and are responsible for 11.5%-22.1% of ocular injuries. Immediate copious irrigation is universally recommended in acute ocular burns to remove the offending agent and minimize damage. Conventional medical therapy consists of the use of agents that promote epithelialization, minimize inflammation, and prevent cicatricial complications. Biological fluids such as autologous serum, umbilical cord blood serum, platelet-rich plasma, and amniotic membrane suspension are a rich source of growth factors and promote healing when used as adjuncts to conventional therapy. Surgical treatment of acute ocular burns includes the debridement of the necrotic tissue, application of tissue adhesives, tenoplasty, and tectonic keratoplasty. Amniotic membrane transplantation is a novel surgical treatment that is increasingly being used as an adjunct to conventional treatment to promote epithelial healing, minimize pain, and restore visual acuity. Various experimental treatments that aim to promote wound healing and minimize inflammation are being evaluated such as human mesenchymal and adipose stem cells, beta-1,3 glucan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cultivated fibroblasts, zinc desferrioxamine, antifibrinolytic agents, antioxidants, collagen cross-linking, and inhibitors of corneal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute burn during pregnancy: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Rezaei


    Full Text Available Background & aim: The incidence of acute burn injuries in pregnant women is very low. Burn injuries during pregnancy are often associated with a high rate of fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. In this study, we aimed to review the cases of acute burn during pregnancy and evaluate the outcome of these patients in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This retrospective study was performed using the medical records of 48 pregnant women with thermal injuries over a 13-year period. Results: The results showed that 8 (16.7%, 27 (56.3%, and 13 (27.1% patients were in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Moreover, 14 mothers (29.2% died, 24 (50.0% were discharged without any fetal problems, eight (16.7% had fetal death, 13 (27.1% had abortion, two (4.2% had normal vaginal delivery, and one (2.1% underwent normal caesarean section. Conclusion: The rate ofmaternal survival in the first and second trimesters was higher than the third one. In the third trimester, pregnancy termination is indicated only after fetal maturation.

  9. Investigation of burning in type Ia supernovae (United States)

    Glazyrin, S. I.


    Type Ia supernovae are important cosmological objects that have played a major role in determining the composition of the Universe. Despite four decades of studies, there is no complete understanding of the explosion mechanism. One of the main problems consists in describing the burning wave propagation through the presupernova, a white dwarf. It is well known from observations that an initially slow flame accelerates and transforms into detonation as it moves. The acceleration mechanism realized in supernovae is not yet known, but it is believed to occur through various instabilities. The Landau-Darrieus instability of a thin deflagration thermonuclear burning front propagating through the presupernova is investigated. Direct numerical simulations of burning by the level-set method are presented. Small perturbations at the front are shown to merge into one large cusp after some time. As a flame with limited sizes moves, this leads only to a slight increase in the velocity, which does not allow it to accelerate to the speed of sound.

  10. Self-esteem in severely burned adults. (United States)

    Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra


    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pself-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pself-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.

  11. A Model For The Burning of Teflon (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Beeson, Harold D.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)


    Teflon has been identified as suitable material for use in oxygen-enriched atmospheres because of its low specific enthalpy of combustion that is, less than 1500 cal/gram. However, once ignited, Teflon burns in a heterogeneous reaction until total consumption or depletion of oxygen occurs. A model is developed for the burning of Teflon in pure, high-pressure oxygen, 3.4 to 68.9 MPa. The Teflon polymer chain dissociates via monomer units due to pyrolysis. These monomer units diffuse to the surface due to free convection. The model consists of coupled mass and energy balances for the polymer and an energy balance for the free convection of product gases. The model is used to obtain appropriate kinetic parameters for the dissociation and surface reactions. The model is validated against experimental measurements of Teflon discs supported on aluminum rods (2216) at oxygen pressures of 3.4, 6.8, 34.4, and 68.9 MPa. The model simulates the temperature distribution in the product gases above burning Teflon.

  12. Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1 in Chemical Burns. (United States)

    Salvador-Culla, Borja; Kolovou, Paraskevi E; Arzeno, Linnette; Martínez, Santiago; López, Miguel A


    To describe and further analyze the long-term results in visual acuity (VA), anatomical retention, and rate of complications from patients who underwent Boston keratoprosthesis (B-Kpro) type 1 after ocular chemical burns in the Dominican Republic. A retrospective review of 42 eyes (22 OD:20 OS) of 36 patients who underwent B-Kpro type 1 implantation after severe ocular burn at Hospital Elías Santana in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, between April 2006 and October 2014, were included. Demographics, VA, anatomical retention, and the rates of postoperative complications and concurrent surgeries were evaluated. The excellent anatomical retention rates and visual outcomes presented in this study support the remarkable capability of B-Kpro type 1 to restore functional VA in eyes with severe chemical injuries. However, strict control of the postoperative complications is necessary for long-term success. In conclusion, the use of a B-Kpro type 1 after severe chemical burn is a viable option in patients otherwise condemned to the high risk of failure associated with conventional corneal grafts.

  13. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants. (United States)

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul


    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  14. Pediatric Contractures in Burn Injury: A Burn Model System National Database Study. (United States)

    Goverman, Jeremy; Mathews, Katie; Goldstein, Richard; Holavanahalli, Radha; Kowalske, Karen; Esselman, Peter; Gibran, Nicole; Suman, Oscar; Herndon, David; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    Joint contractures are a major cause of morbidity and functional deficit. The incidence of postburn contractures and their associated risk factors in the pediatric population has not yet been reported. This study examines the incidence and severity of contractures in a large, multicenter, pediatric burn population. Associated risk factors for the development of contractures are determined. Data from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Burn Model System database, for pediatric (younger than 18 years) burn survivors from 1994 to 2003, were analyzed. Demographic and medical data were collected on each subject. The primary outcome measures included the presence of contractures, number of contractures per patient, and severity of contractures at each of nine locations (shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, ankle, wrist, neck, lumbar, and thoracic) at time of hospital discharge. Regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of the presence, severity, and numbers of contractures, with P burned, and TBSA grafted. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of postburn contractures in the pediatric population. Approximately one quarter of children with a major burn injury developed a contracture at hospital discharge, and this could potentially increase as the child grows. Contractures develop despite early therapeutic interventions such as positioning and splinting; therefore, it is essential that we identify novel and more effective prevention strategies.

  15. Disasters; the 2010 Haitian earthquake and the evacuation of burn victims to US burn centers. (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Skarote, Mary Beth; Cairns, Charles B; Strickland, Samantha Cooksey; Smith, Howard G; Cairns, Bruce A


    Response to the 2010 Haitian earthquake included an array of diverse yet critical actions. This paper will briefly review the evacuation of a small group of patients with burns to burn centers in the southeastern United States (US). This particular evacuation brought together for the first time plans, groups, and organizations that had previously only exercised this process. The response to the Haitian earthquake was a glimpse at what the international community working together can do to help others, and relieve suffering following a catastrophic disaster. The international response was substantial. This paper will trace one evacuation, one day for one unique group of patients with burns to burn centers in the US and review the lessons learned from this process. The patient population with burns being evacuated from Haiti was very small compared to the overall operation. Nevertheless, the outcomes included a better understanding of how a larger event could challenge the limited resources for all involved. This paper includes aspects of the patient movement, the logistics needed, and briefly discusses reimbursement for the care provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Silva, Tais; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Flores, Deolinda


    The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains PAHs from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of PAHs in unburned samples and a mixture of PAHs from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority PAHs found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW PAHs and greater abundance of HMW PAHs from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAHs in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial analysis of pediatric burns shows geographical clustering of burns and 'hotspots' of risk factors in New South Wales, Australia. (United States)

    Goltsman, David; Li, Zhe; Bruce, Eleanor; Connolly, Siobhan; Harvey, John G; Kennedy, Peter; Maitz, Peter K M


    Pediatric burns are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and it is estimated that more than 80% are preventable. Studies among adults have shown that burns risk are geographically clustered, and higher in socioeconomically-disadvantaged areas. Few studies among children have examined whether burns are geographically clustered, and if burn prevention programs are best targeted to high-risk areas. Retrospective analyses examined the 2005-to-2014 NSW Severe Burns Injury Service data. Geospatial imaging software was used to map the relative-risk and clustering of burns by postcodes in Greater Sydney Area (GSA). Cluster analyses were conducted using Getis-Ord and Global Moran's I statistics. High- and low-risk populations and areas were examined to ascertain differences by sociodemographic characteristics, etiology and the extent of the burn. Scalds were the most common types of burns and boys were at greater risk than girls. There was significant clustering of burns by postcode area, with a higher relative risk of burns in western and north-western areas of Sydney. The high-risk clusters were associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, and areas of low burns risk were associated with socioeconomic advantage. In both high- and low-risk areas burns occurred more frequently in the 12-24 months and the 24-36 months age groups. The implication of this study is that pediatric burns risk clustering occurs in specific geographic regions that are associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. The results of this study provide greater insight into how pediatric populations can be targeted when devising intervention strategies, and suggest that an area-targeted approach in socioeconomically-disadvantaged areas may reduce burns risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased expression of atrogenes and TWEAK family members after severe burn injury in non-burned human skeletal muscle (United States)

    Merritt, Edward K.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna; Cross, James M.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Bamman, Marcas M.


    Severe burn induces rapid skeletal muscle proteolysis after the injury that persists for up to one year and results in skeletal muscle atrophy despite dietary and rehabilitative interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine acute changes in gene expression of skeletal muscle mass regulators post-burn injury. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of a non-burned leg of eight burned subjects (6M, 2F: 34.8 ± 2.7 years: 29.9 ± 3.1% total body surface area burn) at 5.1 ± 1.1 days post-burn injury and from matched controls. mRNA expression of cytokines and receptors in the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) families, and the ubiquitin proteasome E3 ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was determined. TNF receptor 1A was over 3.5 fold higher in burn. Expression of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis and its receptor were over 1.6 and 6.0-fold higher in burn. IL-6, IL-6 receptor, and glycoprotein 130, were elevated in burned subjects with IL-6 receptor over 13-fold higher. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 was also elevated in burn nearly 6-fold. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, were more than 4- and 3-fold higher in burn. These results demonstrate for the first time that severe burn in humans has a remarkable impact on gene expression in skeletal muscle of a non-burned limb of genes that promote inflammation and proteolysis. Because these changes likely contribute to the acute skeletal muscle atrophy in areas not directly affected by the burn, in the future it will be important to determine the responsible systemic cues. PMID:23816995

  19. [Meek technique skin graft for treating exceptionally large area burns]. (United States)

    Xu, Qinglian; Cai, Chen; Yu, Youxin; Tang, Yizhong; Hu, Delin; Liu, Sheng; Qi, Weiwei; Shi, Jie


    To investigate the clinical effect of Meek technique skin graft in treating exceptionally large area burns. The clinical data were retrospectively analysed from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with Meek technique skin graft from April 2009 to February 2010 (Meek group), and were compared with those from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with the particle skin with large sheet of skin allograft transplantation from January 2002 to December 2006 (particle skin group). In Meek group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 34.5 years (range, 5-55 years), including 6 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, 1 case of electrical burn, and 1 case of high-temperature dust burn. The burn area was 82.6% +/- 3.1% of total body surface area (TBSA). The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (3.5 +/- 1.3) hours. In particle skin group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 36.8 years (range, 18-62 years), including 5 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, and 3 cases of gunpowder explosion injury. The burn area was 84.1% +/- 7.4% of TBSA. The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (4.9 +/- 2.2) hours. There was no significant difference in general data between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The skin graft survival rate, the time of skin fusion, the systemic wound healing time, and the treatment cost of 1% of burn area were 91.23% +/- 5.61%, (11.14 +/- 2.12) days, (38.89 +/- 10.36) days, and (5113.28 +/- 552.44) yuan in Meek group, respectively; and were 78.65% +/- 12.29%, (18.37 +/- 4.63) days, (48.73 +/- 16.92) days, and (7386.36 +/- 867.64) yuan in particle skin group; showing significant differences between 2 groups (P burns with the advantages of high survival rate of skin graft, short time of skin fusion, and low treatment cost of 1% of burn area.

  20. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns. (United States)

    Clare, Gerry; Suleman, Hanif; Bunce, Catey; Dua, Harminder


    Ocular surface burns can be caused by chemicals (alkalis and acids) or by direct heat. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) performed in the acute phase (day 0 to day 7) of an ocular surface burn is reported to relieve pain, accelerate healing and reduce scarring and blood vessel formation. The surgery involves applying a patch of amniotic membrane (AM) over the entire ocular surface up to the eyelid margins. To assess the effects of AMT on the eyes of people having suffered acute ocular surface burns. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 June 2012. We included randomised trials of medical therapy and AMT applied in the first seven days after an ocular surface burn compared to medical therapy alone. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data. We contacted trial investigators for missing information. We summarised data using risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) as appropriate. We included one RCT of 100 participants with ocular burns that were randomised to treatment with AMT and medical therapy or medical therapy alone. A subset of patients (n = 68) who were treated within the first seven days of the injury met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The remaining 32 eyes were excluded. The included subset consisted of 36 moderate (Dua classification II-III) and 32 severe (Dua

  1. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

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    Arnon D. Cohen


    Full Text Available Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0% had burns involving less than 20% of the body surface area. Cause of the burns was scald in 190 patients (67.4%, fire in 80 patients (28.4%, chemical in 8 patients (2.8%, and explosion in 2 patients (0.7%. Two female patients (0.7% aged 11 and 17 years died of their burns that were caused by fire. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.8 days. Pediatric burn injury has become a significant public health problem in the Bedouin population of the Negev. To reduce the burden of burn injury, it is necessary to increase current efforts in prevention of burns.

  2. Burns in Sierra Leone: a population-based assessment. (United States)

    Wong, Evan G; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Cassidy, Laura D; Samai, Mohamed; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M


    Burns remain disproportionately prevalent in developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of burns in Sierra Leone to serve as a baseline for future programs. A cluster randomized, cross-sectional, countrywide survey was conducted in 2012 in Sierra Leone. With a standardized questionnaire demographics and deaths during the previous 12 months of household members were assessed with the household representative. Thereafter, 2 randomly selected household members were interviewed, elucidating whether participants had ever had a burn in six body regions and determining burn mechanisms and patterns of health care seeking behavior. This study included 1843 households and 3645 individuals. 3.98% (145/3645) of individuals reported at least one burn-injury. The highest proportions of burns were reported in the age groups 0-4 years old (23/426, 5.4%) and 5-14 years old (37/887, 4.17%). The majority of burns (129/145, 89.0%) were caused by a hot liquid/object and the upper, extremities were the most commonly burned body regions, with 36% (53/145) of cases. 21% (30/145) of individuals with burns sought care from a traditional healer. Burns are highly prevalent in Sierra Leone. Further research and resources should be allocated to the care and prevention of thermal injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

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    Dhirender Kaushik


    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  4. Early pathogenic colonisers of acute burn wounds: A retrospective review. (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sung; Pham, Chengde; Paul, Eldho; Padiglione, Alex; Lo, Cheng; Cleland, Heather


    Early excision of burns reduces the incidence of local and systemic infections caused by colonising microorganisms, and reduces mortality and length of hospital stay. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the risk of postoperative wound infections and skin graft loss. Antibiotic selection should be based on likely pathogens. However, there are few studies that have investigated the early pathogenic colonisers of acute burn wounds. To describe pathogenic microorganisms found in acute burns and to make further recommendations on the use of early perioperative prophylactic antibiotics. All burns patients admitted at the tertiary adult burns centre in Victoria over a 2-year period, who had surface swabs or tissue samples obtained from wounds within 24h of injury were included in this retrospective cohort study. Pathogenic organisms were examined with respect to patient characteristics, burn characteristics, treatment provided and immediate exposure to environmental contaminants. Nearly one third of burns patients had wounds colonised with pathogenic microorganisms. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 52% of these. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species were the most common gram-negatives. The only independent risk factor associated with early colonisation with gram-negative bacteria was per cent TBSA burn. Increased colonisation of acute burn wounds with pathogenic gram-negative bacteria was associated with increased size of burn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative study of the ignition and burning characteristics of after burning aluminum and magnesium particles

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    Lim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyup; Yoon, Woong Sup [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ignition and the burning of air-born single aluminum and magnesium particles are experimentally investigated. Particles of 30 to 106 μm-diameters were electrodynamically levitated, ignited, and burnt in atmospheric air. The particle combustion evolution was recorded by high-speed cinematography. Instant temperature and thermal radiation intensity were measured using two-wavelength pyrometry and photomultiplier tube methods. Ignition of the magnesium particle is prompt and substantially advances the aluminum particle by 10 ms. Burning time of the aluminum particles is extended 3 to 5 times longer than the magnesium particles. Exponents of a power-law fit of the burning rates are 1.55 and 1.24 for aluminum and magnesium particles, respectively. Flame temperature is slightly lower than the oxide melting temperature. For the aluminum, dimensionless flame diameter is inert to the initial particle size, but for the magnesium inversely proportional to the initial diameter.

  6. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  7. Amish Culture and Their Utilization of Burns and Wounds Ointment for the Treatment of Burns. (United States)

    Trinkle, Krystal Melich


    As indicated in the 2010 United States Religion Census, there are approximately 251,000 Amish people in the United States and Ontario. This census also demonstrated that a new Amish community is founded on average about every three-and-a-half weeks, suggesting that this religious culture is the fastest-growing religion throughout the United States. Because of the rapid growth of the Amish population, it is essential for health care workers to understand their background, cultural, and health care beliefs, especially in the treatment of burns. The purpose of this article is to examine the Amish background, cultural, and health care beliefs, specifically the utilization of burns and wounds ointment and burdock leaves in the treatment of burns.

  8. Epidemiology and financial implications of self-inflicted burns. (United States)

    George, S; Javed, M; Hemington-Gorse, S; Wilson-Jones, N


    The cost of the treatment of burns is high especially in self-inflicted burns with prolonged treatment. We performed a retrospective review of the self-inflicted burns at our regional burns centre to determine the costs incurred in their management and to identify factors which could reduce the financial burden in the future. The data was collected retrospectively of all the inpatient and outpatient self-inflicted burns presenting to our regional burns centre in the year 2011. Twenty one patients (out of a total of 870 patients) presented with self-inflicted burns to our centre in 2011. Five (23.8%) were major burns with an average of 53.2% Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) and 16 (76.2%) were minor burns with an average of 0.5% TBSA. 11 (52.4%) patients had flame burns including 4 self-immolation burns. The mortality rate was 4.8% (n=1). Five (23.8%) patients underwent surgical treatment. Seven (33.3%) patients were treated in intensive care and with average stay of 46.85 days. Critical care and theatre attendances made up most of the costs with average ICU stay per patient calculated at £313,131/day. The total cost of all 21 patients was £1,581,856. Burns are preventable injuries, early detection and intervention in patients with propensity to self-inflict burns can possibly reduce the costs of treatment in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Burns at KCMC: epidemiology, presentation, management and treatment outcome. (United States)

    Ringo, Y; Chilonga, K


    About 90% of the global burden of burns occurs in the low and middle income countries. In Africa it is estimated that between 17,000 and 30,000 children under five die each year due to burns. In Tanzania there are no specialized burn centers. Burn patients are often managed in the general surgical wards in most hospitals. Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre is one of the four tertiary referral hospitals in Tanzania. This study aimed to review the epidemiology presentation management and outcome of burn patients in this challenging environment. A cross-sectional prospective study involving 41 patients was undertaken from October 2011 to April 2012. 65.9% were males. The largest age group was below 5 years (36.6%). 19.5% were epileptic. More than half of the burns were due to open flame. 80.5% had second degree burns. 56.1% had a BSA of 15% or less and 56.1% had an APACHE score of 10 or less. It was found that 73.2% of burns occurred at home. The commonest prehospital first aid applied was honey. Only 41.5% arrived in hospital within the first 24h after burn. Among the 14.6% who had skin grafting, none had early excision of burn wound. 53.7% developed wound sepsis while 24.4% developed contractures. The mortality rate was 26.8%. Children under five are the worst affected by burns. Most patients had second degree burn wounds. Inappropriate management of the burn wound started just after injury and continued even in hospital. Mortality and complication rates are high. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns. (United States)

    Diaz, Eva C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet


    Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months after injury and to identify predictors that influence this response. A total of 87 children with 40% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) burned were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2, and approximately 4 weeks after burn and at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury to determine skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Patients (8 ± 6 years) had large (62, 51-72% TBSA) and deep (47% ± 21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months after burn compared with established values from healthy young adults. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, in children older than 3 years, and when burns were greater than 80% TBSA. Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least 1 year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiologic response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by sex, age, and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn patients. Prognostic study, level III.

  11. Proposing "the burns suite" as a novel simulation tool for advancing the delivery of burns education. (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger


    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. We explored this concept in a burns scenario in a novel, low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment (referred to as distributed simulation). This contextualized simulation/distributed simulation combination was named "The Burns Suite" (TBS). A pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was selected after high trainee demand. It was designed on Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns principles and refined using expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. TBS contained "realism" props, briefed nurses, and a simulated patient. Novices and experts were recruited. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's α was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twelve participants completed TBS scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.6 and 4.5, respectively; range, 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants felt 1) the experience was "real" and they were "able to behave as if in a real resuscitation environment," and 2) TBS "addressed what Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns didn't" (including the efficacy of incorporating nontechnical skills). TBS provides a novel, effective simulation tool to significantly advance the delivery of burns education. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize simulation training. This low-cost approach also has major implications for surgical education, particularly during increasing financial austerity. Alternative scenarios and/or procedures can be recreated within TBS, providing a diverse educational immersive simulation experience.

  12. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment. (United States)

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy


    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  13. Severe burn injury in late pregnancy: a case report and literature review


    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Huang, Bo-Gao; Wang, Wen-Kui; Liu, Yan


    The management of serious burn injuries during pregnancy is an unsolved clinical problem because of the low incidence of this disease. Although it has been documented that the effect of burns on fetal and maternal survival is detrimental, there have been conflicting reports among the different burn centers regarding the mortality of burned pregnant women and the management of burn patients during pregnancy. We report a case of severe burn in late pregnancy treated at our burn center. Addition...

  14. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear. (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E


    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  15. Outpatient presentations to burn centers: data from the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand outpatient pilot project. (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Watterson, Dina M; Singer, Yvonne; Darton, Anne


    Most studies about burn injury focus on admitted cases. To compare outpatient and inpatient presentations at burn centers in Australia to inform the establishment of a repository for outpatient burn injury. Data for sequential outpatient presentations were collected at seven burn centers in Australia between December 2010 and May 2011 and compared with inpatient admissions from these centers recorded by the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand for the corresponding period. There were 788 outpatient and 360 inpatient presentations. Pediatric outpatients included more children burns (39% vs 24%). Adult outpatients included fewer males (58% vs 73%) and intentional injuries (3.3% vs 10%), and more scald (46% vs 30%) and contact burns (24% vs 13%). All pediatric, and 98% of adult, outpatient presentations involved a %TBSAburns presenting to burn centers differed to inpatient admission data, particularly with respect to etiology and burn severity, highlighting the importance of the need for outpatient data to enhance burn injury surveillance and inform prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute pavement burns: a unique subset of burn injuries: a five-year review of resource use and cost impact. (United States)

    Silver, Andrew G; Dunford, Gerrit M; Zamboni, William A; Baynosa, Richard C


    This study focuses on the hospital care of a rare subset of burn injuries caused by contact with environmentally heated pavement, to further understand the required use of resources. This article aims to show that pavement burns are typically more severe than their flame/scald counterparts. A retrospective review of patients admitted to the burn center with injuries suffered from contact with hot pavement was performed. Patients were stratified on the presence or absence of altered mental status (AMS) and additional inciting factors. A representative sample of similarly sized flame and scald wounds treated in the same time period was compiled for comparison. Those with pavement burns had a significantly greater requirement for operative intervention, repetitive debridements, overall cost/percent burned, and lengthier hospital stays than those with flame/scald burns. Pavement burn victims with AMS were significantly more likely to require an operation, a greater cost/percent burned, and longer hospital stays than those without AMS. Pavement burns are significantly worse than similarly sized scald/flame burns with regards to length of stay and total hospital costs, and the necessity of initial and repetitive operative intervention. These discrepancies are even greater in patients with AMS as a concomitant inciting factor. It is apparent that these wounds often continue to deepen during a patient's stay, likely because of continued pressure on the wounds while recumbent. As such, this article highly recommends pressure off-loading beds and more aggressive debridement in the treatment of these unique injuries.

  17. Five-year epidemiological study of burn patients admitted in burns care unit, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India

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    Prasenjit Goswami


    Full Text Available Introduction: Burn injury remains one of the biggest health concerns in the developing world and is a formidable public health issue in terms of mortality, morbidity, and permanent disability. The incidence of burn injuries is found all over India; detailed epidemiological studies from the eastern part of the country are sparse. Materials and Methods: We present an epidemiological study form the burn care unit (BCU of Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India of a period of 5 years from January 2009 to December 2013. Results: A total of 1975 burn patients were admitted in the BCU in this 5-year period. The mean age of all the patients included in the study was 29.16 years. There was a slight female predominance in this 5-year period. The overall male to female ratio was 1:1.05. The mean percentage total body surface area (TBSA burn of all the patients over the period of 5 years was 42.5%. Flame burns were the most common form of burn, accounting for 65.16% of all burns. The overall mortality of the patients over 5 years was 40.8%. If the data are further classified, the overall mortality of patients up to 30% burns was 3.45%, with 30-60% burns was 42.3%, and above 60% burns was 91.8%. Conclusion: Analysis of the 5-year data fairly represents the epidemiological pattern of burns in this region, which has never been studied before and this study can serve as a pilot study for any burn care-related development in this region.

  18. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention. (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier


    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Insurance coverage of pediatric burns: Switzerland versus USA. (United States)

    Deghayli, Lina; Moufarrij, Sara; Norberg, Michael; Sheridan, Robert; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Applegate, Lee Ann


    Burn care and research have significantly improved over the past years. However, insurance coverage of such treatments does not reflect the improvements in this multi-disciplinary field. Government insurance policies in first world countries renown for burn care treatment, such as Switzerland and the United States, have not adapted to the complexity and longitudinal nature of burn care. Using case studies from both countries, we have analyzed both the institutional and policy approach to pediatric burn treatment coverage. Subsequently, by presenting the Shriners burn care model, we offer a policy recommendation to both the Swiss and the American governments to better their present legislation and infrastructure on pediatric burn coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in caregivers of pediatric burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen


    Full Text Available Facing a severe injury in the children is one of the most devastating experiences that parents may face. The aim of this study was to explore the role of resilience showed by fathers and mothers of children with burns, the TBSA burned, age at the time of the burn and time since the burn in PTSD symptoms in caregivers. It was a cross-sectional study where fathers, mothers and guardians of 51 burn patients were evaluated. Results showed that the higher strength and confidence in caregivers, less severity in PTSD symptoms. The post-burn reactions of parents and guardians can affect the responses and welfare of their children. Therefore, a better understanding of factors related to the adaptation in caregivers, better attention by health services.

  1. An unusual electrical burn caused by alkaline batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyng-Luen Roan


    Full Text Available Electrical burns caused by low-voltage batteries are rarely reported. We recently encountered a male patient who suffered from a superficial second-degree burn over his left elbow and back. The total body surface area of the burn was estimated to be 6%. After interviewing the patient, the cause was suspected to be related to the explosion of a music player on the left-side of his waist, carried on his belt while he was painting a bathroom wall. Elevated creatine kinase levels and hematuria indicated rhabdomyolysis and suggested an electrical burn. Initial treatment was done in the burn intensive care unit with fluid challenge and wound care. The creatine kinase level decreased gradually and the hematuria was gone after 4 days in the intensive care unit. He was then transferred to the general ward for further wound management and discharged from our burn center after a total of 11 days without surgical intervention.

  2. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient]. (United States)

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier


    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier.

  3. Epidemiology of burns in pediatric patients of Beijing City. (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Li, Dawei; Shen, Chuanan; Chai, Jiake; Zhu, Hongjuan; Lin, Yanlu; Liu, Congying


    This study aimed to assess the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric burns in Beijing City. This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients (n = 400) admitted to four burn centers in Beijing City between June 2010 and May 2011. Burn severity was determined according to total body surface area (TBSA) percentage and degree. Patients were followed up for one year. Multivariate analyses were carried out to determine the factors (burn etiology, time and place of injury, living conditions, hospital type, first-aid treatment methods, and parent/guardian knowledge of burns, educational level, occupation) affecting burn properties (severity and pigmentation/scar). 191/400 (47.8 %) patients were aged 2-3 years, and scalding was the leading etiology (355/400, 88.8 %). Burn incidence peaked in May (14.8 %), at 10:00-12:00 and 17:00-20:00. Most burn events occurred indoors (272/400, 68.0 %), especially in the kitchen (180/400, 45.0 %). Roughly half of them involved head and neck; 188 (47.0 %) patients had mild burns, 140 (35.0 %) moderate, 44 (11.0 %) extensive, and 28 (7.0 %) critical burns; 184 (46.0 %) patients were treated only with cold-water rinsing or compress; 120 (30.0 %) received no first aid. Only 32 (8.0 %) patients visited a specialized institution. 164 patients underwent surgery. Hospitalization lasted for 14.8 ± 8.1 days. Independent risk factors for burn severity were occurrence month, living conditions, occupation of the mother, and first aid. 288 (72.0 %) patients developed pigmentation and scar within a year while no independent risk factors was observed. Pediatric burns often occurred indoors, especially in the kitchen, and a substantial proportion receives no first aid.

  4. Burns first aid treatment in remote Northern Australia. (United States)

    Read, David J; Tan, Swee Chin; Ward, Linda; McDermott, Kathleen


    It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). Inclusion criterion was all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital for the period 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Variables collected and analysed include: demographics, burn mechanism, burn wound depth and adequacy of and circumstances around first aid. Overall 310 cases were analysed. Most injuries involved adults (68%), 19% Indigenous persons and 70% of all patients had their burn injury occur in the urban region. Adequate BFAT occurred in 41% of cases. Adults, contact burns and those where the burn injury occurred in the remote regions were less likely to receive adequate BFAT. Indigenous persons were less likely to attempt any BFAT at all and when they did receive BFAT it was more likely applied by an emergency responder or health professional. Overall adequacy of BFAT is low in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Remote dwellers and Indigenous persons are at increased risk of not applying or receiving adequate BFAT. The poor level of adequate BFAT demonstrated in this study suggests that the Top End community particularly remote and Indigenous persons would benefit from targeted BFAT education programs that are delivered in a culturally and linguistically appropriate fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology and trends in severe burns in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Dokter, J; Vloemans, A F; Beerthuizen, G I J M; van der Vlies, C H; Boxma, H; Breederveld, R; Tuinebreijer, W E; Middelkoop, E; van Baar, M E


    The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of severe burns in the Netherlands, including trends in burn centre admissions, non burn centre admissions and differences by age. Patients with burn-related primary admission in a Dutch centre from 1995 to 2011 were included. Nationwide prospectively collected data were used from three separate historical databases and the uniform Dutch Burn Repository R3 (2009 onwards). General hospital data were derived from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Age and gender-adjusted rates were calculated by direct standardization, using the 2005 population as the reference standard. The annual number of admitted patients increased from 430 in 1995 to 747 in 2011, incidence rates increased from 2.72 to 4.66 per 100,000. Incidence rates were high in young children, aged 0-4 years and doubled from 10.26 to 22.96 per 100,000. Incidence rates in persons from 5 up to 59 increased as well, in older adults (60 years and older) admission rates were stable. Overall burn centre mortality rate was 4.1%, and significantly decreased over time. There was a trend towards admissions of less extensive burns, median total burned surface area (TBSA) decreased from 8% to 4%. Length of stay and length of stay per percent TBSA decreased over time as well. Data on 9031 patients admitted in a 17-year period showed an increasing incidence rate of burn-related burn centre admissions, with a decreasing TBSA and decreasing in-burn centre mortality. These data are important for prevention and establishment of required burn care capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of humanistic theory concepts at a burn unit


    Ana Kelve Castro Damasceno; Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca; Maria Grasiela Teixeira Barroso


    By using a Theory Analysis model in care for burn patients, this study aimed to analyze the concepts and sub-concepts of the Humanistic Theory. An exploratory-descriptive research was carried out between February and July 2004 at a Burn Treatment Centre in Fortaleza, Brazil. The sample consisted of two nurses and two burn victims. Health, human being and nursing were selected as concepts, while dialogue, encounter, presence, call, response and communion as sub-concepts. The application of the...

  7. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan


    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  8. A `fast-burning' mechanism for magnetic diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Bo; Kan, Ming-xian; Wang, Gang-hua; Zhao, Jian-heng


    Fast-burning mechanism describes the rapid penetration, with a sharp-shaped wave-front, of a strong magnetic field into a conductive metal whose electric resistance poses an abrupt rise at some critical temperature. With its wave-front sweeping over a solid metal, the fast-burning can melt or vaporize the metal very rapidly. This paper derives formulas for the existence conditions and wave-front velocity of a fast-burning.

  9. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient. (United States)

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P


    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. An arthropod survival strategy in a frequently burned forest (United States)

    Jane Dell; Joseph O' Brien; Lydia Doan; Lora Richards; Lee Dyer


    The sound of burning stems and leaves filled our ears and smoke swirled as we marched into the longleaf pine forest to assess the experimental burn. As we walked over the ash of burned vegetation, seedbanks and plant parts lay beneath our feet waiting to grow. But what we couldn’t see were the arthropods fleeing the fire. How are these invertebrates adapted to fire?...

  11. Glaucoma in patients with ocular chemical burns. (United States)

    Lin, Michelle P; Ekşioğlu, Ümit; Mudumbai, Raghu C; Slabaugh, Mark A; Chen, Philip P


    To examine the development and management of glaucoma in patients with ocular chemical burns. Retrospective, observational case series. setting: University of Washington Eye Clinics. patient population: Twenty-nine eyes (18 patients) with ocular chemical burns seen between 1997 and 2010 with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up. observation procedure: Eyes were graded using the Roper-Hall scale. main outcome measures: Long-term use of glaucoma medications (3 months or more) and need for glaucoma surgery. The mean age was 45 ± 17 years, with a mean follow-up of 75 ± 47 months (median, 66 months). Roper-Hall grade III or IV eyes (n = 20) had significantly higher intraocular pressure at presentation (35.9 vs 16.4 mm Hg; P = .001) and over follow-up were more likely to require long-term glaucoma medications (P = .003) or to undergo glaucoma surgery (P = .016) than Roper-Hall grade I or II eyes. Thirteen eyes (12 Roper-Hall grade III or IV) underwent glaucoma surgery. Eight eyes underwent glaucoma tube implant surgery; 4 required at least 1 revision. Seven eyes underwent diode laser cyclophotocoagulation; 4 required repeat treatment. Most (89%) eyes had controlled intraocular pressure at the last follow-up. However, 76% of eyes with visual acuity of 20/200 or worse at initial evaluation did not have improved vision at the last follow-up. Eyes with Roper-Hall grade III or IV ocular chemical burns were more likely to have glaucoma and to require surgery for it. Outcomes of glaucoma management generally were good, although tube implant surgeries often had complications requiring revision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Nitrogen balance assessment in burn patients]. (United States)

    Beça, Andreia; Egipto, Paula; Carvalho, Davide; Correia, Flora; Oliveira, Bruno; Rodrigues, Acácio; Amarante, José; Medina, J Luís


    The burn injury probably represents the largest stimulus for muscle protein catabolism. This state is characterized by an accelerated catabolism of the lean or skeletal mass that results in a clinical negative balance of nitrogen and muscle wasting. The determination of an appropriate value for protein intake is essential, since it is positively related to the nitrogen balance (NB) and accordingly several authors argue that a positive NB is the key parameter associated with nutritional improvement of a burn patient. Evaluation of the degree of protein catabolism by assessment of the Nitrogen Balance; Defining of nutritional support (protein needs) to implement in patients with burned surface area (BSA) = 10%. We prospectively evaluated the clinical files and scrutinized the clinical variables of interest. The NB was estimated according to three formulae. Each gram of nitrogen calculated by the NB was then converted into grams of protein, subtracted or added to protein intake (or administered enteric or parenterically) and divided by kg of reference Weight (kg Rweight), in an attempt to estimate the daily protein needs. The cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 females, with average age of 58(23) years old, a mean of BSA of 21.4(8.4)%, ranging from a minimum of 10.0% and máximum of 35.0%. On average, patients were 58 (23) years old. The average number of days of hospitalization in the burn unit was 64.8(36.5) days. We observed significant differences between the 3 methods used for calculating the NB (p = 0.004), on average the NB was positive. When the formula A was used the average value of NB was higher. Regarding the attempt to estimate the needs of g prot/kg Rweight/day most of the values did not exceed, on average, 2.6 g Prot/kg Rweight/day and no significant differences between patients with a BSA% of 10-20% and with BSA% > 20% were found. Despite being able to estimate the protein catabolism through these formulas and verifying that most values were above zero

  13. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hai -Chou [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b559 and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Qy-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of ~1 cm-1/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  14. A Burns Case Due to Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu


    Full Text Available Traditional treatment methods are often applied in our country. Ranunculaceae that grows as a weed in Sivas region is used topically in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In this case, we present a 53-year- old patient who applied the ranunculaceae for knee pain topically and eventually, there appeared burn on the skin. The patient treated from wound debridement in our hospital, received wound care and was discharged. The occurence os such cases, uncontrolled and continuous use of herbal treatments can still be observed and research on plants leads people to act more consciously.

  15. Severe gastrointestinal burn with hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Araz


    Full Text Available Inadvertantly or purposely, an oral intake of corrosive substances may cause life-threatening problems. Early admission to the hospital, clinical and endoscopic evaluation, and early surgery when required, may reduce morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient, who had attempted suicide, by drinking about 800 mL of 25% hydrochloric acid, and who had severe intra-abdominal damage. The aim of this report is to state the fact that a good outcome is possible in severe burns caused by oral intake of corrosive substances, when fast, multidisciplinary, and appropriate management is provided on time.

  16. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A.J.; Payne, A.R.


    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  17. Burns from acetylene gas: more than skin deep. (United States)

    Al-Hassani, Fawaz; Amin, Kavit; Lo, Steven


    Oxyacetylene welding torches are commonly used in industry, yet serious burns are fortunately rare. When dealing with the sequelae of these burn injuries, one must be aware of the high pressure component of these flame burns, which can penetrate and dissect the subcutaneous tissue. Appropriate initial assessment and preoperative planning are, therefore, essential to exclude and identify problems such as, compartment syndrome, subcutaneous emphysema and acute carpal tunnel syndrome. We present a case in which an innocuous palmar burn revealed a penetrating flame injury into the carpal tunnel. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Gold standards for primary care of burn management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Zor


    Full Text Available Every year, about 2.5 million people are affected from burns in the world. In our country there is no reliable database related to this subject. There are ongoing studies about the epidemiology of burns in Turkey. After burn injury had represent many various complications, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac deficiency, acute hypertension, endocarditis, thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, respiratuar failure, renal failure, gastric ulcus, ileus, sepsis, coagulopathy and anemia. Such complications can preventable or treatable. In this respect, preventive management in the first step burn treatment had very importantly in burn cases. Skin is a barrier which protects evaporative heat loss. In cases of acute burn, hypothermia occurs related to skin loss. For these cases, care must be taken to keep the patient warm. In addition fluid resuscitation is very important in these cases. Furthermore, the damaged tissues are highly susceptible to infection in burned patients. Burn care and rehabilitation includes challenging and complex procedures. Briefly, treatments of burn cases require a multidisciplinary and meticulous approach.

  19. Epidemiology of Burns in Rural Bangladesh: An Update. (United States)

    He, Siran; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Sharmin, Shumona; Islam, Irteja; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Arifeen, Shams El


    Each year, approximately 265,000 deaths occur due to burns on a global scale. In Bangladesh, around 173,000 children under 18 sustain a burn injury. Since most epidemiological studies on burn injuries in low and middle-income countries are based on small-scale surveys or hospital records, this study aims to derive burn mortality and morbidity measures and risk factors at a population level in Bangladesh. A household survey was conducted in seven rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 2013 to assess injury outcomes. Burn injuries were one of the external causes of injury. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors were described using descriptive as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 deaths and 528 injuries per 100,000 populations. Females had a higher burn rate. More than 50% of injuries were seen in adults 25 to 64 years of age. Most injuries occurred in the kitchen while preparing food. 88% of all burns occurred due to flame. Children 1 to 4 years of age were four times more likely to sustain burn injuries as compared to infants. Age-targeted interventions, awareness of first aid protocols, and improvement of acute care management would be potential leads to curb death and disability due to burn injuries.

  20. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review. (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra


    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended.

  1. Impact of prescribed burning on a heathland inhabiting spider community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause, Rolf Harald


    Full Text Available Heathlands can provide refuge for many stenotopic and endangered arthropods, if habitat management practices are applied. A management measure that is rarely being used today, but which has the potential to support diversity of arthropod communities, is prescribed burning. In this study we investigated the effects of prescribed burning on spider assemblages on a burned site with Calluna vulgaris in the nature reserve Lueneburg Heath, northwest Germany. We used pitfall trapping with a sampling design of 39 traps over a period of one year and 17 sampling intervals on a burned and a control site. We compared overall species richness, activity abundance patterns and community composition of the two sites, with a particular focus on stenotopic and endangered species. We collected 5116 adult spiders and 99 species altogether in a relatively small sampling area. This number of species represents nearly one third of the regional species pool of heathland spider species. Twelve species occurred exclusively on the burned site in contrast to 28 species exclusively found on the unburned site. Although we found more than twice as many spider individuals and higher mean species richness on the control site than on the burned site, the species richness of red-listed spiders was higher on the burned site. Especially the fact that we found 24 endangered species on the burned site and only 20 on the control site indicates that the applied measure of prescribed burning can foster certain endangered spider species and contribute to preserving the overall biodiversity of heathland ecosystems.

  2. Study of Alterations in Lipid Profile After Burn Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Asha Khubchandani


    Full Text Available Introduction: After burn injury, changes in lipid profile occur in body. Dyslipidemia after burn injury is one of the important alterations. Objective: To check alterations in lipid profile after burn injury. Materials and Method: It was cross sectional study which was carried out on 250 burns patients of both sex, with an age group of 18-45 years, and varying burns percentage of 20-80% of total body surface area (TBSA. Serum cholesterol, serum LDL, serum HDL and serum triglyceride level were measured on XL-640 fully-auto biochemical analyser. Serum LDL and HDL were measured by Accelerator Selective Detergent Method. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride were measured by Trindor’s method. Results: Results showed decrease in serum cholesterol, serum LDL and serum HDL, while increase in serum triglyceride level in burns patients compared to normal subjects. Conclusion: This study clearly showed the importance of measuring serum cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL in burn patients and targeting changes that occur in their levels along the burns course, which may have beneficial effect in protection from organ damage, increasing survival rates and improving burn outcome.

  3. Stromal vascular fraction improves deep partial thickness burn wound healing. (United States)

    Atalay, Sibel; Coruh, Atilla; Deniz, Kemal


    The practice of early burn wound excision and wound closure by immediate autologous skin or skin substitutes is the preferred treatment in extensive deep partial and full-thickness burns. To date there is no proven definite medical treatment to decrease burn wound size and accelerate burn wound healing in modern clinical practice. Stromal vascular fraction is an autologous mixture that has multiple proven beneficial effects on different kinds of wounds. In our study, we investigated the effects of stromal vascular fraction on deep partial-thickness burn wound healing. In this study, 20 Wistar albino rats were used. Inguinal adipose tissue of the rats was surgically removed and stromal vascular fraction was isolated. Thereafter, deep second-degree burns were performed on the back of the rats by hot water. The rats were divided into two groups in a randomized fashion. The therapy group received stromal vascular fraction, whereas the control group received only physiologic serum by intradermal injection. Assessment of the burn wound healing between the groups was carried out by histopathologic and immuno-histochemical data. Stromal vascular fraction increased vascular endothelial growth factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, and reduced inflammation of the burn wound. Furthermore, vascularization and fibroblastic activity were achieved earlier and observed to be at higher levels in the stromal vascular fraction group. Stromal vascular fraction improves burn wound healing by increasing cell proliferation and vascularization, reducing inflammation, and increasing fibroblastic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.


    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  5. Pattern of burn injury in hang-glider pilots. (United States)

    Campbell, D C; Nano, T; Pegg, S P


    High-voltage electrical injury has been well documented in a number of situations, such as the occupational hazard of linesmen and construction workers, and in the context of overhead railway power lines. Two cases of hang-glider pilots contacting 11,000-volt power lines have recently been treated in the Royal Brisbane Hospital Burns Unit. They demonstrate an interesting pattern of injury, not described in current burns literature, involving both hand and lower abdominal burns. Both patients sustained full-thickness patches of burn injury, with underlying muscle damage and peripheral neurological injury. This distribution of injury seems to be closely related to the design of the hang glider.

  6. Myths on Chemical Burns in the Diaper Area. (United States)

    Shah, Kara


    Over the past several years, a number of articles and online posts have circulated on the Internet associating use of disposable and cloth diapers with chemical burns on babies' skin. Because both mild chemical burns and diaper dermatitis (diaper rash) can cause skin redness and peeling, it is not surprising that some confusion has arisen regarding the association between these two conditions. However, diapers cannot cause chemical burns because they are made of inert materials. Diaper rash and chemical burns are distinct conditions that require different evaluation and treatment, which is why it is important for pediatricians to help parents understand the difference.


    Ishchuk, T V; Savchuk, O M; Raetska, Ya B; Vereschaka, V V; Ostapchenko, L I


    The main result of esophagus burn is the formation of scars, that caused by excessive synthesis of collagen and changes the balance of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors. It was studied the activity of proteolytic enzymes, participation of MMP (metalloproteinase) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) in alkali burns of the esophagus 1st and 2nd degrees. We have shown a significant increase of TIMP level in homogenate after alkali burns of the esophagus (an average of 31-56% depend on of burn degree). We observed a reduced activity of serine proteinase after 1st degree burns on 15th, 21st day 35 and 18% respectively, after burns 2nd degree on 15th, 21st day 54 and 50%. The decrease of activity MMP after 1st degree burns on 15th and 21st day 30, 19%, respectively, in conditions of chemical burns 2nd degree on 15th and 21st day 30, 37%. These data may indicate the development of scarring after burn simulation of 2nd degree. Further investigation of the MMP and TIMP in the process of wound healing can be useful in creating effective approaches to prevent formation of post scarring of the esophagus.

  8. Accidental Chemical Burns of Oral Mucosa by Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Deo


    Full Text Available Glyphosate (GlySH is a broad spectrum, nonselective herbicide, widely used in agriculture. This case report describes a 25-year-old man presenting with extensive chemical burns and ulceration of the oral cavity as a result of accidental exposure to GlySH. This paper aims to illustrate the typical appearance of GlySH related chemical mucosal burn and to demonstrate the severity of the corrosive effect of GlySH which need team approach to prevent unfavorable sequelae such as microstomia. Keywords: Chemical burns, corrosive injury, glyphosate poisoning, herbicide, microstomia, oral mucosal burn.

  9. A systematic review of quantitative burn wound microbiology in the management of burns patients. (United States)

    Halstead, Fenella D; Lee, Kwang Chear; Kwei, Johnny; Dretzke, Janine; Oppenheim, Beryl A; Moiemen, Naiem S


    The early diagnosis of infection or sepsis in burns are important for patient care. Globally, a large number of burn centres advocate quantitative cultures of wound biopsies for patient management, since there is assumed to be a direct link between the bioburden of a burn wound and the risk of microbial invasion. Given the conflicting study findings in this area, a systematic review was warranted. Bibliographic databases were searched with no language restrictions to August 2015. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed in duplicate using pre-defined criteria. Substantial heterogeneity precluded quantitative synthesis, and findings were described narratively, sub-grouped by clinical question. Twenty six laboratory and/or clinical studies were included. Substantial heterogeneity hampered comparisons across studies and interpretation of findings. Limited evidence suggests that (i) more than one quantitative microbiology sample is required to obtain reliable estimates of bacterial load; (ii) biopsies are more sensitive than swabs in diagnosing or predicting sepsis; (iii) high bacterial loads may predict worse clinical outcomes, and (iv) both quantitative and semi-quantitative culture reports need to be interpreted with caution and in the context of other clinical risk factors. The evidence base for the utility and reliability of quantitative microbiology for diagnosing or predicting clinical outcomes in burns patients is limited and often poorly reported. Consequently future research is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of burn care at an emerging centralised burns unit | Kingu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the demographics, aetiological factors, anatomical lesions, biological features, management protocol and outcomes of patients admitted with major burn injuries to the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital (NMAH), which is one of only three tertiary hospitals in the Eastern ...

  11. Unsupervised Spatio-Temporal Data Mining Framework for Burned Area Mapping (United States)

    Boriah, Shyam (Inventor); Kumar, Vipin (Inventor); Mithal, Varun (Inventor); Khandelwal, Ankush (Inventor)


    A method reduces processing time required to identify locations burned by fire by receiving a feature value for each pixel in an image, each pixel representing a sub-area of a location. Pixels are then grouped based on similarities of the feature values to form candidate burn events. For each candidate burn event, a probability that the candidate burn event is a true burn event is determined based on at least one further feature value for each pixel in the candidate burn event. Candidate burn events that have a probability below a threshold are removed from further consideration as burn events to produce a set of remaining candidate burn events.

  12. Diabetes mellitus after injury in burn and non-burned patients: A population based retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M


    To compare hospitalisations for diabetes mellitus (DM) after injury experienced by burn patients, non-burn trauma patients and people with no record of injury admission, adjusting for socio-demographic, health and injury factors. Linked hospital and death data for a burn patient cohort (n=30,997) in Western Australia during the period 1980-2012 and two age and gender frequency matched comparison cohorts: non-burn trauma patients (n=28,647); non-injured people (n=123,399). The number of DM admissions and length of stay were used as outcome measures. Multivariate negative binomial regression was used to derive adjusted incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (IRR, 95%CI) for overall post-injury DM admission rates. Multivariate Cox regression models and hazard ratios (HR) were used to examine time to first DM admission and incident admission rates after injury discharge. The burn cohort (IRR, 95%: 2.21, 1.80-2.72) and other non-burn trauma cohort (IRR, 95%CI: 1.63, 1.24-2.14) experienced significantly higher post-discharge admission rates for DM than non-injured people. Compared with the non-burn trauma cohort, the burn cohort experienced a higher rate of post-discharge DM admissions (IRR, 95%CI: 1.40, 1.07-1.84). First-time DM admissions were significantly higher during first 5-years after-injury for the burn cohort compared with the non-burn trauma cohort (HR, 95%CI: 2.00, 1.31-3.05) and non-injured cohort (HR, 95%CI: 1.96, 1.46-2.64); no difference was found >5years (burn vs. non-burn trauma: HR, 95%CI: 0.88, 0.70-1.12; burn vs non-injured: 95%CI: 1.08 0.82-1.41). No significant difference was found when comparing the non-burn trauma and non-injured cohorts (0-5 years: HR, 95%CI: 1.03, 0.71-1.48; >5years: HR. 95%CI: 1.11, 0.93-1.33). Burn and non-burn trauma patients experienced elevated rates of DM admissions after injury compared to the non-injured cohort over the duration of the study. While burn patients were at increased risk of incident DM

  13. Psychometric properties of the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile in adults with burn scars. (United States)

    Tyack, Zephanie; Kimble, Roy; McPhail, Steven; Plaza, Anita; Simons, Megan


    The aim of the study was to determine the longitudinal validity, reproducibility, responsiveness and interpretability of the adult version of the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile, a patient-report measure of health-related quality of life. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of patients with or at risk of burn scarring was conducted at three assessment points (at baseline around the time of wound healing, one to two weeks post-baseline and 1-month post-baseline). Participants attending a major metropolitan adult burn centre at baseline were recruited. Participants completed the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey and Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs), smallest detectable change, percentage of those who improved, stayed the same or worsened and Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) were used to test the aim. Data were included for 118 participants at baseline, 68 participants at one to two weeks and 57 participants at 1-month post-baseline. All groups of items had acceptable reproducibility, except for the overall impact of burn scars (ICC = 0.69), the impact of sensations which was not expected to be stable (ICC = 0.63), mobility and daily activities (ICC = 0.63, 0.67 respectively). The responsiveness of six out of seven groups of items able to be tested against external criterion was supported (AUC = 0.72-0.75). Hypothesised correlations of changes in the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile items with changes in criterion measures generally supported longitudinal validity (e.g., nine out of thirteen hypotheses using the SF-36 as an external criterion were supported). Internal consistency estimates, item-total and inter-item correlations indicated there was likely redundancy of some groups of items, particularly in the relationships and social interaction, appearance and emotional reactions items (Chronbach's alpha range = 0.94-0.95). Support was found

  14. Psychometric properties of the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile in adults with burn scars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zephanie Tyack

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the longitudinal validity, reproducibility, responsiveness and interpretability of the adult version of the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile, a patient-report measure of health-related quality of life.A prospective longitudinal cohort study of patients with or at risk of burn scarring was conducted at three assessment points (at baseline around the time of wound healing, one to two weeks post-baseline and 1-month post-baseline. Participants attending a major metropolitan adult burn centre at baseline were recruited. Participants completed the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey and Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs, smallest detectable change, percentage of those who improved, stayed the same or worsened and Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC were used to test the aim.Data were included for 118 participants at baseline, 68 participants at one to two weeks and 57 participants at 1-month post-baseline. All groups of items had acceptable reproducibility, except for the overall impact of burn scars (ICC = 0.69, the impact of sensations which was not expected to be stable (ICC = 0.63, mobility and daily activities (ICC = 0.63, 0.67 respectively. The responsiveness of six out of seven groups of items able to be tested against external criterion was supported (AUC = 0.72-0.75. Hypothesised correlations of changes in the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile items with changes in criterion measures generally supported longitudinal validity (e.g., nine out of thirteen hypotheses using the SF-36 as an external criterion were supported. Internal consistency estimates, item-total and inter-item correlations indicated there was likely redundancy of some groups of items, particularly in the relationships and social interaction, appearance and emotional reactions items (Chronbach's alpha range = 0.94-0.95.Support

  15. Mortality and causes of death of Dutch burn patients during the period 2006-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, J.; Felix, M.; Krijnen, P.; Vloemans, A.F.P.M.; van Baar, M.E.; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; Breederveld, R.S.


    The Dutch Burn Repository Group consists of: Burn Center Beverwijk: E.C. Kuijper, F.R.H. Tempelman, A.F.P.M. Vloemans, P.P.M. van Zuijlen. Burn Center Rotterdam: A. van Es, H. Hofland, J. Dokter. Burn Center Groningen: J. Eshuis, J. Hiddingh, S. Scholten- Jaegers. Association of Dutch Burn Centers:

  16. Local treatment of burns by honey is not appropriate | Ghezala | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the world health organization (WHO), management of burns should be well codified and organized such as in trauma patients. The severity of burns is determined usually by the burned surface area, the depth of burn and other considerations. Morbidity and mortality rises with increasing burned surface.

  17. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H


    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  18. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A


    Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.

  19. Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief in Pregnant Burned Women: Translation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Persian Version


    Amir Hossein Goudarzian; Mozhgan Taebei; Aria Soleimani; Mohammad Tahmasbi; Mahshid Ahmadi; Mohammad Hamid Madani


    Background   The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) in pregnant women suffering from burns.   Materials and Methods   This cross-cultural psychometrics study was done in 2015 to 2016 and included 410 pregnant burned patients. Participants completed BSHS-B. The face, content and construct validity of the scale were ascertained. Reliability was also assessed using internal consistency, construct r...

  20. Randomized controlled trial of three burns dressings for partial thickness burns in children. (United States)

    Gee Kee, E L; Kimble, R M; Cuttle, L; Khan, A; Stockton, K A


    This study compared the effects of three silver dressing combinations on small to medium size acute partial thickness burns in children, focusing on re-epithelialization time, pain and distress during dressing changes. Children (0-15 years) with clean, ≤ 10% total body surface area (TBSA) partial thickness burns who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Children received either (1) Acticoat™; (2) Acticoat™ with Mepitel™; or (3) Mepilex Ag™ dressings. Measures of burn re-epithelialization, pain, and distress were recorded at dressing changes every 3-5 days until full re-epithelialization occurred. One hundred and three children were recruited with 96 children included for analysis. No infections were detected for the course of the study. When adjusted for burn depth, Acticoat™ significantly increased the expected days to full re-epithelialization by 40% (IRR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.14-1.73, p dressing removal (p = 0.01) and 37% lower at new dressing application (p = 0.04); and scores in the Acticoat™ with Mepitel™ group were 23% lower at dressing removal (p = 0.04) and 40% lower at new dressing application (p dressing removal (p = 0.04) and 34% lower in the Acticoat™ with Mepitel™ group (p = 0.02) at new dressing application in comparison to the Acticoat™ group. There was no significant difference between the Mepilex Ag™ and the Acticoat™ with Mepitel™ groups at all timepoints and with any pain measure. Mepilex Ag™ is an effective silver dressing, in terms of accelerated wound re-epithelialization time (compared to Acticoat™ and Acticoat™ with Mepitel™) and decreased pain during dressing changes (compared to Acticoat™), for clean, burns in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. An idiosyncratic history of burn scars. (United States)

    Petro, Jane A


    The history of burn scars can best be found in military medical history. The care of wounded soldiers documented in the Illiad reflected the trauma of the weapons of war, arrow, spear, sword, and ax. The introduction of gunpowder in the 14th century, increasingly sophisticated explosives, and in modern times, petroleum-driven vehicles, including airplanes, created a new subset of wounds requiring attention and post-survival scars challenging the quality of survival. This article selects from among a myriad of examples of modern military treatments as they relate to those survivors. Larrey, with Napolean's Grand Army, Sir Harold Gilles during and following World War I, and the Boston area preparation and response to the Cocoanut Grove Fire in 1942 are the principle topics examined. Recent modern interventions, related to the survival of horrific blast and burn injuries, with modern wound care and scar manipulation techniques provide context to the current ability to modify healing and scars. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  2. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece. (United States)

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O


    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  3. Mechanistic Reactive Burn Modeling of Solid Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.Horie; Y.Hamate; D.Greening


    This report describes a computational framework for reactive burn modeling of solid explosives and the development of a test case where physical mechanisms represent RDX or RDX-based materials. The report is a sequel to LA-13794-MS, ''A Unifying Framework for Hot Spots and the Ignition of Energetic Materials,'' where we proposed a new approach to the building of a general purpose model that captures the essential features of the three primary origins of hot-spot formation: void collapse, shear banding, friction. The purpose of the present report is to describe the continuing task of coupling the unifying hot-spot model to hydrodynamic calculations to develop a mechanistic reactive burn model. The key components of the coupling include energy localization, the growth of hot spots, overall hot-spot behavior, and a phase-averaged mixture equation of state (EOS) in a Mie-Grueneisen form. The nucleation and growth of locally heated regions is modeled by a phenomenological treatment as well as a statistical model based on an exponential size distribution. The Mie-Grueneisen form of the EOS is one of many possible choices and is not a critical selection for implementing the model. In this report, model calculations are limited to proof-of-concept illustrations for shock loading. Results include (1) shock ignition and growth-to-detonation, (2) double shock ignition, and (3) quenching and reignition. A comparative study of Pop-plots is discussed based on the statistical model.

  4. Energy poverty, shack fires and childhood burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Kimemia


    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a persisting challenge in South Africa. Energy poverty, prevalent in under-resourced communities, is a key contributor to the problem. The energy-poor rely on solid fuels and flammable hydrocarbons, such as paraffin, for energy services. The fuels are burnt in inefficient, leaky and unstable appliances, leading to health losses from pollutant emissions, burns, and conflagrations. Within cramped informal home settings, using flammable fuels and risky combustion technologies, the situation can become devastating, especially for young children. Those who survive fiery incidents have to contend with trauma and property losses that may lead to further impoverishment. Proactive intervention strategies are required and should include the broadening of access to safe and sustainable energy. We advocate greater enforcement of home appliance standards and targeted support for the distribution of proven alternative energy technologies, such as liquefied petroleum gas and solar power. Support and advocacy from professional and citizen groups would be necessary to ensure that government prioritises the safe energy requirements of poor citizens.

  5. Numerical Simulations of Acoustically Driven, Burning Droplets (United States)

    Kim, Heon-Chang; Karagozian, Ann R.; Smith, Owen I.


    The burning characteristics of fuel droplets exposed to external acoustical excitation within a microgravity environment are investigated numerically. The issue of acoustic excitation of flames in microgravity is especially pertinent to understanding the behavior of accidental fires which could occur in spacecraft crew quarters and which could be affected by pressure perturbations as result from ventilation fans or engine vibrations. Combustion of methanol fuel droplets is considered here using a full chemical reaction mechanism.(Marchese, A.J., et al., 26th Symp. (Int.) on Comb., p. 1209, 1997) The droplet and surrounding diffusion flame are situated within a cylindrical acoustic waveguide where standing waves are generated with varying frequency and amplitude. Applied sound pressure levels are limited at present to magnitudes for which the droplet shape remains spherical. A third order accurate, essentially-non-oscillatory (ENO) numerical scheme is employed to accurately resolve the spatial and temporal evolution of the flame front. Acoustically excited vs. non-excited external conditions for the burning droplet in microgravity are compared, and the effects of acoustic frequency, sound pressure level, and relative position of the droplet with respect to pressure and velocity nodes are explored.

  6. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns? (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y


    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  7. Pre-burn malnutrition increases operative mortality in burn patients who undergo early excision and grafting in a sub-Saharan African burn unit. (United States)

    Grudziak, Joana; Snock, Carolyn; Zalinga, Tiyamike; Banda, Wone; Gallaher, Jared; Purcell, Laura; Cairns, Bruce; Charles, Anthony


    In the developed world, pre-existing malnutrition in the burn population influences operative outcomes. However, studies on pre-existing malnutrition and operative outcomes of burn patients in the developing world are lacking. We therefore sought to characterize the burn injury outcomes following operative intervention based on nutritional status. This is a retrospective review of operative patients admitted to our burn unit from July 2011 to May 2016. Age-adjusted Z scores were calculated for height, weight, weight for height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). Following bivariate analysis, we constructed a fully adjusted logistic regression model of significant predictors of post-operative mortality, both overall and for specific age categories. Of the 1356 admitted patients, 393 received operative intervention (29%). Of those, 205 (52.2%) were male, and the median age was 6 years (3, 25), with 265 patients (67%) aged ≤16 years. The median TBSA was 15.4% (10%-25%) and open flames caused the majority of burns (64%), though in children under 5, scalds were the predominant cause of burn (52.2%). Overall mortality was 14.5% (57 patients) and ranged from 9.09% for patients aged 6-16, to 33.3% for adults ≥50years. Increased time from injury to operative intervention was protective (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99). In post-operative patients with z-scores, increasing %TBSA burned (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.17) and increasing malnutrition (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.91) predicted death in the adjusted model. Poor nutrition is an important risk factor for post-operative mortality in burned patients in resource-poor settings. Screening for malnutrition and designing effective interventions to optimize nutritional status may improve surgical outcomes in LMIC burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology of burns in teaching hospital of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtazudin Wani


    Full Text Available Background: There is no information on the pattern of outcomes among burn patients in relation to clinical aspects in India. Hence, the present study was undertaken in a burn unit to determine selected epidemiological variables, assess the clinical aspects (etiology, extent and anatomical location and finally to analyze the outcomes in cases of burn injury. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken to analyze the patients admitted to the Burn Unit of Government Medical college Srinagar. The study was carried over a period 2 years from January 2013 to December 2014. Various variables including age and sex distribution, nature of burn injuries, Anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area burnt, depth of burns, Survival of expired patients and mortality were recorded and analyzed. Results: Highest incidence of burns was in the age group between 21 and 40 years; 61% patients were females and 39% were males; majority of our patients had burns in the range of 20 to 40% TBSA (total body surface area; mortality rate in our study was 36.82%; most common site of the burn injury was upper limb(30.19%;among patients who died those with TBSA burn of >60%, 41 to 60% and 31 to 40% succumbed within three, six and nine days respectively. Age ranged from 6 months to 93 years. Mean age of the patients was 31 years. Eighty percent patients belonged to rural areas and 20% belonged to Urban locality. Conclusion: People with low educational qualification should be taught about the proper and safe usage of modern appliances based on electricity, LPG or kerosene. People with psychiatric problems or low intelligence quotient (I.Q should be helped by their care takers in avoiding the burn injuries and also devices with alarms should be used in their households. Fuel or electric devices should be checked by a trained person regularly (e.g once in month to avoid usage of faulty devices.

  9. Characteristics of paediatric burns in Sichuan province: epidemiology and prevention. (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Cen, Ying; Chen, Jun-Jie; Xu, Xue-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xue


    This study analysed the epidemiology of paediatric burns in Sichuan province, China, for the formulation of prevention programmes for this population. A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients admitted to the Burn Centre of West China Hospital during 2003-2009, including patient demographics, burn aetiology, time and place of burn, rural or urban population, and education level and burn knowledge of the patients' guardians. A total of 1387 paediatric burn patients, mean age 3.21 years (range 0-14 years) were admitted. The majority (72.1%) were 0-3 years old, and the male/female ratio was 2.39:1. Most common aetiologies were scalds (81.3%), flames (17.1%), and electricity (1.3%), while chemical burns were rare. The ratio of indoor versus outdoor location was 4.93:1, and the rural/urban ratio was 4.03:1. Burns were classified as: total burn surface area (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 5%, (23.9% of patients); TBSA between 5% and 15% (33.2%); TBSA between 15% and 25% (29.8%); TBSA greater than 25% (13.1%). There was a higher prevalence from April to September, and the peak times were mealtime and bathtime. The education level was lower in the rural group. Both urban and rural groups had little knowledge of first aid for burns. Burn prevention programmes should promote improved living conditions, with prevention education addressed directly to the guardians of children. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Early and late complications of ocular burn injuries. (United States)

    Cabalag, Miguel S; Wasiak, Jason; Syed, Quaderi; Paul, Eldho; Hall, Anthony J; Cleland, Heather


    Ocular involvement in facial burns may lead to significant long-term morbidity. The aims of this study were to analyse the epidemiology, management and outcomes of ocular burn injuries, as well as to identify risk factors for developing early and late ocular complications. A retrospective medical chart review was conducted for 125 patients with ocular burns who were admitted to the Victorian Adult Burns Service (VABS), from November 2000 to January 2010. Univariate analyses was utilised to identify demographic and injury related variables associated with early and late complications. The majority of patients were male (n=101, 80.8%), and the mean (range) age was 40.7 (15-86) years. The most common mechanism was flame burns (n=77, 61.6%), and most were accidental (n=114, 91.2%). Early ocular complications occurred in 50 (40.0% [95% CI: 31.3%-49.1%]) patients, with the commonest being visual loss (n=39, 31.2%). Chemical burns, ocular discomfort, peri-orbital oedema, corneal injury, as well as eyelid and facial burns of increasing severity were associated with developing an early complication. Late ocular complications occurred in 19 (15.2% [95% CI: 9.4%-22.7%]) patients, with visual loss being the most frequent (n=13, 10.4%). Chemical burns, ocular discomfort, corneal injury of increasing severity, visual loss on presentation, ectropion, as well as eyelid burns of increasing depth were associated with late morbidity. Chemical burns, ocular discomfort, as well as corneal injury and eyelid burns of increasing severity were risk factors for both early and late ocular complications. III (retrospective comparative study). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Metallothionein in Post-Burn Inflammation. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yongjun; Liu, Weihua; Xu, Xuefeng; Chen, Xuelian; Liu, Hairong; Liu, Yueming


    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular-weight and cysteine-rich metalloproteins that regulate metal metabolism and protect cells from oxygen free radicals. Recent studies suggested that MTs have some anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of MTs in post-burn inflammation remains unclear. This study is designed to investigate the role of MTs in post-burn inflammation in a mouse burn model. MT-I/II null (-/-) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were randomly divided into sham burn, burn, Zn treated, and Zn-MT-2 treated groups. The inflammatory cytokines levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined by spectrophotometry. In in vitro study, exogenous MT-2 was added to macrophages that were stimulated with burn serum in the presence or absence of a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. The IL-6 and TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The levels of p38 expression were determined by Western blot. Burn induced increased inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factors-α, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 production in burn wound and serum. The MPO activities in the lung and heart were also increased after burn. These effects were significantly more prominent in MT (-/-) mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, these effects were inhibited by administration of exogenous MT-2 to both WT and MT (-/-) mice. Exogenous MT-2 inhibited the p38 expression and abrogated the increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression from macrophages that were stimulated with burn serum. The effect of MT-2 was not further strengthened in the presence of SB203580. MTs may have a protective role against post-burn inflammation and inflammatory organ damage, at least partly through inhibiting the p38 MAPK signaling.

  12. Epidemiological analysis of burn patients in east Bulgaria. (United States)

    Zayakova, Yolanda; Vajarov, Ivailo; Stanev, Anton; Nenkova, Natalia; Hristov, Hristo


    The purpose of the study was to identify the basic epidemiological characteristics of burn patients in East Bulgaria, as well as to analyze trends in burns in the region over the last decade. Retrospective data of burn patients treated at Military Hospital-Varna, in the period January 2002-December 2011, was reviewed and statistically interpreted in terms of patients and burn demographics; etiology; place of incidents; hospital stay and mortality. Trends were observed for the entire period and comparative analyses of patients' data were made between two periods: first - 2002-2006 and second 2007-2011. A total of 2627 burn patients, median age 41 years (IQR 9-61) were admitted to our burn unit. For the entire period the most affected age groups were ≤ 4 years (21.6%) and ≥ 65 years (21.1%). Hospitalized patients increased in the second period (n = 1701) compared to the first one (n = 926), while the size of total burn surface area decreased (first period - 9.8% vs. second period - 10.6%). Scald (51%) and flame (23.8%) were the most frequent aetiological agents for both periods. Work related burns reduced in the second period (9.4% vs. 4.9%), while home burns (90.6 vs. 95.1%) increased. Hospital stay declined from 17 days (2002-2006) to 7 days (2007-2011), whereas mortality rate slightly increased (first period - 2.3% vs. second period - 3.6%). Burns remain a significant health problem in Bulgaria. The future preventive actions should take into account the observed changes in burn demographics and target the most vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. [Epidemiological investigation on 2 133 hospitalized patients with electrical burns]. (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Li, Z; Xie, W G


    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the hospitalized patients with electrical burns in Institute of Burns of Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University & Wuhan Third Hospital (hereinafter referred to as Institute of Burns of Wuhan Third Hospital), so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of electrical burns. Methods: Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients in Institute of Burns of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 2004 to December 2016 were collected. Genders, ages, social categories, seasons of injury, total burn areas, depths of wounds, electrical voltages of injury, sites of wound, treatment methods, amputation rates, lengths of hospital stay, operation costs, hospitalization costs, and treatment outcomes of the electrical burn patients were collected. Treatment methods, lengths of hospital stay, operation costs, and hospitalization costs of the thermal burn patients were collected and compared with those of the electrical burn patients. Electrical voltages of injury, amputation rates, operation costs, hospitalization costs, and treatment outcomes were compared and analyzed between the electrical contact burn patients and the electrical arc burn patients. Data were processed with Chi-square test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: During the 13 years, 23 534 burn patients were admitted to Institute of Burns of Wuhan Third Hospital, among whom 2 133 (9.1%) were with electrical burns, without obvious variation in admission number of electrical burn patients every year. There were 1 418 patients (66.5%) with electrical contact burns and 715 patients (33.5%) with electrical arc burns. The ratio of male to female was 11.2∶1.0 among the electrical burn patients with known genders. The proportions of three age groups of more than 20 years old and less than or equal to 30 years old, more than 30 years old and less than or equal to 40 years old, and more than 40 years old and less than or equal to 50 years old were

  14. Pediatric Burns: A Single Institution Retrospective Review of Incidence, Etiology, and Outcomes in 2273 Burn Patients (1995-2013). (United States)

    Lee, Christina J; Mahendraraj, Krishnaraj; Houng, Abraham; Marano, Michael; Petrone, Sylvia; Lee, Robin; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    Unintentional burn injury is the third most common cause of death in the U.S. for children age 5 to 9, and accounts for major morbidity in the pediatric population. Pediatric burn admission data from U.S. institutions has not been reported recently. This study assesses all pediatric burn admissions to a State wide Certified Burn Treatment Center to evaluate trends in demographics, burn incidence, and cause across different age groups. Demographic and clinical data were collected on 2273 pediatric burn patients during an 18-year period (1995-2013). Pediatric patients were stratified by age into "age 0 to 6," "age 7 to 12," and "age 13 to 18." Data were obtained from National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons and analyzed using standard statistical methodology. A total of 2273 burn patients under age 18 were treated between 1995 and 2013. A total of 1663 (73.2%) patients were ages 0 to 6, 294 (12.9%) were 7 to 12, and 316 (13.9%) were age 13 to 18. A total of 1400 (61.6%) were male and 873 (38.4%) were female (male:female ratio of 1.6:1). Caucasians had the highest burn incidence across all age groups (40.9%), followed by African-Americans (33.6%), P pediatric burns occurred at home, P burned was 8.9%, with lower extremity being the most common site (38.5%). Scald burns constituted the majority of cases (71.1%, n = 1617), with 53% attributable to hot liquids related to cooking, including coffee or tea, P burns were the dominant cause (53.8%). Overall mean length of stay was 10.5 ± 10.8 days for all patients, and15.5 ± 12 for those admitted to the intensive care unit, P pediatric burn injuries are scald burns that occur at home and primarily affect the lower extremities in Caucasian and African-American males. Among Caucasian teenagers flame burns predominate. Mean length of stay was 10 days, 23% of patients required skin grafting surgery, and mortality was 0.9%. The results of this study highlight the need for primary prevention programs

  15. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns (United States)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  16. Open versus closed sandwich wound dressing method in burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 170 children under 12years admitted to the Pediatric surgical/female burn ward between the months of June 2006 to March 2007. A comparison was made between the open and closed sandwich method of burn wound dressing. The sandwich method entailed using 17 by ...

  17. Hydrocolloid dressing in pediatric burns may decrease operative intervention rates. (United States)

    Martin, Fiachra T; O'Sullivan, John B; Regan, Padraic J; McCann, Jack; Kelly, Jack L


    Partial-thickness scalds are the most common pediatric burn injury, and primary management consists of wound dressings to optimize the environment for reepithelialization. Operative intervention is reserved for burns that fail to heal using conservative methods. Worldwide, paraffin-based gauze (Jelonet) is the most common burn dressing; but literature suggests that it adheres to wounds and requires more frequent dressing change that may traumatize newly epithelialized surfaces. Hydrocolloid dressings (DuoDERM) provide an occlusive moist environment to optimize healing and are associated with less frequent dressing changes. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze pediatric burns in a single tertiary referral center over a 10-year period comparing the impact of Jelonet and DuoDERM dressings relative to operative intervention rates. All pediatric burns admitted between 1997 and 2007 were identified using the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry system. Demographics were collected from hospital records and theater logbooks. Acute, partial-thickness burns in patients younger than 15 years were analyzed according to dressing type applied (Jelonet or DuoDERM). Two hundred forty-eight pediatric burns were analyzed between 1997 and 2007. One hundred thirty-nine patients were treated with Jelonet dressings, and 109 were treated with DuoDERM. Debridement and grafting were required in 60 (43%) of the Jelonet patients compared with 10 (9%) of the DuoDERM patients (P pediatric burns.

  18. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon


    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  19. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M


    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265.382 Section 265.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... explosives or propellants Minimum distance from open burning or detonation to the property of others 0 to 100...