WorldWideScience

Sample records for burns

  1. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical burns Burns can be the result of: House and industrial fires Car accidents Playing with matches ... hairs Burned lips and mouth Coughing Difficulty breathing Dark, black-stained mucus Voice changes Wheezing

  2. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... touching the stove This list is not all-inclusive. You can also burn your airways if you ... extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and keep them ...

  3. Burn Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Koray Aydemir; Mehmet Ali Taşkaynatan

    2011-01-01

    Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The t...

  4. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  5. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take steps to avoid household burns. Never leave cooking food unattended on the stove. Set your water heater’s thermostat to 120 °F or lower to prevent scalding burns. And install smoke alarms on every floor of your home. Keep yourself and your family safe from unexpected ...

  6. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  7. Burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  8. Burns in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical...

  9. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  10. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  11. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  12. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  13. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and tend to be more severe and cover a larger portion of the body than other scald burns. 9 10 11 A survey found that only 8 percent of adults felt ...

  14. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  15. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  16. Burn wound coverage and burn wound closure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konigová, R.; Matoušková, Eva; Brož, L.

    2000. s. 9. [International Symposium and Course on Burns and Fire Desaster Management. Jerusalem Meeting /3./. 13.02.2000-16.02.2000, Jerusalem] R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4368 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  19. Perineal Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh AEmmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Perineal burns are not common in childhood but when they occur, they can produce severe complications. Conservative management by open wound care and topical agents is effective in most cases. However, in deep burns and when control of infection proves problematic, diverting colostomy may be necessary to control infection and achieve wound healing and graft take. Burns wound excision and skin grafting may be required in such cases. Contractures of various forms may develop and require plastic...

  20. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  1. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The...

  2. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  3. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  4. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  5. A Burning Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ As heaping piles of garbage grow in cities and communities across China,a divide has formed over two possible solutions to this smelly problem: Should excessive mounds of trash be burned,or should it be buried?

  6. Advances in burn treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoda, LU; Vogt, PM

    2006-01-01

    The German-speaking burn specialist, organized in the DAV (Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsmedizin) held their yearly meeting in 2004 in Rottach-Egern, Bavaria. Participants from Switzerland, Germany and Austria found a high standing, very well organized and thorough program summoned by the host, Dr. Guido Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, Munich. The topics consisted of reconstructive surgery, skin substitutes and replacement, advances in burn medicine over the last 10 years and bu...

  7. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Rajesh, E.; R Jayasri Krupaa; M. Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  8. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  9. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  10. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  11. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  12. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  13. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  14. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  15. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412

  16. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  17. Accumulative eschar after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fushun

    2016-02-01

    Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb-bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26862412

  18. Accumulative eschar after burn

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Fushun

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb‐bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  19. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  20. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  1. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

  2. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  3. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  4. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  5. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  6. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  7. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N

    2009-01-01

    Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently...

  8. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  9. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual....... Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context of the...... Greek fire-walking rituals. As a cognitive ethnography, the book aims to identify the social, psychological and neurobiological factors which may be involved and to explore the role of emotional and physiological arousal in the performance of such ritual. A study of participation, experience and meaning...

  10. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  11. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  12. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft t...

  13. Technology of straw burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the example of application of straw as fuel for a power plant with capacity of 1 MW, which is reconstructed from an old coal power plant. The article shows the advantages of straw as a source of energy, analyses the physical and chemical characteristics and temperature parameters, typical for straw. Moreover it indicates the specific circumstances of the straw burning processes. The paper focuses also on preparation and storing of straw for public use and in the energy sector. Comparing with fossil fuel, straw is a low-caloric natural source, whose energy value reached to 14-19 MJ/kg. This value depends partly on the kind of straw and its water or moisture content (MC). To the basic characteristics of energy aspects belong: - energy or heating value (HV) MJ/kg (in LPG it is MJ/ m3); - burning temperature; - melting point - temperature of ash; - weight kg/m3; - density; - Energy density MWh /m3; - Energy potential GJ/t; - Size-homogeneity of straw; - Water or Moisture Content (MC). The above mentioned characteristics have an influence on technical parameters of straw-burning boiler. These parameters define conditions process of straw preparation. (author)

  14. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  15. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Explosive hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although an impressive quantity of work has been devoted to understanding nucleosynthesis during explosive hydrogen burning, much work remain to be done. Reactions which occur in novae, x-ray bursts, and supernovae are discussed. Much attention is given to the reactions of hot CNO cycles and of reactions in the rp-process. The many reactions described in this review are not all of the reactions which may be of interest to nuclear physicists, although the rates of those reactions not discussed are essentially unknown. 123 refs., 9 figs

  17. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  18. Prognosis and treatment of burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R; Heimbach, D

    1996-01-01

    Survival rates for burn patients in general have improved markedly over the past several decades. The development of topical antibiotic therapy for burn wounds, the institution of the practice of early excision and grafting, and major advances in intensive care management have all contributed to this success. In this review we address these 3 important advances in the modern treatment of burn injuries and provide a brief historical overview of these accomplishments and others, emphasizing spe...

  19. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  20. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  1. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    OpenAIRE

    Procter Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns...

  2. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Shareen; Basavarajappa; Hanumanthappa

    2015-01-01

    A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1) OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the a...

  3. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  4. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  5. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  6. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  8. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  9. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  10. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  11. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  12. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  13. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  14. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  15. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  16. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  17. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Çizmeci; Samet Vasfi Kuvat

    2011-01-01

    Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are generea...

  18. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  19. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  1. Waste: energy to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated, transformed into fuel or a gas, waste is a versatile source of energy. It is as once a problem and a resource that is increasingly the focus of green policies. According to the 2009 World Waste Survey, between 3.4 and 4 billion tons of waste are produced each year worldwide. Leading the pack is China, with 300 million tons produced in 2005, followed closely by the United States, with 238 million tons. But the United States wins the per capita count with 760 kg of waste produced per year per inhabitant; Australia comes in second. In Europe, 500 kg of waste is produced per capita per year for a total of 2 billion tons generated annually, and a growth rate of 10% in ten years' time. Between 2/3 and 3/4 of these waste materials are sorted, and a portion of them is recycled. The rest is either carted away to a dumping ground, or incinerated. But this waste is primarily domestic, and still contains energy, energy that can be recovered. The added bonus is two-fold: an additional source of energy is created by transforming waste, called waste-to- wheel or waste-to-energy (WTE), and the decomposition of organic waste does not give off GHGs. Two ways are known today to transform wastes into energy: the thermal process, where heat is extracted from the waste (and sometimes converted into electricity), and the non-thermal process, which comprises collecting energy in a chemical form (biogas, biofuel). Both technologies depend on the type of waste to be treated: plastic materials, household refuse, fermentable elements, sludge residue from sewage treatment plants, agricultural waste, forestry industry waste, etc. The thermal process is by far the most widely employed. 74% of waste is incinerated in Japan, and around 30 to 55% in most European countries. The second process does not burn waste and is better suited to wet and organic matter, i.e., to waste that contains quantities of biomass: fermentable waste, sludge, agricultural waste and the gas given off at

  2. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  3. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  4. Epidemiology of severe burn injuries in a Tertiary Burn Centre in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Barzelighi, H.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Motevallian, A.; Alinejad, F.; Soleimanzadeh-Moghadam, S.; Sattari, M.; A R Lari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burn centre in Tehran, Iran. A hospital-based cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with burn injuries was conducted in Motahari Burn and Reconstruction Center in Tehran from August to December 2010. Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients were reviewed and pertinent information was captured. A total of 135 patients with severe burns requiring hospitalizat...

  5. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  6. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; Werf, van der G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    [1] In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires ofte

  7. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  8. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing

  9. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  10. To Burn or not to Burn: Making the Burning of Chocolate Hills of Bohol, Philippines Carbon Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel T. Bantayan; Margaret M Calderon; Flocencia B. Pulhin; Canesio D. Predo; Rose Ann C. Baruga

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen as environmentally unsound and inconsistent with existing environmental laws. The study estimated the carbon loss from burning and compared the carbon loss value with the tourism income ...

  11. Chorioretinal burn: body temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiance thresholds for chorioretinal damage in rhesus monkeys vary linearly with core temperatures between 34 and 390C. Damage results from the combined thermal effects of retinal irradiation and the body temperature. Visible damage is calculated to occur at a tissue temperature of 42.50C. Fever increases the retina's susceptibility to burns from the sun, lasers, and other radiant energy sources

  12. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  13. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  14. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Objective: To review the current concepts regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Methods and methodology: A literature review was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Google scholar about the burning mouth syndrome and the representative articles were selected and reviewed. Conclusion: There is no universal consensus regarding diagnosis, etiology and treatment of BMS. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion which probably has multifactorial origin. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments are available but it is difficult to achieve curative treatment so reassurance is of great importance while treating the patients. Combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, alpha lipoic acid and/or clonazepam has shown promising results.

  16. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  17. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  18. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shohei Ohgi; Shouzhi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Sc...

  19. Clinical profile of burn injured patients

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathiou, Flora; Svardagalou, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Burn injury is a severe systemic disease with social implications. Aim: The recording of patient’s clinical profile with burn injury worldwide and in Greece, the outcome and impact of the injury on the patient’s mental health and social, professional and family life. Methods: There were collected surveys and reports concerned burn victims, men and women, teenagers and adults of all types and severities of burns in the world and in Greece. The inf...

  20. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Fahimi; H. Hajimehdipoor; Abdollahi, M.; S.A. Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended trea...

  1. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support.

  2. Aggregation of erythrocytes in burn disease

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Grigory Y; Egorihina, Marpha N

    2011-01-01

    The manuscript describes experiments designed to examine factors that influence erythrocytes aggregation within the blood of burn patients. Results showed that the rate and degree of erythrocytes aggregation increased significantly in burn patients, and what is especially unfavorable for microcirculation, erythrocytes disaggregation decreased. We show that normalization of blood plasma contents completely restores erythrocytes aggregation and disaggregation of burn patients. The rate and degr...

  3. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  5. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  6. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  7. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  8. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries t...

  9. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  10. Burns related to sunbed use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S J; Slattery, M A; Drew, P J

    2010-09-01

    The quest for a year round tan has led to an increase in the use of artificial tanning devices, namely sunbeds. There has been much debate in the press recently regarding the dangers of sunbed use and calls for tighter regulation of the industry, particularly the licensing of unmanned tanning salons. The dangers of sunbed use have long been recognised and the body of evidence linking sunbed use to skin malignancy is growing, in fact this month the Lancet published a review from the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying UV emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. At the Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery we noticed a rise in the number of patients presenting with burns related to sunbed use and present our data surrounding this injury over the last 6 years. PMID:20171016

  11. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  12. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  13. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Radioactive implications from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignites burning in the Greek Coal Power Plants (CPP) contain naturally occurring radionuclides mainly arising from the uranium series. Radium-226 concentrations in lignites burning in the three Coal Power Plants of the 3.02 GW energy centre, the greatest in Greece (Valley of Ptolemais, North Greece), varied from about 30 to 132 Bq kg-1 (average 65.5 Bq kg-1. About 1.3 % of 226 Ra is discharged to the environment in particulate form - fly ash - by the stacks of thermal power stations, burning coal at a rate 14.3 Mt (GH y)-1. The collective effective dose equivalent (EDE) commitment to the population 44400 living in the region of these plants, due to inhalation was estimated to be 0.13 man Sv y-1, that is an order of magnitude higher than that recommended for such a population. Doses from inhaled radon and radon progeny might cause an excess of 3-7 cancer deaths this year. (author)

  15. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Çizmeci

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are genereally adequate for first-degree burns. However, topical antibacterial agents are usually required for second to third-degree wounds. Standart treatment for the open wound without epithelization is autologous skin grafting. In cases where more than 50% of the skin surface in affected, autologus donor skin may not be enough. For these cases, epidermal cell culture in vitro may be used. Mesenchymal stem cell applications which have immunosupressive effects should be utilized in cases where cells need to be prepared as allografts. (Journal of the Turkish Society intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 51-4

  16. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field investigations have now demonstrated that the effective, sustained combustion of spilled oil on water requires that the oil being burned be at least 2-3 mm thick. This requires a properly manipulated fire containment boom to keep the spilled oil thick enough to support combustion. There are numerous situations where controlled in-situ burning of spilled oil can be carried out quickly, safely, and effectively. Some of the more significant burn experiences, the basics of controlled burning, and several different spill scenarios in which burning could be used as an effective response technique are presented. These scenarios include offshore exploration and production operations, marine pipeline accidents, tanker accidents, and spills into rivers and streams. Environmental constraints on in-situ burning are discussed. Nomograms are included which can be used to calculate the boom capacities and burn rates. 15 refs., 10 figs

  17. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  18. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have young children, use safety latches in your home When cooking, keep pot handles turned toward the rear of the stove, and never leave pans unattended. Do not leave hot cups of coffee on tables or counter edges. Do not carry hot liquids or food near your child or while holding your child. ...

  19. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  20. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  1. How to manage a minor burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabrielle

    2016-07-20

    Rationale and key points This article outlines the technique for dressing a minor burn. The nurse should be aware of national burn care referral guidance, and have the knowledge and skills to establish the severity and extent of a burn. The nurse should also be able to determine whether referral to a regional specialist centre is required. » The extent and severity of a burn determines its ongoing management. » The burn wound requires regular evaluation, since its appearance and management needs can change over time. » Competence in general wound care is essential for nurses undertaking this procedure. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » The classification of burn depth and guidelines for specialist referral. » How you think this article will change your practice. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27440365

  2. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  3. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  4. Cheiloplasty in Post-burn Deformed Lips

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeldeen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The lip is a part of the face that is frequently affected by burn injury. Post-burn scar sequelae in this area often result in cosmetic disfigurement and psychological upsets in patients, especially young adult females. A burn destroys the aesthetic features and lines of the lip. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face has a long history. Many local and regional flaps have been used for reconstruction of surgical or traumatic defects. Procedures to enhance the cosmetic features of the ...

  5. The Integrated Burn Information System - Microbiology Module

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, A T; Henderson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Infection is the most common serious complication occurring in hospitalized burn patients. Since this institute was established more than 35 years ago, the Microbiology section has provided direct clinical microbiology support and has collected epidemiological and historical data concerning the identification, incidence and treatment of infections in burn patients. With the availability of a centralized computer facility, microbiology data were added to the integrated burn information system,...

  6. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options

  7. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  8. Epidemiology and Statistical Modeling in Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    An important issue in assessing the epidemiology of injuries, including burns, is the investigation of appropriate methodologies and statistical modeling techniques to study injuries in an efficient and trustworthy manner. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze epidemiological patterns and assess the appropriateness of supervised statistical models to investigate burn risks and patterns. This thesis contains four papers: the first two concern descriptive epidemiology of burns in Arda...

  9. Neuroendocrine Stress Response after Burn Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Some aspects of the stress response during acute intensive care for severe burns are described and quantified by measuring hormonal and neuroendocrine patterns and relating these to organ function in the short term. This includes an assessment of whether there are markers for the severity of stress that are better than conventional descriptors of the severity of a burn in predicting failing organ function. P-CgA after a major burn injury is an independent and better predictor of organ dysfunc...

  10. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  11. ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbi Practice Guidelines Committee

    2016-08-01

    Practice guidelines (PGs) are recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries, and are designed to define optimal evaluation and management. The first PGs for burn care addressed the issues encountered in developed countries, lacking consideration for circumstances in resource-limited settings (RLS). Thus, the mission of the 2014-2016 committee established by the International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) was to create PGs for burn care to improve the care of burn patients in both RLS and resource-abundant settings. An important component of this effort is to communicate a consensus opinion on recommendations for burn care for different aspects of burn management. An additional goal is to reduce costs by outlining effective and efficient recommendations for management of medical problems specific to burn care. These recommendations are supported by the best research evidence, as well as by expert opinion. Although our vision was the creation of clinical guidelines that could be applicable in RLS, the ISBI PGs for Burn Care have been written to address the needs of burn specialists everywhere in the world. PMID:27542292

  12. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn. PMID:19692919

  14. Diffusive Nuclear Burning in Neutron Star Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a new mode of hydrogen burning on neutron stars (NSs) called diffusive nuclear burning (DNB). In DNB, the burning occurs in the exponentially suppressed tail of hydrogen that extends to the hotter regions of the envelope where protons are readily captured. Diffusive nuclear burning changes the compositional structure of the envelope on timescales $\\sim 10^{2-4} {\\rm yrs}$, much shorter than otherwise expected. This mechanism is applicable to the physics of young pulsars, millisecond radio pulsars (MSPs) and quiescent low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs).

  15. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  16. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  17. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  18. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  19. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Moody

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  20. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  1. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  2. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  3. Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

  4. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  5. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  6. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  7. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn. PMID:2322399

  8. Skin Dendritic Cells in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    D’Arpa, N.; D’Amelio, L.; Accardo-Palumbo, A.; Pileri, D.; Mogavero, R.; Amato, G.; Napoli, B.; Alessandro, G.; Lombardo, C.; F. Conte

    2009-01-01

    The body's immunological response to burn injury has been a subject of great inquiry in recent years. Burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in a progressive suppression of the immune response that is thought to contribute to the development of sepsis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells.

  9. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  10. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  11. Epidemiology of major burns at the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Burn care is one of the few areas in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with burn injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal burns, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural areas and burned body surface (BBS) w...

  12. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and...... 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  13. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation. PMID:25423439

  14. Microbiological Monitoring and Proteolytic Study of Clinical Samples From Burned and Burned Wounded Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.

  15. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  16. 1994 Prescribed Burning Plan: Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Prescribed Burn Plan provides a description of each burn unit on the Refuge and summarizes the safety concerns, monitoring, and burn operations for these units.

  17. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  18. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  19. Calcium and ER Stress Mediate Hepatic Apoptosis after Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction post-burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis post-burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacri...

  20. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  1. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock wh...

  2. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  3. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered. PMID:24823337

  4. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  5. Characterization of residual coke during burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Jablonski, E.L.; Parera, J.M. (Inst. de Investigaciones in Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)); Frety, R. (Conventionne a l' Univ. Claude Bernard, Lyon I (France))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper coke remaining from the partial burning of coke deposited during the commercial re-forming of naphtha on a Pt-Re/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst is studied. Burning temperatures are 623-923 K, and the remaining coke is characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, IR, [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and chemical analysis. After coke is burned at 673 K, the residual coke shows the minimum value in the H/C ratio and the maximum in the thickness of the aromatic layers, degree of organization, C==O concentration, binding energy of C 1s, peak width, and g value. This agrees with the model of coke burning: at low temperatures, the burning is selective; the more hydrogenated and amorphous carbonaceous species are burnt first. At high temperatures, the burning is nonselective and all species are simultaneously burnt. Coke is partially oxidized during burning, and intermediate species with C==O and C--OH groups are formed.

  6. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  7. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-tao YANG; Yu-xiang LI; San-jiu YING

    2014-01-01

    Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  8. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  9. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  10. Hypnosis for the treatment of burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D R; Everett, J J; Burns, G L; Marvin, J A

    1992-10-01

    The clinical utility of hypnosis for controlling pain during burn wound debridement was investigated. Thirty hospitalized burn patients and their nurses submitted visual analog scales (VAS) for pain during 2 consecutive daily wound debridements. On the 1st day, patients and nurses submitted baseline VAS ratings. Before the next day's would debridement, Ss received hypnosis, attention and information, or no treatment. Only hypnotized Ss reported significant pain reductions relative to pretreatment baseline. This result was corroborated by nurse VAS ratings. Findings indicate that hypnosis is a viable adjunct treatment for burn pain. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:1383302

  11. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  12. Simulation of burning tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To simulate dynamical behaviour of tokamak fusion reactors, a zero-dimensional time-dependent particle and power balance code has been developed. The zero-dimensional plasma model is based on particle and power balance equations that have been integrated over the plasma volume using prescribed profiles for plasma parameters. Therefore, the zero-dimensional model describes the global dynamics of a fusion reactor. The zero-dimensional model has been applied to study reactor start-up, and plasma responses to changes in the plasma confinement, fuelling rate, and impurity concentration, as well as to study burn control via fuelling modulation. Predictions from the zero-dimensional code have been compared with experimental data and with transport calculations of a higher dimensionality. In all cases, a good agreement was found. The advantage of the zero-dimensional code, as compared to higher-dimensional transport codes, is the possibility to quickly scan the interdependencies between reactor parameters. (88 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  13. The ALMR actinide burning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) actinide burning system is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to bring its unique capabilities to fruition for deployment in the early 21st century. The system consists of four major parts: the reactor plant, the metal fuel and its recycle, the processing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel to extract the actinides, and the development of a residual waste package. This paper addresses the status and outlook for each of these four major elements. The ALMR is being developed by an industrial group under the leadership of General Electric (GE) in a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Department of Energy. This effort is nearing completion of the advanced conceptual design phase and will enter the preliminary design phase in 1994. The innovative modular reactor design stresses simplicity, economics, reliability, and availability. The design has evolved from GE's PRISM design initiative and has progressed to the final stages of a prelicensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); a safety evaluation report is expected by the end of 1993. All the major issues identified during this review process have been technically resolved. The next design phases will focus on implementation of the basic safety philosophy of passive shutdown to a safe, stable condition, even without scram, and passive decay heat removal. Economic projections to date show that it will be competitive with non- nuclear and advanced LWR nuclear alternatives

  14. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases

  15. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  16. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail

  17. On burning a lump of coal

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  18. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention ... keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step ...

  19. Prescribed Burn Cycles 4-yr Rotation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map and a table showing the number of acres and locations of planned burns and wildfires on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge between...

  20. Treatment of burn injuries with keratinocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) provides burned patients with skin and amnion for a temporary wound closure. Severely burned patients (>60% BSA for adults, >40% BSA for children) were supplied with autologous and allogenic grafts from cultured keratinocytes. The keratinocyte culture is done under GMP-conditions using the method of Rheinwald and Green. The 3T3 fibroblasts were irradiated with 60 Gy and used as feeder cells to produce keratinocyte sheets within 3 weeks. In this time up to 6.000 cm are available. The sheets were harvested by detachment with dispase (1,2 U/ml), fixed to gauze and transported to the hospital. The DIZG has a 3 years experience in the treatment of burns with keratinocyte sheets. The sheets were transplanted to patients in different hospitals, the total transplanted area is about 30.000 cm. This paper describes the experiences with ten severely burned patients treated with keratinocyte sheet

  1. Nutrition and Metabolic Support in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Ergin Özcan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in a dramatic increase of the basal metabolic rate. Severe burn injury nearly doubles resting energy expenditure and hypermetabolism associated with burn results in a loss of body fat stores and a loss of visceral and structural protein mass. The clinical effects of these changes include immunosuppression, delayed wound healing, and generalized muscle weakness. Post burn, the metabolic and catabolic responses are prolonged in severity and time course, lasting weeks to months in contrast to the days and weeks observed in other injuries. Nutrition support provides the substrates and nutrients to prevent the complications of deficiencies as well as supporting wound healing, and recovery from hormonal and metabolic abnormalities after thermal injury. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 21-5

  2. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  3. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  4. On burning a lump of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  5. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  6. Micafungin Concentrations in the Plasma and Burn Eschar of Severely Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Junichi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Daisuke; Endo, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Takuma, Kiyotsugu; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kishino, Satoshi; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Micafungin concentrations in plasma and burn eschar after daily intravenous infusion (1 h) of micafungin (200 to 300 mg) were investigated for six patients with severe burns. Micafungin treatment was initiated more than 72 h after the burn injuries. The peak and trough levels in the plasma after the initial administration and repeated administrations for more than 4 days were comparable with or slightly lower than the reported values for healthy volunteers. Micafungin concentrations in the pl...

  7. Influence of early post-burn enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes of patients with extensive burns

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guozhong; Huang, Jiren; Yu, Junjie; Zhu, Yugang; Cai, Liangliang; Gu, Zaiqiu; Su, Qinghe

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis commonly occurs in severe post-burn patients, often resulting in death. We aimed to evaluate the influence of early enteral feeding on outcomes in patients with extensive burns, including infection incidence, healing and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with extensive burns, 35 who had received early enteral nutrition and 25 who had received parenteral nutrition. Average healing time, infection incidence and mortality were clinically observed. Hemoglobin and serum alb...

  8. Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome With Amisulpride

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a frequently occurring disease characterized by a burning or painful sensation in the tongue and/or other oral sites without clinical mucosal abnormalities or lesions. Its etiopathology is unknown, although local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with BMS. The syndrome is multifactorial, and its management remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy and tolerability o...

  9. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  10. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    OpenAIRE

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira; Ariadne da Silva Fonseca; Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite; Luciana Soares dos Santos; Adélia Dayane Guimarães Fonseca; Conceição Vieira da Silva Ohara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fe...

  11. Van burn-out naar bevlogenheid

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekx, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Het fenomeen burn-out is tegenwoordig niet meer uit de media weg te denken. Steeds meer mensen gaan ten onder aan werkstress en geraken opgebrand. Dat heeft niet alleen voor de persoon in kwestie negatieve gevolgen, zowel mentaal als lichamelijk, maar ook voor de organisatie. Een minder bekend en relatief nieuw begrip is bevlogenheid of engagement, de tegenhanger van burn-out. Bevlogen mensen zijn energiek, voelen zich betrokken bij de organisatie en kunnen lang en onvermoeibaar doorgaan met ...

  12. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Namdar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the in...

  13. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, T; Siemers, F; Stollwerck, PL; Stang, FH; Mailänder, P; de Lange, T

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia.Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality?Method: Retrospective study for the i...

  14. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  15. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  16. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  17. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  18. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  19. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  20. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  1. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively. PMID:26813059

  2. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  3. Assessment of Electrosurgery Burns in Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Seyyed Mehdi; Moradi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Alireza; Pazouki, Alireza; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monopolar surgery is applied mostly in major operations, while bipolar is used in delicate ones. Attention must be paid in electrosurgery application to avoid electrical burns. Objectives: We aimed to assess factors associated with electrosurgery burns in cardiac surgery operating rooms. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study in which two groups of 150 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Imam Khomeini Hospital were recruited. Several factors like gender, age, operation duration, smoking, diseases, infection, atopia, , immunosuppressive drugs use, hepatic cirrhosis, and pulmonary diseases were compared between the two groups. Patients were observed for 24 hours for development of any burn related to the operation. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.11.5, by Chi square and T-test. Results: Patients in the two groups were similar except for two factors. DM and pulmonary diseases which showed significant differences (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002 respectively). Seventy-five patients from controls and 35 from the study group developed burns, which was significant (P ˂ 0.0001). Conclusions: None of the factors were significantly related to developing burns. The differences between the two groups highlights the importance of systems modifications to lessen the incidence of burns. PMID:26839854

  4. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  5. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  6. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  7. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. PMID:27088728

  8. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    2003-01-01

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2 grou

  9. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Norbury, William B.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn ...

  10. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Arnon D; Gurfinkel, R.; Glezinger, R.; Kriger, Y.; Yancolevich, N.; Rosenberg, L

    2007-01-01

    Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0%) had burns involving less than 20% of the body surfac...

  11. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  12. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Iran: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; M. Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury remains a serious and devastating issue faced by developing countries. It is also true, however, that the developed world still tackles many of the challenges caused by burns. In order to reduce this problem through preventive programs, the characteristics of this type of injury must be studied and well documented in each setting. Our study aims to show the epidemiology, demographic distribution and clinical outcomes of burns patients referred to Motahari Burn Hospital, the burn c...

  13. Bacterial and fungal colonization of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of fungal and bacterial flora of burn wounds was carried out from February 2004 to February 2005 at the Burns Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Brasília, Brazil. During the period of the study, 203 patients were treated at the Burns Unit. Wound swab cultures were assessed at weekly intervals for four weeks. Three hundred and fifty four sampling procedures (surface swabs were performed from the burn wounds. The study revealed that bacterial colonization reached 86.6% within the first week. Although the gram-negative organisms, as a group, were more predominant, Staphylococcus aureus (28.4% was the most prevalent organism in the first week. It was however surpassed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa form third week onwards. For S. aureus and P. aeruginosa vancomycin and polymyxin were found to be the most effective drugs. Most of the isolates showed high level resistance to antimicrobial agents. Fungi were found to colonize the burn wound late during the second week postburn, with a peak incidence during the third and fourth weeks. Species identification of fungi revealed that Candida tropicalis was the most predominant, followed by Candida parapsilosis. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  14. Special considerations in paediatric burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ramesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In India, the figure constitutes about one-fourth of the total burn accidents. The management of paediatric burns can be a major challenge for the treating unit. One has to keep in mind that "children are not merely small adults"; there are certain features in this age group that warrant special attention. The peculiarities in the physiology of fluid and electrolyte handling, the uniqueness of the energy requirement and the differences in the various body proportions in children dictate that the paediatric burn management should be taken with a different perspective than for adults. This review article would deal with the special situations that need to be addressed while treating this special class of thermal injuries. We must ensure that not only the children survive the initial injury, but also the morbidity and complications are minimized. If special care is taken during the initial management of paediatric burn injuries, these children can be effectively integrated into the society as very useful and productive members.

  15. Medical response to the radioinduced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over two years the Hospital for Burns in Buenos Aires has been studying the burns caused by radiation, in accordance to an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. The analysis of each case showed the importance of the differential diagnosis from conventional injuries, of this early diagnosis depends the possibility of treatment from the 0 (zero) hour (time at which the accident took place) and achieve the wound healing with the best possible treatment, weather it is medical or surgical in nature. The Hospital's medical staff has developed the necessary skills to recognize this type of burns from an early stage. Most patients arrive to the consultation on their own accord due to the general practitioners inability to correctly diagnose the wounds appeared after radiotherapy has been applied. In this article, we present the general guidelines that the doctors of the Hospital for Burns follow in the presence of radio inducted injuries, objectifying the ethiopathogenic differences of the various burns. (author)

  16. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  17. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  18. A New Metric for Quantifying Burn Severity: The Relativized Burn Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Parks

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-inferred burn severity data have become increasingly popular over the last decade for management and research purposes. These data typically quantify spectral change between pre-and post-fire satellite images (usually Landsat. There is an active debate regarding which of the two main equations, the delta normalized burn ratio (dNBR and its relativized form (RdNBR, is most suitable for quantifying burn severity; each has its critics. In this study, we propose and evaluate a new Landsat-based burn severity metric, the relativized burn ratio (RBR, that provides an alternative to dNBR and RdNBR. For 18 fires in the western US, we compared the performance of RBR to both dNBR and RdNBR by evaluating the agreement of these metrics with field-based burn severity measurements. Specifically, we evaluated (1 the correspondence between each metric and a continuous measure of burn severity (the composite burn index and (2 the overall accuracy of each metric when classifying into discrete burn severity classes (i.e., unchanged, low, moderate, and high. Results indicate that RBR corresponds better to field-based measurements (average R2 among 18 fires = 0.786 than both dNBR (R2 = 0.761 and RdNBR (R2 = 0.766. Furthermore, the overall classification accuracy achieved with RBR (average among 18 fires = 70.5% was higher than both dNBR (68.4% and RdNBR (69.2%. Consequently, we recommend RBR as a robust alternative to both dNBR and RdNBR for measuring and classifying burn severity.

  19. BURN SIZE AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient survival following severe burn injury is largely determined by burn size. Modern developments in burn care have tremendously improved survival and outcomes. However, no large analysis on outcomes in pediatric burn patients with current treatment regimen exists. This study was designed to identify the burn size presently associated with significant increases in morbidity and mortality in pediatric burn patients. Methods Single center prospective observational cohort study utilizing the clinical data of severely burned pediatric patients admitted between 1998 and 2009. This study included 952 severely burned pediatric patients with burns over at least 30% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patients were stratified by burn size in 10% increments, ranging from 30 to 100%, with a secondary assignment made according to the outcome of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, χ2 test, logistic regression and ROC analysis, as appropriate, with significance set at p<0.05. Findings All groups were comparable in age (age in years: 30–39: 6.1±5.1, 40–49: 7.1±5.2, 50–59: 7.6±5.1, 60–69: 7.2±5.1, 70–79: 8.3±5.9, 80–89: 8.4±5.6, 90–100: 9.6±5.4), and gender distribution (male: 30–39: 68%, 40–49: 64%, 50–59: 65%, 60–69: 59%, 70–79: 71%, 80–89: 62%, 90–100: 82%). Mortality (30–39: 3%, 40–49: 3%, 50–59: 7%, 60–69: 16%, 70–79: 22%, 80–89: 35%, 90–100: 55%), multi-organ failure (30–39: 6%, 40–49: 6%, 50–59: 12%, 60–69: 27%, 70–79: 29%, 80–89: 44%, 90–100: 45%), and sepsis (30–39: 2%, 40–49: 5%, 50–59: 6%, 60–69: 15%, 70–79: 13%, 80–89: 22%, 90–100: 26%), increased significantly (p<0.001) among the groups and at a threshold of 62% TBSA. Comparison of patients with burns larger than 62% with those smaller showed significant differences in inflammatory (Cytokines), acute phase (CRP) and hypermetabolic responses (REE

  20. A clarion to recommit and reaffirm burn rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reginald L; Hedman, Travis L; Quick, Charles D; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Renz, Evan M; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Dougherty, Mary E; Esselman, Peter C; Forbes-Duchart, Lisa; Franzen, Beth J; Hunter, Hope; Kowalske, Karen; Moore, Merilyn L; Nakamura, Dana Y; Nedelec, Bernedette; Niszczak, Jon; Parry, Ingrid; Serghiou, Michael; Ward, R Scott; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation has been a part of burn care and treatment for many years. Yet, despite of its longevity, the rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe burns is less than optimal and appears to have leveled off. Patient survival from burn injury is at an all-time high. Burn rehabilitation must progress to the point where physical outcomes parallel survival statistics in terms of improved patient well-being. This position article is a treatise on burn rehabilitation and the state of burn rehabilitation patient outcomes. It describes burn rehabilitation interventions in brief and why a need is felt to bring this issue to the forefront. The article discusses areas for change and the challenges facing burn rehabilitation. Finally, the relegation and acceptance of this responsibility are addressed. PMID:18388581

  1. Cost analysis of a major burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofts, J A

    1991-11-27

    A retrospective review was undertaken of 26 patients admitted to Middlemore Hospital between January 1986 to July 1989 with burns totalling more than 30% of total body surface area. An attempt was made to estimate the total cost of successful inpatient management of a major burn using known and assumed values. The new schedule of interboard hospital charges was also employed for greater accuracy. The 20 survivors had a mean initial hospital stay of 68.7 days at a cost of between $37,077 and $40,702 (1989 values) and $46,069 (1991 values). This latter figure equates to an average cost of $647 per patient per day or, alternatively, $927 per % burn. Suggestions to reduce costs and improve treatment include: earlier excision and grafting; the establishment of a regional skin bank and keratinocyte culture facility to aid wound closure; and guidelines on antibiotic prescribing. PMID:1745459

  2. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  3. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder. PMID:26709657

  4. Epidemiologic study of scald burns in victims in Tehran burn hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damages caused by scald burns are common and can cause severe complications and death. The purpose of this study was to define risk groups and then methods of prevention and treatment is designed to fit. Methods: Data for this retrospective study of hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran from 2007-2011 were compiled. Data including age, sex, cause of burn, and degree of burn and ultimate fate of the victims were collected from scald burns. Burns caused by boiling water and hot food (Scald , in two age groups : 12 and under 12 years ( children and more than 12 years ( adults were compared in terms of statistics . Results: A total of 1150 patients consisting of males (57.9% and females (42.1% were studied. The most common age was 1 year old and 50% of patients were under 3 years of age. 87.9% burned with boiling water and 12.1% had experienced burns with hot food. Incentive to burn was 0.3% cross burning and 99.7% incident. A maximum number of burns in children 12 years and younger males (42.1% and a minimum number in men over 12 years (15.7% were observed. Mean percentage of burns was 11% in over 12 years group and 30.9% in 12 and under 12 years group. The average hospital stay was 11.4 days and the mortality rate was 4.8%. The final status of the patients was as fallows: full recovery 904 cases (78.6%, partial recovery 134 (11.7%, clearance with personal consent 41 (3.6%, death 55 (4.8% and 16 cases (3.1% were among other reasons. Conclusion: In general it can be said, scald burns incidence in individuals aged 12 and younger were more than the older ones and the mean of burns was lower in individuals with over 12 years old. There was a sexual preference for males under 12 years. Mortality rate in the two groups has not any statistically significant difference. There was no statistically significant association between sex and mortality rate. Some of our findings are depending on cultural, social and economic

  5. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock while whole blood loss is the cause of shock in other acute wounds. Even though the burn wounds are sterile in the beginning in comparison to most of other wounds, yet, the death in extensive burns is mainly because of wound infection and septicemia, because of the immunocompromised status of the burn patients. Eschar and blister are specific for burn wounds requiring a specific treatment protocol. Antimicrobial creams and other dressing agents used for traumatic wounds are ineffective in deep burns with eschar. The subeschar plane harbours the micro-organisms and many of these agents are not able to penetrate the eschar. Even after complete epithelisation of burn wound, remodelling phase is prolonged. It may take years for scar maturation in burns. This article emphasizes on how the pathophysiology, healing and management of a burn wound is different from that of other wounds.

  6. Risk factors for mortality in burn children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Rosanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce. We conducted this study to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in pediatric burn patients. We included 110 patients. Mean age was 31.5 months (range: 1 to 204. The burn surface was between 1% and 95%(median 27% Type of burn was: A or superfitial in 39 patients (36%, AB or intermediate in 19 (17%, and B or full thickness in 52 (47%. Inhalatory injury was present in 52 patients (47%. Invasive procedures were: venous catheter, 90 patients (82%, arterial catheter, 83patients (75.5%, urinary catheter, 86 patients (78%, and mechanical ventilation, 75 patients (68%. In 84 patients, 128 infections were diagnosed. in 53 cases (48%. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acynetobacter baumannii were the most common organisms isolated. The median length of hospital stay was 33 days (r: 8-139 days. Seventeen patients (15% died and 14 of them of infection-related causes. Age 40% burn surface, presence of inhalatory syndrome, use of venous catheter, arterial catheter, urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation, positive blood cultures, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, antifungal use and graft requirement, were identified as risks factors for mortality in the univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis: age <4 years, Garcés 4, colistin use in multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were independent variables related with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of burn children age < 4 years, Garces index score 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, mechanical ventilation and graft requirement were identified as independent variables related with mortality.

  7. Addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sakhovskii, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Literature review on addition agents effects on hydrocarbon fuels burning has been conducted. The impact results in flame pattern and burning velocity change, energy efficiency increase, environmentally harmful NOx and CO emission reduction and damping of self-oscillations in flow. An assumption about water molecules dissociation phenomenon existing in a number of practical applications and being neglected in most explanations for physical- chemical processes taking place in case of injection of water/steam into combustion zone has been noted. The hypothesis about necessity of water dissociation account has been proposed. It can be useful for low temperature combustion process control and NOx emission reduction.

  8. Control of a burning tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, R.E.; Mandrekas, J.; Stacey, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report is a review of the literature relevant to the control of the thermonuclear burn in a tokamak plasma. Some basic tokamak phenomena are reviewed, and then control by modulation of auxiliary heating and fueling is discussed. Other possible control methods such as magnetic ripple, plasma compression, and impurity injection as well as more recent proposed methods such as divertor biasing and L- to H-mode transition are also reviewed. The applications of modern control theory to the tokamak burn control problem are presented. The control results are summarized and areas of further research are identified.

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan

    2010-11-01

    Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.

  10. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...... inflammatory responses to superficial thermal burns in skin have been studied in healthy volunteers. Burns have the potential for releasing most of the inflammatory and chemical mediators that produce sensitisation and excitation of nociceptors, and the intense nociceptive input during injury produces...

  11. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  12. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  13. Increasing the utility of the Functional Assessment for Burns Score: Not just for major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Rodgers, Louise; Upson, Clara

    2016-02-01

    The Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score is established as an objective measure of physical function that predicts discharge outcome in adult patients with major burn. However, its validity in patients with minor and moderate burn is unknown. This is a multi-centre evaluation of the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome in adult inpatients with minor and moderate burns. FAB assessments were undertaken within 48h of admission to (FAB 1), and within 48h of discharge (FAB 2) from burn wards in 115 patients. Median age was 45 years and median burn size 4%. There were significant improvements in the patients' FAB scores (ppatients were discharged home (no social care) and 17 patients discharged to further inpatient rehabilitation or home with social care. FAB 1 score (≤14) is strongly associated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation or home with social care (p=0.0001) and as such can be used to facilitate early discharge planning. FAB 2 (≤30) independently predicts discharge outcome to inpatient rehabilitation or home with social care (ppatients with minor and moderate burns. PMID:26508532

  14. Burn injuries in eastern Zambia: impact of multidisciplinary teaching teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dianna; Heard, Jason; Latenser, Barbara A; Quinn, Keely Y; van Bruggen, Jaap; Jovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Children's Burn Foundation (ABA/CBF) sponsors teams who offer burn education to healthcare providers in Zambia, a sub-Saharan country. The goals of this study are 1) to acquire burn-patient demographics for the Eastern Province, Zambia and 2) to assess the early impact of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. This is a retrospective chart review of burn patients admitted in one mission hospital in Katete, Zambia, July 2002 to June 2009. July 2002 to December 2006 = data before ABA/CBF burn teams and January 2007 to June 2009 = burn care data during/after burn outreach. There were 510 burn patients hospitalized, male:female ratio 1.2:1. Average age = 15.6 years, with 44% younger than 5 years. Average TBSA burned = 11% and mean fatal TBSA = 25%. Average hospital length of stay = 16.9 days survivors and 11.6 days nonsurvivors. Most common mechanisms of burn injuries: flame (52%) and scald (41%). Ninety-two patients (18%) died and 23 (4.5%) left against medical advice. There were 191 (37.4%) patients who underwent 410 surgical procedures (range 1-13/patient). There were 138 (33.7%) sloughectomies, 118 (28.7%) skin grafts, 39 (9.5%) amputations, and 115 (28.1%) other procedures. Changes noted in the 2007 to 2009 time period: more patients had burn diagrams (48.6 vs 27.6%, P set for a sub-Saharan region in Africa. There has been a statistically significant improvement in documentation of burn size as well as administration of analgesics, validating the efficacy of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. Continued contact with burn teams may lead to increased use of resuscitation fluids, topical antimicrobials, and more patients undergoing operative intervention, translating into improved burn patient outcomes. PMID:21131848

  15. Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick

    2014-05-01

    We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse. PMID:24733875

  16. Biomass burning and the disappearing tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the implications of reduced biological diversity as a result of slash and burn agriculture in the tropical rainforest. The importance of global management of forests to prevent a buildup of carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect is emphasized

  17. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated. PMID:1572860

  18. Pathogenic alteration in severe burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Xie, Bing; Ben, DaoFeng; Lv, KaiYang; Zhu, ShiHui; Lu, Wei; Tang, HongTai; Cheng, DaSheng; Ma, Bing; Wang, GuangYi; Xiao, ShiChu; Wang, GuangQing; Xia, ZhaoFan

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims to define the trend of time related changes with local bacterial alteration of bacterial resistance in severe burns in our burn center during a 12-year period. Retrospective analysis of microbiological results on severely burned wounds between 1998 and 2009 was carried out. A study of 3615 microbial isolates was performed. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated pathogen (38.2%) followed by A. baumannii (16.2%), Streptococcus viridans (11.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.4%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.2%). The species ratios of S. aureus and A. baumannii increased significantly from 1st to 8th week of hospitalization, while those of Streptococcus viridans, P. aeruginosa and coagulase-negative staphylococci decreased during the same period. Bacterial resistance rates were compared between the periods 1998-2003 and 2004-2009. Vancomycin remained as the most sensitive antibiotic in S. aureus including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). It was very likely that the majority of infections caused by Streptococcus viridans, P. aeruginosa and coagulase-negative staphylococci occurred in the early stage of burn course and the majority of infections caused by A. baumannii occurred 4 weeks after admission. The use of different antibiotics was probably the major contributor to these trends. PMID:22100426

  19. Peculiar Features of Burning Alternative Motor Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some peculiar features of air-hydrogen mixture combustion process in a modeling combustion chamber are given in the paper. Dependences of burning duration of various fuel types on initial pressure have been obtained. The paper considers dynamics of changes in pressure and ignition rate of some fuel types in the combustion chamber.

  20. Protect the Ones You Love From Burns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from burns, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  1. Diffusive Nuclear Burning on Neutron Star Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, P

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the rate of hydrogen burning for neutron stars (NSs) with hydrogen atmospheres and an underlying reservoir of nuclei capable of proton capture. This burning occurs in the exponentially suppressed diffusive tail of H that extends to the hotter depths of the envelope where protons are rapidly captured. This process, which we call diffusive nuclear burning (DNB), can change the H abundance at the NS photosphere on timescales as short as $10^{2-4}$ years. In the absence of diffusion, the hydrogen at the photosphere (where $T\\approx 10^6 {\\rm K}$ and $\\rho\\sim 0.1 {\\rm g cm^{-2}}$) would last for far longer than a Hubble time. Our work impacts the understanding of the evolution of surface abundances of isolated NSs, which is important to their thermal spectrum and their effective temperature-core temperature relation. In this paper, we calculate the rate of H burning when the overall consumption rate is controlled by the nuclear timescales, rather than diffusion timescales. The immediate application i...

  2. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh; Azimi, Leila; Amani, Laleh; Rastegar Lari, Aida; Alinejad, Faranak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2015-01-01

    Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used. The results indicated that P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment. PMID:26124986

  3. Analysis of antibiotic consumption in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam, Somayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is very important in burn care units, because burn wound infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among burn patients. Thus, the appropriate prescription of antibiotics can be helpful, but unreasonable prescription can have detrimental consequences, including greater expenses to patients and community alike. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antibiotic therapy on the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 525 strains of and were isolated from 335 hospitalized burn patients. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed after identification the strains. The records of patients were audited to find the antibiotic used.The results indicated that is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria. Further, it showed a relation between abuse of antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Control of resistance to antibiotics by appropriate prescription practices not only facilitates prevention of infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR microorganisms, but it can also decrease the cost of treatment.

  4. Medical management of radiation burns - some experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized exposure resulting in radiation burns are serious injuries, seen not only in this country but all over the world. All of these injuries have resulted from accidents in Industrial Radiography (non-destructive testing). In our country all these injuries have occurred in the private sectors who handle these radiography sources. These sources can be of Iridium-192 or Cobalt-60. Some of these accidents have occurred involving trained radiographers but sometimes casual workers have been exposed. Skin is highly vulnerable to the external radiation exposure. Damage of varying extent can be seen following radiotherapy and accidents involving X- and gamma-ray sources. The reaction is related to the absorbed dose, which in turn is dependent upon the energy of radiation and weather it is particulate or electromagnetic radiation. Beta particles give up their energy within a short range and hence are more hazardous. Radiation burns develop slowly and blister formation occurs usually after 4 weeks. After exposure the skin response occurs in the form of transient erythema, fixed erythema, transepidermal burns, full thickness radiation burns and epilation. In radiation accidents, particularly those involving X-ray machines, the patients may not be aware of the time of accident and the dose may not be known in those circumstances. The medical management and treatment of such patients, therefore, has its own challenges. This talk will share some experiences on treatment of radiation injuries. (author)

  5. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride. PMID:25952601

  7. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Milton S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  8. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  9. Ultrasonic pulse-echo determination of burn depth in partial-thickness burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of possible techniques for measuring burn depth were considered, and it was concluded that high-frequency ultrasound offers the best possibility for investigation of burn injury. A conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo system was assembled and modified so that small distances in tissue (less than or equal to 1 mm) can be resolved. Typical transducers used during the course of measurements on human and porcine skin are described. Ultimate success of the ultrasonic technique is dependent on the validity of the assumption that the acoustic impedance of necrotic burn tissue is sufficiently different from that of viable tissue to allow for ultrasonic reflections at the interface between burned and viable tissue. In general, this assumption seems to have been valid in animal and human experiments carried out to date

  10. Solar burn reactivation induced by methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Kelli J

    2010-04-01

    Solar burn reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects areas of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and experienced a second-degree solar burn reactivation reaction to methotrexate. The patient had a mild sunburn on her face and shoulders the day she went to the oncology clinic for her interim maintenance chemotherapy with vincristine 1.5 mg/m(2)/dose and methotrexate 100 mg/m(2)/dose. Three days later, she returned to the clinic with a 2-day history of fever (solar burn reactivation reaction. She was admitted to the children's hospital and treated with sodium bicarbonate, acetaminophen with codeine, ondansetron, and silvadene cream. On hospital day 3, the patient's methotrexate level decreased to less than 0.1 mM. The sunburn continued to heal, and after a 14-day hospital stay, complicated by a streptococcal infection, grade 3 mucositis, bacteremia, and mild gastritis and duodenitis, the patient recovered and was discharged. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the patient's solar burn reactivation and methotrexate. Although methotrexate-induced solar burn reactivation is rare, clinicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction and consider delaying administration of methotrexate by 5-7 days if a patient reports ultraviolet-related erythema in the past 2-4 days or presents with a notable sunburn. PMID:20334462

  11. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J.

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  12. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  13. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Tips Get Involved Giving Donate Safety Tips Age ... this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  14. 1980 Prescribed Burning Progam: Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines a prescribed burning program for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is provided; names of burn units,...

  15. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  16. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  17. The leading causes of death after burn injury in a single pediatric burn center

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felicia N.; Herndon, David N; Hawkins, Hal K.; Lee, Jong O; Cox, Robert A.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Chinkes, David L.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Severe thermal injury is characterized by profound morbidity and mortality. Advances in burn and critical care, including early excision and grafting, aggressive resuscitation and advances in antimicrobial therapy have made substantial contributions to decrease morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, death still occurs. Our aim was to determine the predominant causes of death in burned pediatric patients in order to develop new treatment avenues and future trajectories a...

  18. Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)

  19. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Moody; Jennifer K. Costanza

    2011-01-01

    Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onsl...

  20. Cytokine expression profile over time in burned mice

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Przkora, Rene; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2008-01-01

    The persistent inflammatory response induced by a severe burn increases patient susceptibility to infections and sepsis, potentially leading to multi-organ failure and death. In order to use murine models to develop interventions that modulate the post-burn inflammatory response, the response in mice and the similarities to the human response must first be determined. Here we present the temporal serum cytokine expression profiles in burned in comparison to sham mice and human burn patients. ...

  1. From Cholera to Burns: A Role for Oral Rehydration Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, S. M.; Green, W.B.; Asuku, M.E.; M. Feldman; Makam, R.; Noppenberger, D; Price, L A; Prosciak, M.; van Loon, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to the practice guidelines of the American Burn Association on burn shock resuscitation, intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is the standard of care for the replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury of ≥20% of the total body surface area. However, in mass burn casualties, IV fluid resuscitation may be delayed or unavailable. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of dehydration in epidemics of cholera, could be an alt...

  2. CASE REPORT Playing Football Burns More Than Just Calories

    OpenAIRE

    Wain, Richard A. J.; Shah, Syed H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the case of a sports-related alkali burn due to a common household chemical and emphasize the importance of a detailed medical history in chemical burns patients. Methods: A single-patient case study is presented along with references from existing literature. Results: Alkaline burn injuries associated with sports have previously been described in the literature; however, this case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a chemical burn with a readily available househo...

  3. Optimizing advanced liquid metal reactors for burning actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the process to design an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) for burning the transuranic part of nuclear waste is discussed. The influence of design parameters on ALMR burner performance is studied and the results are incorporated in a design schedule for optimizing ALMRs for burning transuranics. This schedule is used to design a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR burner to burn as much as possible transurancis. The two designs burn equally well. (orig.)

  4. Bacteremia in burned patients admitted to Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Saleh; Hamid Noshad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1...

  5. Psychological Aspects of Paediatric Burns (A Clinical Review)

    OpenAIRE

    A Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Burn injuries in childhood can be traumatic with lasting effects until adulthood. This article reviews the various psychological issues one confronts when treating paediatric patients with burn injuries. A wide range of factors influence recovery and rehabilitation from paediatric burns. The role of family members, family dynamics, parental reactions, parental psychiatric illness, and pre-morbid psychiatric illness in the child are important factors. The entire family and the burned child hav...

  6. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational Burns in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Jalil Mirmohammadi; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Kazem Kazemeini; Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Occupational burns are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational burns in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related burns in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the burn injury. Results: Th...

  7. [Prevention and treatment strategy for burn wound sepsis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xihua; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-02-01

    Wound sepsis is one of the main causes of death in patients with severe burn and trauma. The high incidence of burn wound sepsis in children is attributed to their imperfect immune system function, poor resistance against infection, and the weakened skin barrier function after burn. The key to reduce the mortality of pediatric patients with burn wound sepsis is to enhance the understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic criteria, in order to improve its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26902271

  8. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  9. Modalities for the Assessment of Burn Wound Depth

    OpenAIRE

    Devgan, Lara; Bhat, Satyanarayan; Aylward, S.; Spence, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Burn wound depth is a significant determinant of patient treatment and morbidity. While superficial partial-thickness burns generally heal by re-epithelialization with minimal scarring, deeper wounds can form hypertrophic or contracted scars, often requiring surgical excision and grafting to prevent a suboptimal result. In addition, without timely intervention, more superficial burn wounds can convert to deeper wounds. As such, the rapid and accurate assessment of burn wound depth ...

  10. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Erdoğan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  11. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgen Erdoğan; Murat Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  12. Music therapy for children with severe burn injury

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jane

    1998-01-01

    peer-reviewed Music therapy for children with severe burns is a developing field of practice and research interest in pediatric music therapy. The following article presents an overview of the nature of severe burn injury and provides a rationale for the use of music therapy in the Burn Unit. The application of song writing techniques to address needs of children receiving care for severe burns in a hospital setting is presented.

  13. 30 CFR 56.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 56.6903 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive material is suspected of burning at the...

  14. New treatment strategies to reduce burn wound progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: After a burn injury certain superficial partial-thickness burn wounds spontaneously progress into deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. This poorly understood phenomenon is called burn wound progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment strategies using warm water (preservation of microcirculation on the one side and erythropoietin (EPO (molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory and neoangiogenic properties can prevent, delay and/or reduce secondary burn wound progression in a rat model.Methods: We used a burn comb model in 63 rats, creating eight rectangular contact burns (2x1 cm each intercalated by unburned zones (2x0.5 cm prone to burn wound progression. In a first experimental set we treated burn wounds with locally applied warm (37°C or cold (17°C water for 20 minutes.In a second experimental set, animals were treated systemically with EPO at two different dosages of 500 and 2,500 IU/kg bodyweight (bw and initiated at 2 different time-points (45 minutes vs. 6 hours after burn injury. Evaluation of microcirculatory perfusion, interspace necrosis and burn depth was performed using respectively laser Doppler flowmetry, planimetry and histology. For statistical analysis the two-way ANOVA-test followed by an adequate post-hoc test (Bonferroni were used. Results: In untreated control animals a conversion from superficial to full-thickness burns was observed within 24 hours. Warm and cold water treatment significantly delayed burn depth progression, nevertheless after 4 days, burn depth was similar in all three groups. Warm water significantly reduced interspace necrosis compared to untreated controls and cold water with a significantly improved perfusion in the warm water group. Surface extension and particularly burn depth progression were significantly decreased by EPO only if administered at a dosage of bw and initiated 45 minutes after burn injury. EPO

  15. Nutrition in the severely burned child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J R

    1981-01-01

    Adequate nutrition in the severely burned child often determines the morbidity and mortality and its supervision demands a high priority in the management of the burn injury. A disciplined, detailed programme is required, but this is often neglected. The hypermetabolism experienced in the severe burn may require a calorie intake up to 2 1/2 times normal, and in the growing child, with extra requirements, a negative balance can easily eventuate if careful management is not instituted. A daily metabolic plan provides firstly, the basic calories and protein per kilogram depending on age as for a normal child and, secondly additional requirements depending on the surface area of the burn. With such a programme the weakness of treating all children, whatever their age, on the same formula related only to surface area burn, is overcome. Parenteral nutrition is commenced as soon as the shock phase has been controlled and is continued until enteral intake by gastric tube is sufficient to cover the requirements. Such tube feeding requires the selection of an isotonic liquid diet so as so limit the possibility of diarrhoea. Isocal (Mead Johnson) has been found generally acceptable. Gradually as the patient recovers, oral intake is introduced and the child returns home on a normal nutritional diet, expectantly without weight loss and even with some weight gain, which befits any normal child under treatment for some months. Preburn nutrition, disease and infection, hyperthermia, hypothermia, evaporative water loss, active exercise, psychological well being, social state, early skin cover and limitation of stress are important aspects affecting metabolism and require careful supervision and management. The limitation of metabolism is as important as increasing the caloric intake and this is exemplified at the time of operation, which should be as nonstressful as possible. Every two weeks an adjusted assessment is made of the burned area still to be grafted and the caloric

  16. [Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate for phosphorus burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A J

    1993-07-01

    20 patients with phosphor burn (TBSA 2%-75%) were cured by i.v. drop of calcium gluconate combined with other therapies including eschar conservation. Our experimental data showed that dogs with burn by spreading 85% phosphoric acid and napalm locally increased the level of plasma phosphorus and pathological damages to the heart, lung, kidney and etc were similar to those previously reported phosphorus burns. Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate after phosphate burn reduced the level of plasma phosphorus to normal rapidly and lessened the visceral damages. We consider that i.v. drop of calcium gluconate can accelerate the elimination of phosphorus, and prevent phosphorus poisoning after phosphorus burns. PMID:8313772

  17. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  18. An idiosyncratic history of burn scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Jane A

    2015-03-01

    The history of burn scars can best be found in military medical history. The care of wounded soldiers documented in the Illiad reflected the trauma of the weapons of war, arrow, spear, sword, and ax. The introduction of gunpowder in the 14th century, increasingly sophisticated explosives, and in modern times, petroleum-driven vehicles, including airplanes, created a new subset of wounds requiring attention and post-survival scars challenging the quality of survival. This article selects from among a myriad of examples of modern military treatments as they relate to those survivors. Larrey, with Napolean's Grand Army, Sir Harold Gilles during and following World War I, and the Boston area preparation and response to the Cocoanut Grove Fire in 1942 are the principle topics examined. Recent modern interventions, related to the survival of horrific blast and burn injuries, with modern wound care and scar manipulation techniques provide context to the current ability to modify healing and scars. PMID:25922950

  19. Light hydrocarbon emissions from African savanna burnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken in West Africa to determine the background mixing ratio of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) during the dry season and to measure the composition of savanna burnings. The experiment was conducted from 13 to 22 January 1989 in the experimental station located at the border of the tropical rainforest and savanna. Samples were collected during aircraft flights at 2,400 m in the free troposphere, at 400 m in the haze layer and in a smoke plume at 200 m altitude. Samples representing the ground-level evolution of the local background were collected at 10 m altitude. Fire samples were collected at a short distance from the fires during the intensive experiments. Results are presented in tables and indicate that the effect of NMHC produced by biomass burning on the tropospheric photochemistry is limited to a few species, namely, C2-C4 alkenes

  20. Tertiary nuclear burning - neutron star deflagration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A motivation is presented for the idea that dense nuclear matter can burn to a new class of stable particles. One of several possibilities is an octet particle which is the 16 baryon extension of alpha particle, but now composed of a pair of each of the two nucleons, (3Sigma, Delta, and 2Xi). Such tertiary nuclear burning (here primary is H-He and secondary is He-Fe) may lead to neutron star explosions rather than collapse to a black hole, analogous to some Type I supernovae models wherein accreting white dwarfs are pushed over the Chandrasekhar mass limit but explode rather than collapse to form neutron stars. Such explosions could possibly give gamma-ray bursts and power quasars, with efficient particle acceleration in the resultant relativistic shocks. The new stable particles themselves could possibly be the sought-after weakly interacting, massive particles (WIMPs) or dark' matter. 26 references

  1. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO particle nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besmann, T. M.; Stoller, R. E.; Samolyuk, G.; Schuck, P. C.; Golubov, S. I.; Rudin, S. P.; Wills, J. M.; Coe, J. D.; Wirth, B. D.; Kim, S.; Morgan, D. D.; Szlufarska, I.

    2012-11-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel, the fission product's attack on the SiC coating layer, as well as fission product diffusion through an alternative coating layer, ZrC. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  2. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet's atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate

  3. Explosive helium burning at constant pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.-A.; Hanawa, T.; Sugimoto, D.

    The results of numerical calculations of nucleosynthesis under adiabatic conditions, i.e., when the only heat exchange with the external regions takes place through neutrinos, are reported. Attention is focused on explosive burning associated with shell flashes, assuming that nuclear energy is deposited in a mass element, followed by expansion and density decrease. Consideration is given to three cases, the shell flash near the surface of a degenerate star, to nuclear burning concentrated in a small region of a star, and to the heat energy being deposited in intermediate layers. A reaction network of 181 nuclear species was constructed and the thermodynamic evolution was calculated assuming constant pressure and adiabatic conditions. The final products of the reactions of H-1 to Cu-62 were projected to by O-16, Mg-24, Si-28, S-32, Ca-40, Ti-44, Cr-48, and Fe-52.

  4. Pascal Chabot, Global Burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Rollot, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    « La philosophie est une réflexion pour qui toute matière étrangère est bonne et nous dirions volontiers pour qui toute bonne matière doit être étrangère » écrivait G. Canguilhem. L’ouvrage de Pascal Chabot, par conséquent, porte son regard philosophique sur cet objet étrange et étranger à la philosophie : le burn-out. L’enjeu est de comprendre ce phénomène et de le situer « dans une époque excessive » (p. 12). En effet, le burn-out dépasse le cadre de la pathologie de l’individu, il est path...

  5. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management. PMID:27439272

  6. Light absorption by biomass burning source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Engling, Guenter; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W. Patrick; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Wold, Cyle E.; Hao, Wei Min; He, Ke-bin

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol has relatively short atmospheric lifetimes yet plays a unique and important role in the Earth's climate system, making it an important short-term climate mitigation target. Globally, biomass burning is the largest source of BC emissions into the atmosphere. This study investigated the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of biomass burning BC generated by controlled combustion of various wildland fuels during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). MAE values derived from a photoacoustic spectrometer (∼7.8 m2/g at a wavelength of 532 nm) were in good agreement with those suggested for uncoated BC when the emission ratios of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) were extremely low (i.e., below 0.3). With the increase of OC/EC, two distinct types of biomass smoke were identified. For the first type, MAE exhibited a positive dependence on OC/EC, while the overestimation of the light absorption coefficient (babs) by a filter-based method was less significant and could be estimated by a nearly constant correction factor. For the second type, MAE was biased low and correlated negatively with OC/EC, while the overestimation of babs by the filter-based method was much more significant and showed an apparent OC/EC dependence. This study suggests that BC emission factors determined by the commonly used thermal-optical methods might be sustantially overestimated for some types of biomass burning emissions. Our results also indicate that biomass burning emissions may include some liquid-like organics that can significantly bias filter-based babs measurements.

  7. BURNING THERMALS IN TYPE ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a one-dimensional theoretical model for thermals burning in Type ia supernovae based on the entrainment assumption of Morton, Taylor, and Turner. Extensions of the standard model are required to account for the burning and for the expansion of the thermal due to changes in the background stratification found in the full star. The model is compared with high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations, both in a uniform environment and a full-star setting. The simulations in a uniform environment present compelling agreement with the predicted power laws and provide model constants for the full-star model, which then provides excellent agreement with the full-star simulation. The importance of the different components in the model is compared, and are all shown to be relevant. An examination of the effect of initial conditions was then conducted using the one-dimensional model, which would have been infeasible in three dimensions. More mass was burned when the ignition kernel was larger and closer to the center of the star. The turbulent flame speed was found to be important during the early-time evolution of the thermal, but played a diminished role at later times when the evolution is dominated by the large-scale hydrodynamics responsible for entrainment. However, a higher flame speed effectively gave a larger initial ignition kernel and so resulted in more mass burned. This suggests that future studies should focus on the early-time behavior of these thermals (in particular, the transition to turbulence), and that the choice of turbulent flame speed does not play a significant role in the dynamics once the thermal has become established.

  8. Study of nuclear fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors approach theoretical treatment of isotopic composition changement for nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors. They show the difficulty of exhaustive treatment of burn-up problems and introduce the principal simplifying principles. Due to these principles they write and solve analytically the evolution equations of the concentration for the principal nuclides both in the case of fast and thermal reactors. Finally, they expose and comment the results obtained in the case of a power fast reactor. (author)

  9. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  10. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parrington; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.; J. D. Lee; A. R. Rickard; De Carlo, P; Taylor, J.W.; J. R. Hopkins; S. Punjabi; D. E. Oram; G. Forster; Aruffo, E.; Moller, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Allan, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of ozone (O3) photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of O3 and a number of key chemical species associated with O3 photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the "quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric ox...

  11. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parrington; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.; J. D. Lee; A. R. Rickard; P. Di Carlo; Taylor, J.W.; J. R. Hopkins; S. Punjabi; D. E. Oram; G. Forster; Aruffo, E.; Moller, S. J.; S. J.-B. Bauguitte; Allan, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of ozone photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of ozone and a number of key chemical species associated with ozone photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the quantifying ...

  12. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parrington; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.; J. D. Lee; A. R. Rickard; P. Di Carlo; Taylor, J.W.; J. R. Hopkins; S. Punjabi; D. E. Oram; G. Forster; Aruffo, E.; Moller, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Allan, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of ozone photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of ozone and a number of key chemical species associated with ozone photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on tropospheric ox...

  13. Pyoderma gangrenosum in burned patient: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana; Jovanović Mladen; Popović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, chronic, destructive, ulcerating skin disease of uncertain etiology. It develops most frequently in patients between 25-45 years of age and affects both sexes equally. Case report. We present a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in a young female patient who sustained a burn injury of 40% total body surface area. She underwent four operations. She developed a wound infection and urinary infection during her hospital s...

  14. Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) ... brûlures - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Burn Care हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual ...

  15. Cytokine expression profile over time in burned mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Przkora, Rene; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    The persistent inflammatory response induced by a severe burn increases patient susceptibility to infections and sepsis, potentially leading to multi-organ failure and death. In order to use murine models to develop interventions that modulate the post-burn inflammatory response, the response in mice and the similarities to the human response must first be determined. Here we present the temporal serum cytokine expression profiles in burned in comparison to sham mice and human burn patients. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to control (n=47) or subjected to a 35% TBSA scald burn (n=89). Mice were sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 hours and 7, 10, and 14 days post-burn; cytokines were measured by multi-plex array. Following the burn injury, IL-6, IL-1β, KC, G-CSF, TNF, IL-17, MIP-1α, RANTES, and GM-CSF were increased, p<0.05. IL-2, IL-3, and IL-5 were decreased, p<0.05. IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-12p70 were expressed in a biphasic manner, p<0.05. This temporal cytokine expression pattern elucidates the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response in burned mice. Expression of 11 cytokines were similar in mice and children, returning to lowest levels by post-burn day 14, confirming the utility of the burned mouse model for development of therapeutic interventions to attenuate the post-burn inflammatory response. PMID:19019696

  16. Best available control measures for prescribed burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 190 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990 requires the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue guidance on Best Available Control Measures (BACM) of PM10 (particulate matter with a nominal aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers) from urban fugitive dust, residential wood combustion, and prescribed silvicultural and agricultural burning (prescribed burning). The purpose of this guidance is to assist states (especially, but not exclusively, those with PM10 nonattainment areas which have been classified as serious) in developing a control measure for these three source categories. This guidance is to be issued no later than May 15, 1992 as required under the CAA. The guidance will be issued in the form of a policy guidance generic to all three BACM and in the form of Technical Information Documents (TIDs) for each of the three source categories. The policy guidance will provide the analytical approach for determining BACM and the TID will provide the technical information. The purpose of this paper is to present some insight from the forthcoming TID on what BACM might entail for prescribed burning in a serious PM10 nonattainment area

  17. Particle accelerator requirements for burning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the four subprograms of the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) program is the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) subprogram which in term is a program. The capacity to burn waste is given by the enhanced neutron economy made possible by the presence of the extra accelerator-produced neutrons. The better neutron economy increases the capacity of burning (transmute) anything that absorbs neutrons including long-lived fission products and actinides. By these transmuted or 'burning' systems, the bulk of long-lived radionuclides in disposed radioactive wastes can be reduced by factors of 1000 and the storage time of residual products can be greatly reduced from hundreds of thousands of years to several centuries. This paper presents particle beam requirements for ADTT applications. These are most often specified with a nominal 1 GeV energy and an average beam current for ATW ranging from 100 to 250 m A depending on different applications and different system concepts. It is sketched the reference RF-Linac Accelerator Design for ATW systems. (author)

  18. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  19. Analgesic effects of dexamethasone in burn injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids are well-known adjuvant analgesics in certain chronic pain states. There is, however, a paucity of data on their analgesic efficacy in acute pain. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of dexamethasone in a validated burn m...... administration of dexamethasone 2 hours before a burn injury does not reduce the inflammatory-mediated changes in quantitative sensory thresholds, pain perception, or skin erythema in humans....... differences between treatments in regard to skin erythema (P >.8), thermal or mechanical thresholds (P >.2), thermal or mechanical pain response (P >.2), or mechanical secondary hyperalgesia (P >.2). Dexamethasone had no analgesic effects in normal skin. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that systemic...... model of acute inflammatory pain in humans. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo was administered on 2 separate study days. Two hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn...

  20. U.S. Burning Plasma Organization Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: (1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; (2) activation of the advisory Council; (3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; (4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; (5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  1. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia and burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Joseph R; Jellish, W Scott

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of pain produced during the management of burn injury has been an ongoing problem for physicians caring for these patients. The main therapeutic option for analgesia has been the repeated and prolonged use of opioids. The adverse effects of opioids are well known but the long term use of opioids which produces tolerance with accompanying dose escalation and dependence is most problematic. Another potentially important consequence of opioid exposure that sometimes masks as tolerance is that of opioid induced hyperalgesia. This syndrome is manifest as enhanced pain, sensitivity and loss of analgesic efficacy in patients treated with opioids who actually become sensitized to painful stimuli. This article focuses on the treatment of burn pain and how current analgesic therapies with opioids may cause hyperalgesia and affect the adequacy of treatment for burn pain. This article also provides possible modalities to help therapeutically manage these patients and considers future analgesic strategies which may help to improve pain management in this complicated patient population. PMID:23143613

  2. Second law analysis of convective droplet burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the entropy generation due to burning particles in a gaseous stream is considered and the contribution to it compared. A second law analysis is undertaken in order to minimize the entropy generation and therefore the lost available work. The optimum flow conditions from this thermodynamically advantageous perspective are determined for a burning droplet at low Reynolds number and an optimum transfer number obtained. The transfer number so obtained depends directly on the square of the relative velocity, and inversely on the net enthalpy rise due to burning and the ratio of ambient to flame temperature. In realistic flows, where the transfer number and net heat release are fixed, these quantities are related to the relative velocity and ambient to flame temperature ratio in order to operate at optimum conditions. The square of the relative velocity in such flows is a small fraction of the net heat release so that, to operate at optimum thermodynamic conditions, it is determined that the droplet Reynolds number must be large suggesting a large droplet size and low gas velocity. Considerations pertaining to engineering practice are also considered and it is concluded that within constraints practice is consistent with the implications of the second law analysis

  3. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Burn Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jeff T; Zieger, Madeline; Sood, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cytomegalovirus in the burn population is high. However, its role in the clinical management of burn patients is still being defined. This report documents a 41-year-old man who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis after being admitted with a 72% burn. Before the administration of ganciclovir, the authors had difficulty controlling his quantitative wound cultures with serial debridements, topical agents, and systemic antibiotics for known pathogens, which led to graft loss. After the ganciclovir was given, his quantitative wound cultures improved without changing the authors' topical agents or systemic antibiotics and had improved graft take. Whether CMV infection alone contributed to an increased morbidity in this patient or the combination of bacteria/fungal infection with CMV led to a synergistic effect is still not clearly understood. CMV may have contributed to a dysfunction in his cell mediated immunity, which, in turn, lowered the bacterial and fungal load necessary to cause graft loss. Patients who continue to do poorly despite adequate treatment for known pathogens may need to be screened for CMV and treated. PMID:26056763

  4. A Model For The Burning of Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Beeson, Harold D.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Teflon has been identified as suitable material for use in oxygen-enriched atmospheres because of its low specific enthalpy of combustion that is, less than 1500 cal/gram. However, once ignited, Teflon burns in a heterogeneous reaction until total consumption or depletion of oxygen occurs. A model is developed for the burning of Teflon in pure, high-pressure oxygen, 3.4 to 68.9 MPa. The Teflon polymer chain dissociates via monomer units due to pyrolysis. These monomer units diffuse to the surface due to free convection. The model consists of coupled mass and energy balances for the polymer and an energy balance for the free convection of product gases. The model is used to obtain appropriate kinetic parameters for the dissociation and surface reactions. The model is validated against experimental measurements of Teflon discs supported on aluminum rods (2216) at oxygen pressures of 3.4, 6.8, 34.4, and 68.9 MPa. The model simulates the temperature distribution in the product gases above burning Teflon.

  5. Early diagnostics and treatment with acute burn sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmedov A.A.; Shakirov B.M.; Karabaev H.K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of the procalcitonin test used for early diagnosis of sepsis and to study the course and treatment of burn sepsis in patients with severe burns. Methods: Eighty patients in the Burn Department of Republican Scientific Centre of Emergency Medical Care, aged 17-75 years with burn injuries covering 30%-85% of the body surface, were enrolled in the study. Procalcitonin is marker of sepsis, procalcitonin > 2 ng/mL, sensitivity -89%, specific feature -94%. Results: The result showed that among septic patients with severe burns, rational use of intensive therapy for burn sepsis and septic shock in combination with parentrial ozonotherapy resulted in decreases of syndrome of poly organ insufficiency and lethal outcomes from 70%accordingly. The result allows the conclusion that the treatment examined leads to a significant increase in survival coefficient. Conclusions: This in turn confirms the efficacy of early necrectomy and auto dermoplasty of deep burn wounds in victims with sepsis.

  6. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Norbury, William B; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn size groups: 80% TBSA burn. Demographic and clinical data, hypermetabolism, the inflammatory response, body composition, the muscle protein net balance, serum and urine hormones and proteins, and cardiac function and changes in liver size were determined. Results One hundred and eighty-nine pediatric patients of similar age and gender distribution were included in the study (80% TBSA burn, n = 21). Patients with larger burns had more operations, a greater incidence of infections and sepsis, and higher mortality rates compared with the other groups (P 80% TBSA group, followed by the 60–79% TBSA burn group (P 80% burns lost the most body weight, lean body mass, muscle protein and bone mineral content (P < 0.05). The urine cortisol concentration was highest in the 80–99% and 60–79% TBSA burn groups, associated with significant myocardial depression and increased change in liver size (P < 0.05). The cytokine profile showed distinct differences in expression of IL-8, TNF, IL-6, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P < 0.05). Conclusion Morbidity and mortality in burned patients is burn size dependent, starts at a 60% TBSA burn and is due to an increased hypermetabolic and inflammatory reaction, along with impaired cardiac function. PMID:17716366

  7. Treatment strategies for mass burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; YANG Hong-ming; HAO Dai-feng; SHEN Chuan-an; JIA Xiao-ming; LI Feng; JING Sa; LI Li-gen; SONG Hui-feng; JIA Chi-yu; TUO Xiao-ye; SUN Tian-jun; HU Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass burn casualties are always a great challenge to a medical team because a large number of seriously injured patients were sent in within a short time. Usually a high mortality is impending. Experiences gained from successful treatment of the victims may be useful in guiding the care of mass casualties in an armed conflict.Methods Thirty-five burn victims in a single batch, being transferred nonstop by air and highway from a distant province,were admitted 48 hours post-injury. All patients were male with a mean age of (22.4±8.7) years. The burn extent ranged from 4% to 75% ((13.6±12.9)%) total body surface area. Among them, thirty-two patients were complicated by moderate and severe inhalation injury, and tracheostomy had been performed in 15 patients. Decompression incisions of burn eschar on extremities were done in 17 cases before transportation. All the thirty-five patients arrived at the destination smoothly via 4-hour airlift and road transportation. Among them, twenty-five patients were in critical condition.Results These thirty-five patients were evacuated 6 hours from the scene of the injury, and they were transferred to a local hospital for primary emergency care. The patients were in very poor condition when admitted to our hospital because of the severe injury with delayed and inadequate treatment. Examination of these patients at admission showed that one patient was suffering from sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Dysfunction of the heart, lung, liver,kidney, and coagulation were all found in the patients. Forty-eight operations were performed in the 23 patients during one month together with comprehensive treatment, and the function of various organs was ameliorated after appropriate treatment. All the 35 patients survived.Conclusions A well-organized team consisting of several cooperative groups with specified duties is very important. As a whole, the treatment protocol should be individualized, basing on the extent of

  8. Prestudy of burn control in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes our ongoing work on a number of selected topics, and the plans for the nearest future. In chapter 2 we have specialized the system of the previous report to form an easily tractable, second-order system. In this case one can give an explicit, analytical condition for stability. A code providing quick answers regarding stability, time scales and eigenvectors has been written and tested. The zerodimensional modelling of a burning plasma described by space dependent equations is often done in a heuristic way, with no clear relation between the two systems of equations. We have tried to put the approximation procedure involved in the transition to 0-D models on a more formal basis. This is the topic of chapter 3. The 1-D equilibrium solution is also investigated with respect to its stability properties, which are shown to be the same as those derived from the simplest 0-D space averaged model. Chapter 4 contains a few emerging thoughts on burn control. First, the limited swing of the auxiliary heating gives rise to limitations on the possibilities to intervene against temperature excursions by an auxiliary heating modulation. This problem becomes severe when one operates at high Q values. Another analysis concerns the problem of selecting a proper control action when a temperature profile differs from the equilibrium shape. A couple of alternative schemes for burn control, minor radius alterations and dynamic stabilization are tentatively discussed; no definite answers on their feasibility are obtained. The problem of diagnosing the plasma with respect to burn conditions is the topic of chapter 5. The influence on the energy distribution of control actions and the reliability of neutron measurements are discussed, and the question of how to handle sawteeth is briefly revisited. Chapter 6 is a description of process identification and how it could be used for burn control. A particular advantage is that it can be combined with physical

  9. Analysis of Parallel Burn Without Crossfeed TSTO RLV Architectures and Comparison to Parallel Burn With Crossfeed and Series Burn Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garrett; Phillips, Alan

    2002-01-01

    There are currently three dominant TSTO class architectures. These are Series Burn (SB), Parallel Burn with crossfeed (PBw/cf), and Parallel Burn without crossfeed (PBncf). The goal of this study was to determine what factors uniquely affect PBncf architectures, how each of these factors interact, and to determine from a performance perspective whether a PBncf vehicle could be competitive with a PBw/cf or SB vehicle using equivalent technology and assumptions. In all cases, performance was evaluated on a relative basis for a fixed payload and mission by comparing gross and dry vehicle masses of a closed vehicle. Propellant combinations studied were LOX: LH2 propelled orbiter and booster (HH) and LOX: Kerosene booster with LOX: LH2 orbiter (KH). The study conclusions were: 1) a PBncf orbiter should be throttled as deeply as possible after launch until the staging point. 2) a detailed structural model is essential to accurate architecture analysis and evaluation. 3) a PBncf TSTO architecture is feasible for systems that stage at mach 7. 3a) HH architectures can achieve a mass growth relative to PBw/cf of ratio and to the position of the orbiter required to align the nozzle heights at liftoff. 5 ) thrust to weight ratios of 1.3 at liftoff and between 1.0 and 0.9 when staging at mach 7 appear to be close to ideal for PBncf vehicles. 6) performance for all vehicles studied is better when staged at mach 7 instead of mach 5. The study showed that a Series Burn architecture has the lowest gross mass for HH cases, and has the lowest dry mass for KH cases. The potential disadvantages of SB are the required use of an air-start for the orbiter engines and potential CG control issues. A Parallel Burn with crossfeed architecture solves both these problems, but the mechanics of a large bipropellant crossfeed system pose significant technical difficulties. Parallel Burn without crossfeed vehicles start both booster and orbiter engines on the ground and thus avoid both the risk of

  10. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  11. [Integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child with extremely severe burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongming; Zhang, Jiaping; Chen, Jian; Song, Huapei; Liu, Qiushi; Fan, Xin; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    This article reports the successful experience of integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child suffering from 91% TBSA flame burn injury (with 60% TBSA full-thickness injury, 30% TBSA deep partial-thickness injury, and 1% TBSA superficial partial-thickness injury), severe inhalation injury, severe burn shock, stress ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding and atelectasis of the right upper lung. The patient was given effective fluid infusion against shock, treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding, and other effective supportive treatment for functions of various organs after being admitted to our burn ward. When vital signs became stable at 30 hours post injury, bedside rehabilitation was begun. On post injury day (PID) 4, escharectomy was performed for both lower limbs, followed by microskin grafting and allogeneic skin covering. On PID 10, invasive infection of multi-drug resistant bacteria was found with accompanied high fever, and at the same time allograft began to disintegrate, with dissolution of large area of eschar, leading to a raw surface reaching 86% TBSA. Following debridement, dressing, application of compound polymyxin B ointment, temporary covering of wounds with porcine acellular dermal matrix, adjustment of antibiotics, patient's condition was finally stabilized. From PID 28 on, split-thickness skin grafting was conducted 7 times, and the raw surface of 75% TBSA involving the upper and lower limbs and trunk was successfully covered. At the same time, our rehabilitation team launched comprehensive rehabilitation measures comprising active exercise, occupational therapy, prevention of scar formation, organ function training and psychological intervention. Finally, the patient was able to walk unaided and fed herself when the wounds were almost entirely healed in 3 months after injury. Oriented forwards functional rehabilitation, strong cooperation between team members, and synchronous effective implementation of burn treatment and

  12. Proposing "the burns suite" as a novel simulation tool for advancing the delivery of burns education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. We explored this concept in a burns scenario in a novel, low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment (referred to as distributed simulation). This contextualized simulation/distributed simulation combination was named "The Burns Suite" (TBS). A pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was selected after high trainee demand. It was designed on Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns principles and refined using expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. TBS contained "realism" props, briefed nurses, and a simulated patient. Novices and experts were recruited. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's α was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twelve participants completed TBS scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.6 and 4.5, respectively; range, 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants felt 1) the experience was "real" and they were "able to behave as if in a real resuscitation environment," and 2) TBS "addressed what Advanced Trauma and Life Support and Emergency Management of Severe Burns didn't" (including the efficacy of incorporating nontechnical skills). TBS provides a novel, effective simulation tool to significantly advance the delivery of burns education. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize simulation training. This low-cost approach also has major implications for surgical education, particularly during increasing financial austerity. Alternative scenarios and/or procedures can be recreated within TBS, providing a diverse educational immersive simulation experience. PMID:23877145

  13. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  14. Predictors of Discharge Disposition in Older Adults With Burns: A Study of the Burn Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tam N; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Martinez, Erin; Lezotte, Dennis; Rietschel, Carly; Holavanahalli, Radha; Kowalske, Karen; Esselman, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Older patients with burn injury have a greater likelihood for discharge to nursing facilities. Recent research indicates that older patients discharged to nursing facilities are two to three times as likely to die within a 3-year period relative to those discharged to home. In light of these poor long-term outcomes, we conducted this study to identify predictors for discharge to independent vs nonindependent living status in older patients hospitalized for burns. We retrospectively reviewed all older adults (age ≥ 55 years) who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal multicenter study of outcomes from 1993 to 2011. Patient, injury, and treatment outcomes data were analyzed. Recognizing that transfer to inpatient rehabilitation may have impacted final hospital discharge disposition: we assessed the likelihood of inpatient rehabilitation stay, based on identified predictors of inpatient rehabilitation. We subsequently performed a logistic regression analysis on the clustered, propensity-matched cohort to assess associations of burn and injury characteristics on the primary outcome of final discharge status. A total of 591 patients aged ≥55 years were treated and discharged alive from three participating U.S. burn centers during the study period. Mean burn size was 14.8% (SD 11.2%) and mean age was 66.7 years (SD 9.3 years). Ninety-three patients had an inpatient rehabilitation stay before discharge (15.7%). Significant factors predictive of inpatient rehabilitation included a burn >20% TBSA, mechanical ventilation, older age, range of motion deficits at acute care discharge, and study site. These factors were included in the propensity model. Four hundred seventy-one patients (80%) were discharged to independent living status. By matched propensity analysis, older age was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of discharge to nonindependent living (P patient factors. Furthermore, clinical practice variations among the three study sites also

  15. Emissions from Open Burning: Evaluation Challenges at Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Emmons, L. K.; Raffuse, S. M.; Larkin, N. K.

    2011-12-01

    Open burning, whether wildland fires, prescribed burning, burning as part of agricultural practices, or even the burning of waste, emits significant amounts of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. These emissions can play an important role in local and regional air quality, global atmospheric chemistry, and climatic processes. Many valuable efforts have been put forth to estimate the emissions from open burning, ranging from event-specific and local scales, to regional and global scales. The results from these efforts are extremely valuable, since the inclusion of open burning events is essential to models that simulate air quality, chemistry, and climate. However, evaluation of these emission estimates remains a significant challenge and the uncertainty associated with the estimates is high. Burning emissions are episodic in nature, often occur on heterogeneous landscapes, and are variable throughout a day, a week, and even over months and seasons. The quantity and species of open burning emissions depend on the type of fuel burned, the condition of the fuel, and the way in which the fire burns. These characteristics add inherent difficulties for constraining open burning emissions. Additionally, the transport and transformation of open burning emissions in the atmosphere provides further challenges to their evaluation. This presentation will summarize some of the recent advances in open burning emission estimates, including emission estimates over various spatial and temporal scales that have been developed for various applications. Many efforts to evaluate the emissions, using measurements and models, have already been accomplished, providing information of success and challenges we still face. For example, recent studies using chemical transport models and observations from aircraft studies suggest that the carbon monoxide emissions predicted by the Fire INventory from NCAR in North America are too low. The results of the evaluations can be

  16. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrington

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ozone (O3 photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of O3 and a number of key chemical species associated with O3 photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, nitrogen oxides (NOx and total nitrogen containing species (NOy, were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the "quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites" (BORTAS experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. The location and timing of the aircraft measurements put BORTAS into a unique position to sample biomass burning plumes from the same source region in Northwestern Ontario with a range of ages. We found that O3 mixing ratios measured in biomass burning plumes were indistinguishable from non-plume measurements, but evaluating them in relationship to measurements of carbon monoxide (CO, total alkyl nitrates (ΣAN and the surrogate species NOz (= NOy-NOx revealed that the potential for O3 production increased with plume age. We used NMHC ratios to estimate photochemical ages of the observed biomass burning plumes between 0 and 10 days. The BORTAS measurements provided a wide dynamic range of O3 production in the sampled biomass burning plumes with ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios increasing from 0.020 ± 0.008 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages less than 2 days to 0.55 ± 0.29 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages greater than 5 days. We found that the main contributing factor to the variability in the ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratio was ΔCO in plumes with photochemical ages less than 4 days, and that was a transition to ΔO3 becoming the main contributing factor in plumes with ages greater than 4 days. In comparing O3 mixing ratios with components of the NOy budget, we observed that plumes with ages between 2 and 4 days were characterised

  17. Burn patient: emergency treatment and reanimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrocal-Revueltas Manuela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Burns are a worldwide public Health Problem. This matter mainly affects the populationsof developing countries, due to their vulnerability and the lack of statistical recordsavailable to acknowledge the truly dimensions of the problem, which are needed todevelop efficient prevention proposals. This trauma or injury of the tissue, produced bythe transference of energy from one body to another, severely affects the quality of lifeof the burn patient, with high risk of morbidity and mortality, if the emergency treatmentof resuscitation or reanimation procedure, performed by the medical or paramedical teamfails to operate in a efficient way. This Guidelines is an easy, updated, effective and safetysupport, designed for physicians and paramedics, since they are the first who go to theplace of the accident to offer the primary support to the burned patient.RESEUMEN:Las quemaduras son un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, que afecta con mayorgravedad a las poblaciones vulnerables de los países en vías de desarrollo, por la falta deregistros estadísticos que permitan conocer la dimensión del problema, para desarrollarpropuestas eficientes en materia de prevención. Este trauma o lesión tisular, producidapor la transferencia de energía de un cuerpo a otro, puede afectar en forma severa lacalidad de vida del paciente y su familia, con alto riesgo de morbi-mortalidad, si no seaplica en forma oportuna y eficiente un tratamiento de emergencia para la reanimación óresucitación del paciente, por parte del equipo médico y paramédico, asignados en cadacaso. La presente guía de manejo de urgencia del paciente quemado, es de fácil aplicación,efectiva y actualizada, orientada a los médicos generales y paramédicos, quienes son losprimeros en acudir al lugar del accidente para ofrecer los primeros cuidados al pacientequemado.

  18. THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO SEVERE BURN INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela; Suman, Oscar E; Norbury, William B; Branski, Ludwik K; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To improve clinical outcome and to determine new treatment options, we studied the pathophysiologic response postburn in a large prospective, single center, clinical trial. Summary Background Data A severe burn injury leads to marked hypermetabolism and catabolism, which are associated with morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology and the correlations between humoral changes and organ function have not been well delineated. Methods Two hundred forty-two severely burned pediatric patients [>30% total body surface area (TBSA)], who received no anabolic drugs, were enrolled in this study. Demographics, clinical data, serum hormones, serum cytokine expression profile, organ function, hypermetabolism, muscle protein synthesis, incidence of wound infection sepsis, and body composition were obtained throughout acute hospital course. Results Average age was 8 ± 0.2 years, and average burn size was 56 ± 1% TBSA with 43 ± 1% third-degree TBSA. All patients were markedly hypermetabolic throughout acute hospital stay and had significant muscle protein loss as demonstrated by a negative muscle protein net balance (−0.05% ± 0.007 nmol/100 mL leg/min) and loss of lean body mass (LBM) (−4.1% ± 1.9%); P < 0.05. Patients lost 3% ± 1% of their bone mineral content (BMC) and 2 ± 1% of their bone mineral density (BMD). Serum proteome analysis demonstrated profound alterations immediately postburn, which remained abnormal throughout acute hospital stay; P < 0.05. Cardiac function was compromised immediately after burn and remained abnormal up to discharge; P < 0.05. Insulin resistance appeared during the first week postburn and persisted until discharge. Patients were hyperinflammatory with marked changes in IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6, which were associated with 2.5 ± 0.2 infections and 17% sepsis. Conclusions In this large prospective clinical trial, we delineated the complexity of the postburn pathophysiologic response and conclude that the postburn

  19. Amazonia: Burning and global climate impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, humans have been playing a major role in reducing the natural forest cover in the tropics through different forms of slash and burn. The most serious destruction, it is said, is occurring in the Amazon, which is the largest expanse of tropical forest remaining on the planet. This chapter reviews briefly the causes and the extent of Amazonian deforestation and focuses on its global and local climate impacts. In addition, the effects of loss of diversity and need to preserve Indian cultures and societies are briefly discussed

  20. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  1. Burning invariant manifolds in reactive front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin; Solomon, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We present theory and experiments on the dynamics of reaction fronts in a two-dimensional flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. Inspired by the organization of passive transport by invariant manifolds, we introduce burning invariant manifolds (BIMs), which act as one-sided barriers to front propagation. The BIMs emerge from the theory when the advection-reaction- diffusion system is recast as an ODE for reaction front elements. Experimentally, we demonstrate how these BIMs can be measured and compare their behavior with simulation. Finally, a topological BIM formalism yields a maximum front propagation speed.

  2. Paediatric suicidal burns: A growing concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana

    2016-06-01

    An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. PMID:26803366

  3. Burn control resulting from toroidal field ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhanced transport due to toroidal magnetic field ripple is proposed as a means of averting thermal runaway in a tokamak reactor in the post-ignition stage. A theoretical analysis applied to a typical reactor design reveals that peak-to-average edge ripple of the order of 2% is sufficient to terminate the thermal excursion at reasonable values of β without significantly increasing the difficulty of reaching ignition. These analytic predictions, which are shown to agree well with radial transport code results, suggest that a properly specified ripple is one way of achieving a controlled burn in tokamak reactors. (author)

  4. [Burning mouth syndrome - a joint biopsychosocial approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpone, Francesca; Combremont, Florian; Weber, Kerstin; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2016-02-10

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a medical condition that is often refractory to conventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Patients suffering from BMS can benefit from a biopsychosocial approach in a joint, medical-psychological consultation model. Such a consultation exists at Geneva University Hospitals, involving the collaboration of the maxillo-facial and oral surgery division and the division of liaison psychiatry and crisis intervention, in order to take into account the multiple factors involved in BMS onset and persistence. This article will describe BMS clinical presentation, and present an integrate approach to treat these patients. PMID:27039444

  5. In situ oil burning in the marshland environment : soil temperatures resulting from crude oil and diesel fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique challenge associated with oil spill cleanups in sensitive marsh environments was discussed. Mechanical recovery of crude or refined hydrocarbons in wetlands may cause more damage to the marsh than the oil itself. This study evaluated whether in situ burning of oiled marshlands would provide a less damaging alternative than mechanical recovery. This was done through a series of 6 crude oil and 5 diesel fuel burns conducted in a test tank to examine the impact of intentional burning of oil spilled in a wetlands environment. There are several factors which may influence how well such an environment would recover from an in situ oil burn, such as plant species, fuel type and load, water level, soil type, and burn duration. This paper focused on soil, air and water temperatures, as well as total heat fluxes that resulted when 3 plant species were exposed to full-scale in situ burns that were created by burning diesel fuel and crude oil. The soil temperatures were monitored during the test burn at three different soil/water elevations for 700 second burn exposures. A total of 184 plant sods were harvested from marshlands in southern Louisiana and were subjected to the burning fuel. They were instrumental in characterizing the thermal and chemical stress that occur during an in-situ burn. The plants were inserted into the test tanks at various water and soil depths. The results indicated that diesel fuel and crude oil burns produced similar soil temperature profiles at each of three plant sod elevations. Although in-situ burning did not appear to remediate oil that had penetrated into the soil, it did effectively remove floating oil from the water surface, thereby preventing it from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the soil when the water recedes. The regrowth and recovery of the plants will be described in a separate report. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs

  6. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  7. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier. PMID:15633562

  8. Waste burning and heat recovery characteristics of a mass burn incineration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2003-02-01

    An experimental investigation on waste combustion characteristics of a mass burn incinerator is conducted in this study. Three different charging modes, including operator manipulation, periodic feeding, and temperature control, are taken into consideration. The results indicate that the burning characteristics in the combustion chambers are closely related to the operating modes. For the operator manipulation where the wastes are sent into the incinerator in two short periods, the entire temperature distribution of the primary combustion chamber can be partitioned into two parts, thereby yielding waste group combustion. Temperature oscillations in both the primary and secondary combustion chambers are characterized for the periodic feeding. However, because of the shorter charging period and smaller amount of waste, the burning interaction between the two chambers is initially weak and becomes notable in the final stage. When temperature control is performed, the burning oscillation of the primary combustion chamber is further amplified so the combustion interaction is drastic. These exhibitions are mainly caused by the competition between endothermic and exothermic reactions. The instantaneous heat exchange efficiency of the cyclone heat recovery system (CHRS) installed in the incineration system is also evaluated to obtain details of energy recovery behaviors. As a result, the efficiency tends to decrease linearly with increasing temperature of hot flue gas. This arises from the fact that heat loss from the gas to the environment is increased when the temperature of the former is higher, even though the temperature gradient across the cyclone is enlarged. PMID:12617288

  9. Wound Coverage Technologies in Burn Care: Established Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Branski, Ludwik K.; Dibildox, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Major advances in burn care have reduced post-burn morbidity and mortality. The development and incorporation of new wound healing modalities into the clinical arena have contributed to this improvement by allowing standard-of-care regimens to be established. These regimens range from early excision to the use of cultured epithelial autograft. Here, we review the wound care options that are now well established and used by many burn surgeons. PMID:24165670

  10. Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cen H; He X

    2013-01-01

    Hanghui Cen, Xiaojie HeDepartment of Burn, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a w...

  11. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCKWAVE THERAPY FOR POST BURN CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham Galal Mahran; Ashraf Hassan Mohammed; Shimaa Nabil Aboelazm

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is considered the most common compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. It may lead to work disability and functional impairment. Burns are associated with swelling and eschar which forms a tight band constricting the circulation distally. Purpose: To investigate the effect of shockwave therapy on the carpal tunnel syndrome post burn. Subjects: Thirty male and female patients selected with manifestation of carpal tunnel syndrome post burn evaluated by e...

  12. Burning Rate Studies of Energetic Double Base Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out on the combustion characteristics of CMDB propellants containing ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, RDX and PETN. While ammonium and potassium perchlorates increased burning rates, other additives maintained either the same burning rate or reduced burning rates marginally. Propellants containing these additives showed marginally higher peak temperatures, indicating interaction among the species of double base propellant decomposition and those of additives.

  13. Impact of prescribed burning on blanket peat hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, J; Palmer, SM; Johnston, K; Wearing, C.; Irvine, B; Brown, LE

    2015-01-01

    Fire is known to impact soil properties and hydrological flowpaths. However, the impact of prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peatland hydrology is poorly understood. We studied ten blanket peat headwater catchments. Five were subject to prescribed burning, while five were unburnt controls. Within the burnt catchments we studied plots where the last burn occurred ∼2 (B2), 4 (B4), 7 (B7) or greater than 10 years (B10+) prior to the start of measurements. These were compared with plots at...

  14. A `fast-burning' mechanism for magnetic diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Bo; Kan, Ming-xian; Wang, Gang-hua; Zhao, Jian-heng

    2016-01-01

    Fast-burning mechanism describes the rapid penetration, with a sharp-shaped wave-front, of a strong magnetic field into a conductive metal whose electric resistance poses an abrupt rise at some critical temperature. With its wave-front sweeping over a solid metal, the fast-burning can melt or vaporize the metal very rapidly. This paper derives formulas for the existence conditions and wave-front velocity of a fast-burning.

  15. Nurses' experience of caring for burn injured children in pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Aim: To illuminate how nurses working with burn injured children describe their care for burn injured children in pain during dressing procedures and which conditions and obstacles nurses express they are working under in order to proceed with giving care. Method: Semi-structured qualitative interviews with eight nurses at a pediatric burn ward in Dar es Salaam. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and processed by manifest content analysis. Result: Three themes were derived and i...

  16. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Marc G. Jeschke

    2014-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further resear...

  17. Gold standards for primary care of burn management

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Zor; Nail Ersöz; Yalçın Külahçı; Emin Kapı; Mehmet Bozkurt

    2009-01-01

    Every year, about 2.5 million people are affected from burns in the world. In our country there is no reliable database related to this subject. There are ongoing studies about the epidemiology of burns in Turkey. After burn injury had represent many various complications, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac deficiency, acute hypertension, endocarditis, thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, respiratuar failure, renal failure, gastric ulcus, ileus, sepsis, coagulopathy and anemia. Su...

  18. Rapid changes in biomass burning aerosols by atmospheric oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, Johan Paul; Tiitta, Petri; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Venter, Andrew D.; Jaars, Kerneels

    2014-01-01

    Primary and secondary aerosol particles originating from biomass burning contribute significantly to the atmospheric aerosol budget and thereby to both direct and indirect radiative forcing. Based on detailed measurements of a large number of biomass burning plumes of variable age in southern Africa, we show that the size distribution, chemical composition, single-scattering albedo, and hygroscopicity of biomass burning particles change considerably during the first 2–4 h of their...

  19. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

    OpenAIRE

    GIGLIO, L.; G. R. van der Werf; J. T. Randerson; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for estimating monthly burned area globally at 1° spatial resolution using Terra MODIS data and ancillary vegetation cover information. Using regression trees constructed for 14 different global regions, MODIS active fire observations were calibrated to ''true'' burned area estimates derived from 500-m MODIS imagery based on the conventional assumption that burned area is proportional to counts of fire pixels. Unlike earlier methods, we...

  20. FARMER EDUCATION AND ADOPTION OF SLASH AND BURN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Schuck, Eric C.; Nganje, William E.; Yantio, Debazou; Aquach, Emmanuel

    2001-01-01

    Education can play a critical role in moving farmers in developing countries away from environmentally harmful slash and burn agriculture. The present research examines the extent to which extension education can promote adoption of cropping systems other than slash and burn. Choice of cropping system by farmers in Cameroon, whether slash and burn, multiple crops, or mono-cropping, is modeled as a function of farm size, farmer educational level, and visits by extension personnel. Results indi...

  1. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria From Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beige, Fahimeh; Baseri Salehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima; Mobasherzadeh, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the treatment of burned patients is difficult because of the high frequency of infection with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and its relation with the existence of plasmid. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from two hundred twenty hospitalized burned patients in Isfahan burn hospital during a three-month period (March 2012 to June 2012). The samp...

  2. Burn wound healing and treatment: review and advancements

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, Matthew P.; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Elster, Eric A.; Burmeister, David M.; Rose, Lloyd F.; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Chan, Rodney K.; Christy, Robert J.; Chung, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Burns are a prevalent and burdensome critical care problem. The priorities of specialized facilities focus on stabilizing the patient, preventing infection, and optimizing functional recovery. Research on burns has generated sustained interest over the past few decades, and several important advancements have resulted in more effective patient stabilization and decreased mortality, especially among young patients and those with burns of intermediate extent. However, for the intensivist, chall...

  3. Hospital acquired diarrhea in a burn center of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Faranak Alinejad; Mitra Barati; Mahbobe Satarzadeh Tabrisi; Mohsen Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea has increased rapidly and burn patients are at high risk of getting it. Infection with C. difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline characteristics and clinical presentation of hospital-acquired diarrhea and compare C. difficile and non-C. difficile diarrhea in burn patients treated at a burn center.Materials and Methods: During a 1-year study all ...

  4. REGULATION OF INTESTINAL DYSBACTERIOSIS OF BURNED RATS BY MICROECOSYSTEM REGULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using synbiotics and probiotics to prevent and cure intestinal dysbacteriosis after burn. Methods Burned rats were fed with synbiotics and probiotics reagents, and the amounts of major intestinal florae in caecal contents were detected. Results The major physiological anaerobes were mostly stable, and the conditioned pathogens had no abnormal. Conclusion The micro-ecosystem regulator can quickly supplement the decreased physiological anaerobes caused by burning,and avoid the occurrence of dysbacteriosis.

  5. A Partnership in Burn Care Education - Nepal and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, D.; Tonkin, C.; T. Baker; Goodwin-Walters, A.; Wood, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes some of the issues related to an education partnership which has been developed over the last four years between the Royal Perth Hospital Burn Team in Australia and the Bir Hospital Burn Team in Kathmandu, Nepal. The paper provides an insight into the preparation and collaboration required from both teams and describes some practical ideas to assist those who may be considering educating others in a developing burn service outside their catchment area.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  7. Enhancement of burn wounds healing by platelet dressing

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Nezami, Nariman; Mirzajanzadeh, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of platelet dressing in the treatment of burn wounds and compare its results with silver sulfadiazine dressing. Material and methods: Between 21 march 2011 to 21 September, 50 patients with burn injuries were selected by a randomized double-blind controlled trial. In order to eliminate the biological and personal variables among the various treated burn wounds, in the same patient, distal or proximal, lateral or medial p...

  8. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  9. River ecosystem response to prescribed vegetation burning on Blanket Peatland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee E Brown

    Full Text Available Catchment-scale land-use change is recognised as a major threat to aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning globally. In the UK uplands rotational vegetation burning is practised widely to boost production of recreational game birds, and while some recent studies have suggested burning can alter river water quality there has been minimal attention paid to effects on aquatic biota. We studied ten rivers across the north of England between March 2010 and October 2011, five of which drained burned catchments and five from unburned catchments. There were significant effects of burning, season and their interaction on river macroinvertebrate communities, with rivers draining burned catchments having significantly lower taxonomic richness and Simpson's diversity. ANOSIM revealed a significant effect of burning on macroinvertebrate community composition, with typically reduced Ephemeroptera abundance and diversity and greater abundance of Chironomidae and Nemouridae. Grazer and collector-gatherer feeding groups were also significantly less abundant in rivers draining burned catchments. These biotic changes were associated with lower pH and higher Si, Mn, Fe and Al in burned systems. Vegetation burning on peatland therefore has effects beyond the terrestrial part of the system where the management intervention is being practiced. Similar responses of river macroinvertebrate communities have been observed in peatlands disturbed by forestry activity across northern Europe. Finally we found river ecosystem changes similar to those observed in studies of wild and prescribed forest fires across North America and South Africa, illustrating some potentially generic effects of fire on aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Burn Wound Cleansing - A Myth or a Scientific Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hayek, S; El Khatib, A.; Atiyeh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Burn wound cleansing is an integral step in every wound management protocol. Yet a lot of this practice is based on myth rather than real scientific basis. The literature is poor in scientific papers comparing the outcome of patients who underwent wound cleansing to those who did not. A survey form was designed by the Mediterranean Council for Burns and Fire Disasters - MBC and sent by e-mail to its members as well as members of the European Burn Association and other burn specialists, and 76...

  11. ALGORITHM FOR POST-BURN BACTERIAL SEPSIS DIAGNOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Guzenko, B. V.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In patients with extensive deep burns the most severe of all infectious and inflammatory complications is sepsis which causes high death rate.The purpose of our work was to develop the algorithm of bacterial sepsis diagnosis in patients with severe burn disease.Materials and methods. The study involved 140 burned patients divided into two groups: Group 1 – 78 patients who underwent necrectomy within 3-7 days after the burn, Group 2  (control) – 62 patients with necrectomy perfor...

  12. Gold standards for primary care of burn management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Zor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, about 2.5 million people are affected from burns in the world. In our country there is no reliable database related to this subject. There are ongoing studies about the epidemiology of burns in Turkey. After burn injury had represent many various complications, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac deficiency, acute hypertension, endocarditis, thromboembolism, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, respiratuar failure, renal failure, gastric ulcus, ileus, sepsis, coagulopathy and anemia. Such complications can preventable or treatable. In this respect, preventive management in the first step burn treatment had very importantly in burn cases. Skin is a barrier which protects evaporative heat loss. In cases of acute burn, hypothermia occurs related to skin loss. For these cases, care must be taken to keep the patient warm. In addition fluid resuscitation is very important in these cases. Furthermore, the damaged tissues are highly susceptible to infection in burned patients. Burn care and rehabilitation includes challenging and complex procedures. Briefly, treatments of burn cases require a multidisciplinary and meticulous approach.

  13. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended. PMID:20644489

  14. River ecosystem response to prescribed vegetation burning on Blanket Peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Palmer, Sheila M; Aspray, Katie L; Holden, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Catchment-scale land-use change is recognised as a major threat to aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning globally. In the UK uplands rotational vegetation burning is practised widely to boost production of recreational game birds, and while some recent studies have suggested burning can alter river water quality there has been minimal attention paid to effects on aquatic biota. We studied ten rivers across the north of England between March 2010 and October 2011, five of which drained burned catchments and five from unburned catchments. There were significant effects of burning, season and their interaction on river macroinvertebrate communities, with rivers draining burned catchments having significantly lower taxonomic richness and Simpson's diversity. ANOSIM revealed a significant effect of burning on macroinvertebrate community composition, with typically reduced Ephemeroptera abundance and diversity and greater abundance of Chironomidae and Nemouridae. Grazer and collector-gatherer feeding groups were also significantly less abundant in rivers draining burned catchments. These biotic changes were associated with lower pH and higher Si, Mn, Fe and Al in burned systems. Vegetation burning on peatland therefore has effects beyond the terrestrial part of the system where the management intervention is being practiced. Similar responses of river macroinvertebrate communities have been observed in peatlands disturbed by forestry activity across northern Europe. Finally we found river ecosystem changes similar to those observed in studies of wild and prescribed forest fires across North America and South Africa, illustrating some potentially generic effects of fire on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:24278367

  15. Minor burn injuries in children: inpatient versus outpatient treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, G. A.; Fyfe, A. H.; Drainer, I. K.

    1983-01-01

    Seventy-two children with minor superficial burns presented at our casualty department over a 5-month period. Half were treated as inpatients and the other half as outpatients. The colonisation rates were similar in the two groups. Colonised and sterile burns treated as inpatients showed no significant difference in healing rates. The healing time, however, was prolonged in colonised outpatient treated burns. Cosmetic results were satisfactory overall. In the absence of a definite benefit from inpatient treatment, outpatient care of a child with a minor burn should therefore be used if circumstances allow. PMID:6357035

  16. Epidemiology of Pediatric Burn Injuries in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rafii, Mohammad Hadi; Saberi, Hamid Reza; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Background Burns are major cause of death and disability worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and causes of burns in children under the age of 15 years in Isfahan province, Iran. Patients and Methods All children admitted to the burn center of Isfahan, the largest city in central Iran, between 2007 and 2009 were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the data on age, sex, location, cause and spread of the burn, durat...

  17. Clinical practice recommendations for positioning of the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serghiou, M A; Niszczak, J; Parry, I; Richard, R

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically examine whether there is clinical evidence to support recommendations for positioning patients with acute burn. Review of the literature revealed minimal evidence-based practice regarding the positioning of burn patients in the acute and intermediate phases of recovery. This manuscript describes recommendations based on the limited evidence found in the literature as well as the expert opinion of burn rehabilitation specialists. These positioning recommendations are designed to guide those rehabilitation professionals who treat burn survivors during their acute hospitalization and are intended to assist in the understanding and development of effective positioning regimens. PMID:26787131

  18. Establishing a PWR burn-up library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting out from data file ENDF/B IV /1/, a cross-section library has been established for the calculation of operating conditions in pressurized water reactors of the type used in BIBLIS B. The library includes macroscopic, homogenized 2-group cross-sections for all types of fuel elements used in this reactor, including those equipped with boron glass rods. For their calculation the previous irradiation of the fuel has been taken into consideration by approximation. Information on fuel consumption from cell burn-up calculations has been stored in a separate data file. It was designed as a base for the determination of cross sections to be used in the calculation of the incident ''main-steam pipe fracture''. For this library the description of cross sections as a function of the moderator status chose the water densities at 3000C/155 bar, 1900C/140 bar and 1000C/100 bar as fixed values. The burn-up library has been tested by a three-dimensional calculation for the 1sup(st) cycle of the BIBLIS B-reactor using program QUABOX /2/. This showed variances with the anticipated course concerning critically, which can be explained almost quantitatively by known deficiencies of the ENDF/b-IV library. (orig.)

  19. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection in Thigh Abscess Can Migrate to Distant Burn Depending on Burn Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Hamrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains the major cause of death in patients with major burn injuries. In the present investigation we evaluated the interaction between burn injuries of varying severity and preexisting distant infection. We used Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis that were genetically engineered to be bioluminescent, which allowed for noninvasive, sequential optical imaging of the extent and severity of the infection. The bioluminescent bacteria migrated from subcutaneous abscesses in the leg to distant burn wounds on the back depending on the severity of the burn injury, and this migration led to increased mortality of the mice. Treatment with ciprofloxacin, injected either in the leg with the bacterial infection or into the burn eschar, prevented this colonization of the wound and decreased mortality. The present data suggest that burn wounds can readily become colonized by infections distant from the wound itself.

  20. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  1. Effect of Human Burn Wound Exudate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel R; Fleuchot, Betty; Lauciello, Leonardo; Jafari, Paris; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim; Que, Yok-Ai; Perron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Burn wound sepsis is currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality after burn trauma. Infections by notorious pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii impair patient recovery and can even lead to fatality. In this study, we investigated the effect of burn wound exudates (BWEs) on the virulence of those pathogens. BWEs were collected within 7 days after burn trauma from 5 burn patients. We first monitored their effect on pathogen growth. In contrast to A. baumannii and S. aureus, P. aeruginosa was the only pathogen able to grow within these human fluids. Expression of typical virulence factors such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine was even enhanced compared the levels seen with standard laboratory medium. A detailed chemical composition analysis of BWE was performed, which enabled us to determine the major components of BWE and underline the metabolic modifications induced by burn trauma. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound environment and the establishment of an in vitro system to analyze the initial steps of burn wound infections. IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of severe burn wounds is currently a major medical challenge. Of the infections by bacteria able to colonize such injuries, those by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most severe, causing major delays in burn patient recovery or leading to fatal issues. In this study, we investigated the growth properties of several burn wound pathogens in biological fluids secreted from human burn wounds. We found that P. aeruginosa strains were able to proliferate but not those of the other pathogens tested. In addition, burn wound exudates (BWEs) stimulate the expression of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The chemical composition analysis of BWEs enabled us to determine the major components of these fluids. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound

  2. Comparison of the General Health, Self-Esteem and Social Support in Self-Inflicted Burn Patients and Non Self Inflicted Burn Patients of the Choromy Accidental and Burning Hospital of Ganaveh

    OpenAIRE

    MS Enayati; A Heidarei; Malekzadeh, M.; Y Abolfathi

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Self-inflicted burn is a violent method of suicide. Since our society faces lots of psychological, social, personal and economical problems due to self-inflicted burn, more survey for this event can assist us to know its causes and prevent from its occurrence. This research was carried out to compare general health, self- esteem and social support in patient's self-inflicted burn and non-self-inflicted burn of the Choromy accidental and burning hospital...

  3. Acceptable ELM regimes for burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction in size of Type I ELMs with increasing density is explored in DIII-D for the purpose of more reliable extrapolation to a burning plasma scale tokamak. The separate convective and conductive transport of energy due to an ELM is determined by Thomson scattering measurements of electron density and temperature in the pedestal. The conductive transport across the separatrix during an ELM is seen to decrease with increasing density, while the convective transport remains nearly constant. The scaling of the conducted ELM energy loss is found consistent with edge MHD stability modeling. Scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertor diagnostics also show evidence of conductive transport in the SOL at low density with a more convective behavior at high density. Evidence of radial particle transport to the main chamber during an ELM is also presented. (author)

  4. Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Karl, T.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Campos, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Weinheimer, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Holloway, J.; Weibring, P.; Flocke, F.; Zheng, W.; Toohey, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Mauldin, L.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicaters of BB (HCN and acetonitrile) and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on the peninsula.

  5. An assessment of mass burn incineration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprises the third and final part of a cost assessment exercise of waste-to-energy options. The specific objectives of this particular study were: to determine the capital and operating costs of three generic types of mass burn waste-to-energy systems, for waste inputs of 200,000 and 400,000 t/y of municipal solid waste (MSW); to verify the mass and energy balances of the systems; to develop a computer cost model to manipulate the data as required; to carry out sensitivity checks on the computer model of changes to key parameters; and to conduct the study in a manner approximating as closely as possible to a real commercial situation. (author)

  6. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ozone photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of ozone and a number of key chemical species associated with ozone photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, nitrogen oxides (NOx and total nitrogen containing species (NOy, were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. We found that ozone mixing ratios measured in biomass burning plumes were indistinguishable from non-plume measurements, but evaluating them in relationship to measurements of carbon monoxide (CO, total alkyl nitrates (ΣAN and the surrogate species NOz (=NOy - NOx revealed that the potential for ozone production increased with plume age. We used NMHC ratios to estimate photochemical ages of the observed biomass burning plumes between 0 and 15 days. Ozone production, calculated from ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios, increased from 0.020 ± 0.008 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages less than 2 days to 0.55 ± 0.29 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages greater than 5 days. In comparing ozone mixing ratios with components of the NOy budget we observed that plumes with ages between 2 and 4 days were characterised by high aerosol loading, relative humidity greater than 40%, and low ozone production efficiencies of 8 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to ΣAN and 2 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to NOz. In plumes with ages greater than 4 days, ozone production efficiency increased to 473 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to ΣAN and 155 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to NOz. From the BORTAS measurements we estimated

  7. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since man invented fire he has been more frequently burning himself by this creation than by the naturally occurring bushfires. It is estimated that over 1.152 million people in India suffer from burn injuries requiring treatment every year and majority of them are women aged between 16-40 years and most of them occur in the kitchen. The treatment for burns basically involves autologous skin grafting, which originated in India more than two thousand years ago (Sushruta Samhita, is still the gold standard for the wound resurfacing, although, autografting is difficult where graftable donor sites are limited. Although, Cadaver skin, porcine or bovine xenografts are used alternatively over the past thirty years, modern approaches like the Bioengineering of skin substitutes emerged during the past 20 years as advanced wound management technologies with no social impediment. They can be broadly categorized as Acellular and Cellular biotechnological products. The acellular products like Alloderm (LifeCell Corporation, Integra (Integra Life Sciences act like template and depend on natural regeneration, while the cellular ones are either ‘Off-the-Shelf’ products like Apligraf (Organogenesis Inc and Orcel (Ortec International have allogenic elements and ‘home grown’ autologous cell products like Cultured Epithelial Autograft (CEA and epidermal-dermal composite skin use synthetic or natural non-human matrices. The CEA is based on the ex-vivo epidermal stem cell-expansion and our laboratory has been engaged in CEA technique development with innovative cost-effective approach and yielded promising preliminary clinical success. The basic methodological approach in CEA technique which is still clinically adopted by several developed countries involves the use of growth arrested mouse dermal fibroblasts as growth supportive matrix and is thus considered a drawback as a whole. Additionally, there is no superior enough method available to augment the

  8. Model for nonlinear transient burning of hydrazinium nitroformate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Transient burning of solid propellants is a topic that still contains a large number of questions. The transient burning of neat hydrazinium nitroformate is calculated within the quasi-steady gas-phase, homogeneous one-dimensional condensed phase approach. We focus on the effect of the condensed pha

  9. Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N.; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time‐points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for immunohistology, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial isolation, mass spectroscopy or Western blotting to determine the hepatic response to burn injury in vivo. We found that thermal injury leads to severely depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and consequent elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Burn‐induced ER calcium depletion caused depressed hepatocyte responsiveness to signalling molecules that regulate hepatic homeostasis, such as vasopressin and the purinergic agonist ATP. In vivo, thermal injury resulted in activation of the ER stress response and major alterations in mitochondrial structure and function – effects which may be mediated by increased calcium release by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors. Our results reveal that thermal injury leads to dramatic hepatic disturbances in calcium homeostasis and resultant ER stress leading to mitochondrial abnormalities contributing to hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis after burn injury. PMID:20141609

  10. The nitric acid burn trauma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, L; Striepling, E; Kolios, G; Rudolf, K-D; Dresing, K; Dörges, J; Stürmer, K M; Stürmer, E K

    2010-04-01

    Nitric acid burn traumata often occur in the chemical industry. A few publications addressing this topic can be found in the medical database, and there are no reports about these traumata in children. A total of 24 patients, average 16.6 years of age, suffering from nitric acid traumata were treated. Wound with I degrees burns received open therapy with panthenol-containing creams. Wound of II degrees and higher were initially treated by irrigation with sterile isotonic saline solution and then by covering with silver-sulphadiazine dressing. Treatment was changed on the second day to fluid-absorbent foam bandages for superficial wounds (up to IIa degrees depth) and occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages in combination with enzymatic substances for IIb degrees -III degrees burns. After the delayed demarcation, necrectomy and mesh-graft transplantation were performed. All wounds healed adequately. Chemical burn traumata with nitric acid lead to specific yellow- to brown-stained wounds with slower accumulation of eschar and slower demarcation compared with thermal burns. Remaining wound eschar induced no systemic inflammation reaction. After demarcation, skin transplantation can be performed on the wounds, as is commonly done. The distinguishing feature of nitric-acid-induced chemical burns is the difficulty in differentiation and classification of burn depth. An immediate lavage should be followed by silver sulphadiazine treatment. Thereafter, fluid-absorbent foam bandages or occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages should be used according to the burn depth. Slow demarcation caused a delay in performing surgical treatments. PMID:19875347

  11. Epidemiologic characteristics of occupational burns in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalil Mirmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The highest incidence of occupational burns was in 21-30 year-old workers. There was a male preponderance in work-related burns. Metal industry had the most injured workers and among them, smelters were more frequently injured.

  12. Burn-up measurements coupling gamma spectrometry and neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to apply for burn-up credit arises with the increase of the initial enrichment of nuclear fuel. When burn-up credit is used in criticality safety studies, it is often necessary to confirm it by measurement. For the last 10 years, CANBERRA has manufactured the PYTHON system for such measurements. However, the method used in the PYTHON itself uses certain reactor data to arrive at burn-up estimates. Based on R and D led by CEA and COGEMA in the framework of burn-up measurement for burn-up credit and safeguards applications, CANBERRA is developing the next generation of burn-up measurement device. This new product, named SMOPY, is able to measure burn-up of any kind of irradiated fuel assembly with a combination of gamma spectrometry and passive neutron measurements. The measurement data is used as input to the CESAR depletion code, which has been developed and qualified by CEA and COGEMA for burn-up credit determinations. In this paper, we explain the complementary nature of the gamma and neutron measurements. In addition, we draw on our previous experience from PYTHON system and from COGEMA La Hague to show what types of evaluations are required to qualify the SMOPY system, to estimate its uncertainties, and to detect discrepancies in the fuel data given by the reactor plant to characterize the irradiated fuel assembly. (authors)

  13. 30 CFR 57.6903 - Burning explosive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burning explosive material. 57.6903 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6903 Burning explosive material. If explosive...

  14. Physical Fitness in People After Burn Injury : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Mouton, Leonora J.

    2011-01-01

    Disseldorp LM, Nieuwenhuis MK, Van Baar ME, Mouton U. Physical fitness in people after burn injury: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1501-10. Objective: To gain insight into the physical fitness of people after burn injury compared with healthy subjects, and to present an overview

  15. Caregivers' perspective of school reintegration in children survivors of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, R.; Santos, B.D.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Geenen, R.; Rossi, L.A.; Nascimento, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pediatric burns are an important reason of treatment and hospitalization. Children victims of burns may interrupt or even abandon school activities. The process of school reintegration of this population has become a point of attention. Aim: To analyze the caregivers’ perspective of th

  16. Working group report: methane emissions from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric methane. Like most other sources of methane, it has both natural and anthropogenic causes, although anthropogenic causes now predominate. Most of the estimates of methane emissions from biomass burning in the past have relied on a uniform emission factor for all types of burning. This results in the share of trace gas emissions for different types of burning being the same as the amounts of biomass burned in those types. The Working Group endorsed the extension of an approach followed for Africa by Delmas et al. (1991) to use different emission factors for different types of biomass burning to estimate national emissions of methane. This is really critical as emission factors present important variations. While the focus of discussions of the Working Group was on methane emissions from biomass burning, the Group endorsed the IPCC-OECD methodology of estimating all greenhouse related trace gases from biomass burning. Neither the IPCC-OECD nor the methodology suggested here applies to estimation of trace gas emissions from the processing of biomass to upgraded fuels. They must be estimated separately. The Group also discussed technical options for controlling methane emissions from biomass. 12 refs

  17. An overview of burning mouth syndrome for the dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A K; Prime, S S; Cohen, S N

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an idiopathic burning pain affecting the oral mucosa, with no clinically apparent changes. It can present to a variety of health professionals including dermatologists. This article summarizes the important aspects of the condition, including theories of pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. PMID:26871710

  18. Isolation of Serratia plymuthica from a human burn site.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, R B; Janda, J M

    1985-01-01

    The saprophytic bacterium Serratia plymuthica was recovered from a facial wound (burn) site of a pediatric patient. The clinical significance of the organism was undetermined due to its apparent eradication from this location by therapy with topical 1% silver sulfadiazine. Seeding of the burn with S. plymuthica may have occurred from contaminated moisture sometimes found on and around steam radiators.

  19. Clinical characteristics and treatment of burn wound sepsis in extensive burn patients: successful experience with eight cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴家科; 盛志勇; 杨红明

    2000-01-01

    Eight burn wound sepsis patients, in which 6 cases were diagnosed as MODS and two as septic shock, were treated consecutively in our hospital from September 1997 to October 1998. The plasma concentration of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and LPS were assayed before and after surgical intervention, as well as when the patients' vital signs became stable. The results showed: ①The patients' conditions abruptly deteriorated when the burn wound sepsis emerged;②The major cause related to burn wound sepsis was extensive burn injuries, with large areas of deep burn remaining open; ③Although wound swabs taken on admission revealed the presence of colonization by many pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was one of the most frequent bacteria isolated from the subeschar tissue; ④The plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF and LPS before surgical intervention were significantly higher than that after surgical intervention (P<0.05) ;⑤The lowest level of the inflammatory mediators was observed when the patients' conditions became stable, as compared with before surgical intervention (P<0. 001).These findings suggest that the clinical characteristics of burn wound sepsis are abrupt deterioration of the general condition and prominent septic symptoms, often complicated by MODS. The main cause of burn wound sepsis is the presence of a large area of open deep burn wounds, which should be excised and covered early. LPS and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of burn wound sepsis. Although success in treating these patients is the result of appropriate application of multiple treatments, early, aggressive and thorough surgical excision of invasive burn infectious tissue and closure of wound play a crucial role in the successful treatment of patients complicated by burn wound sepsis. Other treatments are adjuvant but also important.

  20. Burning mouth syndrome: pathogenic and therapeutic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferensztajn, Ewa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a chronic pain condition characterized by pain, burning sensations and dryness within an oral mucosa, without any clinical changes of the latter. It occurs approximately seven times more frequently in women, mostly in perimenopausal age. The psychiatric aspect of BMS is significant: the most frequent co-morbidities are depression and anxiety disorders, and a number of psychotropic drugs play an essential role in its treatment. In the present review, the most important pathogenic and treatment concepts of BMS have been discussed. The BMS may be similar to neuropathic pain and has some related pathogenic elements with fibromyalgia and the restless leg syndrome. In primary BMS, the features of presynaptic dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons and deficiency of endogenous dopamine levels have been demonstrated. Other neurotransmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine as well as hormonal and inflammatory factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of BMS. In the pharmacological treatment of BMS a variety of drugs have been used including benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and atypical antipsychotic drugs. In the final part of the paper, the possibility of using atypical antipsychotic drug, olanzapine, in the treatment of BMS has been discussed. In the context of the recent studies on this topic, a case of female patient with the BMS lasting more than ten years has been mentioned, in whom the treatment with olanzapine brought about a rapid and significant reduction of symptoms. The probable mechanism of the therapeutic effect of olanzapine in BMS can include its effect on dopaminergic receptors and probably also on histaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic ones.

  1. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn

  2. The Presence of Excess Oxygen in Burning Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. Bruce; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Early work on burning of iron rods under conditions of the ATSM/NASA flammability test showed that there was excess oxygen, that is, above stoichiometric requirements for iron(III) oxide, present in the molten product during burning. Since that work, this phenomenon has been confirmed for burning under microgravity conditions and has been observed for a wide range of metals under burning conditions of a single micro-drop at ambient pressures and 20-second microgravity tests under pressurized oxygen-enriched conditions. This paper reviews these experimental observations and discusses the possible thermodynamic analysis for the metals iron, aluminum, and cobalt. The excess oxygen in the burning molten iron oxide was represented as combined to form a series of ferrite ions. For aluminum the excess oxygen is represented as a bridging species and a similar explanation is postulated for the cobalt system.

  3. Radioisotopic studies on pulmonary function in experimental burn shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, W.; Barcikowski, S.; Maziarz, Z.; Zajgner, J.; Markiewicz, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, which can initiate severe complications, often lead to many therapeutic failures in burn shock. Early recognition of respiratory disturbances is often required to improve results of treatment of burn shock. The authors investigated changes in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in napalm-burnt rabbits using /sup 133/Xe. Simultaneously, they determined effect of treatment with cytochrome C on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in animals burnt with napalm. It was found that in napalm-burnt rabbits burn shock was accompanied by a significant deterioration in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. The most marked changes were observed one and two days after burn. It was also found a beneficial effect of treatment with cytochrome C on alveolar ventilation. The authors pointed out the usefulness of radioisotopic investigations of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in burn shock.

  4. Thermonuclear burn-up in deuterated methane $CD_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Alexei M

    2010-01-01

    The thermonuclear burn-up of highly compressed deuterated methane CD$_4$ is considered in the spherical geometry. The minimal required values of the burn-up parameter $x = \\rho_0 \\cdot r_f$ are determined for various temperatures $T$ and densities $\\rho_0$. It is shown that thermonuclear burn-up in $CD_4$ becomes possible in practice if its initial density $\\rho_0$ exceeds $\\approx 5 \\cdot 10^3$ $g \\cdot cm^{-3}$. Burn-up in CD$_2$T$_2$ methane requires significantly ($\\approx$ 100 times) lower compressions. The developed approach can be used in order to compute the critical burn-up parameters in an arbitrary deuterium containing fuel.

  5. Study on acute burn injury survivors and the associated issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Bayuo; Pius Agbenorku; Richcane Amankwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the phenomenon of surviving burn injury and its associated issues and concerns. Methods: A cross sectional survey approach was utilized to obtain data from one hundred burn survivors who were purposely selected. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze data. Results: Findings from the study indicate that burns from flames stood out as a major cause of burns. Physical discomfort/pain, anxiety, needing assistance in meeting self-care needs, financial and social limitations were identified as the major impact of the injury. Furthermore, participants perceived the existence of societal stigma. In addition, hope in God or a spiritual being as well as family support were the two key resources participants relied on to cope effectively. Conclusions: Surviving burn injury is associated with varied physical, social and psy-chological factors and survivors may need professional assistance to fully adjust after discharge.

  6. Radioisotopic studies on pulmonary function in experimental burn shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disturbances in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, which can initiate severe complications, often lead to many therapeutic failures in burn shock. Early recognition of respiratory disturbances is often required to improve results of treatment of burn shock. The authors investigated changes in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in napalm-burnt rabbits using 133Xe. Simultaneously, they determined effect of treatment with cytochrome C on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in animals burnt with napalm. It was found that in napalm-burnt rabbits burn shock was accompanied by a significant deterioration in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. The most marked changes were observed one and two days after burn. It was also found a beneficial effect of treatment with cytochrome C on alveolar ventilation. The authors pointed out the usefulness of radioisotopic investigations of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in burn shock. (author)

  7. [Current status in rehabilitation of burn injury in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyu, Jia; Xiaofang, Zou

    2015-06-01

    Along with the advance in national economy, modern concept of burn rehabilitation from major burn injury implies that measures should be taken to help the patients return to society with dignity. This article briefly reviews the development and achievement of burn rehabilitation in our country, as well as the current difficulties in carrying out rehabilitation measures such as outmoded ideology, lack of trained personnel, low rat of popularization, outdated techniques and methodology, and relatively low level in scientific research, etc. The future development of burn rehabilitation in our country needs more social support, popular attention, and multidisciplinary joint efforts to help burn patients return to society with dignity. In order to fulfill this goal, we still have a long way to go. PMID:26564559

  8. Skin bioengineering and stem cells for severe burn treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severely burned patients need definitive and efficient wound coverage. The outcome of massive burns has improved with cultured epithelial auto-grafts (CEA). In spite of its fragility, percentage of success, cost of treatment and long-term tendency to contracture, this surgical technique has been developed in some burn centres. The first improvements involved combining CEA and dermis-like substitutes. Cultured skin substitutes provide faster skin closure and satisfying functional results. These methods have been used successfully in massive burns. A second improvement was to enable skin regeneration by using epidermal stem cells. Stem cells can differentiate into keratinocytes, to promote wound repair and to regenerate skin appendages. Human mesenchymal stem cells foster wound healing and were used in cutaneous radiation syndrome. Skin regeneration and tissue engineering methods remain a complex challenge and offer the possibility of new treatment for injured and burned patients. (authors)

  9. TRIGA criticality experiment for testing burn-up calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1999-07-01

    A criticality experiment with partly burned TRIGA fuel is described. 20 wt % enriched standard TRIGA fuel elements initially containing 12 wt % U are used. Their average burn-up is 1.4 MWd. Fuel element burn-up is calculated in 2-D four group diffusion approximation using TRIGLAV code. The burn-up of several fuel elements is also measured by reactivity method. The excess reactivity of several critical and subcritical core configurations is measured. Two core configurations contain the same fuel elements in the same arrangement as were used in the fresh TRIGA fuel criticality experiment performed in 1991. The results of the experiment may be applied for testing the computer codes used for fuel burn-up calculations. (author)

  10. Successful treatment of invasive burn wound infection with sepsis in patients with major burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of invasive bum wound infection with sepsis in patients with major burns and to summarize the successful expenences in the treatment of such patients. Methods Eight patients with major bums, complicated by invesive bum wound infection and sepsis were consecutively admitted to our hospital from September 1997 to October 1998. Among them, 6 patients developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and 2 developed septic shock. The plasma concentrations of IL-6,IL-8,TNFα and lypopolysaccharibe (LPS) were assayed before and after surgical intervention, as well as when the patient' s vital signs became stable. Results The patients' conditions usually deterieorated abruptly when extensive invasive bum wound infection emerged. While multi-microbial infection was usually found, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant bactena isolated from the subeschar tissue. The plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and LPS before surgical intervention wore significantly higher than those after surgical intervention (P<0.05).The lowest levels of the inflammatory mediators were abserved when the patients'conditions became stable,and the values were significantly lower than those before surgical intervention ( P<0.001). Conclusion Since the main cause of burn wound sepsis is the presence of a large area of infected bum wound, they should be excised and covered as early as possible. LPS and pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathogenesis of burn sepsis. Athough favorable results should be attributed to compmhessive treatment, we believe that early, aggressive and thorough surgical excision of infected burn wounds, followed by sound and complete coverage of the area, play a crucial role.

  11. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  12. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Subramanian, R.; Demott, P. J.; Kok, G. L.; Campos, T.; Rogers, D. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L) in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2-4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81-88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at -32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03-0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  13. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Cloud Experiment – Layer Clouds (ICE-L in fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, 100 % of the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles, with both nitric acid and sulfuric acid present. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5 % water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07 % of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  14. A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its wide coverage over much of the globe, biomass burning has been widely studied in the context of direct radiative forcing. Such study is warranted as smoke particles scatter and at times absorb solar radiation efficiently. Further, as much of what is known about smoke transport and impacts is based on remote sensing measurements, the optical properties of smoke particles have far reaching effects into numerous aspects of biomass burning studies. Global estimates of direct forcing have been widely varying, ranging from near zero to −1 W m-2. A significant part of this difference can be traced to varying assumptions on the optical properties of smoke. This manuscript is the third part of four examining biomass-burning emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning measurement and modeling of optical properties of biomass-burning particles. These include available data from published sensitivity studies, field campaigns, and inversions from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET of Sun photometer sites. As a whole, optical properties reported in the literature are varied, reflecting both the dynamic nature of fires, variations in smoke aging processes and differences in measurement technique. We find that forward modeling or ''internal closure'' studies ultimately are of little help in resolving outstanding measurement issues due to the high degree of degeneracy in solutions when using ''reasonable'' input parameters. This is particularly notable with respect to index of refraction and the treatment of black carbon. Consequently, previous claims of column closure may in fact be more ambiguous. Differences between in situ and retrieved ωo values have implications for estimates of mass scattering and mass absorption efficiencies. In this manuscript we review and discuss this community dataset. Strengths and lapses are pointed out, future research topics are prioritized, and best estimates and uncertainties of key

  15. A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Reid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its wide coverage over much of the globe, biomass burning has been widely studied in the context of direct radiative forcing. Such study is warranted as smoke particles scatter and at times absorb solar radiation efficiently. Further, as much of what is known about smoke transport and impacts is based on remote sensing measurements, the optical properties of smoke particles have far reaching effects into numerous aspects of biomass burning studies. Global estimates of direct forcing have been widely varying, ranging from near zero to −1 Wm−2. A significant part of this difference can be traced to varying assumptions on the optical properties of smoke. This manuscript is the third part of four examining biomass-burning emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning measurement and modeling of optical properties of biomass-burning particles. These include available data from published sensitivity studies, field campaigns, and inversions from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET of Sun photometer sites. As a whole, optical properties reported in the literature are varied, reflecting both the dynamic nature of fires, variations in smoke aging processes and differences in measurement technique. We find that forward modeling or "internal closure" studies ultimately are of little help in resolving outstanding measurement issues due to the high degree of degeneracy in solutions when using "reasonable" input parameters. This is particularly notable with respect to index of refraction and the treatment of black carbon. Consequently, previous claims of column closure may in fact be more ambiguous. Differences between in situ and retrieved ωo values have implications for estimates of mass scattering and mass absorption efficiencies. In this manuscript we review and discuss this community dataset. Strengths and lapses are pointed out, future research topics are prioritized, and best estimates and

  16. Burn therapist contributions to the American Burn Association and the Journal of Burn Care and Research: a 45th anniversary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Reginald

    2014-01-01

    The year 2013 marked the 45th anniversary of American Burn Association (ABA) annual meetings. At this significant juncture, a review of contributions of its members is appropriate to celebrate this milestone. Since the first ABA annual meeting and the initiation of the Journal of Burn Care and Research (JBCR), burn therapists, including both occupational and physical therapists, have grown to become integral members of the ABA, and their contributions among all members are highlighted. A systematic manual review of both ABA annual meeting proceedings and the JBCR was performed. The contributions of burn therapists to the ABA as a whole were classified, cataloged, and hand counted. Areas included: 1) quantifying ABA abstract and JBCR articles on authorship and subject matter, 2) representation on ABA committees; 3) participation in special activities; and 4) other recognitions. Burn therapists comprise 9.7% of ABA members overall. During the course of the first 44 ABA meetings, 8381 abstracts have been presented. Of this number, 634 (7.6%) have been delivered by burn therapists as lead authors. Through the end of 2011, no less than 3207 publications by all disciplines have appeared in JBCR. The vast majority of articles have been written by physicians, followed by doctorate-trained professionals. One hundred-forty therapists have 249 publications (7.8%) to their credit. For both abstracts and articles, the top three subject matter topics have been: scarring, splints and casts, and outcomes. Numerous burn therapists have served as faculty and moderators at ABA annual meetings and on ABA committees including JBCR. Burn therapists have made significant contributions to the JBCR and in support of the ABA and its annual meetings over the past 45 years from the clinical, scientific, and Association perspectives. PMID:24823340

  17. The Newfoundland in-situ Oil Burn Experiment - NOBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of over 25 Canadian and US agencies conducted a major offshore oil spill burn near Newfoundland. Over 20 vesels, 7 aircraft, and 230 people were involved in this test, the largest of its kind ever conducted. The burn involved release of two oil spills of ca 50 tons each into a towed fireproof boom. Each burn lasted over an hour. The burn plume was sampled using remote-controlled helicopters and a blimp, and air emissions were monitored downwind from remote controlled boats which also took water samples and temperatures. Over 200 sensors or samplers were used; these will yield data on over 2,000 parameters or substances. Preliminary results are reported. Burning occurred outside the boom due to some initial oil splashover, but this did not result in sheening or significant oil loss. The scaling of burns from test tanks to on-sea burns did not always hold true. Quantitative analytical data showed that emissions from this in-situ fire were less than expected; all measured compounds and parameters were below health concern levels beyond ca 150 m from the fire and very little was detected beyond 500 m. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were found to be lower in the soot than in the starting oil and were consumed by the fire to a large degree. Particulates were found to be of concern only up to 150 m downwind at sea level. Combustion gases did not reach levels of concern and volatile organics were in high concentrations but less than those emitted from a non-burning spill. No compounds of concern could be detected in the water samples. Burn residue samples had lower PAH levels than the starting oil. Generally, burning oil spills at sea was found to be feasible and practical. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Bacteremia in burned patients admitted to Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1 year period in Sina Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and 81 burn were included. We collected patients’ data about their age, body weight, cause of burn, lesion color, place and percentage of burn by getting history and studying of their files. Then we documented all interventions. Blood tests and cultures and colonies criteria were recorded. Results: In this study, 39 patients were male (48.1%, and 42 was female (51.9%. Mean age was 32.06 ± 17.46 years. In patients without bacteremia, 57 patients did not need catheterization (89.1%, however in patients with bacteremia 9 patients demanded catheter insertion (52.9%. In patients with bacteremia 12 patients survived (70.9%, however in the without bacteremia group 56 patients survived (92.2%. Then, the relationship between type of burn, wound infection and bacterial species investigated, (P = 0.650, P = 0.210 and P = 0.110 respectively. Conclusion: We concluded, invasive interventions increased bacteremia susceptibility in our studied burned patients. Mortality rate is directly related to bacteremia prevalence and increased by extent of burn area in these patients. The three most frequent microbial agents responsible for bacteremia were Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N

    2009-03-01

    Burns are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes spanning the spectrum from physical impairments and disabilities to emotional and mental consequences. Management of burns and their sequelae even in well-equipped, modern burn units of advanced affluent societies remains demanding and extremely costly. Undoubtedly, in most low and middle income countries (LMICs) with limited resources and inaccessibility to sophisticated skills and technologies, the same standard of care is obviously not possible. Unfortunately, over 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur in developing or LMICs with South-East Asia alone accounting for over half of these fire-related deaths. If burn prevention is an essential part of any integrated burn management protocol anywhere, focusing on burn prevention in LMICs rather than treatment cannot be over-emphasized where it remains the major and probably the only available way of reducing the current state of morbidity and mortality. Like other injury mechanisms, the prevention of burns requires adequate knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics and associated risk factors, it is hence important to define clearly, the social, cultural and economic factors, which contribute to burn causation. While much has been accomplished in the areas of primary and secondary prevention of fires and burns in many developed or high-income countries (HICs) such as the United States due to sustained research on the epidemiology and risk factors, the same cannot be said for many LMICs. Many health authorities, agencies, corporations and even medical personnel in LMICs consider injury prevention to have a much lower priority than disease prevention for understandable reasons. Consequently, burns prevention programmes fail to receive the government funding that they deserve. Prevention programmes need to be executed with patience, persistence, and precision, targeting high

  20. Burn-Center Quality Improvement: Are Burn Outcomes Dependent On Admitting Facilities and Is There a Volume-Outcome “Sweet-Spot”?

    OpenAIRE

    Hranjec, Tjasa; TURRENTINE, FLORENCE E.; STUKENBORG, GEORGE; Young, Jeffrey S; Sawyer, Robert G.; Calland, James F

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 ...

  1. Exercise behaviors and barriers to exercise in adult burn survivors: A questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Baldwin; Frank Li

    2013-01-01

    Exercise is a key component of burn rehabilitation across all phases of care. Supervised outpatient exercise programs have been shown to improve outcomes following burn injury. However, little is known about the exercise behaviors of burn survivors who do not undertake such programs. This study aimed to investigate self-reported exercise behaviors and barriers to exercise in adult burn survivors. A short questionnaire survey was conducted on adult burn survivors attending the ambulatory burns...

  2. Burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers weight loss in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Su Grace; Lehnhardt Marcus; Jacobsen Frank; Fan Ming H; Burkhard Olaf; Steinstraesser Lars; Daigeler Adrien; Steinau Hans U; Remick Daniel; Wang Stewart C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite dramatic improvements in the management of burns, infection still remains a serious risk for the burn patient. The aim of this study was to shed light on the impact of acute burn injury with or without infection on cytokine profiles. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 21) were randomized into three groups: 1) burn only 2) burn and infection or 3) sham burn. Weight was monitored and blood was collected for cytokine ELISA, LPS quantification, and peripheral blood analy...

  3. Changes in Fat Distribution in Children Following Severe Burn Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pavankumar; Sallam, Hanaa S.; Ali, Arham; Chandalia, Manisha; Suman, Oscar; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children with severe cutaneous burn injury show persistent metabolic abnormalities, including inflammation and insulin resistance. Such abnormalities could potentially increase their future risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This could be related to changes in body composition and fat distribution. Methods: We studied body composition, fat distribution, and inflammatory cytokines changes in children with severe burn injury up to 6 months from discharge. Sixty-two boys and 35 girls (burn ≥30% of total body surface area) were included. Results: We found a decrease in total body fat and subcutaneous peripheral fat at 6 months (6% and 2%, respectively; P<0.05 each). An inverse correlation between the decrease in peripheral fat content at 6 months and the extent of burn injury (r=−041, P=0.02) was also observed. In addition, there was a 12% increase in serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.01 vs. discharge) and 9% decrease in serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P<0.0001 vs. discharge) over 6 months after burn. Conclusion: Severe burn injury in children is associated with changes in body fat content and distribution up to 6 months from hospital discharge. These changes, accompanied by persisting systemic inflammation, could possibly mediate the observed persistence of insulin resistance, predisposing burn patients to the development of T2DM and CVD. PMID:25211297

  4. Physical Simulation of Burning Process of Alternative Engine Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Assad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of burning process in the closed vessel has been fulfilled with the help of method high-speed photography through a transparent glass. This method as an efficient means for investigation of fast processes permits to obtain a visual, convenient visual perception insight about the development of the burning process and understand peculiarities of the development of flame in the closed vessels.The paper contains a description of an experimental stand and methodology for execution of an experiment on visualization of the flame development and measurement of main parameters of the burning process in a closed vessel that is in the simulating combustion chamber.According to the obtained photos an analysis of form, structure and dynamics of flame front development has been carried out; some peculiarities and differences of flames of various fuel-air mixtures have been established and the paper proves an occurrence of the secondary glow during burning in the closed vessel.Body of data obtained with the help of the visualization of burning process makes it possible to determine main parameters of the burning process. In particular, relation of the pressure developed in the chamber with the mass of burnt-out mixture has been investigated and dependence has been obtained that shows the law of fuel burning-out in the graphic form.

  5. Accuracy of real time radiography burning rate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Bisola

    The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's burning-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the burning-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired burning rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port area to length ratio. The pre-fired port-areas and base burning rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different burning rates. X-ray images were captured and the burning-rate was then determined. The measured burning rate was within 1.65% of the known values.

  6. Adult burn survivors' personal experiences of rehabilitation: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, R; Wilson, A; Abu-Qamar, M Z; McLean, L

    2014-02-01

    Burn rehabilitation is a lengthy process associated with physical and psychosocial problems. As a critical area in burn care, the aim was to systematically synthesise the literature focussing on personal perceptions and experiences of adult burn survivors' rehabilitation and to identify factors that influence their rehabilitation. Studies were identified through an electronic search using the databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO and Trove of peer reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 limited to English-language research with search terms developed to reflect burn rehabilitation. From the 378 papers identified, 14 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, there were 184 participants conducted in eight different countries. The reported mean age was 41 years with a mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn of 34% and the length of stay ranging from one day to 68 months. Significant factors identified as influential in burn rehabilitation were the impact of support, coping and acceptance, the importance of work, physical changes and limitations. This review suggests there is a necessity for appropriate knowledge and education based programmes for burn survivors with consideration given to the timing and delivery of education to facilitate the rehabilitation journey. PMID:24050979

  7. Explanatory Model of Resilience in Pediatric Burn Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Lucía; González, Mónica T; Mecott, Gabriel A

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors of adjustment in pediatric burn patients may facilitate appropriate mental health interventions postinjury. The aim of this is study was to explore the roles of both the patient's and caregivers' resilience and posttraumatic stress in pediatric burn survivor adjustment. For the purposes of the study, "51 patient-parent/guardian" dyads participated. Patients answered the Resilience Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents, and caregivers answered the Mexican Resilience Scale and the Davidson Trauma Scale. The roles of patient age, time since the burn, and size of burn injury were also considered. Statistical analyses included Spearman's ρ for correlations and structural equation modeling. P less than .05 was considered significant. Patients and caregivers reported high levels of resilience, and the majority of caregivers reported low severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Pediatric burn survivors' resilience was associated with being younger at the time of the burn and less severity of intrusive and avoidance symptoms in caregivers; it was also associated with a higher resilience in caregivers. It can be concluded that psychological responses of caregivers of pediatric burn survivors affect the well being and positive adjustment of patients; thus psychological services for caregivers would likely have a double benefit for both caregivers and patients. PMID:26056758

  8. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  9. Nitrous oxide emission from the burning of agricultural residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intramolecular distribution of stable isotopes in nitrous oxide from biomass burning plumes was measured for analysis of nitrous oxide behavior. Biomass burning experiments carried out for collecting the burning plumes used a grate-type test furnace. Dried rice straw was used as the biomass material for burning. Nitrous oxide was formed mainly in the flaming stage. The isotopomer ratios of the end-member of the burning were estimated, assuming simple mixing with background air. The nitrous oxide in the burning plume was depleted in 15N relative to the nitrogen compounds bound in the rice straw, but was rather similar relative to atmospheric nitrogen, and was slightly enriched in 18O relative to atmospheric oxygen. The central nitrogen atom was slightly heavier than the end-positioned atom. The kinetic isotope effects in nitrous oxide during the thermal decomposition and hydrogen reduction were evaluated at 1273 K. Assuming that a part of the nitrous oxide formed in the flame region was thermally destroyed or reduced, the behavior of nitrous oxide during biomass burning was analyzed on the basis of the isotopomer signatures and the kinetic isotope effects during the destruction reaction. The (delta)15N of the central nitrogen in nitrous oxide before destruction in the flame region was almost equivalent to that of the end-positioned nitrogen. The extent of the destruction reaction was quantitatively evaluated and small. This suggests that the nitrous oxide formed in the flames diffused quickly and is quenched by the surrounding air. (Author)

  10. The trend of acute burns pre-hospital management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abubakar Hamdiya; Agbenorku Pius; Aboah Ken; Paa Ekow Hoyte-Williams

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the trend and knowledge of first aid administration of any kind among the burns patients and also to create awareness to the general public who mostly act as first aid givers who seem ignorant about the appropriate immediate care to render to the burns victim. Methods: Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the burns victims who had received or not some form of first aid at the scene of the burn injury. Results: The study showed varied first aid knowledge and administration outcomes as a result of different substances such as water or sand, muddy water, starch, corn dough, cow dung, egg white, calamine lotion, gentian violet, ointments, creams, lotions, tooth paste etc. applied as first aid. Conclusions: Burn injuries are common in our settings, a more reason for all to know the immediate intervention to give to victims of such accidents. The kind of first aid administered to burns victims possibly affects the burns management outcome. Thus, the earlier the right intervention implemented, the lesser the complications.

  11. Team Work on Burn And Surgeon as a Team Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Karagoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Burn traumas are a type of trauma that causes adverse changes in all the functions of the organism. Multi-disciplinary approaches are of great importance in the treatment of burn traumas. Among those involved in the treatment of burns are people of many branches such as surgeons, infection specialists, rehabilitation specialists, psychiatrists, and nurses. And there is a need for a single specialist in charge to coordinate the disciplines in the stage of organizing to treatment. The person to take on this task is often a surgeon specialized in burns. Research has shown that auxiliary personnel involved in burn treatment in Turkey are in need of training on up-to-date information. The surgeon in charge should actively participate in research and training activities, and train the relevant personnel through knowledge transfer so that burn treatment could remain effective in the light of current developments, which would be the fundamental way for burn centers to take their technique- and skill-based practices further. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 111-114

  12. Burning Rate Characteristics of Magnesium Sodium Nitrate Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskara Rao

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The combustion phenomena of Mg-NaNO/sub 3/ propellants have been studied. Results of burning rate at different mixture ratios and particle sizes indicate that the compositions containing finer particle size (50 millimicron NaNO/sub 3/ give higher burning rate at high fuel content of the mixture than at the stoichiometric ratio; whereas the compositions with coarser particle size (250 millimicron NaNO/sub 3/ show increasing burning rate with increasing oxidiser content and give a maximum at stoichiometric point. Thermal decomposition results indicate that the condensed phase heat release at the propellant surface and the reactions in the vapour phase are responsible for variations in the burning rate. The decomposition products of finer size NaNO/sub 3/, react with Mg before Mg particles acquire sufficient energy for ignition, and lead to condensed phase heat release. This heat is maximum at high fuel content and causes high burning rate with low pressure and temperature sensitivity. The increase in the oxidiser content reduces the condensed phase heat due to formation of metal agglomerates and causes lower burning rate with high pressure and temperature sensitivity. After the Mg particles acquire sufficient energy for ignition the decomposition products of coarser size NaNO/sub 3/ diffuse out along with Mg and react in the vapour phase. This causes an increase of burning rate with increase in the oxidiser content of the mixture up to the stoichiometric ratio with a pressure and temperature dependence.

  13. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Roya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  14. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicators of BB (HCN and acetonitrile and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually high amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on this peninsula. As smoke from one fire aged, the ratio ΔO3/ΔCO increased to ~15% in <~1 h similar to the fast net production of O3 in BB plumes observed earlier in Africa. The rapid change in O3 occurs at a finer spatial scale than is employed in global models and is also faster than predicted by micro-scale models. Fast increases in PAN, H2O2, and two organic acids were also observed. The amount of secondary organic acid is larger than the amount of known precursors. Rapid secondary formation of organic and inorganic aerosol was observed with the ratio ΔPM2.5/ΔCO more than doubling in ~1.4±0.7 h. The OH measurements revealed high initial levels (>1×107 molecules/cm3 that were likely caused in part by high initial HONO (~10% of NOy. Thus, more research is needed to understand critical post emission processes for the second-largest trace gas source on Earth. It is estimated that

  15. Biomass Burning observed during IAGOS - CARIBIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Hermann, Markus; Scharffe, Dieter; Safadi, Layal; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Biomass Burning observed during IAGOS - CARIBIC Since May 2005 the CARIBIC passenger aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container - Lufthansa, Airbus 340-600) measures ˜100 trace gases and aerosol components in the UTLS (9-12 km altitude) on 4-6 consecutive long-distance flights per month. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are measured with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Worldwide ~1.3 Tg/y of acetonitrile (CH3CN) is emitted into the atmosphere almost exclusively from biomass burning (BB) together with other VOCs (e.g. ketones, aldehydes, aromatics), CO, CO2, NOx and aerosol particles. Therefore, and due to its rather long tropospheric lifetime of ~6 months, acetonitrile constitutes a reliable BB tracer. Based on the signal of acetonitrile and CO we checked several algorithms to detect BB plumes in the IAGOS-CARIBIC data set. It turned out that the most intense BB plumes were sampled during summer over North America and during autumn over South America. The results will also be discussed with respect to biases due to flight statistics (i.e. destination, flight season, sampling of tropospheric and stratospheric air, etc.). Two flights that took place during the strong ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) event in July 2015 between Munich (MUC) and Los Angeles (LAX) will be discussed in more detail by taking into account other VOCs and aerosol particles. Here acetonitrile mixing ratios of up to ~1100 pptv were sampled over Greenland ~0.5 km above the tropopause. It is shown that the sampled air originated from Northern America / Canada where strong wildfires took place. During the flight from LAX to MUC the boundary layer air entered the upper troposphere by isentropic quasi-horizontal mixing and not by fast convective transport. The correlation of some VOCs (i.e. acetone, methanol and acetonitrile) with CO will be discussed and contrasted to findings from the literature. It is

  16. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yokelson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicators of BB (HCN and acetonitrile and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually high amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on this peninsula. As smoke from one fire aged, the ratio ΔO3/ΔCO increased to ~15% in <~1 h similar to the fast net production of O3 in BB plumes observed earlier in Africa. The rapid change in O3 occurs at a finer spatial scale than is employed in global models and is also faster than predicted by micro-scale models. Fast increases in PAN, H2O2, and two organic acids were also observed. The amount of secondary organic acid is larger than the amount of known precursors. Rapid secondary formation of organic and inorganic aerosol was observed with the ratio ΔPM2.5/ΔCO more than doubling in ~1.4±0.7 h. The OH measurements revealed high initial OH levels >1×107 molecules/cm3. Thus, more research is needed to understand critical post emission processes for the second-largest trace gas source on Earth. It is estimated that ~44 Tg of biomass burned in the Yucatan in the spring of 2006

  17. Butane Hash Oil Burns Associated with Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production. PMID:26289652

  18. Clinical Experience with Chitosan Matrix and Cultured Fibroblasts for Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaziza Danlybayeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Burns are an important public health challenge due to the frequency of getting burns in day-to-day life, occupational hazards, and catastrophes. Treatment of burns is complex and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Duration and complexity of burn treatment require finding new ways of curing and rehabilitating burns. The result of burn treatment plays a significant role in post-traumatic status of a patient and his or her consequent adaptation in society. Chitosan is a natural safe non-toxic product compatible with human tissues, characterized by hydrosorbid, anticoagulant, antibacterial, and wound healing features. The study aims to  show a clinical application of chitosan-pectin scaffold with cultured human skin fibroblasts in the treatment of deep burns.Methods. The substrate was prepared by dissolving 3% chitosan in 0.5N acetic acid, which was then mixed with 3% solution of pectin dissolved in distillated water. Chitosan film was formed in a Petri dish for 20-24 hours at 20-25 °C. After drying the film, cultured allogeneic fibroblasts (patent number RK-25091 were seeded on its surface.Results. The results from an in vitro culture study showed that human allogeneic fibroblasts could adhere well and grow on the selected scaffold with a typical morphology. During autodermoplasty surgery, cultured allogeneic fibroblasts were applied on granulating wounds of 9 patients with IIIA to IVB degree burns and limited donor resources. Wounds treated with the fibroblast-seeded scaffold among all patients provided the highest level of re-epithelialization (day 5, in comparison to cell-free scaffold (day 7 and untreated surface of wounds (day 10.Conclusion. Our results indicate the potential use of chitosan for wound healing due to its allogenic fibroblast adherence to scaffolding as well as high epithelization. This warrants further studies on chitosan for use in wounds resulting from third and fourth degree burns.

  19. Slash-and-burn farmers: villains or victims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, T

    1990-01-01

    Slash and burn farmers in southeast Asia are blamed for deforestation and are considered backward or ignorant. Efforts have been made by agricultural development experts to urge farmers to switch to fixed field methods. Slash and burn methods are used in upland areas with steep slopes, low soil fertility, and unpredictable natural hazards in order to allow survival in an environment made difficult for cultivation by other methods. Slash and burn farmers may be stable or migratory and use rotational or pioneering methods. Rotational methods involve clearing and burning a new plot every year, and then allowing regeneration of forest for 10-20 years. When population density is 40/square km, this method does not degrade the environment. Pioneering involves clearance of primary forest, cultivation for several years until soil fertility is destroyed, and then replacement with low productivity "imperata cylindrica grass." Pioneering tends to cause long-term environmental degradation. Humid tropic soils tend toward infertility, and in many areas of southeast Asia the soils are nutrient-poor and acidic. Ash from burning also reduces soil acidity. In northeast Thailand, 454 kg of calcium are released from burning one hectare of mature forest. The advantages are affordable natural fertilization and freedom from technical experts and imported spare parts. Frequent rotation also helps to expand the crops and provide disease protection. Population densities, competition for scarce resources, and social and economic pressures make the slash and burn technique inappropriate. As yet unavailable alternative farming techniques are needed which take advantage of slash and burn benefits. Slash and burn farmers are victims of deforestation even though they may appear to be the villains. PMID:12283382

  20. The development of clean-burning, noncatalytic manufactured fireplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for the air quality of this country in general and the Western states in particular has brought sharp focus from regulators on the emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from all wood-burning appliances. This concern was a driving force which led to the development of a clean-burning fireplace. Many Western areas have begun to limit installation of wood-burning appliances in new construction. Some jurisdictions allow only Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified appliances. Currently no federal test methods or standards exist for fireplaces so the Manufactured Fireplace Industry, through the Hearth Products Association (HPA), set about to develop suitable test methods and standards for manufactured fireplaces

  1. Minocycline Inhibits Alkali Burn-Induced Corneal Neovascularization in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ou Xiao; Zhao-lian Xie; Bin-wu Lin; Xiao-fang Yin; Rong-biao Pi; Shi-you Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). A total of 105 mice treated with alkali burns were randomly divided into three groups to receive intraperitoneal injections of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or minocycline twice a day (60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The area of CNV and corneal epithelial defects was measured on day 4, 7, 10, and14 after alkali burns. On day 14, a histopathol...

  2. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Ferreira; Juliana Montez Ferreira; da Silva, Paula Marques C.; Dilene Francisco Constancio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision). CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consiste...

  3. Hydrocolloid dressing in pediatric burns may decrease operative intervention rates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Fiachra T

    2010-03-01

    Partial-thickness scalds are the most common pediatric burn injury, and primary management consists of wound dressings to optimize the environment for reepithelialization. Operative intervention is reserved for burns that fail to heal using conservative methods. Worldwide, paraffin-based gauze (Jelonet) is the most common burn dressing; but literature suggests that it adheres to wounds and requires more frequent dressing change that may traumatize newly epithelialized surfaces. Hydrocolloid dressings (DuoDERM) provide an occlusive moist environment to optimize healing and are associated with less frequent dressing changes.

  4. Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years. There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80 were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80 of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%, while 8 cases (10% were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80, distributed as follow: 8 cases (50% in Group C, 5 cases (31.2% in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%. Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35 in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25 in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20 in Group B (P = 0.7. They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%, wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%. Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%, Pseudomonas (27.2%, Escherichia coli (18.1%, Klebsiella (9% and Enterobacteria (9%. There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07 in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days. Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are

  5. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 1013 g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 1014 g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

  6. Indications and strategies for Mechanical Ventilation in the Burned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract is one of the most seriously injured system in burned patients. Besides the direct inhalation injury, respiratory organs may be effected by the inflammatory mediators released due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. As a result, many severely burned patients are needed to be intubated and mechanically ventilated after admitted to ICU. For this purpose, the medical staff working in the ICU’s which admit severely burned patients should be experienced in mechanical ventilation modes, complications related to mechanical ventilation and weaning strategies. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 31-6

  7. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  8. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carol T.; Bender, Donald A.; Bowman, Barry R.; Burnham, Alan K.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Comfort, III, William J.; Guymon, Lloyd G.; Henning, Carl D.; Pedersen, Knud B.; Sefcik, Joseph A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Strauch, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  9. Exploration of burning plasmas in FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) design study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to attain, explore, understand and optimize magnetically-confined fusion-dominated plasmas. FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field tokamak with the capability of achieving Q greater than 10 in the Elmy H-mode for a duration of about 2 plasma current redistribution times (τcr) during an initial burning plasma science phase. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-RS, the U. S. Fusion Power Plant study utilizing an advanced tokamak reactor. The reference design point is: Ro=2.14m, a=0.595 m, Bt(Ro)=10T, Ip=7.7MA with a flat top time of 20 s (about 1.7 τcr) for 150 MW of fusion power. FIRE will utilize only metal plasma facing components; Be coated tiles for the first wall and W brush divertors to reduce tritium retention as required for fusion reactors. A longer term goal of FIRE is to explore advanced tokamak regimes with bootstrap fractions (fBS) about 70% at τcr about 3.5 at high fusion gain (Q greater than 5) for a duration of 1 to 3 τcr. (author)

  10. Simulation of sawtooth oscillation in burning plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sawtooth oscillation is one of the important instabilities driven by the plasma current in tokamak plasma. The sawtooth period is a key parameter that characterizes the effect of the sawtooth oscillation on the plasma behavior. For prediction of sawteeth in burning plasma, the sawtooth model in the 1.5-dimensional transport code TOTAL has been extended to include the effects of fast particles and the magnetic shear. By using the newly implemented model, we simulated sawteeth in the presence of the alpha particles as the fast ion in ITER. It is found that the sawtooth periods in DT plasma are longer than those in DD plasma. In DT plasma, the sawtooth period doesn't change monotonically but has a peak as a function of the average central ion temperature or the RF heating power. This is because the mechanisms of triggering sawteeth are different in the low RF heating power region and in the high RF heating power region. (author)

  11. Burning clean fuel gas improves energetic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One the most critical problems faced by refineries nowadays is the continuous increasing of legislation urging emissions reductions specifically SO2, NOx, and particles. Therefore there is a substantial need for refineries to burn fuel gas instead of fuel oil and avoiding, if possible, the use of imported natural gas. The refinery case study presents a substantial excess of fuel gas resulting from the production of hydrogen to obtain clean flues with low sulphurs. The aim of this paper is to optimize the use of the hydrogen excess with the implementation of a gas turbine with heat recovery with a feed near 28-31% of hydrogen. The cogeneration system was modelled by GateCycle 5.34.0.r. and the results obtained for the simulation were considered optimistic. Considering a production of 13 MW of electrical power the overall efficiency reached a value of 76% and 22 t/h of vapour (17 MW) from a feed of 3 t/h of fuel gas (39 MW). These results allow a higher electrical power production and a consequent reduction in the emissions of SO2 and CO2.

  12. Burning clean fuel gas improves energetic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Andre; Gomes, Luisa A.C.N. [Chemical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida 431, P4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Tavares, Manuel L.C. [Galp Energia, Area de Tecnologia, Apartado 3015, 4451-852 Leca da Palmeira (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    One the most critical problems faced by refineries nowadays is the continuous increasing of legislation urging emissions reductions specifically SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particles. Therefore there is a substantial need for refineries to burn fuel gas instead of fuel oil and avoiding, if possible, the use of imported natural gas. The refinery case study presents a substantial excess of fuel gas resulting from the production of hydrogen to obtain clean flues with low sulphurs. The aim of this paper is to optimize the use of the hydrogen excess with the implementation of a gas turbine with heat recovery with a feed near 28-31% of hydrogen. The cogeneration system was modelled by GateCycle 5.34.0.r. and the results obtained for the simulation were considered optimistic. Considering a production of 13 MW of electrical power the overall efficiency reached a value of 76% and 22 t/h of vapour (17 MW) from a feed of 3 t/h of fuel gas (39 MW). These results allow a higher electrical power production and a consequent reduction in the emissions of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. (author)

  13. The Birmingham Burn Centre archive: A photographic history of post-war burn care in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Kohlhardt, Angus; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Research Council Burns and Industrial Injuries Unit at the Birmingham Accident Hospital pioneered civilian burn care and research in the United Kingdom during the post-war years. A photographic archive has been discovered that documents this period from 1945 to 1975. The aim of this project was to sort, digitize and archive the images in a secure format for future reference. The photographs detail the management of burns patients, from injury causation and surgical intervention, to nursing care, rehabilitation and long-term follow-up. A total of 2650 images files were collected from over 600 patients. Many novel surgical, nursing, dressing and rehabilitation strategies are documented and discussed. We have chosen to report part of the archive under the sections of (1) aseptic and antimicrobial burn care; (2) burn excision and wound closure; (3) rehabilitation, reconstruction and long-term outcomes; (4) accident prevention; and (5) response to a major burns incident. The Birmingham collection gives us a valuable insight into the approach to civilian burn care in the post-war years, and we present a case from the archive to the modern day, the longest clinical photographic follow-up to date. PMID:25749201

  14. Biomass burning: Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with two different, but related, aspects of biomass burning. The first part of the chapter deals with a technique to estimate the instantaneous emissions of trace gases produced by biomass burning using satellite imagery. The second part of the chapter concerns the recent discovery that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Hence, biomass burning has both an immediate and long-term impact on the production of trace gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this research is to better assess and quantify the role of this research is to better assess and quantify the role and impact of biomass as a driver for global change. It will be demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions and may in the future be used to estimate the long-term postburn biogenic emissions of trace gases to the atmosphere

  15. Determination of biomass burning emission factors. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass burning, in a broad sense, encompasses different burning practices, including open and confined burnings, and different types of vegetation. Emission factors of gaseous or particulate trace compounds are directly dependent both on the fuel type and the combustion process. Emission factors are generally calculated by stoichiometric considerations using the carbon mass balance method, applied either to combustion chamber experiments or to field experiments based on ground-level measurements or aircraft sampling in smoke plumes. There have been a number of experimental studies in the last 10 years to investigate wildfires in tropical, temperate, or boreal regions. This article presents an overview of measurement methods and experimental data on emission factors of reactive or radiatively active trace compounds, including trace gases and particles. It focuses on fires in tropical regions, that is, forest and savanna fires, agricultural burns, charcoal production, use of fuel wood and charcoal combustion. 6 figs., 8 tabs., 65 refs

  16. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Risks Burns and Scalds Type Video Audience Parents You are here Home Safety Tips Video Special ... Seat Checked Safety Tips Safety Laws Tools For Parents For Safety Professionals For Educators For Press Latest ...

  17. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Jayantilal Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient′s body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >60 2 inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal.

  18. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Giving Donate Safety Tips Age Group Special Needs Space and Place Home Risks Burns and Scalds Type ... Learn More » About Us Mission Programs Public Policy Research Safe Kids Near You Join Our Team Staying ...

  19. Wood-burning stoves in low-carbon dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, Alireza;

    2013-01-01

    overlooked source for heating. A wood-burning stove is considered low-carbon technology since its fuel is based on local residual biomass. A field study investigating how modern wood-burning stoves operated in modern single-family houses showed that intermittent heat supply occasionally conflicted with the...... primary heating system and that chimney exhaust occasionally conflicted with the ventilation system causing overheating and particles in the indoor environment. Nonetheless, most of the wood-burning stoves contributed considerably to the total heating. On this background, it was concluded that better...... combustion technology and automatics, controlling the interplay between stove and house, can make wood-burning stoves suitable for low-carbon dwellings and meet the remaining heat demand during the coldest period. It was further concluded that new guidelines need to be elaborated about how to install and...

  20. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are ... needs. Read our burn prevention tips | Visit our YouTube channel Did You Know? Every 30 seconds, a ...

  1. Annual Burn Plan FY 94 : Brussels District Mark Twain NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual burn plan for the Brussels District of Mark Twain NWR provides proposals for the Calhoun Division and the Gilbert Lake Division. Each proposal includes...

  2. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  3. Shuffling strategy study of breeding-burning integrated fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breeding-burning integrated fast reactor uses burning assemblies to generate thermal power, meanwhile, converts 238U into 239Pu in the fertile assemblies. With periodical shuffling of assemblies, the reactor can maintain criticality for decades of years. To maintain long-term stability of the core reactivity, the core layout and shuffling strategy should balance the burning and the breeding of the assemblies. The scattered core layout and shuffling strategy ensures fast breeding of the fertile assemblies, and keeps stable core power distribution in whole life of the reactor. Moreover, at the end of the reactor life, the discharge burnups of different fuel assemblies are close to each other, which are about 250300 GW · d/t. This is important for breeding-burning integrated fast reactor to achieve very efficient utilization of uranium resource without reprocessing. (authors)

  4. Prescribed Burning Plan for 1985 : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1985 prescribed burning plan for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Treatment Area #3 is the area consisting of the fresh water marsh inside the...

  5. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R; Christopherson, A R; Spears, B K; Nora, R; Bose, A; Howard, J; Woo, K M; Edwards, M J; Sanz, J

    2015-06-26

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ. PMID:26197131

  6. Alpha heating and burning plasmas in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betti, R. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Fusion Science Center and Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Christopherson, A. R. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Fusion Science Center and Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Spears, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nora, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bose, A. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Fusion Science Center and Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Howard, J. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Fusion Science Center and Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Woo, K. M. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States). Fusion Science Center and Lab. for Laser Energetics.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid. Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-01

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  7. Pneumomediastinum, simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema following burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema following burn is unreported in the literature. We de-scribe such case in an 18-year-old male patient with possible mechanism of such presentation.

  8. How to Help a Person with a Serious Burn Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Ways to Give Give Monthly Membership Gifts Corporate Support Current Partners Workplace Giving Create a Legacy ... the patient and unable to fulfill their normal responsibilities. There are many ... and social aspects of burn recovery. All Rights Reserved. The ...

  9. Re: Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Dries David J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A response to Struck MF. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009 Oct 9;17(1):51. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19818134.

  10. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age Group Special Needs Space and Place Home Risks Burns and Scalds Type Video Audience Parents You ... Team Staying Safe Safety by Age Safety by Risk Safety Issues Get Your Car Seat Checked Safety ...

  11. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : FY 1989 Prescribed Burning Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area to be burned is the Stage Island Pool, a freshwater impoundment of approximately 100 acres. The area has a large amount of edge interspersed with several...

  12. Did Aboriginal vegetation burning affect the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    For thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians burned forests, creating grasslands. Some studies have suggested that in addition to changing the landscape, these burning practices also affected the timing and intensity of the Australian summer monsoon. Different vegetation types can alter evaporation, roughness, and surface reflectivity, leading to changes in the weather and climate. On the basis of an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model, Notaro et al. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decreased vegetation cover on the summer monsoon in northern Australia. They found that although decreased vegetation cover would have had only minor effects during the height of the monsoon season, during the premonsoon season, burning-induced vegetation loss would have caused significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. Thus, by burning forests, Aboriginals altered the local climate, effectively extending the dry season and delaying the start of the monsoon season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047774, 2011)

  13. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are ... needs. Read our burn prevention tips | Visit our YouTube channel Did You Know? Every hour of every ...

  14. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention ... becoming a certified Child Passenger Safety (CPS) technician. Learn More » About Us Mission Programs Public Policy Research ...

  15. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil. PMID:27234369

  16. Prediction of fission gas release at high burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable design of LWR fuel rods requires the fission gas release to be predicted as accurately as possible. Indeed that physical phenomenon governs both the fuel temperatures and the inner gas pressure. Fission gas release data have been reviewed by the NRC and it has been concluded that a fission gas release enhancement occurs at burn-up above 20 GWd/tM. To correct deficient fission gas release models which do not include burn-up dependence, the NRC developed an empirical correction method to describe burn-up enhancement effect. BELGONUCLEAIRE has developed its own fission gas release model which is utilized in licensing calculation through the COMETHE code. Fission gas release predictions at high burn-up are confronted to the experimental data as well as to the predictions of the NRC correlation. The physics of the fission gas release phenomenon is discussed

  17. US Forest Service Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project maps the location, extent, and severity of all large fires in the conterminous United States (CONUS), Alaska,...

  18. Fire-Dependent Plant Communities (burn_plan_p)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Fire-Dependent Plant Communities (burn_plan_p) data layer was developed in conjunction with the St Croix National Scenic Riverway's Fire Management Plan. It...

  19. Factors influencing resilience in patients with burns during rehabilitation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: During psychological crisis intervention, medical staff should guide burn patients according to their individual coping styles. Such guidance would achieve a better effect, improve patient resilience, and promote positive psychological adaptation.

  20. High Burn Rate Hybrid Fuel for Improved Grain Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel type of fuel providing high burning rate for hybrid rocket applications is proposed. This fuel maintains a hydrodynamically rough surface to...

  1. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Brand Menu Why It Matters Who We ... needs. Read our burn prevention tips | Visit our YouTube channel Did You Know? Teens with a family ...

  2. Persistent spectral hole-burning: Science and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the underlying scientific fundamentals and principal phenomena associated with persistent spectral hole-burning in solids, and presents an overview of possible future applications to optical storage of digital data and optical signal processing. Organization of the material is by the general physical mechanism responsible for the formation of persistent spectral holes. After a description of the basic principles and methods of hole-burning, with examples from photochemical processes in crystalline and amorphous hosts, the unusual proton tunneling phenomena that occur in hydrogen-bonded polymers and glasses are described. Persistent spectral hole-burning in inorganic materials due either to photoionization or to photophysical effects is then summarized, followed by a detailed discussion of nonphotochemical hole-burning mechanisms for electronic transitions in amorphous solids. The book concludes with a description of potential applications to data storage and optical processing using frequency-domain, holographic, and electric field techniques

  3. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  4. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Road Safety Sponsors Recalls Media Center Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search ... and Place Home Risks Burns and Scalds Type Video Audience Parents You are here Home Safety Tips ...

  5. Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-burn hypertrophic facial scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the burn wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the areas of the body most frequently affected by burns. Scar formation as a result of burn wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this area of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-burn hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under custom made auto-polymerizing resin stent.

  6. Wound Coverage Technologies in Burn Care: Novel Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Branski, Ludwik K.; Dibildox, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in burn wound care have vastly decreased morbidity and mortality in severely burned patients. Development of new therapeutic approaches to increase wound repair has the potential to reduce infection, graft rejection, and hypertrophic scarring. The incorporation of tissue engineering techniques, along with the use of exogenous proteins, genes, or stem cells to enhance wound healing, heralds new treatment regimens based on the modification of already existing biological activity. R...

  7. NIFS symposium: toward the research of fusion burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIFS symposium, entitled 'Toward the research of Fusion Burning Plasmas - Present status and Future Strategy' was held at NIFS on July 15th 1992. This NIFS symposium covers various topics related to burning plasma, e.g., JET DT experiment, Plan for DT experiment on TFTR as well as the future trends among researchers. To study the critical issues and trends of future research, a questionnaire was sent to about 100 researchers. This report presents such activities in the NIFS symposium. (author)

  8. Nurses' emotional experience of caring for children with burns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hilliard, Carol

    2012-02-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the emotions experienced by children\\'s nurses when caring for children with burns, in addition to ascertaining how the nurses dealt with these emotions. BACKGROUND: The nature of nursing practice is such that it inevitably generates some form of emotional response in nurses. The literature reveals that the manner nurses deal with their emotional experiences can impact on their nursing care. DESIGN: The study used Husserlian phenomenology to explore the emotional experiences of eight purposively selected children\\'s nurses who have worked on the burns unit of an Irish paediatric hospital. METHODS: Data were collected using in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using Colaizzi\\'s seven stage framework. RESULTS: The phenomenon of participants\\' emotional experiences is captured in four themes: (1) caring for children with burns, (2) supporting parents, (3) sustaining nurses\\' emotional well-being, and (4) learning to be a burns nurse. Nursing children with burns generated a myriad of emotions for participants. Burns dressing-changes, managing burn-related pain, supporting parents and the impact of busy workloads on the emotional care of children and their parents emerged as the most emotionally challenging aspects of participants\\' role. Participants recognised the need to manage their emotional responses and spoke of the benefits of a supportive nursing team. CONCLUSIONS: The findings offer insights into both the rewarding and challenging aspects of nursing children with burns. Nurses in this environment must be supported to recognise and manage their emotional responses to their work. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Helping nurses to manage the emotional consequences of their work will help to sustain their emotional well-being, enhance the care received by children and also enable nurses to support parents in their role as partners in care.

  9. Notes on burn nursing : aspects of pain management

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, A.E.E. de

    2013-01-01

    Adequate management of burn pain may influence pain resistance, analgesic requirements, sensitivity to pain over time, wound healing and the development of delirium and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Efforts should be made to optimize pain management. An important step is effect evaluation of interventions by pain measurement. Another step is to disclose the latest insights from the literature, especially on non-pharmacological interventions during wound care. In these two steps, burn care nu...

  10. The micro-analysis of human burned bones: some remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, David

    2012-01-01

    The interdisciplinary research of burned bones is focused in this paper by presenting and discussing some methods that can assist the bioanthropologist in the analysis of this kind of remains. In particular, some techniques based on the histological structure of bone and on its molecular composition allow new ways of identifying burned human bone and of determining some aspects of the biological and ontological profile of an individual. A brief summary of those techniques is thus here...

  11. Optimal Money Burning: Theory and Application to Corporate Dividend Policy

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Lee Redding

    1996-01-01

    We explore signaling behavior in settings with a discriminating signal and several costly nondiscriminating ( money burning ) activities. In settings where informed parties have many options for burning money, existing theory provides no basis for selecting one nondiscriminating activity over another. When senders have private information about the costs of these activities, each sender's indifference is resolved, the taxation of a nondiscriminating signal is Pareto improving, and the use of ...

  12. A burn-up module coupling to an AMPX system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactors and Neutrons Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center uses the AMPX system for the study of high conversion reactors (HCR). Such system allows to make neutronic calculations from the nuclear data library (ENDF/B-IV). The Nuclear Engineering career of the Balseiro Institute developed and implemented a burn-up module at a μ-cell level (BUM: Burn-up Module) which agrees with the requirement to be coupled to the AMPX system. (Author)

  13. Building resilience in burns nurses: a descriptive phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of building resilience as a strategy for responding to adversity experienced by burns nurses. Nurses who care for patients with severe burn injury are often exposed to patients' pain and disfigurement, encountering emotional exhaustion, distress, reduced self-esteem, and desensitization to pain. Resilience has been identified as an essential characteristic for nurses in their work environment. Resilience assists nurses to bounce back and to cope in the face of adversity, sustaining them through difficult and challenging working environments. Nonetheless, there remains limited information that addresses the concept of building resilience in burns nurses. In 2009, seven burns nurses were recruited from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The concept of building resilience as a strategy for coping with adversity was identified and organized into six categories: toughening up, natural selection, emotional toughness, coping with the challenges, regrouping and recharging, and emotional detachment. The findings clearly demonstrate that it is vital for burns nurses to build resilience to endure the emotional trauma of nursing patients with severe burn injury. Knowledge about building resilience could be incorporated into nursing education for both undergraduate and experienced nurses. Building resilience within the domain of burns nursing has the potential to retain nurses within the profession, having implications for staff development, orientation, and retention. PMID:21747335

  14. Erosive Burning and its Applications for Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Kulkarni

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available A modified method for prediction of performance of large motors based on erosion constant obtained by partial burning technique is discussed. Erosion constants for two different double base compositions have been determined by partial burning technique. These constraints have been used to predict the performance of the large scale motors developed for Defence applications. The predicted performance compares well with the experimental values.

  15. Filtration gases burning at profiles symmetry of porous media temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical model of filtration gases burning at profiles symmetry in temperature of inert porous media is defined. This mathematic model allows to find the conditions of symmetric profiles of concentration of components of the gas mixture and the temperature of porous media and, in particular, calculations of characteristics of burning wave depending on Lewis number and other parameters. The diagrams of these dependences are analyzed. (author)

  16. Burns and injuries resulting from the use of gel candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickus, E J; Lionelli, G T; Parmele, J B; Lawrence, W T; Korentager, R A

    2001-01-01

    Scented gel candles are common decorative household items composed of gelled mineral oil, fragrances, and dye. Like traditional wax candles, they have an open flame. Because of defective design, there have been several burns and injuries caused by these products. Here we report our experience with a scald burn from a gel candle and describe 34 additional injuries attributed to gel candles previously unreported in the medical literature. PMID:11403248

  17. Research advance in forest restoration on the burned blanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiu-zhen; ZHAOShan-lun; YINHai-wei; KONGFan-hua

    2003-01-01

    How to restore the destroyed forest after forest fire is a key question that man must face. This paper reviewed the research situation and history on the forest restoration burned blanks and summed up the research methods used into four scales: seed-bank scale, community scale, ecosystem scale and landscape scale. The new technologies such as GIS & Remote Sensing used to vegetation restoration were also summarized. The strategies and developing trend of vegetation restoration research on burned blanks were discussed.

  18. Prescribed burning in Italy: issues, advances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ascoli D; Bovio G

    2013-01-01

    Prescribed burning has been carried out since the late 1970s in several southern European countries. Italy hosted some pioneer experiences in the early ’80s, but these did not follow up into practical implementation, and few studies and applications were carried out in subsequent years. In the last decade, a new interest arose and several experiences were carried out. We aim to illustrate the limitations, advances and challenges of prescribed burning in Italy by reviewing the national literat...

  19. Application of Biological Tissue Grafts for Burns in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the advances made in the use of Biological Tissue Grafts for the treatment of burns.The paper outlines research activities and clinical trials done in the use of gamma radiation sterilised Amnion membranes and Pig skin grafts in the zambian Heath Care System for treatment of Burns.Ethical issues of Tissue Banking are also discussed in relation to religious and cultural beliefs and Good Manufacturing Practices

  20. River Ecosystem Response to Prescribed Vegetation Burning on Blanket peatland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee. E. Brown; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Palmer, Sheila M.; Aspray, Katie L.; Holden, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Catchment-scale land-use change is recognised as a major threat to aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning globally. In the UK uplands rotational vegetation burning is practised widely to boost production of recreational game birds, and while some recent studies have suggested burning can alter river water quality there has been minimal attention paid to effects on aquatic biota. We studied ten rivers across the north of England between March 2010 and October 2011, five of which draine...

  1. E P I DEMIOLOGY OF PAEDIATRIC BURNS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangpreet Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. These are the third most common injury causing death in children, following motor vehicle accidents and drowning accidents. AIM: To study the Epidemiological parameters for assessment of morbidity & mortality rate in pediatric burns and to form effective preventive strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was done at the Department of Surgery, PIMS, Jalandhar. Total 50 patients (n=50 up to age of 12 years, were included in the study retrospectively. Data regarding age, sex, demographic distribution, seasonal variation, Total body surface area (TBSA involved, type and place of burn injury, parent’s occupation, family size and mortality rate were noted and analysed. RESULT S: Total 50 patients (n =50 of which 32 were males and 18 females were included in the study. Mean age of burn injuries was 3.6 years. Scalds burns were the most common cause of burns followed by thermal burns. It involved mostly upper limbs (67%, anterio r trunk (56%, lower limbs (53%, face (4%, and posterior trunk including buttocks (16% . The time lapse from injury to presentation to hospital ranged from 1 hour to 3 weeks. Total body surface area burnt was ranged from 2 – 60%. Mean hospital duration was 12 . 4 days. Complications ranged from wound sepsis in 11 patients (22%, contractures of fingers in 3 patients ( 6 % and hypertrophic scarring in 8 patients (16% . After healing of wounds, patients were advised pressure garments and oil massage and night splint age regularly for six months. CONCLUSION: Children constitute a vulnerable group of burns. Most injuries occur in the home setting where effective control measures can be adopted. Advances have also made in resuscitation, intensive care, antimicrobi als, vascular access, nutritional support, and skin banking. Splintage, physiotherapy, massage and pressure garments also help in reducing the morbidity and overall long term burden over

  2. Psychiatric History and Adaptation in Burn Injured Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dyster-Aas, Johan

    2006-01-01

    The intertwined relationship between physical and psychological problems is a topic of much interest in the rehabilitation of severely injured patients, e.g. after a burn. The present study aims at gaining further knowledge concerning the impact of psychological factors and psychiatric morbidity on short and long-term adaptation after burn injury. Outcome was assessed for three main areas: pruritus, return to work and psychiatric health. Three separate samples of previous or current adult pat...

  3. Factors influencing resilience in patients with burns during rehabilitation period

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Yang; Jun-qiao Wang; Bao-zhen Zhang; Yu Zeng; Hai-ping Ma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors that influence levels of resilience in patients with burns during rehabilitation, and to provide theoretical guidance for psychological crisis prevention and intervention. Methods: A total of 129 patients with burns and undergoing rehabilitation were investigated using a demographic questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), and the Simplified Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results: The overall...

  4. Deep-Burn: making nuclear waste transmutation practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Deep-Burn concept, destruction of the transuranic component of light water reactor (LWR) waste is carried out in one burn-up cycle, accomplishing the virtually complete destruction of weapons-usable materials (Plutonium-239), and up to 90% of all transuranic waste, including the near totality of Neptunium-237 (the most mobile actinide in the repository environment) and its precursor, Americium-241. Waste destruction would be performed rapidly, without multiple reprocessing of plutonium, thus eliminating the risks of repeated handling of weapons-usable material and limiting the generation of secondary waste. There appears to be no incentive in continuing the destruction of waste beyond this level. An essential feature of the Deep-Burn Transmuter is the use of ceramic-coated fuel particles that provide very strong containment and are highly resistant to irradiation, thereby allowing very extensive destruction levels ('Deep Burn') in the one pass, using gas-cooled modular helium reactor (MHR) technology developed for high-efficiency energy production. The fixed moderator (graphite) and neutronically transparent coolant (helium) provide a unique neutron energy spectrum to cause Deep-Burn, and inherent safety features, specific to the destruction of nuclear waste, that are not found in any other design. Deep-Burn technology could be available for deployment in a relatively short time, thus contributing effectively to waste problem solutions. Extensive modeling effort has led to conceptual Deep-Burn designs that can achieve high waste destruction levels (70% in critical mode, 90% in with a supplemental subcritical step) within the operational envelope of commercial MHR operation, including long refueling intervals and the highly efficient production of energy (approximately 50%). To the plant operator, a Deep-Burn Transmuter will be identical to its commercial reactor counterpart

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Coculescu, B I

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  6. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, E C; Tovaru, S; Coculescu, B I

    2014-09-15

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS. PMID:25408745

  7. Stress, coping and burn-out in nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To explore the relationship between sources of stress and psychological burn-out and to consider the moderating and mediating role played sources of stress and different coping resources on burn-out.Background: Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in nursing students construes stress as psychological distress. Little research has considered those sources of stress likely to enhance well-being and, by implication, learning.Method: A questionnaire was administered to 171 fi...

  8. Comparison of Two Types of Gels in Improving Burn Wound

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimzadeh Golnar; Seyedi Dolatabad Shahnaz; Fallah Rostami Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Kefir are natural probiotic compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, which were tested in experimental burn injury. Kefir gels were prepared from an extract of continuously cultured kefir in Man, Rogosa and Sharpe Broth medium for 48 and 96 h. Their extracts were used for evaluation of antibacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in standard sample (ATCC 27853) and samples taken from patients with burns. The antibacterial effect of dif...

  9. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Anna C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  10. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  11. Simulation of burning plasma dynamics in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of burning plasma for various transient situations in ITER plasma has been simulated with a 1.5-dimensional up-down asymmetry Tokamak Transport Simulation Code (TTSC). We have mainly paid attention to intrinsic plasma transport processes such as the confinement improvement and the change of plasma profiles. It is shown that a large excursion of the fusion power takes place with a small improvement of the plasma confinement; e.g., an increase of the global energy confinement by a factor of 1.22 yields the fusion power excursion of ∼ 30% within a few seconds. Any feedback control of fueling D-T gas is difficult to respond to this short time scale of fusion power transient. The effect of the plasma profile on the fusion power excursion has been studied, by changing the particle transport denoted by the inward pinch parameter CV. It is found that the fusion power excursion is mild and slow, and the feedback control is quite effective in suppressing the fusion power excursion and in shortening the duration time of power transient in this case. The change in the pumping efficiency has also been studied and a large excursion of the fusion power has not been observed, because of the decrease in the fuel density itself in the case of the increase in the pumping efficiency, and the helium ash accumulation in the case of the decrease in the pumping efficiency. Finally it is shown that the MHD sawteeth activity leads to the fusion power fluctuation of ± 20%, although it is helpful for the helium ash exhaust. (author)

  12. Burn out among Greek physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tragea P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout is a psychosocial syndrome, defined as a state of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion, which occurs between individuals working in a vast working environment, especially in developed societies. Methods: For the conduct of the current study, there was appointed the evaluation of physiotherapists working in public and private hospitals, as well as rehabilitation centers in the area of Athens. With the use of random (multilayered sampling, 176 physiotherapists filled an anonymous questionnaire, which included various subjects concerning burnout; the MBI scale, questions concerning, gender, age, marital status, educational level, professionals sector, as well as questions concerning the factors related to professional development. Results: The factor which influences more the professional development of the participants was the educational level with a 65,1% percentage followed by the personality of the participants with a 62,9% percentage. The prevalence of the burnout was the following; Of the total of the participants,52% showed low emotional exhaustion, 45,3% medium personal achievements and 49,1% low depersonalization. Age group correlated with PA mean score (p = 0.007. Gender, was a significant variable for E.E. (Mann-Whitney test; p=0,046. Educational level correlated with all MBI dimensions. Mean E.E. score and mean DP score (p<0.001 were higher in those who had master and / or Phd (p=0.039. However mean PA score (p=0,043 found to be lower. The number of years working as a physiotherapist correlated with the level of PA (p = 0,038. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the predictors of 1 E.E. was the gender (p=0,037 2 PA was the age group (p=0,003.Conclusion: Burn out is a common problem in Greek physical therapists. Further research is needed in order to take the appropriate measures not only to identify this phenomenon, but also to prevent and confront it effectively.

  13. Exploration of burning plasmas in FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Reactor Innovation Evaluation Studies (ARIES) have identified the key physics and technical issues that must be resolved before attractive fusion reactors can be designed and built. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) design study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to address the key burning plasma and advanced tokamak physics issues identified in the ARIES studies. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-AT, a steady-state advanced tokamak reactor based on a high-βand high-bootstrap-current operating regime. The key advanced tokamak features of FIRE are: strong plasma shaping, double-null pumping divertors, low toroidal field ripple (cr). A longer term goal of FIRE is to explore 'steady-state' high-β advanced tokamak regimes with high bootstrap fractions (fBS) ∼ 75% at βN ∼ 4 and moderate fusion gain (Q ∼ 5 to 10) under quasi-steady-state conditions for ∼ 3 τcr. FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field, cryogenic-copper-coil tokamak with: Ro = 2.14 m, a = 0.595 m, Bt (Ro) = 6 to 10T, Ip = 4.5 to 7.7 MA with a flat top time of 40 to 20 s for 150 MW of fusion power. FIRE will utilize only metal plasma facing components; Be coated tiles for the first wall and W brush divertors to reduce tritium retention as required for fusion reactors. FIRE will be able to test divertor and plasma facing components under reactor relevant power densities since the fusion power density of 6 MWm-3 and neutron wall loading of 2.3 MWm-2 approach those expected in a reactor. (author)

  14. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. PMID:26975787

  15. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  16. In-situ burning of water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes an experimental program on the in-situ burning of emulsions. This study is the third in a series of experimental studies on the in-situ burning of water-in-oil emulsions. The main objective of this study was to improve the capabilities and reduce the limitations of existing systems for igniting water-in-oil emulsions. A secondary objective was to study the feasibility of ferrocene as a soot reducing agent for oils and emulsions, and was incorporated into the experimental program. The experimental work for this research project was accomplished by conducting small-scale laboratory burns and heat transfer experiments, and by conducting meso-scale field experiments under Arctic springtime conditions. Experiments conducted to study emulsion burning processes revealed that: in order to ignite and burn the emulsion, water is first removed from the emulsion and released mainly through evaporation and that the temperature of the water-in-oil emulsions does not exceed approximately 100oC. Improvements were made to an existing igniter technology. It was found that the addition of emulsion breakers to gelled crude oil can increase the effectiveness of this igniter when dealing with emulsions with water contents greater than 50%. Experiments with ferrocene show this compound to be an effective soot inhibitor when mixed with oil or emulsions at concentrations as low as 0.13 wt%. Ferrocene may have some effect on the burning process but further testing is required to conform this. 38 refs., 86 figs., 27 tabs

  17. In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bennett, David B.; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S.; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-04-01

    A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d10-90/ λ~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology.

  18. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  19. Enhanced minor actinide burning core for closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents core concepts enhancing TRU burning or MA transmutation in sodium cooled reactor satisfying the void reactivity requirements. In this study, two concepts of transmutation system are considered; in the first system TRUs are burned only by ARR whose target is maximizing TRU burning. The second is a system that Pu is burned by LWR and ARR, Am is transmuted by ARR whose target is maximizing Am transmutation. Therefore some innovative and challenging technologies have been examined under the safety requirements; MA burning fuel with 50% TRU fraction, moderator pin, fuel of high Am fraction, and Am blanket. According to the detailed calculation of high TRU contained oxide core with moderator pins of 12% arranged driver fuel assemblies, the TRU conversion ratio decreases to 0.33 and the TRU burning capability is improved to 67 kg/TWeh. Deploying Am blanket which is oxide fuel with Am 50% and U 50%, the total of Am transmutation capability of oxide fueled core becomes 69 kg/TWeh. (author)

  20. The effect of burn injury on adolescents autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, D J; Dritschel, B H; Bekerian, D A

    2004-11-01

    Autobiographical memory recall was investigated in two female adolescent groups; one group who had experienced a burn injury and a matched control group. The Burn group was not currently depressed or anxious, but scored significantly higher on the intrusion subscale of the impact of event scale compared to controls. Two autobiographical memory tasks, the autobiographical memory cueing task and the Children's Autobiographical Memory Inventory (CAMI), were used. For the cueing task, the Burn group was significantly slower to recall specific memories. This group also recalled significantly fewer specific memories and significantly more extended overgeneral memories. For the CAMI, the burns group produced significantly lower semantic and episodic recall. The Burn group also produced significant correlations between sub-scales of the impact of event scale and selected measures on the autobiographical memory tasks. Higher intrusion scores were associated with less detailed episodic recall. Higher avoidance scores were associated with longer latencies to recall memories to negative cue words and fewer specific memories to all cue words. These results are discussed from the perspective that the Burn group experienced intrusive thoughts which interfered with normal autobiographical functioning. PMID:15381443