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Sample records for burns inhalation

  1. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

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    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  2. Inhalation injury in severely burned children does not augment the systemic inflammatory response

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    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Inhalation injury in combination with a severe thermal injury increases mortality. Alterations in inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, contribute to the incidence of multi-organ failure and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of inhalation injury on cytokine expression in severely burned children. Methods Thirty severely burned pediatric patients with inhalation injury and 42 severely burned children without inhalation injury were enrolled in...

  3. Inhalation injury in severely burned children does not augment the systemic inflammatory response

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    Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Inhalation injury in combination with a severe thermal injury increases mortality. Alterations in inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, contribute to the incidence of multi-organ failure and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of inhalation injury on cytokine expression in severely burned children. Methods Thirty severely burned pediatric patients with inhalation injury and 42 severely burned children without inhalation injury were enrolled in the study. Inhalation injury was diagnosed by bronchoscopy during the first operation. Blood was collected within 24 hours of admission and again at five to seven days following admission. Cytokine expression was profiled using multi-plex antibody-coated beads. Significance was accepted at a p value of less than 0.05. Results The mean percentages of total body surface area burned were 67% ± 4% (56% ± 6%, third-degree burns) in the inhalation injury group and 60% ± 3% (45% ± 3%, third-degree burns) in the non-inhalation injury group (p value not significant [NS]). Mean age was 9 ± 1 years in the inhalation injury group and 8 ± 1 years in the non-inhalation injury group (p value NS). Time from burn to admission in the inhalation injury group was 2 ± 1 days compared to 3 ± 1 days in the non-inhalation injury group (p value NS). Mortalities were 40% in the inhalation injury group and 12% in the non-inhalation injury group (p < 0.05). At the time of admission, serum interleukin (IL)-7 was significantly increased in the non-inhalation injury group, whereas IL-12p70 was significantly increased in the inhalation injury group compared to the non-inhalation injury group (p < 0.05). There were no other significant differences between groups. Five to seven days following admission, all cytokines decreased with no differences between the inhalation injury and non-inhalation injury cohorts. Conclusion In the present study, we show that an inhalation injury causes alterations in IL-7

  4. Are serum cytokines early predictors for the outcome of burn patients with inhalation injuries who do not survive?

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    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Severely burned patients suffering from inhalation injury have a significantly increased risk for mortality compared with burned patients without inhalation injury. Severe burn is associated with a distinct serum cytokine profile and alterations in cytokines that contribute to morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether severely burned pediatric patients with concomitant inhalation injury who had a fatal outcome exhibited a different s...

  5. Development of a long-term ovine model of cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation injury and the effects of early excision and skin autografting

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    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Rehberg, Sebastian; Asmussen, Sven; Ito, Hiroshi; Sousse, Linda E.; Cox, Robert A.; Deyo, Donald J.; Traber, Lillian D.; TRABER, MARET G.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury frequently increases the risk of pneumonia and mortality in burn patients. The pathophysiology of acute lung injury secondary to burn and smoke inhalation is well studied, but long-term pulmonary function, especially the process of lung tissue healing following burn and smoke inhalation, has not been fully investigated. By contrast, early burn excision has become the standard of care in the management of major burn injury. While many clinical studies and small-animal e...

  6. Epidemiology of pneumonia in a burn care unit: the influence of inhalation trauma on pneumonia and of pneumonia on burn mortality

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    Liodaki, E.; Kalousis, K; Mauss, K. L.; Kisch, T; Mailaender, P; F. Stang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burn patients developing pneumonia, as well as the predisposing factors and the mortality of these patients. Infectious complications present serious problems in severely burned patients. Pneumonia, in particular, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Patients with inhalation injuries are exposed to a greater risk due to the possible development of infectious complications in the lower respira...

  7. Are serum cytokines early predictors for the outcome of burn patients with inhalation injuries who do not survive?

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    Gauglitz, Gerd G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Severely burned patients suffering from inhalation injury have a significantly increased risk for mortality compared with burned patients without inhalation injury. Severe burn is associated with a distinct serum cytokine profile and alterations in cytokines that contribute to morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether severely burned pediatric patients with concomitant inhalation injury who had a fatal outcome exhibited a different serum cytokine profile compared with burn patients with inhalation injury who survived. Early identification followed by appropriate management of these high-risk patients may lead to improved clinical outcome. Methods Thirteen severely burned children with inhalation injury who did not survive and 15 severely burned pediatric patients with inhalation injury who survived were enrolled in the study. Blood was collected within 24 hours of admission and 5 to 7 days later. Cytokine levels were profiled using multiplex antibody coated beads. Inhalation injury was diagnosed by bronchoscopy during the initial surgery. The number of days on the ventilator, peak inspiratory pressure rates, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio and incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome were recorded for those patients. Results Significantly altered levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, and IL-13 were detected within the first 7 days after admission in serum from burn pediatric patients with concomitant inhalation injury who did not survive when compared with similar patients who did (P < 0.05). Alterations in these cytokines were associated with increased incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome, number of days under ventilation, increased peak inspiratory pressure, and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio in this patient population. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with increased IL-6 and IL-10 as well as decreased IL-7 serum levels had a

  8. Injuria inhalatoria en pacientes quemados: Revisión Inhalation injury in burned patient: A review

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    CESAR PEDREROS P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cada año casi tres mil personas sufren quemaduras en Chile. En la población adulta se estima que este número se incrementará en los próximos años. En este grupo, cerca del 40% de las quemaduras graves se asocian a injuria inhalatoria. la injuria inhalatoria aumenta significativamente la mortalidad en los pacientes quemados. la prevalencia, fisiopatologia, cuadro clínico, manejo y pronóstico de esta patología no han sido incorporados en los estudios de pregrado de las escuelas de medicina y son temas desconocidos para la mayoría de los médicos. En el contexto de la próxima incorporación de este tipo de dolencias en el plan de garantías explícitas en la salud chilena hemos realizado una actualización del temaEvery year almost three thousand people get burned in Chile. In this group, about 40% of the critical burned patients also suffer inhalation injury. This number is expected to grow bigger among the adult population in the next few years. Inhalation injury significantly increases mortality in burned patients. The prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this pathology have not been incorporated in the undergraduate curses of Chilean medical schools. Therefore, this subject is pooly known by most of our physicians. Because this disease will be included in the explicit warranties health plan of the public health care system in Chile, we decide to write this review about this pathological condition

  9. Antithrombin attenuates myocardial dysfunction and reverses systemic fluid accumulation following burn and smoke inhalation injury: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

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    Rehberg, S; Yamamoto, Y; Bartha, E; Sousse, L.E. (Linda); Jonkam, C. (Collette); Zhu, Y; Traber, L.D. (Lillian); Cox, R. A.; Traber, D.L. (Daniel); Enkhbaatar, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that maintaining physiological plasma levels of antithrombin attenuates myocardial dysfunction and inflammation as well as vascular leakage associated with burn and smoke inhalation injury. Therefore, the present prospective, randomized experiment was conducted using an established ovine model. Methods: Following 40% of total body surface area, third degree flame burn and 4 × 12 breaths of cold cotton smoke, chronically instrumented sheep were randomly assigned t...

  10. Beneficial Effects of Concomitant Neuronal and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Ovine Burn and Inhalation Injury

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    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Cox, Robert A.; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Westphal, Martin; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase are critically involved in the development of pulmonary failure secondary to acute lung injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase effectively prevents the pulmonary lesions in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. Chronically instrumented sheep were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 6), an injured a...

  11. Inhalants

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    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  12. Inhalants

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    ... Listen Drug Facts Alcohol Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) Methamphetamine (Meth) Prescription Drugs Salvia Spice Brain and Addiction Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes HIV/AIDS ...

  13. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation: an observational cohort study

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    Backes, Yara; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Tuip de Boer, Anita M; Hofstra, Jorrit Jan; Vlaar, Alexander PJ; Determann, Rogier M; Knape, Paul; David P Mackie; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma who need mechanical ventilation. Methods suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. The samples were obta...

  14. The effect of inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose (Rosa damascena) essence on the pain intensity after dressing in patients with burns: A clinical randomized trial

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    Bikmoradi, Ali; Harorani, Mehdi; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Moradkhani, Shirin; Falahinia, Golam Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is one of the common problems encountered by patients with burns, which increases after each dressing. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose essence on the pain of patients with burns that is caused after dressing. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with second- and third-degree burn wounds. The baseline pain of the patients was assessed 30 min before they entered into the dressing r...

  15. Inhalation Injury

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    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  16. Inhalation Injuries

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    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burnsBurns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  17. Epidemiology of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis and vantilator-associated pneumonia in patients with inhalation injury at the Burn Centre in Brno (Czech Republic)

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    Lipovy, B; Rihová, H.; Gregorova, N; Hanslianova, M.; Zaloudikova, Z.; Kaloudova, Y.; Brychta, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work is to determine the incidence of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and to define the define the most important respiratory pathogens in patients with inhalation injury. Introduction. Infectious complications in severely burned patients present serious problems. Patients with inhalation injuries are exposed to greater risk owing to the possible development of infectious complications in the lower respiratory tract....

  18. The Value and Prognostic Role of the CT Scan versus Chest Radiography in the Follow-up of Intubated Burn Patients with Possible Inhalation Injury

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    Spyropoulou, G.A.; Iconomou, T.; Tsagarakis, M.; Tsoutsos, D.

    2005-01-01

    The admission and follow-up chest radiographs as well as the follow-up CT scans of 13 burn patients admitted to our clinic requiring ventilatory support were analysed for signs of inhalation injury and pulmonary complications. The findings were compared with the results of the clinical examination, the blood gas tests, and bronchoscopy. Eleven out of the 13 patients underwent bronchoscopy revealing inhalation injury. The CT scan detected pleural effusion in two patients with a normal chest ra...

  19. Burns

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    ... Chemical burns Burns can be the result of: House and industrial fires Car accidents Playing with matches ... hairs Burned lips and mouth Coughing Difficulty breathing Dark, black-stained mucus Voice changes Wheezing

  20. Inhalation Injury

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    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  1. Burns

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    ... touching the stove This list is not all-inclusive. You can also burn your airways if you ... extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school. Remove electrical cords from floors and keep them ...

  2. Inhaled Steroids

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    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  3. Inhalant Abuse

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    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  4. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

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    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  5. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

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    Dries, David J; Endorf, Frederick W

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patie...

  6. Application of two tracheotomy in treating head-neck burns complicated with inhalation%两种气管切开术在头颈部烧伤并吸入性损伤中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付发祥; 宋蕾

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较经皮气管切开与传统气管切开在头颈烧伤并吸入性损伤患者中应用的优缺点.方法 采用经皮气管切开术的患者24例为观察组,采用传统气管切开术的患者20例为对照组,观察两组的手术时间及术后并发症.结果 观察组手术时间4~8 min,平均(5.7±1.34)min,发生置管困难3例,气管狭窄1例;对照组手术时间25~60min,平均(39.6±8.99)min,发生术后出血1例,皮下气肿1例,两组手术时间有显著性差异(P<0.05),并发症的发生率无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 经皮气管切开具有手术时间短、切口小、出血量少等优点,但目前不能完全取代传统气管切开术.%Objective To compare percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with surgical tracheostomy in head-neck burns complicated with inhalation injury patients advantages and disadvantages of the application. Methods Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with the observation group were 24 patients,Surgical tracheostomy using the traditional 20 patients as control group were observed in operation time and postoperative complications. Results Observation group: the operative time was 4~8 min, the average (5. 7±1. 34) min, difficult cannulation occurred in 3 cases, 1 case of tracheal stenosis {Control group: operation time 25 ~ 60 min, mean (39. 6±8. 99) min, 1 case of postoperative bleeding, 1 case of subcutaneous emphysema. The two groups of the Operation time has marked difference, the incidence of complications is no statistical significance. Conclusion Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy has short operation time, small incision and less blood loss, but cannot completely replace the traditional tracheotomy.

  7. Aetiology and Outcome of Elderly Burn Patients in Tabriz, Iran

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    H. Maghsoudi; Ghaffari, A

    2009-01-01

    Background. Geriatric patients, usually defined as being 65 years of age or over, now make up about 10% of the major burn population. Main aim. To conduct a prospective study of elderly burn patients, analysing the predictive value of age, gender, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation trauma, pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. Methods. A 10-year prospective study of burn victims hospitalized in a major burn centre in Iran was conducted to analyse the association between age, pe...

  8. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

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    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  9. Discussion on effective vibratory sputum ejection machine for patients with extremely severe burn and inhalation injury%振动排痰机用于特重度烧伤伴吸入性损伤患者有效排痰的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迪

    2015-01-01

    Objective:to study the vibratory sputum ejection machine's prevention effect of the pulmonary infection for patients with extremely severe burn and inhalation injury: a clinical observation of human nature.Methods:70 patients with extremely severe burn and inhalation injury were randomly divided into 35 in the experimental group and 35 in a control group. G5 vibratory sputum ejection machine is used in the experimental group for sputum excretion while handcuff is used in the control group.The effects are drawn and compared via chest auscultation, SpO2 and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), the amount of excreted sputum and the sucted sputum.Results: the sputum expectoration effect of the experimental group is much better than that of the control group because the indexes of the chest auscultation, oxygen saturation and blood gas analysis indices are signiifcantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion: vibratory sputum ejection machine has ramarkable effect for patients with extremely severe burn and inhalation injury patients in sputum expectoration. What's more, it also helps to prevent the pulmonary infection for patients with extremely severe burn.%目的 探讨振动排痰机用于特重度烧伤伴吸人性损伤患者预防肺部感染的疗效观察.方法 70例特重度烧伤伴有吸入性损伤患者随机分成实验组35和对照组35例.实验组应用G5振动排痰机排痰,对照组采用手扣法对患者进行排痰治疗,在胸部听诊、SpO2、动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、咳痰或吸痰量的多少等方面进行比较.结果 实验组排痰效果明显优于对照组,胸部听诊、氧饱和度和血气分析指标也明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 振动排痰机对特重度烧伤伴有吸入性损伤患者协助排痰效果显著,有利特重度烧伤患者肺部感染的控制.

  10. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

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    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  11. 9例大面积烧伤合并吸入性气道损伤患者下呼吸道感染的预防与控制%The prevention and control of lower respiratory tract infection in 9 cases of patients with large area burn combined inhalation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小玥; 穆晓苏; 徐晓莉; 黄慧敏; 方红梅; 尹湘毅; 李亚楠; 尹诺

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨9例大面积烧伤合并吸入性气道损伤患者下呼吸道感染的预防与控制措施。方法调查9例大面积烧伤合并吸入性损伤患者的下呼吸道分泌物培养的病原菌细菌谱及耐药情况。结果共检出下呼吸道病原菌2种,共38株,其中鲍曼不动杆菌37株,占97.36%(37/38);嗜麦芽假单胞菌1株,占2.64%(1/38)。鲍曼不动杆菌耐药率达到75.59%,对替加环素、米诺环素敏感性90%以上。经过严格实施感染预防与控制,合理使用抗菌药物等综合措施后取得了良好的疗效,鲍曼不动杆菌检出率明显下降。结论本文患者的下呼吸道病原菌以鲍曼不动杆菌最常见,虽然鲍曼不动杆菌感染率及耐药率高,但可以通过有效的消毒隔离、严格的下呼吸道医院感染预防措施及合理应用抗菌药物等方法,使鲍曼不动杆菌的检出率明显下降。%Objective To prevent and reduce lower respiratory tract infection in the batch of patients with large area burn combined inhalation injury. Methods 9 cases of large area burn with inhalation injury patients were investigated of bacterial spectrum and drug resistance of lower respiratory tract secretion. Results In the survey, we detected a total of 38 strains of 2 kinds of the lower respiratory tract pathogen, including 37 strains of acinetobacter baumannii accounting for 97. 36% and 1 strain of eosinophilic malt pseudomonas accounting for 2.64%. Acinetobacter baumannii antibiotic resistant rate rised up to 75.59%. The sensitive rate of tigecy⁃cline and minocycline rised significantly (>90%) . After strict infection control, reasonable use of antibiotics and other comprehensive measures, we have obtained a good curative effect. The detection rate of acinetobacter baumannii declined obviously. Conclusion In large area burn with inhalation injury patients, acinetobacter baumannii is the most common in lower respiratory tract

  12. Burn Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Koray Aydemir; Mehmet Ali Taşkaynatan

    2011-01-01

    Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The t...

  13. Substance use -- inhalants

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    ... get through daily life. Addiction can lead to tolerance. Tolerance means that more and more of the inhalant ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Inhalants Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  14. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

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    ... medications a certain amount of time before and after you inhale fluticasone inhalation. If you were taking an ... your steroid dose starting at least 1 week after you begin to use fluticasone.Fluticasone helps to prevent ...

  15. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

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    ... inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive ... bottom of the clear base. Fill in the expiration date on the inhaler label, which is 3 ...

  16. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  17. Burn-Center Quality Improvement: Are Burn Outcomes Dependent On Admitting Facilities and Is There a Volume-Outcome “Sweet-Spot”?

    OpenAIRE

    Hranjec, Tjasa; TURRENTINE, FLORENCE E.; STUKENBORG, GEORGE; Young, Jeffrey S; Sawyer, Robert G.; Calland, James F

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 ...

  18. Burn-Center Quality Improvement: Are Burn Outcomes Dependent On Admitting Facilities and Is There a Volume-Outcome “Sweet-Spot”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRANJEC, TJASA; TURRENTINE, FLORENCE E.; STUKENBORG, GEORGE; YOUNG, JEFFREY S.; SAWYER, ROBERT G.; CALLAND, JAMES F.

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 were used to estimate a multivariable logistic regression model that could predict patient mortality with reference to the admitting burn facility/facility volume, adjusted for differences in age, inhalation injury, %TBSA burned, and an additional factor, percent full thickness burn (%FTB). As previously reported, all three covariates (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, and age) were found to be highly statistically significant risk factors of mortality in burn patients (P value < 0.0001). The additional variable, %FTB, was also found to be a statistically significant determinant, although it did not greatly improve the multivariable model. The treatment/admitting facility was found to be an independent mortality predictor, with certain hospitals having increased odds of death and others showing a protective effect (decreased odds ratio). Hospitals with high burn volumes had the highest risk of mortality. Mortality outcomes of patients with similar risk factors (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, age, and %FTB) are significantly affected by the treating facility and their admission volumes. PMID:22546129

  19. Proteomics Improves the Prediction of Burns Mortality: Results from Regression Spline Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Ju, Hyunsu; Spratt, Heidi; Victor, Sundar; Jeschke, Marc G.; Hegde, Sachin; Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Allan R Brasier; Herndon, David N

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of mortality in severely burned patients remains unreliable. Although clinical covariates and plasma protein abundance have been used with varying degrees of success, the triad of burn size, inhalation injury, and age remains the most reliable predictor. We investigated the effect of combining proteomics variables with these three clinical covariates on prediction of mortality in burned children. Serum samples were collected from 330 burned children (burns covering >25% of the tota...

  20. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  1. Inhaled transuranics in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to examine, in small animals, the fate and effects of inhaled transuranic compounds including plutonium dioxide, americium oxides, americium nitrates and curium oxides. This project should provide data for hazard evaluation and establishment of permissible exposure limits to man for inhaled transuranics, particularly with respect to the effects of radiation dose and dose distribution. Inhalation carcinogenesis was the primary effect evaluated

  2. Inhalational Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    S Kowsarian; Farzaneh; F Jamshidiha

    2010-01-01

    Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become ...

  3. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  4. Formoterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevespi Aerosphere® (as a combination product containing Glycopyrrolate, Formoterol) ... Formoterol inhalation powder (Foradil) and nebulizer solution (Perforomist) are used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, and ...

  5. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take steps to avoid household burns. Never leave cooking food unattended on the stove. Set your water heater’s thermostat to 120 °F or lower to prevent scalding burns. And install smoke alarms on every floor of your home. Keep yourself and your family safe from unexpected ...

  6. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  7. Radioactive implications from coal burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignites burning in the Greek Coal Power Plants (CPP) contain naturally occurring radionuclides mainly arising from the uranium series. Radium-226 concentrations in lignites burning in the three Coal Power Plants of the 3.02 GW energy centre, the greatest in Greece (Valley of Ptolemais, North Greece), varied from about 30 to 132 Bq kg-1 (average 65.5 Bq kg-1. About 1.3 % of 226 Ra is discharged to the environment in particulate form - fly ash - by the stacks of thermal power stations, burning coal at a rate 14.3 Mt (GH y)-1. The collective effective dose equivalent (EDE) commitment to the population 44400 living in the region of these plants, due to inhalation was estimated to be 0.13 man Sv y-1, that is an order of magnitude higher than that recommended for such a population. Doses from inhaled radon and radon progeny might cause an excess of 3-7 cancer deaths this year. (author)

  8. Antithrombin in the treatment of burn trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal-Vern, Areta; Orkin, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that has demonstrated value in sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and in burn and inhalation injury. With high doses, AT may decrease blood loss during eschar excision, reducing blood transfusion requirements. There are no human randomized, placebo-controlled studies, which have tested the true benefit of this agent in these conditions. Two main forms of AT are either plasma-derived AT (phAT) and recombinant AT (rhAT). Major ovine studies in burn and smoke inhalation injury have utilized rhAT. There have been no studies which have either translated the basic rhAT research in burn trauma, or determined the tolerance and pharmacokinetics of rhAT concentrate infusions in burn patients. Advantages of rhAT infusions are no risk of blood borne diseases and lower cost. However, the majority of human burn patient studies have been conducted utilizing phAT. Recent Japanese clinical trials have started using phAT in abdominal sepsis successfully. This review examines the properties of both phAT and rhAT, and analyzes studies in which they have been utilized. We believe that it is time to embark on a randomized placebo-controlled multi-center trial to establish the role of AT in both civilian and military patients with burn trauma. PMID:26855890

  9. Insulin Human Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a short-acting, man-made version of human insulin. Insulin inhalation works by replacing the insulin ... and selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar); niacin; oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medications for diabetes such as pioglitazone ( ...

  10. Nicotine Microaerosol Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Andrus

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the droplet size distribution of a nicotine pressurized metered-dose inhaler using a nicotine in ethanol solution formulation with hydrofluoroalkane as propellant.

  11. Arformoterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive ... store the medication in the refrigerator until the expiration date printed on the package has passed, or ...

  12. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...

  13. A three decade analysis of factors affecting burn mortality in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionelli, G T; Pickus, E J; Beckum, O K; Decoursey, R L; Korentager, R A

    2005-12-01

    This study's objective was to identify variables that affect the mortality of elderly burn patients and to assess their changes over time. A retrospective review was conducted on all patients 75 or older (n=201) admitted to a university-based burn center between 1972 and 2000. Variables examined were age, sex, TBSA, ABSI, inhalation injury, timing from burn to operative intervention, the number of surgical procedures, the number of pre-morbid conditions, and mortality. There were 95 fatalities. TBSA strongly correlated with mortality (p<0.0001). Adjusting for TBSA and inhalation injury, mortality significantly decreased (p=0.04, odds ratio=0.58). Mortality significantly increased with inhalation injury (p<0.01). Fatality risk increased by 400% with inhalation injury. Absence of inhalation injury was not significant with respect to mortality in the 1970s, however there was a significant decrease (p=0.02) in mortality without an inhalation injury in the 1980s and 1990s. ABSI was strongly predictive of mortality (p<0.0001). On average there was a 200% increase in mortality per unit increase of ABSI. The elderly are 58% less likely to die from burns now as compared to the 1970s. Although mortality rose with increasing TBSA equally in each decade, the absolute risk of mortality decreased over time. This data suggests major strides have been made in burn care, however similar success has not been achieved with inhalation injuries. PMID:16269217

  14. An Analysis of Inhalation Injury Diagnostic Methods and Patient Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Jessica A; Ching, Yiu-Hei; Shivers, Steven C; Karlnoski, Rachel A; Payne, Wyatt G; Smith, David J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patient outcomes according to the method of diagnosing burn inhalation injury. After approval from the American Burn Association, the National Burn Repository Dataset Version 8.0 was queried for patients with a diagnosis of burn inhalation injury. Subgroups were analyzed by diagnostic method as defined by the National Burn Repository. All diagnostic methods listed for each patient were included, comparing mortality, hospital days, intensive care unit (ICU) days, and ventilator days (VDs). Z-tests, t-tests, and linear regression were used with a statistical significance of P value of less than .05. The database query yielded 9775 patients diagnosed with inhalation injury. The greatest increase in mortality was associated with diagnosis by bronchoscopy or carbon monoxide poisoning. A relative increase in hospital days was noted with diagnosis by bronchoscopy (9 days) or history (2 days). A relative increase in ICU days was associated with diagnosis according to bronchoscopy (8 days), clinical findings (2 days), or history (2 days). A relative increase in VDs was associated with diagnosis by bronchoscopy (6 days) or carbon monoxide poisoning (3 days). The combination of diagnosis by bronchoscopy and clinical findings increased the relative difference across all comparison measures. The combination of diagnosis by bronchoscopy and carbon monoxide poisoning exhibited decreased relative differences when compared with bronchoscopy alone. Diagnosis by laryngoscopy showed no mortality or association with poor outcomes. Bronchoscopic evidence of inhalation injury proved most useful, predicting increased mortality, hospital, ICU, and VDs. A combined diagnosis determined by clinical findings and bronchoscopy should be considered for clinical practice. PMID:26594867

  15. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241AmO2. Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  16. Albuterol and Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure it is inserted correctly. Replace the clear plastic base on the inhaler. Hold the inhaler upright ... face mask. Connect the nebulizer reservoir to the compressor. Put the mouthpiece in your mouth or put ...

  17. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  18. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kowsarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  19. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns about the…

  20. Burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

  1. Benchmarking Outcomes in the Critically Injured Burn Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B.; Goverman, Jeremy; Hayden, Douglas L.; Fagan, Shawn P.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Alexander, Andrew K.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Arnoldo, Brett; Wispelwey, Bram; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Honari, Shari E.; Mason, Philip H.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Herndon, David N.; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare outcomes with accepted benchmarks in burn care at six academic burn centers. Background Since the 1960s, U.S. morbidity and mortality rates have declined tremendously for burn patients, likely related to improvements in surgical and critical care treatment. We describe the baseline patient characteristics and well-defined outcomes for major burn injuries. Methods We followed 300 adults and 241 children from 2003–2009 through hospitalization using standard operating procedures developed at study onset. We created an extensive database on patient and injury characteristics, anatomic and physiological derangement, clinical treatment, and outcomes. These data were compared with existing benchmarks in burn care. Results Study patients were critically injured as demonstrated by mean %TBSA (41.2±18.3 for adults and 57.8±18.2 for children) and presence of inhalation injury in 38% of the adults and 54.8% of the children. Mortality in adults was 14.1% for those less than 55 years old and 38.5% for those age ≥55 years. Mortality in patients less than 17 years old was 7.9%. Overall, the multiple organ failure rate was 27%. When controlling for age and %TBSA, presence of inhalation injury was not significant. Conclusions This study provides the current benchmark for major burn patients. Mortality rates, notwithstanding significant % TBSA and presence of inhalation injury, have significantly declined compared to previous benchmarks. Modern day surgical and medically intensive management has markedly improved to the point where we can expect patients less than 55 years old with severe burn injuries and inhalation injury to survive these devastating conditions. PMID:24722222

  2. Indications and strategies for Mechanical Ventilation in the Burned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract is one of the most seriously injured system in burned patients. Besides the direct inhalation injury, respiratory organs may be effected by the inflammatory mediators released due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. As a result, many severely burned patients are needed to be intubated and mechanically ventilated after admitted to ICU. For this purpose, the medical staff working in the ICU’s which admit severely burned patients should be experienced in mechanical ventilation modes, complications related to mechanical ventilation and weaning strategies. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 31-6

  3. Burns in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical...

  4. Inhaled transuranics in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project examines the interactions of external and internal radiation from mixtures of radionuclides present within the nuclear fuel inventory. The objective of the project is to evaluate the effects of mixed radiation insults, using key radiation sources as indicative of overall processes that may occur following release of nuclear fuel into the air. Previously initiated studies of immunological effects of plutonium inhalation are also being completed as part of this project

  5. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and ga...

  6. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  7. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-01-01

    A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... metered dose inhaler one to two inches from mouth Your browser does not support iframes Using a ... KB] Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) Your browser does not support iframes Using a ...

  9. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  10. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  11. Insulin inhalation: NN 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Aradigm Corporation has developed an inhaled form of insulin using its proprietary AERx drug delivery system. The system uses liquid insulin that is converted into an aerosol containing very small particles (1-3 micro in diameter), and an electronic device suitable for either the rapid transfer of molecules of insulin into the bloodstream or localised delivery within the lung. The AERx insulin Diabetes Management System (iDMS), AERx iDMS, instructs the user on breathing technique to achieve the best results. Aradigm Corporation and Novo Nordisk have signed an agreement to jointly develop a pulmonary delivery system for insulin [AERx iDMS, NN 1998]. Under the terms of the agreement, Novo Nordisk has exclusive rights for worldwide marketing of any products resulting from the development programme. Aradigm Corporation will initially manufacture the product covered by the agreement, and in return will receive a share of the overall gross profits from Novo Nordisk's sales. Novo Nordisk will cover all development costs incurred by Aradigm Corporation while both parties will co-fund final development of the AERx device. Both companies will explore the possibilities of the AERx platform to deliver other compounds for the regulation of blood glucose levels. Additionally, the agreement gives Novo Nordisk an option to develop the technology for delivery of agents outside the diabetes area. In April 2001, Aradigm Corporation received a milestone payment from Novo Nordisk related to the completion of certain clinical and product development stages of the AERx drug delivery system. Profil, a CRO in Germany, is cooperating with Aradigm and Novo Nordisk in the development of inhaled insulin. Aradigm and Novo Nordisk initiated a pivotal phase III study with inhaled insulin formulation in September 2002. This 24-month, 300-patient trial is evaluating inhaled insulin in comparison with insulin aspart. Both medications will be given three times daily before meals in addition to basal

  12. Pulmonary Histopathologic Abnormalities and Predictor Variables in Autopsies of Burned Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousse, Linda E.; Herndon, David N.; Andersen, Clark R.; Zovath, Andrew; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Cox, Robert A.; Traber, Daniel L.; Hawkins, Hal K.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary abnormalities occur in 30–80% of fatalities after burn injury. The objective of our study is to investigate lung pathology in autopsy tissues of pediatric burn patients. METHODS Three scientists with pathology training in pediatric burn care reviewed masked autopsy slides of burned children who died after admission to a burn center from 2002–2012 (n=43). Autopsy lung tissue was assigned scores for histologic abnormalities in 9 categories, including alveolar and interstitial fibrosis, hyaline membranes, and type II epithelial cell proliferation. Scores were then tested for correlation with age, TBSA burn, number of days between burn and death, time between burn and admission, and the presence of inhalation injury using analyses with linear models. RESULTS Type II epithelial cell proliferation was significantly more common in cases with a longer time between burn and admission (p<0.02). Interstitial fibrosis was significantly more severe in cases with longer survival after burn (p<0.01). The scores for protein were significantly higher in cases with longer survival after burn (p<0.03). Enlarged air spaces were significantly more prominent in cases with longer survival after burn (p<0.01), and in cases with the presence of inhalation injury (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Histological findings associated with Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD), which is the pathological correlate of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), were seen in approximately 42% of autopsies studied. Protein-rich alveolar edema, which is the abnormality that leads to ARDS, may occur from multiple causes, including inhalation injury. PMID:25445004

  13. Laryngeal sequelae due to accidental inhalation of anhydrous ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, Walter Paiva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anhydrous Ammonia (AA is a caustic compound commonly used in the industry that can cause burns, even with brief contact. As with other alkali burns, the early washing to remove the AA from burnt areas is crucial to limit tissue damage. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact determine the degree of skin and mucosa destruction. A tanker truck carrying AA (NH3 fell off a highway, and released a dense cloud of AA gas. Fifty-four people inhaled the gas and after ninety days, three people were still experiencing hoarseness and were examined. Case Report: We assessed three patients with laryngeal sequelae due to AA inhalation burn. We found a case of hyperemia and edema, one case of granuloma of the posterior third portion of the left vocal cord, and one case of vocal cord adhesion. Necropsy findings are commented both macroscopically and microscopically. The sequelae and the best treatments for them are discussed herein.

  14. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  15. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4 are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. Lymphopenia occurred at the two highest dosage levels as early as 1 mo following exposure and was associated with neutropenia and reduction in numbers of circulatory monocytes by 4 mo postexposure. Radiation pneumonitis developed in one dog at the highest dosage level at 14 mo postexposure. More rapid translocation to skeleton and liver occurred following inhalation of 238Pu(NO3)4 than after 239Pu(NO3)4 inhalation

  16. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns ... home, out of children’s reach, and away from heat or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your ...

  17. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and tend to be more severe and cover a larger portion of the body than other scald burns. 9 10 11 A survey found that only 8 percent of adults felt ...

  18. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  19. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  20. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-01-01

    The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in ...

  1. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on various types of radionuclides that may be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. One of the primary goals of this ICRP Task Group is to assess specifically the biological implications of inhaled plutonium. Because other transuranics are becoming more abundant, information on americium, curium and einsteinium is included. Data are also included from studies of polonium and of several beta-gamma emitting isotopes. The Task Group evaluated most of the data on the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in experimental animals to identify the tissues at risk and to assess possible dose-response relationships. Few data from human cases of inhaled radionuclides are available for this assessment. The biological effects of nonradioactive air pollutants were also considered to provide the perspective that all air pollutants can have a deleterious effect on human life and to emphasize the possibility for combined or synergistic effects of nonradioactive and radioactive substances on the respiratory tract. (orig./HP)

  2. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  3. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  4. Burn wound coverage and burn wound closure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konigová, R.; Matoušková, Eva; Brož, L.

    2000. s. 9. [International Symposium and Course on Burns and Fire Desaster Management. Jerusalem Meeting /3./. 13.02.2000-16.02.2000, Jerusalem] R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ4368 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. A computational prediction for the effective drug and stem cell treatment of human airway burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungman

    2016-08-01

    Burns in the airway from inhaling hot gases lead to one of the most common causes of death in the United States. In order to navigate tissues with large burn areas, the velocity, temperature, and heat flux distributions throughout the human airway system are computed for the inhalation of hot air using the finite-element method. From there, the depth of burned tissue is estimated for a range of exposure times. Additionally, the effectiveness of drug or stem cell delivery to the burned airway tissue is considered for a range of drug or cell sizes. Results showed that the highest temperature and lowest heat flux regions are observed near the pharynx and just upstream of the glottis. It was found that large particles such as stem cells (>20 μm) are effective for treatment of the upper airways, whereas small particles (<10 μm) such as drug nanoparticles are effective in the lower airways. PMID:26513000

  6. Inhaled Drug Delivery: A Practical Guide to Prescribing Inhaler Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct delivery of medication to the target organ results in a high ratio of local to systemic bioavailability and has made aerosol delivery of respiratory medication the route of choice for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. The most commonly prescribed device is the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI; its major drawback is the requirement that inspiration and actuation of the device be well coordinated. Other requirements for effective drug delivery include an optimal inspiratory flow, a full inspiration from functional residual capacity and a breath hold of at least 6 s. Available pMDIs are to be gradually phased out due to their use of atmospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs as propellants. Newer pMDI devices using non-CFC propellants are available; preliminary experience suggests these devices greatly increase systemic bioavailability of inhaled corticosteroids. The newer multidose dry powder inhalation devices (DPIs are breath actuated, thus facilitating coordination with inspiration, and contain fewer ingredients. Furthermore, drug delivery is adequate even at low inspired flows, making their use appropriate in almost all situations. Equivalence of dosing among different devices for inhaled corticosteroids will remain imprecise, requiring the physician to adjust the dose of medication to the lowest dose that provides adequate control of asthma. Asthma education will be needed to instruct patients on the effective use of the numerous inhalation devices available.

  7. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  8. Inhalant abuse: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhalants are being abused by large numbers of people throughout the world, particularly children and adolescents. It is also an often overlooked form of ubstance abuse in adolescents. Aims: The current study explored the inhalant abuse among adolescents seeking treatment from a tertiary care drug de-addiction clinic. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a tertiary level multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The current study was a chart review of the cases with inhalant abuse/dependence presenting to the clinic over a 1-year period. All the treatment records of the de-addiction clinic were reviewed, and information was gathered regarding patients with inhalant abuse/dependence. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics with frequency distribution was carried out by using SPSS version 10.0. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 16.24 years (SD±1.9 years; range 12-18 years. Twenty-two percent of the subjects were illiterate. Forty percent of the adolescents had a family history of alcohol use problems and 48% that of tobacco use. The mean age of the initiation of inhalant use was 11.6 years (SD±2.17 years. It varied from 9 to 18 years. Forty percent of the adolescents had made a previous abstinence attempt. Conclusions: The findings provide important information on an underresearched area in psychiatry.

  9. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  10. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  11. Perineal Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh AEmmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Perineal burns are not common in childhood but when they occur, they can produce severe complications. Conservative management by open wound care and topical agents is effective in most cases. However, in deep burns and when control of infection proves problematic, diverting colostomy may be necessary to control infection and achieve wound healing and graft take. Burns wound excision and skin grafting may be required in such cases. Contractures of various forms may develop and require plastic...

  12. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J.

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  13. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  14. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl 2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection.

  15. Managing diabetes with inhaled insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy D Mastrandrea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetes is increasing world-wide. Many individuals with diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar and prevent both microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with this chronic disease. Current regimens involve delivery of subcutaneous insulin by injection or continuous insulin infusion. One area of research to advance diabetes care is aimed at developing alternate routes of insulin administration that will make daily management less invasive for patients. This review will focus on inhaled insulin, a novel formulation which takes advantage of drug delivery through the pulmonary system. The pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of inhaled insulin will be discussed. In addition, the status of inhaled insulin as a potential therapy for individuals with diabetes will be reviewed.

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... to follow along with the correct way to use your metered dose inhaler. Print the step-by- ...

  17. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  18. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  19. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  20. [Integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child with extremely severe burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongming; Zhang, Jiaping; Chen, Jian; Song, Huapei; Liu, Qiushi; Fan, Xin; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    This article reports the successful experience of integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child suffering from 91% TBSA flame burn injury (with 60% TBSA full-thickness injury, 30% TBSA deep partial-thickness injury, and 1% TBSA superficial partial-thickness injury), severe inhalation injury, severe burn shock, stress ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding and atelectasis of the right upper lung. The patient was given effective fluid infusion against shock, treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding, and other effective supportive treatment for functions of various organs after being admitted to our burn ward. When vital signs became stable at 30 hours post injury, bedside rehabilitation was begun. On post injury day (PID) 4, escharectomy was performed for both lower limbs, followed by microskin grafting and allogeneic skin covering. On PID 10, invasive infection of multi-drug resistant bacteria was found with accompanied high fever, and at the same time allograft began to disintegrate, with dissolution of large area of eschar, leading to a raw surface reaching 86% TBSA. Following debridement, dressing, application of compound polymyxin B ointment, temporary covering of wounds with porcine acellular dermal matrix, adjustment of antibiotics, patient's condition was finally stabilized. From PID 28 on, split-thickness skin grafting was conducted 7 times, and the raw surface of 75% TBSA involving the upper and lower limbs and trunk was successfully covered. At the same time, our rehabilitation team launched comprehensive rehabilitation measures comprising active exercise, occupational therapy, prevention of scar formation, organ function training and psychological intervention. Finally, the patient was able to walk unaided and fed herself when the wounds were almost entirely healed in 3 months after injury. Oriented forwards functional rehabilitation, strong cooperation between team members, and synchronous effective implementation of burn treatment and

  1. Age dependent systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jespersen, Jakob Jessing; Bisgaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the effect of age on systemic exposure to inhaled salbutamol in children. METHODS: Fifty-eight asthmatic children, aged 3-16 years, inhaled 400 microg of salbutamol from a pressurized metered dose inhaler with spacer. The 20 min serum profile was analyzed. RESULTS: Prescribing a...

  2. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2450 Inhalation... initial information on toxicity has been obtained by acute testing. The subchronic inhalation study has... daily exposure of experimental animals to a chemical by inhalation for part (approximately 10...

  3. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The...

  4. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  5. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Godara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same.

  6. The Development of a New Way of a Combined Burning Injury Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peretyagin S.P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new way of a combined burning injury modeling enabling to consider all pathogenic mechanisms of injury occurrence. Materials and Methods. There has been designed an original inhalation chamber: a disiccator with a ground stopper and a tray. Two groups of white Wistar rats (n=50 have taken part in the experiment. Results. There has been suggested a new way of a combined burning injury modeling consisting of applying a contact burn to an animal (damage area is 20% of body surface with an additional thermoinhalation exposure of hot air and combustion products within 20—30 sec in the conditions of an inhalation chamber.

  7. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  9. A Burning Question

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ As heaping piles of garbage grow in cities and communities across China,a divide has formed over two possible solutions to this smelly problem: Should excessive mounds of trash be burned,or should it be buried?

  10. Advances in burn treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoda, LU; Vogt, PM

    2006-01-01

    The German-speaking burn specialist, organized in the DAV (Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Verbrennungsmedizin) held their yearly meeting in 2004 in Rottach-Egern, Bavaria. Participants from Switzerland, Germany and Austria found a high standing, very well organized and thorough program summoned by the host, Dr. Guido Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, Munich. The topics consisted of reconstructive surgery, skin substitutes and replacement, advances in burn medicine over the last 10 years and bu...

  11. Burning mouth syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Jimson; Rajesh, E.; R Jayasri Krupaa; M. Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and met...

  12. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  13. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12μCi. Nineteen of the dogs exposed to 238Pu haved died during the first 7-1/2 yr after exposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; their body burdens at death ranged from 0.7 to 10μCi. Chronic lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2

  14. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, David A.; Man, Jonathan C.; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P.; Sommerer, K.; Stone, Howard A.; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These “exhaled bioaerosols” may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a ...

  15. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace x...

  16. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  17. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  18. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2, during the 13-yr postexposure period. During the 10 1/2 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 year after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had initial lung burdens greater than or equal to 80 nCi. 3 figures, 6 tables

  19. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 15-year postexposure period. During the 12 1/2 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of ≥ 80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. 4 figures, 7 tables

  20. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for life span dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 16-year post exposure period. During the 13 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of ≥ 80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton

  1. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pnuemonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 14-year postexposure period. During the 11 1/2 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of greater than or equal to80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. 5 figures, 7 tables

  2. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  3. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  4. The Skeletal Effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Stephanie A; Stein, Emily M

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal effects of inhaled glucocorticoids are poorly understood. Children with asthma treated with inhaled glucocorticoids have lower growth velocity, bone density, and adult height. Studies of adults with asthma have reported variable effects on BMD, although prospective studies have demonstrated bone loss after initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids in premenopausal women. There is a dose-response relationship between inhaled glucocorticoids and fracture risk in asthmatics; the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures is greater in subjects treated with the highest doses in the majority of studies. Patients with COPD have lower BMD and higher fracture rates compared to controls, however, the majority of studies have not found an additional detrimental effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone. While the evidence is not conclusive, it supports using the lowest possible dose of inhaled glucocorticoids to treat patients with asthma and COPD and highlights the need for further research on this topic. PMID:27091558

  5. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and thos...

  6. Training Issues in the Use of Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Duerden; David Price

    2001-01-01

    Patient compliance and techniques used with inhalation devices can strongly influence the effectiveness of inhaled medications but these issues are often poorly recognized and may be neglected when these products are prescribed. The extent of these problems and the success of differing education and training programs designed to improve inhaler technique have been evaluated by a review of the literature using Medline, EMBASE and Biosis Database from 1985 to date. Drug delivery to the airways ...

  7. Serum albumin level as a risk factor for mortality in burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Alejandra Aguayo-Becerra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypoalbuminemia is a common clinical deficiency in burn patients and is associated with complications related to increased extravascular fluid, including edema, abnormal healing, and susceptibility to sepsis. Some prognostic scales do not include biochemical parameters, whereas others consider them together with comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum albumin can predict mortality in burn patients. METHODS: We studied burn patients ≥16 years of age who had complete clinical documentation, including the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index, serum albumin, globulin, and lipids. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to determine the cut-off level of albumin that predicts mortality. RESULTS: In our analysis of 486 patients, we found that mortality was higher for burns caused by flame (p = 0.000, full-thickness burns (p = 0.004, inhalation injuries (p = 0.000, burns affecting >30% of the body surface area (p = 0.001, and burns associated with infection (p = 0.008. Protein and lipid levels were lower in the patients who died (p80%, with 84% sensitivity and 83% specificity. At admission, the albumin level could be used as a sensitive and specific marker of burn severity and an indicator of mortality.

  8. [Inhalation of nitric oxide - dependence: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, W B; Matsumoto, T; Horita, S M; Almeida, N M; Martins, F R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications. PMID:14647690

  9. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  10. Treatment strategies for mass burn casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHENG Zhi-yong; YANG Hong-ming; HAO Dai-feng; SHEN Chuan-an; JIA Xiao-ming; LI Feng; JING Sa; LI Li-gen; SONG Hui-feng; JIA Chi-yu; TUO Xiao-ye; SUN Tian-jun; HU Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass burn casualties are always a great challenge to a medical team because a large number of seriously injured patients were sent in within a short time. Usually a high mortality is impending. Experiences gained from successful treatment of the victims may be useful in guiding the care of mass casualties in an armed conflict.Methods Thirty-five burn victims in a single batch, being transferred nonstop by air and highway from a distant province,were admitted 48 hours post-injury. All patients were male with a mean age of (22.4±8.7) years. The burn extent ranged from 4% to 75% ((13.6±12.9)%) total body surface area. Among them, thirty-two patients were complicated by moderate and severe inhalation injury, and tracheostomy had been performed in 15 patients. Decompression incisions of burn eschar on extremities were done in 17 cases before transportation. All the thirty-five patients arrived at the destination smoothly via 4-hour airlift and road transportation. Among them, twenty-five patients were in critical condition.Results These thirty-five patients were evacuated 6 hours from the scene of the injury, and they were transferred to a local hospital for primary emergency care. The patients were in very poor condition when admitted to our hospital because of the severe injury with delayed and inadequate treatment. Examination of these patients at admission showed that one patient was suffering from sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Dysfunction of the heart, lung, liver,kidney, and coagulation were all found in the patients. Forty-eight operations were performed in the 23 patients during one month together with comprehensive treatment, and the function of various organs was ameliorated after appropriate treatment. All the 35 patients survived.Conclusions A well-organized team consisting of several cooperative groups with specified duties is very important. As a whole, the treatment protocol should be individualized, basing on the extent of

  11. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. PMID:23786241

  12. Inhalation anaesthetics and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Sander, S P; Nielsen, O J;

    2010-01-01

    Although the increasing abundance of CO(2) in our atmosphere is the main driver of the observed climate change, it is the cumulative effect of all forcing agents that dictate the direction and magnitude of the change, and many smaller contributors are also at play. Isoflurane, desflurane, and...... sevoflurane are widely used inhalation anaesthetics. Emissions of these compounds contribute to radiative forcing of climate change. To quantitatively assess the impact of the anaesthetics on the forcing of climate, detailed information on their properties of heat (infrared, IR) absorption and atmospheric...

  13. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Çil; Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2012-01-01

    Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7)

  14. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  15. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms.

  16. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  17. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412

  18. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsasser, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction.

  19. Toxicological assessment of noxious inhalants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, N H; Sassen, A W; Wallner, B W; Staudenmaier, R; Harréus, U A; Richter, E

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  20. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquids that vaporize at room temperature Industrial or household products , including paint thinners or removers, degreasers, dry-cleaning ... oil sprays Gases —found in household or commercial products and used as medical anesthetics Household or commercial products , including butane lighters and propane ...

  1. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Health Effects Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  2. Burning clean and green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new style of oil burner has been developed for use on exploration platforms offshore. The design improves oil combustion through enhanced air induction, producing stable flames in the clean burn region which do not generate smoke and oil fallout. Successful tests have led to it now being ready for commercial exploitation. (UK)

  3. Accumulative eschar after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fushun

    2016-02-01

    Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb-bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26862412

  4. Accumulative eschar after burn

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Fushun

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb‐bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome.

  5. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  6. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  7. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  8. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  9. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

  10. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  11. [Burn injuries and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmu, Raimo; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Currently a large proportion of patients with severe burn injuries survive. This gives increasing challenges also for psychological recovery after the trauma. More than half of burn patients have mental disorders already before the burn injury but also patients who previously had no mental disorders may suffer from them. Some of the hospitalize burn patients have injuries due to suicidal attempts. Only a small proportion of burn patients receive appropriate psychiatric care although psychosocial interventions specifically planned for burn victims exist. More frequent screening of symtoms of mental disorders and psychiatric consultation, also after acute care in hospital, could lead to better management of post-burn psychiatric care as well as better management of the burn treatment and rehabilitation itself. PMID:27089616

  12. Systemic Responses to Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Barış; YEĞEN, Berrak Ç.

    2004-01-01

    The major causes of death in burn patients include multiple organ failure and infection. It is important for the clinician to understand the pathophysiology of burn injury and the effects it will have on the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The local and systemic inflammatory response to thermal injury is extremely complex, resulting in both local burn tissue damage and deleterious systemic effects on all other organ systems distant from the burn area itself. Thermal injury initiates systemic infl...

  13. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  14. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  15. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N

    2009-01-01

    Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently...

  16. Burns and beauty nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  17. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual....... Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context of the...... Greek fire-walking rituals. As a cognitive ethnography, the book aims to identify the social, psychological and neurobiological factors which may be involved and to explore the role of emotional and physiological arousal in the performance of such ritual. A study of participation, experience and meaning...

  18. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  19. Burns and beauty nails

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Bélanger; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. T...

  20. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft t...

  1. Technology of straw burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the example of application of straw as fuel for a power plant with capacity of 1 MW, which is reconstructed from an old coal power plant. The article shows the advantages of straw as a source of energy, analyses the physical and chemical characteristics and temperature parameters, typical for straw. Moreover it indicates the specific circumstances of the straw burning processes. The paper focuses also on preparation and storing of straw for public use and in the energy sector. Comparing with fossil fuel, straw is a low-caloric natural source, whose energy value reached to 14-19 MJ/kg. This value depends partly on the kind of straw and its water or moisture content (MC). To the basic characteristics of energy aspects belong: - energy or heating value (HV) MJ/kg (in LPG it is MJ/ m3); - burning temperature; - melting point - temperature of ash; - weight kg/m3; - density; - Energy density MWh /m3; - Energy potential GJ/t; - Size-homogeneity of straw; - Water or Moisture Content (MC). The above mentioned characteristics have an influence on technical parameters of straw-burning boiler. These parameters define conditions process of straw preparation. (author)

  2. Inhaled actinides: some safety issues and some research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: limited research funds; risk coefficients for inhaled particles; the hot particle hypothesis; the Gofman-Martell contention; critical tissues for inhaled actinides inhalation hazards associated with future nuclear fuel cycles; and approach to be used by the inhalation panel

  3. Clinical efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation capsules inhaled by Cyclohaler compared with Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink-van Wijngaarden, T; Blom-Ross, M E; Lansdorp, D; Goedhart, D M; Eelhart, J; Guelen, P J; de Vos, D

    1998-09-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation powder inhaled by Rotahaler (Becotide Rotacaps, Glaxo Wellcome) and by Cyclohaler (Beclomethasone Cyclocaps, Pharmachemie). Both the Cyclohaler and the Rotahaler are single-dose dry powder inhalation devices for inhalation capsules. 182 asthma patients stabilized on inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 800 micrograms daily, were randomly assigned to treatment with 800 micrograms beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled by Rotahaler (91 patients) or Cyclohaler (91 patients) in a double-blind manner, using the double-dummy method. It was shown that the asthma remained stable during the 16-week study period with both preparations. There were no statistically significant differences in the pulmonary parameters (morning PEF, evening PEF, FEV1). The test/reference ratio of the morning PEF (99.5%, CI 93.0% - 106.5%) was well within the equivalence interval, which had been set a priori from 85% to 117.6%. There were no marked differences between the Cyclocaps and Rotacaps group in symptom scores and adverse events. A total of 12 patients had an asthma exacerbation: 8 exacerbations occurred in the Rotahaler group and 4 in the Cyclohaler group. The difference was not statistically significant. The use of rescue medication was somewhat higher in the Rotahaler group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients (17 patients) withdrew from the study in the Rotahaler group than in the Cyclohaler group (5 patients). In conclusion, there was no difference in asthma control of patients treated with Beclomethasone Cyclocaps inhaled by Cyclohaler and Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler. Both preparations are therapeutically equivalent. PMID:9760014

  4. Abused inhalants enhance GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    MacIver, M Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Abused inhalants are widely used, especially among school age children and teenagers, and are ‘gateway’ drugs leading to the abuse of alcohol and other addictive substances. In spite of this widespread use, little is known about the effects produced by inhalants on the central nervous system. The similarity in behavioral effects produced by inhalants and inhaled anesthetics, together with their common chemical features, prompted the present study of inhalant actions on a well characterized an...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children ...

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Mixed Methods 5. Purpose Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia ... HHS/Open USA.gov

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  8. Late effects of inhaled plutonium in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented summarizing the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in dogs with emphasis on dose-response relationships at low exposure levels. With the dose levels studied to date, pulmonary neoplasia was the primary cause of death in beagles 5 to 10 years after inhalation of 239PuO2. None of the dogs exposed to 239PuO2 developed bone tumors. Bone neoplasia was the primary cause of death 5 to 6 years after inhalation of 238PuO2; however, one of the dogs had pulmonary tumors in addition to bone tumors. The earliest indication of a biological effect after the inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 was dose related lymphocytopenia

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  11. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance ... gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional tells you ... keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer Your browser ...

  16. Acute Respiratory Distress Due to Methane Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jun Yeon; Kwon, Yong Sik; Lee, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Seok; Rho, Byung Hak; Choi, Won-Il

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of toxic gases can lead to pneumonitis. It has been known that methane gas intoxication causes loss of consciousness or asphyxia. There is, however, a paucity of information about acute pulmonary toxicity from methane gas inhalation. A 21-year-old man was presented with respiratory distress after an accidental exposure to methane gas for one minute. He came in with a drowsy mentality and hypoxemia. Mechanical ventilation was applied immediately. The patient's symptoms and chest rad...

  17. Inhaler devices - from theory to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Corrigan, Chris; Levy, Mark L;

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of the factors determining lung deposition of aerosols provides background information required by health care providers when instructing patients to use their prescribed inhalers. We discuss differences in the optimal inhalation manoeuvres for each type of aerosol generator a...... the difficulties patients face. Provision of short, clear instructions with demonstration of critical steps and checking technique during later clinical visits are necessary if these aerosolised medications are to be fully beneficial....

  18. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ordoñez-Librado; Verónica Anaya-Martínez; Ana Luisa Gutierrez-Valdez; Laura Colín-Barenque; Enrique Montiel-Flores; Maria Rosa Avila-Costa

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+) mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice...

  19. Clearance of inhaled particles in ankylosing spondylitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, D R; Chamberlain, M. J.; McCain, G A; Morgan, W K

    1989-01-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis may uncommonly develop apical fibrobullous lung disease, the cause of which is unknown. It is postulated here that rigidity of the thoracic cage leads to reduced apical clearance of inhaled particles and may thereby predispose to chronic infection. Deposition and clearance of inhaled technetium-99m sulphur colloid particles were studied in eight male patients with ankylosing spondylitis who had chest wall rigidity (mean (SD) chest expansion 1.8 (1.07) cm) ...

  20. Amorphous powders for inhalation drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    For inhalation drug delivery, amorphous powder formulations offer the benefits of increased bioavailability for poorly soluble drugs, improved biochemical stability for biologics, and expanded options of using various drugs and their combinations. However, amorphous formulations usually have poor physicochemical stability. This review focuses on inhalable amorphous powders, including the production methods, the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients with a highlight on stabilization of the particles. PMID:26780404

  1. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  2. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Alister; Cetto, Raul; Calmet, Hadrien; Gambaruto, Alberto; Tolley, Neil; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Schroter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective trans- port of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 litre per second peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20ms, resulting in large- amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed...

  3. Tokamak burn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of the fusion plasma thermal instability and its control is reviewed. General models of the thermonuclear plasma are developed. Techniques of stability analysis commonly employed in burn control research are discussed. Methods for controlling the plasma against the thermal instability are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications to tokamak confinement concepts. Additional research which extends the results of previous research is suggested. Issues specific to the development of control strategies for mid-term engineering test reactors are identified and addressed. 100 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Explosive hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although an impressive quantity of work has been devoted to understanding nucleosynthesis during explosive hydrogen burning, much work remain to be done. Reactions which occur in novae, x-ray bursts, and supernovae are discussed. Much attention is given to the reactions of hot CNO cycles and of reactions in the rp-process. The many reactions described in this review are not all of the reactions which may be of interest to nuclear physicists, although the rates of those reactions not discussed are essentially unknown. 123 refs., 9 figs

  5. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  6. Prognosis and treatment of burns.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R; Heimbach, D

    1996-01-01

    Survival rates for burn patients in general have improved markedly over the past several decades. The development of topical antibiotic therapy for burn wounds, the institution of the practice of early excision and grafting, and major advances in intensive care management have all contributed to this success. In this review we address these 3 important advances in the modern treatment of burn injuries and provide a brief historical overview of these accomplishments and others, emphasizing spe...

  7. Topical agents in burn care

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injure...

  8. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  9. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    OpenAIRE

    Procter Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns...

  10. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Shareen; Basavarajappa; Hanumanthappa

    2015-01-01

    A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1) OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the a...

  11. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  12. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  13. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  14. In-situ burning of Orimulsion : small scale burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the feasibility of burning Orimulsion. In-situ burning has always been a viable method for cleaning oil spills on water because it can effectively reduce the amount of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of recovered oil. Orimulsion, however, behaves very differently from conventional oil when it is spilled because of its composition of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. In-situ burning of this surfactant-stablized oil-in-water emulsion has never been seriously considered because of the perception that Orimulsion could not be ignited, and if it could, ignition would not be sustained. In this study, burn tests were conducted on 3 scales in a Cleveland Open Cup apparatus of 5 cm, 10 cm and 50 cm diameters. Larger scale burns were conducted in specially built pans. All tests were conducted on salt water which caused the bitumen to separate from the water. The objective was to determine if sufficient vapours could be generated to ignite the Orimulsion. The study also measured if a sustained flame would result in successful combustion. Both objectives were successfully accomplished. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the Orimulsion in the specially designed pan for large scale combustion. Quantitative removal of Orimulsion was achieved in all cases, but in some burns it was necessary to re-ignite the Orimulsion. It was noted that when Orimulsion burns, some trapped water droplets in the bitumen explode with enough force to extinguish a small flame. This did not occur on large-scale burns. It was concluded that the potential for successful in-situ burning increases with size. It was determined that approximately 1 mm in thickness of diesel fuel is needed to ignite a burn. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Fuel burning and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of soot particles and other air pollution indoors constitutes a considerable health hazard for a major part of the population in many developing countries, one of them being China. In these countries problems relating to poverty are the most important risk factors, undernourishment being the dominating reason. Number four on the list of the most serious health hazards is indoor air pollution caused by burning of coal and biomass in the households. Very high levels of soot particles occur indoors because of incomplete combustion in old-fashioned stoves and by use of low quality fuel such as sticks and twigs and straw and other waste from agriculture. This leads to an increase in a series of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. It has been pointed out in recent years that emissions due to incomplete combustion of coal and biomass can contribute considerably to climate changes

  16. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in smoke from prescribed burning and comparison with occupational exposure limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, E.; Barboni, T.; Santoni, P.-A.; Chiaramonti, N.

    2014-05-01

    Prescribed burning represents a serious threat to personnel fighting fires due to smoke inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure by foresters to smoke from prescribed burning, focusing on exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The methodology for smoke sampling was first evaluated. Potentially dangerous compounds were identified among the VOCs emitted by smoke fires at four prescribed burning plots located around Corsica. The measured mass concentrations for several toxic VOCs were generally higher than those measured in previous studies due to the experimental framework (short sampling distance between the foresters and the flame, low combustion, wet vegetation). In particular, benzene, phenol and furfural exceeded the legal short-term exposure limits published in Europe and/or the United States. Other VOCs such as toluene, ethybenzene or styrene remained below the exposure limits. In conclusion, clear and necessary recommendations were made for protection of personnel involved in fighting fires.

  17. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  18. Frailty score on admission predicts outcomes in elderly burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Kathleen S; Barsun, Alura; Pamlieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G; Sen, Soman

    2015-01-01

    With longer life expectancy, the number of burn injuries in the elderly continues to increase. Prediction of outcomes for the elderly is complicated by preinjury physical fitness and comorbid illness. The authors hypothesize that admission frailty assessment would be predictive of outcomes in the elderly burn population. Our primary aim was to determine if higher frailty scores were associated with higher risk of mortality for elderly burn patients. The secondary aims were to assess if higher frailty scores were associated with increased length of stay, increased needs for mechanical ventilation and poor discharge disposition. A 2-year retrospective chart review was performed of all admitted acute burn patients 65 years or older. Data collected included: age, gender, %TBSA of burn injury, presence of inhalation injury, in hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, ventilator days, ICU length of stay, surgical procedures, insurance status, and discharge disposition. Frailty scores were assessed from admission data and calculated using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging clinical frailty scale. A total of 89 patients met entry criteria. Mean age was 75.3 ± 8.1 years and consisted of 62 men and 27 women. Mean %TBSA was 9.6 ± 9.1% and mean frailty score (FS) was 4.5 ± 1.2. Eighty patients survived to discharge and nine died. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher FS compared to survivors (5.2 ± 1.2 vs 4.4 ± 1.2). FS were also significantly higher in patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNF) (5.34 ± 0.9) compared to those who were discharged home (4.1 ± 1.2) or to physical rehabilitation facilities (4 ± 1.5). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (B = 0.04) and discharge to SNF (B = 1.2) are independently associated with higher FS. However, survivors were independently associated with a significantly lower FS (B = -1.3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed high admission FS independently increased the risk of

  19. HYPOGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED POST-BURN MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kraft, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of hypoglycemia after burn injury and whether hypoglycemia is associated with increased post-burn morbidity and mortality. Design Cohort analysis. Setting Academic pediatric burn hospital. Patients This analysis included 760 pediatric burn patients, who were stratified according the number of hypoglycemic episodes (<60 mg/dl glucose) they experienced while in the intensive care unit. Clinical outcomes as well as metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed during the first 60 days post admission. Patients with one or more hypoglycemic events were matched with patients not experiencing any event using propensity score matching, and outcomes and biomarker expression were compared between groups. Measurements and main results Eighty-four patients had one episode of hypoglycemia, 108 patients had two or more episodes of hypoglycemia, and 568 patients never experienced hypoglycemia. Patients with one or more hypoglycemic episodes had longer hospitalization as well as more frequent infections, sepsis, multiple organ failure (MOF), and death (p<0.05). The 166 propensity score-matched patients with one or more hypoglycemic events had greater inflammatory and metabolic responses, incidence of sepsis, MOF, and mortality than burn patients without hypoglycemic (p<0.05). Conclusions Hypoglycemic episodes correlate with injury severity and inhalation injury. When adjusted for injury severity, hypoglycemia is associated with significantly higher post-burn morbidity and mortality. PMID:24368343

  20. Proteomics Improves the Prediction of Burns Mortality: Results from Regression Spline Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Ju, Hyunsu; Spratt, Heidi; Victor, Sundar; Jeschke, Marc G.; Hegde, Sachin; Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Brasier, Allan R.; Herndon, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of mortality in severely burned patients remains unreliable. Although clinical covariates and plasma protein abundance have been used with varying degrees of success, the triad of burn size, inhalation injury, and age remains the most reliable predictor. We investigated the effect of combining proteomics variables with these three clinical covariates on prediction of mortality in burned children. Serum samples were collected from 330 burned children (burns covering >25% of the total body surface area) between admission and the time of the first operation for clinical chemistry analyses and proteomic assays of cytokines. Principal component analysis revealed that serum protein abundance and the clinical covariates each provided independent information regarding patient survival. To determine whether combining proteomics with clinical variables improves prediction of patient mortality, we used multivariate adaptive regression splines, since the relationships between analytes and mortality were not linear. Combining these factors increased overall outcome prediction accuracy from 52% to 81% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from 0.82 to 0.95. Thus, the predictive accuracy of burns mortality is substantially improved by combining protein abundance information with clinical covariates in a multivariate adaptive regression splines classifier, a model currently being validated in a prospective study. PMID:22686201

  1. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  2. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity to...... normal when introduced for moderately severe asthma. This finding highlights the need to improve treatment strategy in pediatric asthma. The natural progression of persistent asthma may lead to loss of lung function and chronic bronchial hyperreactivity for children and adults. There is evidence to...... suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas this...

  3. [Inhaled corticosteroids: Which regimens are appropriate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini-Chami, L; Piccini-Bailly, C; Albertini, M

    2016-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are the cornerstone of asthma management. Inhaled corticosteroid regimens differ slightly in various international guidelines on asthma management but are based on the principles of continuous treatment and titration to the lowest effective dose. Several recent studies, nevertheless, appear to demonstrate the potential value of preemptive or "pro re nata" regimens in infants and children. These studies were included in GINA 2015 for children 5 years of age and younger in whom discontinuous treatment is proposed as a second-line option. Should we change our practices after a critical reading of these studies? PMID:27133372

  4. Fine particle mass from the Diskus inhaler and Turbuhaler inhaler in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B; Sumby, B S;

    1998-01-01

    in an inhalation profile simulator to assess drug delivery from both a Diskus inhaler and a Turbuhaler inhaler, and in particular to assess the proportion of drug emitted in the coarse (>4.7 microm) and fine (... represents the changes in flow rate over time through the device than the constant flow rate usually applied with an impactor alone. The aerosol cloud was released before the peak inspiratory effort had been achieved and accordingly the early part and not the peak of the inspiratory performance...... is a determinant of the quality of the aerosol. The mean (SD) amount of drug in large particles (>4.7 microm), fine particles (

  5. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  6. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  7. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  8. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  9. From dust to dose: Effects of forest disturbance on increased inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecosystem disturbances that remove vegetation and disturb surface soils are major causes of excessive soil erosion and can result in accelerated transport of soils contaminated with hazardous materials. Accelerated wind erosion in disturbed lands that are contaminated is of particular concern because of potential increased inhalation exposure, yet measurements regarding these relationships are lacking. The importance of this was highlighted when, in May of 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned over roughly 30% of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), mostly in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest, and through areas with soils containing contaminants, particularly excess depleted and natural uranium. Additionally, post-fire thinning was performed in burned and unburned forests on about 25% of LANL land. The first goal of this study was to assess the potential for increased inhalation dose from uranium contaminated soils via wind-driven resuspension of soil following the Cerro Grande Fire and subsequent forest thinning. This was done through analysis of post-disturbance measurements of uranium air concentrations and their relationships with wind velocity and seasonal vegetation cover. We found a 14% average increase in uranium air concentrations at LANL perimeter locations after the fire, and the greatest air concentrations occurred during the months of April-June when wind velocities are highest, no snow cover, and low vegetation cover. The second goal was to develop a methodology to assess the relative contribution of each disturbance type towards increasing public and worker exposure to these resuspended soils. Measurements of wind-driven dust flux in severely burned, moderately burned, thinned, and unburned/unthinned forest areas were used to assess horizontal dust flux (HDF) in these areas. Using empirically derived relationships between measurements of HDF and respirible dust, coupled with onsite uranium soil concentrations, we estimate relative increases in

  10. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  11. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  12. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  13. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  14. Clinical application of radioaerosol studies - pulmonary embolism, inhalation burns and glue-sniffers and COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium together form the alveolar capillary membrane. Fluid exchange occurs across this membrane, and is dependent on intravascular and interstitial hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, and on permeability of this membrane. Damage to either the alveolar or capillary component can result in a high permeability pulmonary oedema, even though the alveolar epithelium forms an extremely tight membrane which is ten times less permeable than the capillary endothelium. Nuclear medicine methods can be used to observe changes in integrity of pulmonary capillary endothelium (with first pass dual-indicator dilution technique using successive injections of radiotracer), and of alveolar epithelium, and it is important that the damage should be detected before patients develop clinical pulmonary oedema so that intensive therapy can be instituted early. We have used 99mTc DTPA radioaerosol to measure alteration in pulmonary epithelial permeability and to image the distribution of ventilation in normal and some pathological states. In some clinical studies Tc-99m (tin) colloid radioaerosol has been used to obtain the ventilation images

  15. Pneumonitis after Inhalation of Mercury Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Glezos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man presented to hospital with pneumonia but only after discharge from hospital did he admit to deliberate prior inhalation of mercury. His pulmonary involvement appeared to resolve almost completely with antibiotics and supportive care. Nevertheless, persisting elevated urinary excretion of mercury required two courses of chelation therapy. No serious systemic sequelae were observed.

  16. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  17. Report of the panel on inhaled actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some topics discussed are as follows: assessment of risks to man of inhaling actinides; use of estimates for developing protection standards; epidemiology of lung cancer in exposed human populations; development of respiratory tract models; and effects in animals: dose- and effect-modifying factors

  18. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    1995-01-01

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of antibi

  19. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ordoñez-Librado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice a week for five months. Before Mn exposure, animals were trained to perform motor function tests and were evaluated each week after the exposure. By the end of Mn exposure, 10 mice were orally treated with 7.5 mg/kg L-DOPA. After 5 months of Mn mixture inhalation, striatal dopamine content decreased 71%, the SNc showed important reduction in the number of TH-immunopositive neurons, mice developed akinesia, postural instability, and action tremor; these motor alterations were reverted with L-DOPA treatment. Our data provide evidence that Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation produces similar morphological, neurochemical, and behavioral alterations to those observed in PD providing a useful experimental model for the study of this neurodegenerative disease.

  20. THE METABOLISM OF NALED INHALED BY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naled (Dibrom) was prepared with a (14)carbon label in the 1-ethyl position. The labeled compound was administered in appropriate formulation vehicles to female rats by the inhalation, oral or intraperitoneal routes. Treated animals were either placed in metabolism cages and thei...

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY OF INHALED METHANOL IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Weiss and his colleagues conducted a controlled series of experiments in which they exposed pregnant rats and their newborn offspring to 4,500 parts per million (ppm) methanol by inhalation, and then submitted them to tests of behavioral function. Exposure to 4,500...

  2. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ... 4. Gathering and Using Data 4A. Focus On: Data Collection Choices 4B. Focus on Using Mixed Methods 5. ...

  4. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Ibrahim, Rahul Verma, Lucila Garcia-ContrerasDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided.Keywords: pulmonary delivery, asthma, nebulizers, metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler

  5. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas this...

  6. Inhaled histamine increases human lung mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histamine, a mediator of airways constriction, alters ciliary beat frequency, bronchial mucus production, and epithelial ion transport; and in dogs, increases mucociliary transport. To evaluate the effect of inhaled histamine on human tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance, the authors measured lung mucociliary clearance (LMC) and tracheal mucociliary transport rate (TMTR) in 5 healthy, nonsmoking subjects in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The concentration of inhaled histamine which produced a 20% fall in FEV1 was established for each subject. On a separate day the subjects inhaled a 9 μm MMAD /sup 99m/Tc-Fe2O3 aerosol. LMC and TMTR were then measured for 2.5h using a gamma camera and a tracheal multidetector probe. Simultaneously, the subjects were challenged every 26 +/- 4 min with either PBS or histamine in PBS. The Fe2O3 retained after 24h for histamine (14.4 +/- 7.6%) and PBS studies (13.1 +/- 8.6%) indicated no difference in deposition of Fe2O3 (ANOVA). Fe2O3 clearance at 30 min was increased in the histamine studies (61 +/- 21% compared to the PBS studies (44 +/- 29%; p < 0.02, ANOVA)). TMTR was also increased with histamine (7.6 +/- 3.4 mm/min) compared to PBS (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm/min; p < 0.001, ANOVA). Results indicate an acute stimulatory effect of inhaled histamine on mucous transport in humans

  7. Particle engineering of materials for oral inhalation by dry powder inhalers. II - sodium cromoglicate

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Anne Marie; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen,

    2011-01-01

    Sodium cromoglicate is an antiasthmatic and antiallergenic drug used in inhalation therapy and commonly administered by a dry powder inhaler. In the present study we sought to examine the feasibility of producing nanoporous microparticles (NPMPs) of this hydrophilic material by adaptation of a spray drying process previously applied to hydrophobic drugs, and to examine the physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of the spray dried particles in comparison to a commercial product....

  8. The Impact of Sugar Cane–Burning Emissions on the Respiratory System of Children and the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Cançado, José E.D.; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Luiz A A Pereira; Lara, Luciene B.L.S.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Arbex, Marcos A.; Braga, Alfesio L.F.; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of emissions from burning sugar cane on the respiratory system during almost 1 year in the city of Piracicaba in southeast Brazil. From April 1997 through March 1998, samples of inhalable particles were collected, separated into fine and coarse particulate mode, and analyzed for black carbon and tracer elements. At the same time, we examined daily records of children ( 64 years of age) admitted to the hospital because of respir...

  9. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  10. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  11. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan Çizmeci; Samet Vasfi Kuvat

    2011-01-01

    Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are generea...

  12. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  13. Source apportionment of mass concentration and inhalation risk with long-term ambient PCDD/Fs measurements in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chi-Chang; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chio, Chia-Pin; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Chen, Lung-Wen A; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2016-11-01

    This study applies a receptor model to quantify source contributions to ambient concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and inhalation cancer risk in Taipei from 2003 through 2009. Seventeen PCDD/F congeners were used in the effective variance solution to the Chemical Mass Balance equations to estimate source-specific mass contributions and inhalation risks. The average total PCDD/F concentration was 0.611pg/Nm(3) (0.036pg I-TEQ/Nm(3)). Traffic emissions contributed the most to the PCDD/F concentration (55.7%), followed by waste incinerators (18.6%) and joss stick burning (9.6%). For the inhalation cancer risk, the average was 1.1×10(-6) with traffic, waste incinerators, and joss paper burning as the main contributors (67.3%, 19.4%, and 6.3%, respectively). The mass and risk contributions of waste incinerators decreased significantly from 2003 to 2009 and were higher at downwind sites than at upwind sites. Reducing PCDD/F emissions from traffic and waste incinerators would provide the greatest health benefit. Policies that reduce the uncontrolled burning of joss stick and joss paper also need to be implemented. PMID:27267692

  14. Effects, side effects and plasma concentrations of terbutaline in adult asthmatics after inhaling from a dry powder inhaler device at different inhalation flows and volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, T; Scharling, B; Skovsted, B; Heinig, J H

    1992-04-01

    1. The efficacy of a metered dose inhaler (MDI) is highly dependent on the mode of inhalation. The relatively high built-in resistance in the Turbohaler (TBH), a new dry powder inhaler device for inhalation of terbutaline sulphate and budesonide, reduces the flow during inhalation. We compared five different modes of inhalation using the terbutaline TBH in 10 stable asthmatic subjects, who were tested on 5 consecutive days. 2. Measurement of 10 different parameters of pulmonary function indicated that the full bronchodilatory effect of an inhaled dose was already achieved at 5 min after the inhalation. Inspiratory flows through the TBH varying from 34 to 88 l min-1 resulted in comparable bronchodilation, and a previous exhalation to residual volume proved of no value. However, if, prior to inhalation, an exhalation through the device was performed, a substantially reduced effect was seen. 3. Reducing the inspiratory flow to approximately 34 l min-1 produced slightly reduced side effects and lower plasma terbutaline concentrations. PMID:1576070

  15. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  16. Prediction of Mortality in Pediatric Burn Injuries: R-Baux Score to Be Applied in Children (Pediatrics-Baux Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: R-Baux score has obtained an acceptable validity and accuracy in predicting burn-related mortality. However, its usage and efficacy among pediatric burn patients has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to employ Pediatrics-Baux (P-Buax score as modified version of R-Baux score in these patients to determine how it could be applicable in this population.Methods: Through a prospective study, 870 pediatric burn patients were enrolled. P-Baux and R-Baux scores were calculated for each patient and they were categorized to different groups according to these scores. Mortality and further death probability were measured for each subject and then analyzed by logistic regression model to reveal how they change in relation with age in pediatric burn patients.Findings: R-Baux score for 95% probability of death revealed a mean of 73 among patients of this study. Also P-Baux score was measured in these patients with inhalation injury which showed to be 55 for 95% probability of death. Results showed that age had a positive prognostic value in contrast to the negative prognostic value of Total Body Surface Area (TBSA and inhalation injury.Conclusion: Our analysis showed that in children under the age of 15 years, age has a positive prognostic value while TBSA and inhalation injuries had negative prognostic values in relation to mortality. Hence, in contrast to the adult population, burn injury related mortality may be predicted by modified R-Baux score as (TBSA - age + [18×R] which could be named as P-Baux score.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  18. Waste: energy to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated, transformed into fuel or a gas, waste is a versatile source of energy. It is as once a problem and a resource that is increasingly the focus of green policies. According to the 2009 World Waste Survey, between 3.4 and 4 billion tons of waste are produced each year worldwide. Leading the pack is China, with 300 million tons produced in 2005, followed closely by the United States, with 238 million tons. But the United States wins the per capita count with 760 kg of waste produced per year per inhabitant; Australia comes in second. In Europe, 500 kg of waste is produced per capita per year for a total of 2 billion tons generated annually, and a growth rate of 10% in ten years' time. Between 2/3 and 3/4 of these waste materials are sorted, and a portion of them is recycled. The rest is either carted away to a dumping ground, or incinerated. But this waste is primarily domestic, and still contains energy, energy that can be recovered. The added bonus is two-fold: an additional source of energy is created by transforming waste, called waste-to- wheel or waste-to-energy (WTE), and the decomposition of organic waste does not give off GHGs. Two ways are known today to transform wastes into energy: the thermal process, where heat is extracted from the waste (and sometimes converted into electricity), and the non-thermal process, which comprises collecting energy in a chemical form (biogas, biofuel). Both technologies depend on the type of waste to be treated: plastic materials, household refuse, fermentable elements, sludge residue from sewage treatment plants, agricultural waste, forestry industry waste, etc. The thermal process is by far the most widely employed. 74% of waste is incinerated in Japan, and around 30 to 55% in most European countries. The second process does not burn waste and is better suited to wet and organic matter, i.e., to waste that contains quantities of biomass: fermentable waste, sludge, agricultural waste and the gas given off at

  19. Acute myocardial involvement after heroin inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Karoli; Fatima, J.; Pushker Singh; Kazmi, Khursheed I.

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the illicit drugs cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis have been studied and documented well to cause myocardial infarction by different mechanisms but there is very sparse data available on myocardial involvement after heroin abuse. We report a young man who developed acute myocardial injury after heroin inhalation and alcohol binge drinking. Heroin induced cardio toxic effect and vasospasm compounded by alcohol were suspected to be the cause of this.

  20. Inhalation Anthrax: Dose Response and Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Margaret E.; Thran, Brandolyn; Morse, Stephen S.; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Massulik, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    The notion that inhalation of a single Bacillus anthracis spore is fatal has become entrenched nearly to the point of urban legend, in part because of incomplete articulation of the scientific basis for microbial risk assessment, particularly dose-response assessment. Risk analysis (ie, risk assessment, risk communication, risk management) necessitates transparency: distinguishing scientific facts, hypotheses, judgments, biases in interpretations, and potential misinformation. The difficulty ...

  1. Acute myocardial involvement after heroin inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Karoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the illicit drugs cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis have been studied and documented well to cause myocardial infarction by different mechanisms but there is very sparse data available on myocardial involvement after heroin abuse. We report a young man who developed acute myocardial injury after heroin inhalation and alcohol binge drinking. Heroin induced cardio toxic effect and vasospasm compounded by alcohol were suspected to be the cause of this.

  2. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M.; Verma R; Garcia-Contreras L

    2015-01-01

    Mariam Ibrahim, Rahul Verma, Lucila Garcia-ContrerasDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler d...

  3. Decorporation of inhaled actinides by chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes recent work in NRPB laboratories that has identified some of the factors influencing the behaviour of plutonium, americium and curium compounds in the body after inhalation, together with a number of experimental approaches that are being developed to optimise their treatment with DTPA. It is concluded that the most effective treatment has yet to be developed, but progress must depend on a better understanding of the factors governing the transport of actinides in the body. It cannot be assumed that because the inhaled material is readily translocated to blood, that treatment regimens with Ca-DTPA based solely on previous understanding of the metabolic fate of soluble actinide complexes will be successful. In fact, depending on the nature of the material involved in the accident, inhalation alone or combined with prolonged infusion of DTPA may be more effective than the periodic intravenous injections of the chelating agent alone. For poorly transportable materials such as insoluble plutonium-239 dioxide, chelation treatment remains essentially ineffective. (U.K.)

  4. Inhalation dose assessment for Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose assessments for the inhalation of artificial radionuclides are presented for all types of contaminated areas at Maralinga and Emu. These enable Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE), to be estimated by scaling at any area of interest where activity concentrations are known. In the case of Aborigines, these dose are estimated assuming respirable dust loadings of 1 mg/m3 for adults and 1.5 mg/m3 for children and infants. Details of the calculations are presented in the appendix. The model of the respiratory system used in this assessment is that described in Interantional Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 (ICRP, 1979a). With the exception of Kuli, which is contaminated with uranium, at all other sites it is only the inhalation of plutonium and americium that contributes significantly to the dose, and of these 239Pu is the largest contributor. Therefore, considering the long half lives of the radionuclides concerned, it appears that the inhalation problems highlighted by this dose assessment will not diminish significantly within any reasonable period of time and hence management strategies must be developed to deal with such problems. 32 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  6. Lesão por inalação de fumaça Smoke inhalation injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A lesão inalatória é hoje a principal causa de morte nos pacientes queimados, motivo pelo qual se justifica o grande número de estudos publicados sobre o assunto. Os mecanismos envolvidos na gênese da lesão inalatória envolvem tanto os fatores de ação local quanto os de ação sistêmica, o que acaba por aumentar muito as repercussões da lesão. Atualmente, buscam-se ferramentas que permitam o diagnóstico cada vez mais precoce da lesão inalatória e ainda estratégias de tratamento que minimizem as conseqüências da lesão já instalada. Esta revisão aborda os mecanismos fisiopatológicos, os métodos diagnósticos e as estratégias de tratamento dos pacientes vítimas de lesão inalatória. Ressalta ainda as perspectivas terapêuticas em desenvolvimento.Inhalation injury is the main cause of death in burn patients and has therefore, understandably, been the subject of numerous published studies. The pathogenesis of inhalation injury involves both local and systemic mechanisms, thereby increasing the repercussions of the injury. The search for tools that would allow earlier diagnosis of inhalation injury and for treatment strategies to lessen its deleterious effects is ongoing. In this review, we describe the physiopathological mechanisms of inhalation injury, as well as the current diagnostic tools and treatment strategies used in patients suffering from inhalation injury. We also attempt to put experimental therapeutic approaches into perspective.

  7. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  8. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  9. Epidemiology of severe burn injuries in a Tertiary Burn Centre in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Barzelighi, H.; Alaghehbandan, R.; Motevallian, A.; Alinejad, F.; Soleimanzadeh-Moghadam, S.; Sattari, M.; A R Lari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized burn patients in a tertiary burn centre in Tehran, Iran. A hospital-based cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with burn injuries was conducted in Motahari Burn and Reconstruction Center in Tehran from August to December 2010. Medical records of all hospitalized burn patients were reviewed and pertinent information was captured. A total of 135 patients with severe burns requiring hospitalizat...

  10. Children with burn injuries-assessment of trauma, neglect, violence and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Runge

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burns are an important cause of injury to young children, being the third most frequent cause of injury resulting in death behind motor vehicle accidents and drowning. Burn injuries account for the greatest length of stay of all hospital admissions for injuries and costs associated with care are substantial. The majority of burn injuries in children are scald injuries resulting from hot liquids, occurring most commonly in children aged 0-4 years. Other types of burns include electrical, chemical and intentional injury. Mechanisms of injury are often unique to children and involve exploratory behavior without the requisite comprehension of the dangers in their environment. Assessment of the burnt child includes airway, breathing and circulation stabilization, followed by assessment of the extent of the burn and head to toe examination. The standard rule of 9s for estimating total body surface area (TBSA of the burn is inaccurate for the pediatric population and modifications include utilizing the Lund and Browder chart, or the child’s palm to represent 1% TBSA. Further monitoring may include cardiac assessment, indwelling catheter insertion and evaluation of inhalation injury with or without intubation depending on the context of the injury. Risk factors and features of intentional injury should be known and sought and vital clues can be found in the history, physical examination and common patterns of presentation. Contemporary burn management is underscored by several decades of advancing medical and surgical care however, common to all injuries, it is in the area of prevention that the greatest potential to reduce the burden of these devastating occurrences exists.

  11. The effect of levamisole on mortality rate among patients with severe burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn injuries are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world and burn patients have higher chances for infection due to their decreased immune resistance. Levamisole, as an immunomodulation agent, stimulates the immune response against infection. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Motahari Burn Center, Tehran, Iran. Patients who had second- or third-degree burn with involvement of more than 50% of total body surface area (TBSA were studied. The levamisole group received levamisole tablet, 100 mg per day. Meantime, both the levamisole and control groups received the standard therapy of the Burn Center, based on a standard protocol. Then, the outcome of the patients was evaluated. Results: 237 patients entered the study. After excluding 42 patients with inhalation injury, electrical and chemical burns, and the patients who died in the first 72 h, 195 patients remained in the study, including 110 patients in the control group and 85 in the treatment group. The mean age of all patients (between 13 to 64 years was 33.29 ± 11.39 years (Mean ± SD, and it was 33.86 ± 11.45 years in the control group and 32.57 ± 11.32 years in the treatment group. The mean percentage of TBSA burn was 64.50 ± 14.34 and 68.58 ± 14.55 for the levamisole and control groups, respectively, with the range of 50-100% and 50-95% TBSA. The mortality rate was 68 (61.8% patients in the control group and 50 (58.8% patients in the treatment group (P = 0.8. Conclusion: According to this study, there was no significant relationship between improvement of mortality and levamisole consumption.

  12. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  13. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; Werf, van der G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    [1] In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires ofte

  14. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m(3)/min), and t is the sampling

  15. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  16. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing

  17. Corpus callosum size and shape alterations in adolescent inhalant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Michael; Lubman, Dan I; Walterfang, Mark; Barton, Sarah; Reutens, David; Wood, Amanda; Yücel, Murat

    2013-09-01

    Inhalants, frequently abused during adolescence, are neurotoxic to white matter. We investigated the impact of inhalant misuse on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC), the largest white matter bundle in the brain, in an adolescent sample of inhalant users [n = 14; mean age = 17.3; standard deviation (SD) = 1.7], cannabis users (n = 11; mean age = 19.7; SD = 1.7) and community controls (n = 9; mean age = 19.5; SD = 2.6). We identified significant morphological differences in the CC among inhalant users compared with community controls. There were no morphological differences between inhalant and cannabis users. Our findings may represent the early stages of neurobiological damage associated with chronic inhalant misuse. PMID:21955104

  18. Inhalant abuse by adolescents: A new challenge for Indian physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Debasish

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular ′high′ that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.

  19. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  20. Quantification of the volatile organic compounds in the smoke from prescribed burning and comparison with the occupational exposure limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, T.; Santoni, P.-A.

    2013-11-01

    Prescribed burning represents a serious threat to the personnel fighting fires because of smoke inhalation. This study aims to increase the knowledge about foresters exposure to the prescribed burning smoke by focusing on exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We initially assessed the methodology for smoke sampling. Then, we identified potentially dangerous molecules among the VOCs identified at 4 prescribed burning sites located around Corsica. The values measured were very high, exceeding the exposure limits, particularly for benzene, phenol, and furfural, whose concentrations were above short-term exposure limit (STEL) values. In conclusion, obvious but necessary recommendations were made for the protection of the personnel involved in fighting fires on a professional basis.

  1. Quantification of the volatile organic compounds in the smoke from prescribed burning and comparison with the occupational exposure limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barboni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning represents a serious threat to the personnel fighting fires because of smoke inhalation. This study aims to increase the knowledge about foresters exposure to the prescribed burning smoke by focusing on exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. We initially assessed the methodology for smoke sampling. Then, we identified potentially dangerous molecules among the VOCs identified at 4 prescribed burning sites located around Corsica. The values measured were very high, exceeding the exposure limits, particularly for benzene, phenol, and furfural, whose concentrations were above short-term exposure limit (STEL values. In conclusion, obvious but necessary recommendations were made for the protection of the personnel involved in fighting fires on a professional basis.

  2. Defence System of Respiratory Tract and Clearence of Inhalation Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nesrin Ocal

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that inhaled urban air contains many particles and gases. On the other hand, the anesthetic agents used in respiratory diseases comprise pharmaceutical particles. Deposition and cleaning processes of both the inhaled foreign particles and gases from room air, and inhalation agents from respiratory tract are very important clinically. These processes are carried out by the defense mechanisms of the respiratory system. In this review, the defence system of respiratory tract and...

  3. Guidelines for the safe administration of inhaled nitric oxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, O I; Celermajer, D S; Deanfield, J. E.; MacRae, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator, potentially useful in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. High doses of inhaled NO and its oxidative product nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may cause acute lung injury. Using a standard infant ventilator, ventilator circuit and test lung, an administration and monitoring strategy has been defined for inhaled NO and these observations validated in eight ventilated infants. In 90% oxygen, doses of in...

  4. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  5. To Burn or not to Burn: Making the Burning of Chocolate Hills of Bohol, Philippines Carbon Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Nathaniel T. Bantayan; Margaret M Calderon; Flocencia B. Pulhin; Canesio D. Predo; Rose Ann C. Baruga

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen as environmentally unsound and inconsistent with existing environmental laws. The study estimated the carbon loss from burning and compared the carbon loss value with the tourism income ...

  6. Chorioretinal burn: body temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiance thresholds for chorioretinal damage in rhesus monkeys vary linearly with core temperatures between 34 and 390C. Damage results from the combined thermal effects of retinal irradiation and the body temperature. Visible damage is calculated to occur at a tissue temperature of 42.50C. Fever increases the retina's susceptibility to burns from the sun, lasers, and other radiant energy sources

  7. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  8. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  9. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome: Present perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of obvious visible mucosal lesions. Patient presenting with the burning mouth sensation or pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice which poses a challenge to the treating clinician. Its exact etiology remains unknown which probably has multifactorial origin. It often affects middle or old age women and it may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Objective: To review the current concepts regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Methods and methodology: A literature review was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Google scholar about the burning mouth syndrome and the representative articles were selected and reviewed. Conclusion: There is no universal consensus regarding diagnosis, etiology and treatment of BMS. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion which probably has multifactorial origin. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments are available but it is difficult to achieve curative treatment so reassurance is of great importance while treating the patients. Combination of cognitive behavioral therapy, alpha lipoic acid and/or clonazepam has shown promising results.

  11. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  12. Adolescent inhalant use prevention, assessment, and treatment: A literature synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; O'Brien, Casey; Schapp, Salena

    2016-05-01

    Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies. Psychoeducation, skills training, and environmental supply reduction are helpful strategies for preventing adolescent inhalant use, while parent and adolescent self-report as well as physician report of medical signs and symptoms can aid in assessment and diagnosis. Although research has only begun to explore the treatment of inhalant use, preliminary findings suggest that a multimodal approach involving individual counselling (i.e., CBT brief intervention), family therapy, and activity and engagement programs is the first-line treatment, with residential treatment programs indicated for more severe presentations. The limited nature of treatments developed specifically for inhalant use combined with high prevalence rates and potential for significant impairment within the adolescent population indicate the need for further research. Research should focus on understanding the social context of use, establishing the efficacy of current adolescent substance use treatments adapted for inhalant use, and exploring long-term outcomes. PMID:26969125

  13. Effect of inhaled yttrium-90 in fused clay particles on the pulmonary clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 90Y inhaled in fused clay particles on the pulmonary clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aurcus in mice was investigated to provide an improved understanding of the influence of localized irradiation from inhaled radionuclides on infectious processes. Pulmonary clearance of inhaled S. aurcus was suppressed in mice with initial lung burdens of 20 μCi 90Y or greater at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after inhalation exposure to 90Y. Suppressed clearance rates were accompanied by radiation-induced lifespan shortening, retarded increases in average body wieght, suppression of blood lymphocyte count, and pulmonary lesions. Only equivocal suppression of bacterial clearance was observed in mice with initial lung burdens of less than 20 μCi 90Y that were tested from 1 through 52 weeks after inhalation exposure. An initial lung burden of 1 μCi 90Y was estimated to result in 400 rad to the lung delivered within 24 days after exposure

  14. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  15. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shohei Ohgi; Shouzhi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Sc...

  16. Clinical profile of burn injured patients

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathiou, Flora; Svardagalou, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Burn injury is a severe systemic disease with social implications. Aim: The recording of patient’s clinical profile with burn injury worldwide and in Greece, the outcome and impact of the injury on the patient’s mental health and social, professional and family life. Methods: There were collected surveys and reports concerned burn victims, men and women, teenagers and adults of all types and severities of burns in the world and in Greece. The inf...

  17. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Fahimi; H. Hajimehdipoor; Abdollahi, M.; S.A. Mortazavi

    2015-01-01

    Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended trea...

  18. A new multiple dose powder inhaler, (Turbuhaler), compared with a pressurized inhaler in a study of terbutaline in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, G; Gruvstad, E; Ståhl, E

    1988-08-01

    Twelve adult asthmatic patients participated in an open, randomized, cross-over comparison between cumulatively increasing doses of terbutaline sulphate administered via the multiple dose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) or via a pressurized inhaler. Turbuhaler and the pressurized inhaler showed equipotency both with respect to bronchodilatation and side effects. Both treatments produced a significant increase in pulmonary function measurements, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). No increase in pulse rate was seen with either treatment but there was an increase in tremor at higher doses with both treatments. Inhalation of beta-agonists via Turbuhaler seems to be an effective way of treating asthma. PMID:3234516

  19. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven;

    2009-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we...

  20. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis : A European consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven; Touw, Daan; Döring, Gerd; Frijlink, Henderik

    2009-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we revie

  1. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support.

  2. Aggregation of erythrocytes in burn disease

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Grigory Y; Egorihina, Marpha N

    2011-01-01

    The manuscript describes experiments designed to examine factors that influence erythrocytes aggregation within the blood of burn patients. Results showed that the rate and degree of erythrocytes aggregation increased significantly in burn patients, and what is especially unfavorable for microcirculation, erythrocytes disaggregation decreased. We show that normalization of blood plasma contents completely restores erythrocytes aggregation and disaggregation of burn patients. The rate and degr...

  3. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  5. Biomass burning aerosol in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, L. L. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A detailed aerosol source apportionment study has been performed in three sites in State of São Paulo with different land-use: sugarcane crops, cattle, urban area and forest. During the summer and winter, the period when sugarcane is burned every year, PM10 has been sampled during day and night in a period of 48 hours, using stacked filters units collecting fine and coarse particulate mode, providing mass, BC and elemental concentration for each aerosol mode. The concentrations of around 20 elements were determined using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Ion chromatography was used to determine up to 11 water-soluble ion components. Highest levels of pollutants have been measured around the sugarcane crops, where the annual PM10 concentration (57.1"45.2µgm-3) exceeds of the other urban and industrialized areas and the BC concentration is significantly higher during the sugarcane burning period (4.2"2.2 µgm-3) than the rest of the year (2.0"1.0 µgm-3). The main sources of the aerosol are correlated to the land cover. Factor and cluster analysis showed the main source int the State of São Paulo is biomass burning, followed by soil dust, biogenic emissions and industrial emissions. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed the sugarcane burning and agricultural practices are the main source of inhalable particulate, possibly altering the aerosol concentration in some places of the State of São Paulo.

  6. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  7. PROCESS VALIDATION OF DRY POWDER INHALERS (GENERALIZED APPROACH, THEORY AND PRACTICES): A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pandita Rachna; Rana A. C.; Seth Nimrata; Bala Rajni

    2011-01-01

    Drugs can be delivered to the lungs by inhalation, oral, parenteral routes. Different types of devices such as pressurised metered dose inhalers (p-MDI's), nebulizers or dry powder inhalers (DPI's) are used for the pulmonary delivery of drugs .This present review article focus on the process validation of dry powder inhalers. Dry powder inhaler is a device that deliver medication to the lungs in the form of dry powder. Validation of dry powder inhaler is done to ensure that a specific manufac...

  8. Trace elements in atmospheric aerosols from background regions and biomass burning from the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol particles from the tropical rain forest and from savannah biomass burning were collected in several experiments in the Amazon Basin. The size distribution of atmospheric trace elements was measured under both background and biomass burning conditions. Sampling from aircraft was performed over a large area of the Amazon Basin in August/September 1991. The aerosol mass concentration, black carbon and trace element concentrations were determined for fine and coarse aerosol particles. Particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure the concentrations of up to 22 elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. During the dry season, when most of the biomass burning occurs, the concentration of inhalable particles exceeds 300 μg/m3 in regions far from the direct influence of emissions from biomass burning. Large amounts of fine particles are injected into the atmosphere, where they can travel over long distances. These particles are rich in K, P, S, Ca, Mg, Cl, Si, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and other trace elements. The emissions of trace elements and heavy metals into the global atmosphere owing to biomass burning are very significant, but are currently not considered in global atmospheric heavy metal inventories. Several essential nutrients, such as P, K, S and others, are transported into the atmosphere as a result of biomass burning processes. Most of the particles are water soluble and can be active as cloud condensation nuclei, with the potential to change the cloud formation mechanisms in the Amazon Basin and other regions of the planet. 22 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  10. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  11. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries t...

  12. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  13. Burns related to sunbed use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S J; Slattery, M A; Drew, P J

    2010-09-01

    The quest for a year round tan has led to an increase in the use of artificial tanning devices, namely sunbeds. There has been much debate in the press recently regarding the dangers of sunbed use and calls for tighter regulation of the industry, particularly the licensing of unmanned tanning salons. The dangers of sunbed use have long been recognised and the body of evidence linking sunbed use to skin malignancy is growing, in fact this month the Lancet published a review from the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying UV emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. At the Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery we noticed a rise in the number of patients presenting with burns related to sunbed use and present our data surrounding this injury over the last 6 years. PMID:20171016

  14. Emitted dose and lung deposition of inhaled terbutaline from Turbuhaler at different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2010-05-01

    Turbuhaler has a very high resistance hence patient inhalation flow when using it would be low. The total emitted dose (TED) of 500microg terbutaline sulphate from a Bricanyl Turbuhaler was determined using a range of inhalation flows (10-60L min(-1)) with inhalation volume of 2 and 4L using a DPI sampling apparatus after one and two inhalations. The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of terbutaline from Bricanyl Turbuhaler when used by healthy subjects and COPD patients were determined after one and two inhalations at slow and fast inhalation flows using a novel urinary terbutaline pharmacokinetic method. The TED resulted from the one and two inhalations increased significantly (p<0.05) with the increase of the inhalation flow at both 2 and 4L inhalation volumes. The relative lung and systemic bioavailability after one inhalation at fast inhalation flow were significantly higher (p<0.01) than at slow inhalation flow in both healthy subjects and patients. Also the healthy subjects results were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the COPD patients after one inhalation. However after two inhalations there was no significant difference between slow and fast inhalation flow or healthy subjects and COPD patients. Hence it is essential to inhale twice and as deep and hard as possible from each dose of Turbuhaler for patients with low inspiratory flow and limited inhalation volume as they may not receive much benefit from one inhalation. PMID:20004090

  15. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Schlenger, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method: Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with…

  16. IMPROVED STREET SWEEPERS FOR CONTROLLING URBAN INHALABLE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an experimental program to develop design modifications that can be used to improve the ability of municipal street sweepers to remove inhalable dust particles from streets. (Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban inhalable particu...

  17. Inhaled Anesthetic Potency in Aged Alzheimer Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Shannon L.; Caltagarone, Breanna M.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Kelz, Max B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of elderly patients with frank or incipient Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requiring surgery is growing as the population ages. General anesthesia may exacerbate symptoms of and the pathology underlying AD, so minimizing anesthetic exposure may be important. This requires knowledge of whether the continuing AD pathogenesis alters anesthetic potency. METHODS We determined the induction potency and emergence time for isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane using the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration for loss of righting reflex as an end point in 12- to 14-mo-old triple transgenic Alzheimer (3xTgAD) mice and wild type C57BL6 controls. 3xTgAD mice model AD by harboring three distinct mutations: the APPSwe, Tau, and PS1 human transgenes, each of which has been associated with familial forms of human AD. RESULTS The 3xTgAD mice exhibited mild resistance (from 8% to 30%) to volatile anesthetics but displayed indistinguishable emergence patterns from all three inhaled anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS These results show that the genetic vulnerabilities and neuropathology associated with AD produce a small but significant decrease in sensitivity to the hypnotic actions of three inhaled anesthetics. Emergence times were not altered. PMID:19820240

  18. Hematologic effects of inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed, by inhalation, 5 to 11 years ago, to aerosols of 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4, at six dose levels resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Translocation of the plutonium to extrapulmonary sites was related to the physical-chemical characteristics of the plutonium compound. The highly insoluble 239PuO2 was retained primarily in the lung and associated lymph nodes, whereas 239Pu(NO3)4 was much more soluble and translocated relatively rapidly to the skeleton and other extrapulmonary tissues. The 238PuO2 was intermediate in solubility and translocation characteristics. The hematologic effects of plutonium inhalation were most pronounced on lymphocyte populations. Evidence suggests that these effects result from irradiation of lymphocytes via the pulmonary lymph nodes with insoluble 239PuO2, and via these same lymph nodes, extrapulmonary lymph nodes, and bone marrow lymphocytes with the more soluble forms, i.e., 238PuO2 and 239Pu(NO3)4. There is no evidence suggesting that these exposures increase the risk of developing myeloid or lymphoid neoplasia. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Effect of inhaled steroids on laryngeal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Mahfuz; Ekin, Selami; Ucler, Rıfkı; Arısoy, Ahmet; Bayram, Yasemin; Yalınkılıç, Abdulaziz; Bozan, Nazım; Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions As is known, this study is the first study to evaluate the effect of inhaled steroids on laryngeal microflora. The data support that ICS usage causes changes in the larynx microflora. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the alteration in larynx microbial flora of the patients treated with ICS comparing the culture results of a control group. In addition, laryngeal microflora was compared to the smears obtained from the vallecula and pharynx. Materials and methods The study included 39 patients (mean age = 45.56 ± 12.76 years) who had been using a corticosteroid inhaler and control group consisting of 27 persons (mean age = 43.07 ± 13.23 years). Culture samples were obtained from the pharynx, larynx, and vallecula in the patient and control groups, and they were evaluated in the microbiology laboratory. Obtained culture results were named by the same microbiologist according to the basic microorganism classification method. Results Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus viridians (VGS) and candida albicans were detected to grow significantly more in the patient group in all three anatomic localizations compared to the control group. Neisseria spp, basillus spp, and Non-viridans alpha-hemolytic streptococcus were detected to grow significantly more in the control group in all three anatomic localizations compared to the patient group. PMID:26901427

  20. Inhalational anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hönemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the inhalation of anaesthesia use of low fresh gas flow (0.35-1 L/min has some important advantages. There are three areas of benefit: pulmonary - anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow improves the dynamics of inhaled anaesthesia gas, increases mucociliary clearance, maintains body temperature and reduces water loss. Economic - reduction of anaesthesia gas consumption resulting in significant savings of > 75% and Ecological - reduction in nitrous oxide consumption, which is an important ozone-depleting and heat-trapping greenhouse gas that is emitted. Nevertheless, anaesthesia with high fresh gas flows of 2-6 L/min is still performed, a technique in which rebreathing is practically negligible. This special article describes the clinical use of conventional plenum vaporizers, connected to the fresh gas supply to easily perform low (1 L/min, minimal (0.5 L/min or metabolic flow anaesthesia (0.35 L/min with conventional Primus Draeger® anaesthesia machines in routine clinical practice.

  1. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  2. Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 5. The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size 6, which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria 5. A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m3 whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm3) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m3). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpreand Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is

  3. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  4. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Çizmeci

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wound care in one of the most important prognostic factors in burn victims. Open wound carries risks for infection due to hypothermia, protein and fluid losses. In addition, unhealed wounds are the major risk factors for acute-subacute or chronic complications in burn patients. Although no exact algorithm exists for open wound treatment, early escarectomy or debridement together with grafting is the best option. Ointments together with topical epithelizing agents without dressings are genereally adequate for first-degree burns. However, topical antibacterial agents are usually required for second to third-degree wounds. Standart treatment for the open wound without epithelization is autologous skin grafting. In cases where more than 50% of the skin surface in affected, autologus donor skin may not be enough. For these cases, epidermal cell culture in vitro may be used. Mesenchymal stem cell applications which have immunosupressive effects should be utilized in cases where cells need to be prepared as allografts. (Journal of the Turkish Society intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 51-4

  6. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field investigations have now demonstrated that the effective, sustained combustion of spilled oil on water requires that the oil being burned be at least 2-3 mm thick. This requires a properly manipulated fire containment boom to keep the spilled oil thick enough to support combustion. There are numerous situations where controlled in-situ burning of spilled oil can be carried out quickly, safely, and effectively. Some of the more significant burn experiences, the basics of controlled burning, and several different spill scenarios in which burning could be used as an effective response technique are presented. These scenarios include offshore exploration and production operations, marine pipeline accidents, tanker accidents, and spills into rivers and streams. Environmental constraints on in-situ burning are discussed. Nomograms are included which can be used to calculate the boom capacities and burn rates. 15 refs., 10 figs

  7. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  8. Design and evaluation of a new dry powder inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rouholamini Najafabadi AH

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Three versions of a new dry powder inhaler (DPI, RG-haler, were designed using two kinds of grid inserts. Salbutamol sulfate/lactose blend (Ventolin Rotacaps® was selected as a model formulation to analyze the performance of all inhalers and compare their efficiency with three marketed devices (Rotahaler®, Spinhaler® and ISF inhalator® using the twin impinger (TI. Deposition of the drug in device was significantly (P<0.05 lower for ISF inhalator® and all kinds of RG-halers in comparison with those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The amount of drug deposited in the stage 2 and the respirable dose for RG-halers were similar to those of ISF inhalator® and significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The results suggest efficient aerosol generating capability of the RG-haler.

  9. Disposition and safety of inhaled biodegradable nanomedicines: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shadabul; Whittaker, Michael R; McIntosh, Michelle P; Pouton, Colin W; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The inhaled delivery of nanomedicines can provide a novel, non-invasive therapeutic strategy for the more localised treatment of lung-resident diseases and potentially also enable the systemic delivery of therapeutics that are otherwise administered via injection alone. However, the clinical translation of inhalable nanomedicine is being hampered by our lack of understanding about their disposition and clearance from the lungs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biodegradable nanomaterials that are currently being explored as inhalable drug delivery systems and our current understanding of their disposition within, and clearance from the lungs. The safety of biodegradable nanomaterials in the lungs is discussed and latest updates are provided on the impact of inflammation on the pulmonary pharmacokinetics of inhaled nanomaterials. Overall, the review provides an in-depth and critical assessment of the lung clearance mechanisms for inhaled biodegradable nanomedicines and highlights the opportunities and challenges for their translation into the clinic. PMID:27033834

  10. Inhaled antibiotics for gram-negative respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Ryan; Olson Blair, Brooke

    2011-10-01

    Several disease states create conditions that lead to opportunistic Gram-negative respiratory infections. Inhalation is the most direct and, until recently, underutilized means of antimicrobial drug targeting for respiratory tract infections. All approved antimicrobial agents for administration by inhalation are indicated for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. These inhaled therapies have directly contributed to a significant reduction in exacerbations and hospitalizations in this patient population over the last few decades. The relentless adaptation of pathogenic organisms to current treatment options demands that the pharmaceutical industry continue designing next-generation antimicrobial agents over 70 years after they were first introduced. Recent technological advances in inhalation devices and drug formulation techniques have broadened the scope of antimicrobial structural classes that can be investigated by inhalation; however, there is an urgent need to discover novel compounds with improved resistance profiles relative to those drugs that are already marketed. PMID:21942255

  11. Insulin inhalation--Pfizer/Nektar Therapeutics: HMR 4006, inhaled PEG-insulin--Nektar, PEGylated insulin--Nektar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Nektar Therapeutics (formerly Inhale Therapeutic Systems) has developed a pulmonary drug delivery system for insulin [HMR 4006, Exubera]. The rationale behind developing a pulmonary drug delivery system is to ensure that insulin powder is delivered deep into the lungs, where it is easily absorbed into the bloodstream, in a hand-held inhalation device. The device converts the insulin powder particles into an aerosol cloud for the patient to inhale. No propellants are used. The inhaler requires no power source and the clear chamber ensures that the patient knows immediately when all the insulin has been inhaled. Nektar Therapeutics, developers of the inhalation device and formulation process, has licensed the system to Pfizer. Under the terms of the agreement, Pfizer will lead the clinical development of inhaled insulin, while working with Nektar Therapeutics to develop the technology required for packaging the product. Pfizer has an agreement with Hoechst Marion Roussel (now Aventis Pharma) for developing, manufacturing and promoting inhaled insulin. Under the terms of the collaboration, Aventis Pharma will supply recombinant insulin to Nektar Therapeutics to process it into dry powder for incorporation into the inhaler device. Nektar Therapeutics will receive royalties on sales of inhaled insulin marketed by Pfizer and Aventis Pharma, and milestone payments and research support from Pfizer. Aventis Pharma's codename for the product is HMR 4006.Profil, a CRO in Germany, is cooperating with Pfizer/Aventis Pharma in the development of inhaled insulin. In March 2004, Pfizer and Aventis announced that the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) accepted the filing of the MAA for inhaled insulin (Exubera) for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The two companies are working with the US FDA to determine the timing for the submission of the NDA in the US. Pfizer completed five pivotal phase III clinical trials with inhaled insulin in patients with

  12. Biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled tritiated aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A. [Radiation Biology and Health Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Cheng, Y.S. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Inhalation of tritiated pump oils and metal tritides is a potential radiological protection problem in some situations in tritium facilities. At present, the biokinetic data and validated dose models do not generally exist for chemical forms of tritium other than tritiated water and tritium gas. This situation calls for improving our radiobiological and dosimetric understanding for inhalation of tritiated aerosols. When tritiated pump oils or metal tritides were instilled into the lung, tritium was biotransformed to organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) in the body. The biokinetics of tritium-in-urine exhibited a sum of two exponential functions for OBT and HTO: short and long-term clearance components. For tritiated pump oils, 68% of the instilled activity was excreted in feces and less than 10% in urine. More than 90% of the applied activity was retained in the lung up to 5 d post-exposure, this declined to 40% and 5% of the instilled activity 7 d and 28 d post-exposure, respectively. No major long-term storage of OBT was observed in the body. For metal tritides (i.e., titanium tritide), 37% of instilled activity was eliminated via urine, 29% via feces, and 16% through exhaled air. The results on distribution and dynamics of tritium in the body were remarkably similar with our earlier studies on percutaneous absorption of tritiated pump oils or skin-contact exposure to tritium-gas-contaminated metal surfaces. Urinary excretion bioassay data from workers exposed to metal tritides or pump oils were analyzed using the MS-Windows 95 PC version of GENMOD{sup TM} internal dosimetry code. (GENMOD implements the ICRP Publication 66 respiratory tract model and compartment models rather than retention functions of tritium compounds as describes by ICRP Publication 67). The simulated tritium urinary excretion data for exposed workers indicated that Type S solubility classification is more appropriate that Type M default as prescribed ICRP Publication 66

  13. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have young children, use safety latches in your home When cooking, keep pot handles turned toward the rear of the stove, and never leave pans unattended. Do not leave hot cups of coffee on tables or counter edges. Do not carry hot liquids or food near your child or while holding your child. ...

  14. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  15. Effect of compression pressure on inhalation grade lactose as carrier for dry powder inhalations

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Neha Sureshrao; Jamaiwar, Swapnil; Umekar, Milind Janrao; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study focused on the potential effects of compression forces experienced during lactose (InhaLac 70, 120, and 230) storage and transport on the flowability and aerosol performance in dry powder inhaler formulation. Materials and Methods: Lactose was subjected to typical compression forces 4, 10, and 20 N/cm2. Powder flowability and particle size distribution analysis of un-compressed and compressed lactose was evaluated by Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, the angle of repose ...

  16. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4. The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Human biokinetics of inhaled terbium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four healthy men inhaled a monodisperse aerosol of 160Tb-labelled terbium oxide particles. The behaviour of the tracer was studied through measurements of body radioactivity and of its urinary and faecal excretion. Estimated early faecal losses in the four subjects ranged from 3% to 31% of the initial respiratory-tract deposit; most of the residue had become systemic within a year, with the principal deposit apparently in bone. Interference from this systemic deposit prevented accurate determination of the long-term pulmonary clearance kinetics, but the pattern was broadly what would be expected for Type M materials in the ICRP's Human Respiratory Tract Model. Averaged trends in the whole-body residue after ∼ 1 year suggest a clearance half-life of about 5 y. (author)

  18. Toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report of clinical, CT and MRI findings in a patient with toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after heroin ingestion. The disease is observed in drug addicts who inhale pre-heated heroin. The clinical onset, which usually occurs some days or even longer after the last heroin consumption, is characterized by a cerebellar syndrome. The cerebellar hemispheres, the cerebellar and cerebral peduncles and the pyramidal tract may be affected. Spongiform demyelination is the morphological substrate of the lesions, which are not contrast enhancing, hypodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. The frequently perfect symmetry of the affection of functional systems points to a toxic and/or metabolic pathophysiological mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D. [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik und Neuroradiologie, Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Alfried Krupp Strasse 21, D-45117, Essen (Germany); Moeller, P.; Bade, K. [Neurologische Klinik, Knappschafts-Krankenhaus, D-45657 Recklinghausen (Germany)

    1998-06-02

    This is a report of clinical, CT and MRI findings in a patient with toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after heroin ingestion. The disease is observed in drug addicts who inhale pre-heated heroin. The clinical onset, which usually occurs some days or even longer after the last heroin consumption, is characterized by a cerebellar syndrome. The cerebellar hemispheres, the cerebellar and cerebral peduncles and the pyramidal tract may be affected. Spongiform demyelination is the morphological substrate of the lesions, which are not contrast enhancing, hypodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. The frequently perfect symmetry of the affection of functional systems points to a toxic and/or metabolic pathophysiological mechanism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  20. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means to...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, < 12 y of formal education, and poor communication with the health-care provider, whereas improved adherence was associated with...... asthma-related hospitalizations could be attributed to poor adherence. Most studies have reported an increase in adherence following focused interventions, followed by an improvement in quality of life, symptoms, FEV1, and oral corticosteroid use. However, 2 studies found no difference in health...

  1. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on obstructive changes in airways and mucociliary clearance in children and youth with bronchial asthma was performed. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphies using 99Tc-human serum albumin (HSA) were applied to 50 children and youth with bronchial asthma. The deposition patterns of the radioaerosol and aerosol clearance curves were evaluated. Abnormal deposition patterns, which consisted of non-homogeneous distribution and/or hot spot formation, were likely to be seen in patients with asthmatic attacks at the time of measurements. However, a few asymptomatic patients also revealed abnormal deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were related to FEV1.0%, MMF, V50 and V25, but especially to FEV1.0%. As an index of mucociliary clearance, β, the rate constant of the 99mTc-HSA aerosol clearance curve, was introduced. β was significantly lower in patients with abnormal aerosol deposition patterns than in normal persons. β was also significantly lower in patients undergoing asthmatic attack at the time of the measurements than in asymptomatic patients. β correlated negatively with FEV1.0%, MMF, V50 and V25, but especially with FEV1.0%. Although patients with long term affection or moderate-to-severe asthma tended to reveal abnormal deposition patterns and had low β values, these differences were not statistically significant. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy with 99mTc-HSA is useful for evaluating not only obstructive changes in the airways but also for evaluating mucociliary clearance in children with bronchial asthma. (author)

  2. Incidence of cardiac events in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, David G; Hoestje, Sara M; Korentager, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Given the increased level of adrenergic stimulation in burn patients, it would be expected that they would experience an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac events. We performed a retrospective chart review of 56 acute burn patients matched by age, length of hospital stay, and sex to 56 trauma patients, all of whom had been continuously monitored electrocardiographically. Burn and trauma patients were similar in injury severity, admission laboratory values, and prior history of cardiopulmonary diseases. Arrhythmias were noted in 34% of burn patients and 28% of trauma patients. One myocardial infarction and six deaths occurred in burn patients. No myocardial infarctions or deaths were observed in trauma patients. A past history of cardiopulmonary disease increased the risk of myocardial infarction or death by 6.6 times. Cardiac arrhythmias and other events are relatively infrequent and benign in burn patients and are similar to those experienced by other patients with acute injuries. PMID:12781616

  3. How to manage a minor burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabrielle

    2016-07-20

    Rationale and key points This article outlines the technique for dressing a minor burn. The nurse should be aware of national burn care referral guidance, and have the knowledge and skills to establish the severity and extent of a burn. The nurse should also be able to determine whether referral to a regional specialist centre is required. » The extent and severity of a burn determines its ongoing management. » The burn wound requires regular evaluation, since its appearance and management needs can change over time. » Competence in general wound care is essential for nurses undertaking this procedure. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » The classification of burn depth and guidelines for specialist referral. » How you think this article will change your practice. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27440365

  4. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  5. Epidemiological data, outcome, and costs of burn patients in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Matin, B.; Karami Matin, R.; Ahmadi Joybari, T.; Ghahvehei, N.; M Haghi; M. Ahmadi; S. Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Burn injuries in both developed and developing countries cause long-term disability, mortality, and socio-economic costs that are imposed on patients, families, and societies. This study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, and cost of hospitalization of 388 burn patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital Burn Center in Kermanshah, Iran, between 21 March 2011 and 20 March 2012. The data about demographics, cause of burns, degree of burns, outcome of burns, burned bod...

  6. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute is to investigate the magnitude of human health effects that result from the inhalation of airborne materials at home, in the work place, or in the general environment. Diseases of the respiratory tract are major causes of suffering and death, and many of these diseases are directly related to the materials that people breath. The Institute's research is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the basic biology of the respiratory tract and the mechanisms by which inhaled materials produce respiratory disease. Special attention is focused on studying the airborne materials released by various energy technologies, as well as those associated with national defense activities. The research uses a wide-ranging, comprehensive array of investigative approaches that are directed toward characterizing the source of the airborne material, following the material through its potential transformation in the air, identifying the mechanisms that govern its inhalation and deposition in the respiratory tract, and determining the fate of these inhaled materials in the body and the health effects they produce. The ultimate objectives are to determine the roles played by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes adn to estimate the risk they pose by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes and to estimate the risk they pose to humans who may be exposed to them. This report contains brief research papers that reflect the scope and recent findings of the Institute's research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, principally through the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The papers are divided into topical sections. The first section, Characterization of Airborne Materials and Generation of Experimental Exposure Atmospheres, reflects the Institute's capabilities for fundamental aerosol research and the application of that expertise to toxicological studies. The second

  7. Budesonide–formoterol (inhalation powder) in the treatment of COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Erkan

    2006-01-01

    The budesonide–formoterol dry powder inhaler (Symbicort® Turbuhaler® 160/4.5–640/18 μg/day) contains the long-acting β2-adrenoreceptor agonist formoterol and the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide. Two large, 12-month trials examined the effect of budesonide–formoterol 160/4.5 μg twice daily in COPD patients who met these criteria. The studies were identical, except one in which the patients had received oral prednisolone 30 mg/day and had inhaled formoterol 4.5 μg twice daily for 2 weeks befo...

  8. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  9. Improvement of Brain Tissue Oxygenation by Inhalation of Carbogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, M.; Borghammer, P.; Gjedde, A.; Ostergaard, L.; Vafaee, M.

    2008-01-01

    confirmed by statistical cluster analysis. Oxygen and carbogen were equally potent in increasing oxygen saturation of arterial blood (Sa(O2)). The present data demonstrate that inhalation of carbogen increases both CBF and Sa(O2) in healthy adults. In conclusion we speculate that carbogen inhalation is...... sufficient for optimal oxygenation of healthy brain tissue, whereas carbogen induces concomitant increases of CBF and Sa(O2).......Hyperoxic therapy for cerebral ischemia is suspected to reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF), due to the vasoconstrictive effect of oxygen on cerebral arterioles. We hypothesized that vasodilation predominates when 5% CO(2) is added to the inhaled oxygen (carbogen). Therefore, we used positron emission...

  10. Cheiloplasty in Post-burn Deformed Lips

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeldeen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The lip is a part of the face that is frequently affected by burn injury. Post-burn scar sequelae in this area often result in cosmetic disfigurement and psychological upsets in patients, especially young adult females. A burn destroys the aesthetic features and lines of the lip. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face has a long history. Many local and regional flaps have been used for reconstruction of surgical or traumatic defects. Procedures to enhance the cosmetic features of the ...

  11. The Integrated Burn Information System - Microbiology Module

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, A T; Henderson, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Infection is the most common serious complication occurring in hospitalized burn patients. Since this institute was established more than 35 years ago, the Microbiology section has provided direct clinical microbiology support and has collected epidemiological and historical data concerning the identification, incidence and treatment of infections in burn patients. With the availability of a centralized computer facility, microbiology data were added to the integrated burn information system,...

  12. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options

  13. Infection control in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, much progress has been made in the control of burn wound infection and nasocomial infections (NI) in severely burned patients. The continiually changing epidemiology is partially related to greater understanding of and improved techniques for burn patient management as well as effective hospital infection control measures. With the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, infection of the wound site is now not as common as, for example, urinary and blood strea...

  14. Epidemiology and Statistical Modeling in Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    An important issue in assessing the epidemiology of injuries, including burns, is the investigation of appropriate methodologies and statistical modeling techniques to study injuries in an efficient and trustworthy manner. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze epidemiological patterns and assess the appropriateness of supervised statistical models to investigate burn risks and patterns. This thesis contains four papers: the first two concern descriptive epidemiology of burns in Arda...

  15. Neuroendocrine Stress Response after Burn Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Some aspects of the stress response during acute intensive care for severe burns are described and quantified by measuring hormonal and neuroendocrine patterns and relating these to organ function in the short term. This includes an assessment of whether there are markers for the severity of stress that are better than conventional descriptors of the severity of a burn in predicting failing organ function. P-CgA after a major burn injury is an independent and better predictor of organ dysfunc...

  16. Inhalant Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Adolescent Patients: Commonly Comorbid Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…

  17. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  18. Surgeon-Performed Hemodynamic Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Burn Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Jenny M; Litt, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Jason D; McGrane, Stuart; Gunter, Oliver L; Rae, Lisa; Kahn, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for resuscitation after burn injury has been reported in small case studies. Conventional TEE is invasive and often requires a subspecialist with a high level of training. The authors report a series of surgeon-performed hemodynamic TEE with an indwelling, less bulky, user-friendly probe. Records of patients treated in a regional burn center who underwent hemodynamic TEE between October 1, 2012 and May 30, 2014 were reviewed. The clinical course of each patient was recorded. All bedside interpretations were retrospectively reviewed for accuracy by a cardiac anesthesiologist. Eleven patients were included in the study. Median age was 68.5 years (interquartile range, 49.5-79.5). Median burn size was 37% TBSA (interquartile range: 16.3-53%). Seven patients were male, and four suffered inhalation injury. The operator's interpretation matched that of the echocardiography technician and cardiac anesthesiologist in all instances. No complications occurred from probe placement. Four patients underwent hemodynamic TEE to determine volume status during resuscitation. Changes in volume status on echocardiography preceded the eventual changes in urine output and vital signs for one patient. Hemodynamic TEE diagnosed cardiogenic shock and was used to titrate inotropes and vasopressors in seven elderly patients. Hemodynamic TEE is a useful adjunct to manage the burn patient who deviates off the expected course, especially if there is a question of cardiac function or volume status. It is less invasive and can be accurately performed by surgical intensivists when transthoracic echo windows are limited. The role of echocardiography in optimizing routine burn resuscitations needs to be further studied. PMID:26594864

  19. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  20. ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbi Practice Guidelines Committee

    2016-08-01

    Practice guidelines (PGs) are recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries, and are designed to define optimal evaluation and management. The first PGs for burn care addressed the issues encountered in developed countries, lacking consideration for circumstances in resource-limited settings (RLS). Thus, the mission of the 2014-2016 committee established by the International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) was to create PGs for burn care to improve the care of burn patients in both RLS and resource-abundant settings. An important component of this effort is to communicate a consensus opinion on recommendations for burn care for different aspects of burn management. An additional goal is to reduce costs by outlining effective and efficient recommendations for management of medical problems specific to burn care. These recommendations are supported by the best research evidence, as well as by expert opinion. Although our vision was the creation of clinical guidelines that could be applicable in RLS, the ISBI PGs for Burn Care have been written to address the needs of burn specialists everywhere in the world. PMID:27542292

  1. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasti, Ahmet Cinar; Otan, Emrah; Doganay, Mutlu; Kama, Nuri A

    2009-01-01

    Infectious consequences are still a major problem and leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Among others, aeromonads need special concern because they mimic pseudomonal infections; however, they have a more rapid progression with considerable mortality if undiagnosed promptly. Here, we present a major burn case extinguished with tap water pooled in a tank. With the possibility of aeromonal infection in mind, the patient underwent aggressive debridement with proper antibiotic medication, which resulted in a successful patient management. Aeromonads should always be kept in mind in burn cases that contacted with tanked water or soil after the burn. PMID:19692919

  3. Diffusive Nuclear Burning in Neutron Star Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, P

    2003-01-01

    We present a new mode of hydrogen burning on neutron stars (NSs) called diffusive nuclear burning (DNB). In DNB, the burning occurs in the exponentially suppressed tail of hydrogen that extends to the hotter regions of the envelope where protons are readily captured. Diffusive nuclear burning changes the compositional structure of the envelope on timescales $\\sim 10^{2-4} {\\rm yrs}$, much shorter than otherwise expected. This mechanism is applicable to the physics of young pulsars, millisecond radio pulsars (MSPs) and quiescent low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs).

  4. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  5. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  6. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  7. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  8. Deciding Where to Burn: Stakeholder Priorities for Prescribed Burning of a Fire-Dependent Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Moody

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiagency partnerships increasingly work cooperatively to plan and implement fire management. The stakeholders that comprise such partnerships differ in their perceptions of the benefits and risks of fire use or nonuse. These differences inform how different stakeholders prioritize sites for burning, constrain prescribed burning, and how they rationalize these priorities and constraints. Using a survey of individuals involved in the planning and implementation of prescribed fire in the Onslow Bight region of North Carolina, we examined how the constraints and priorities for burning in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ecosystem differed among three stakeholder groups: prescribed burn practitioners from agencies, practitioners from private companies, and nonpractitioners. Stakeholder groups did not differ in their perceptions of constraints to burning, and development near potentially burned sites was the most important constraint identified. The top criteria used by stakeholders to decide where to burn were the time since a site was last burned, and a site's ecosystem health, with preference given to recently burned sites in good health. Differences among stakeholder groups almost always pertained to perceptions of the nonecological impacts of burning. Prescribed burning priorities of the two groups of practitioners, and particularly practitioners from private companies, tended to be most influenced by nonecological impacts, especially through deprioritization of sites that have not been burned recently or are in the wildland-urban interface (WUI. Our results highlight the difficulty of burning these sites, despite widespread laws in the southeast U.S. that limit liability of prescribed burn practitioners. To avoid ecosystem degradation on sites that are challenging to burn, particularly those in the WUI, conservation partnerships can facilitate demonstration projects involving public and private burn practitioners on those sites. In summary

  9. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  10. Use of Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Events of the past decade have stimulated development of new drug formulations and delivery devices that have improved the efficiency, ease of use, and environmental impact of inhaled drug therapy. Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler is a novel, multidose, propellant-free, hand-held, liquid inhaler that represents a new category of inhaler devices. The aerosol cloud generated by Respimat contains a higher fraction of fine particles than most pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder i...

  11. Reliability of Use, Abuse, and Dependence of Four Types of Inhalants in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Bray, Bethany C.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    Inhalants, as a class of drugs, consists of heterogeneous substances that include some of the most dangerous drugs on a per use basis. Research on inhalant abuse has lagged behind other drugs partly because of the need for a diagnostic instrument of different types of inhalants. This study was conducted to obtain reliability estimates for the new Substance Abuse Module DSM-IV inhalants diagnoses for four types of inhalants: aerosols, gases, nitrites, and solvents as well as different diagnost...

  12. The use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossny, Elham; Rosario, Nelson; Lee, Bee Wah; Singh, Meenu; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia; Soh, Jian Yi; Le Souef, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of several formulations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and delivery devices for treatment of childhood asthma and despite the development of evidence-based guidelines, childhood asthma control remains suboptimal. Improving uptake of asthma management plans, both by families and practitioners, is needed. Adherence to daily ICS therapy is a key determinant of asthma control and this mandates that asthma education follow a repetitive pattern and involve literal explanation and physical demonstration of the optimal use of inhaler devices. The potential adverse effects of ICS need to be weighed against the benefit of these drugs to control persistent asthma especially that its safety profile is markedly better than oral glucocorticoids. This article reviews the key mechanisms of inhaled corticosteroid action; recommendations on dosage and therapeutic regimens; potential optimization of effectiveness by addressing inhaler technique and adherence to therapy; and updated knowledge on the real magnitude of adverse events. PMID:27551328

  13. Inhaled medical gases: more to breathe than oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    The mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is usually sufficient to achieve the therapeutic objective of supporting adequate gas exchange. Pediatric and neonatal patients have an assortment of physiologic conditions that may require adjunctive inhaled gases to treat the wide variety of diseases seen in this heterogeneous population. Inhaled nitric oxide, helium oxygen mixtures, inhaled anesthetics, hypercarbic mixtures, hypoxic mixtures, inhaled carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide have been used to alter physiology in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. Balancing the therapeutic potential, possible adverse effects, and the complexity of the technical aspects of gas delivery, it is essential that clinicians thoroughly understand the application of medical gas therapy beyond the traditional nitrogen/oxygen mixture. PMID:21944684

  14. Inhalation of Simulated Smog Affects Cardiac Function in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: The health effects of individual criteria air pollutants have been well investigated. Little is known about health effects of inhaled multi-pollutant mixtures that more realistically represent environmental exposures. The present study was designed to evaluate the card...

  15. Mexican-American Adolescent Inhalant Abuse: A Proposed Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, A. Gary; Stephens, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Drawing from literature on differences between the Mexican American experience and that of other groups, offers a model to explain the higher rates of inhalant abuse among Mexican American youth. Considers cultural, ecological, structural, and economic factors. (Author/GC)

  16. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral....... Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng/mL in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng/mL in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng/mL in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng/mL in healthy subjects. In conclusion we found no significant...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...

  17. Inhaled therapy for the management of perioperative pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Thunberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH are at high risk for complications in the perioperative setting and often receive vasodilators to control elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP. Administration of vasodilators via inhalation is an effective strategy for reducing PAP while avoiding systemic side effects, chiefly hypotension. The prototypical inhaled pulmonary-specific vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO, has a proven track record but is expensive and cumbersome to implement. Alternatives to NO, including prostanoids (such as epoprostenol, iloprost, and treprostinil, NO-donating drugs (sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and nitrite, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (milrinone, sildenafil may be given via inhalation for the purpose of treating elevated PAP. This review will focus on the perioperative therapy of PH using inhaled vasodilators.

  18. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  19. FORMULATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ramteke K.H.; Gunjal S.S; Sharma Y.P

    2012-01-01

    The MDI is now established as the principal dosage form of inhalation drug therapy for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are pharmaceutical delivery systems designed for oral or nasal use, which deliver discrete doses of aerosolized medicament to the respiratory tract. The MDI contains the active substance, dissolved or suspended in a liquefied propellant system held in a pressurized container that is sealed with a metering valve. ...

  20. Patient preference for and satisfaction with inhaler devices

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, P

    2005-01-01

    Preference for and satisfaction with inhaler devices may be associated with improved clinical outcomes, but this has not been proven to date. A screened Medline search for papers on preference for inhaler devices produced 29 studies on a variety of devices, with Advair Diskus® and TurbuhalerTM featuring prominently. Of the 23 studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry, the sponsor's device was preferred in 19. Interpretation of results was made more difficult because only two studies us...

  1. Inhalational drug delivery from seven different spacer devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, P W; O Callaghan, C.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was performed to determine in vitro the difference in drug output of seven currently available spacer devices when used with different inhaled medications. METHODS: A glass multistage liquid impinger (MSLI) was used to determine the amount of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, 5 mg), salbutamol (100 micrograms), or budesonide (200 micrograms) obtained in various particle size ranges from metered dose inhalers (MDIs) actuated directly into the MSLI or via one of seven different s...

  2. Carbon nanotube dosimetry: from workplace exposure assessment to inhalation toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Erdely, Aaron; Dahm, Matthew; Chen, Bean T.; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Fernback, Joseph E.; Birch, M. Eileen; Evans, Douglas E.; Kashon, Michael L; Deddens, James A.; Hulderman, Tracy; Bilgesu, Suzan A; Battelli, Lori; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Leonard, Howard D.; McKinney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Background Dosimetry for toxicology studies involving carbon nanotubes (CNT) is challenging because of a lack of detailed occupational exposure assessments. Therefore, exposure assessment findings, measuring the mass concentration of elemental carbon from personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples, from 8 U.S.-based multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) manufacturers and users were extrapolated to results of an inhalation study in mice. Results Upon analysis, an inhalable elemental carbon mass concentration ar...

  3. Effects of inhaled acids on respiratory tract defense mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, R B

    1985-01-01

    The respiratory tract is endowed with an interlocking array of nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms which protect it from the effects of inhaled microbes and toxicants, and reduce the risk of absorption of materials into the bloodstream, with subsequent systemic translocation. Ambient acids may compromise these defenses, perhaps providing a link between exposure and development of chronic and acute pulmonary disease. This paper reviews the effects of inhaled acids upon the nonspecific ...

  4. Willingness to Pay for Inhaled Insulin: A Contingent Valuation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Sadri; MacKeigan, Linda D.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Einarson, Thomas R

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) of patients with diabetes mellitus for inhaled insulin. Methods: A contingent valuation survey was administered to 96 diabetic outpatients at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Standardised information about inhaled insulin and subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin was provided via video. Participants' WTP for their preferred product was elicited in Canadian dollars ($Can) using a `payment-scale' method. Results: The mean age of participant...

  5. Engineering of an Inhalable DDA/TDB Liposomal Adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB).......The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB)....

  6. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  7. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present

  8. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of 99mTc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with 99mTc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary emphysema was

  9. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of 99mTc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with 99mTc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present in 1.7 patients

  10. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  11. Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond

    2013-11-30

    The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. PMID:24055597

  12. Inhalation of two putative Gulf War toxins by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repine, John E; Wilson, Paul; Elkins, Nancy; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe; Peters, Ben; Smith, Dwight M

    2016-06-01

    We employed our inhalation methodology to examine whether biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress would be produced in mice following inhalation of aerosols containing carbonaceous particles or the vapor of pesticides prevalent during the first Gulf War. Exposure to two putative Gulf War Illness toxins, fine airborne particles and the pesticide malathion, increased biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in Friend virus B (FVB) female mice. Mice inhaling particles 24 h before had increased lung lavage and plasma Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (a biomarker of inflammation) and PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) levels, lung lavage protein and lung lavage lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. These changes were a function of particle density and exposure time. Compared to particle inhalation, mice inhaling malathion 24 h before had small increase in plasma LTB4 and PGF2α levels but no increase in lung lavage LTB4, lung lavage protein, lung lavage LDH, and lung lavage alveolar macrophage (AM) levels compared to unexposed control mice. AM from particle-exposed mice contained phagocytosed particles, while AM from malathion-exposed mice showed no abnormalities. Our results indicate that inhaling particles or malathion can alter inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in mice and raise the possibility that these toxins may have altered inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Gulf War-exposed individuals. PMID:26950528

  13. Hepatotoxic Alterations Induced by Inhalation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most potent organic unsaturated solvents being used in dry cleaning, metal degreasing, thinner for paints varnishes and electroplating, etc. and has been reported to be a hepatotoxicant through oral and dermal exposure. However, its inhalation toxicity data is very limited in the literature due to the fact that the exposure levels associated with these effects were usually not reported. Hence, inhalation toxicity study was carried out for hepatotoxic studies. Method Inhalation toxicity studies was carried out by exposing rats to TCE for 8, 12 and 24 weeks in a dynamically operated whole body inhalation chamber. Sham treated control rats were exposed to compressed air in the inhalation chamber for the same period. Results Significant increase in liver weight (liver enlargement) appearance of necrotic lesions with fatty changes and marked necrosis were observed after longer duration (12 and 24 weeks) of TCE exposure. The lysosomal rupture resulted in increased activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase alongwith reduced glutathione content and total increased sulfhydryl content in liver tissue. Conclusion TCE exposure through Inhalation route induces hepatotoxicity in terms of marked necrosis with fatty changes and by modulating the lysosomal enzymes.

  14. From inhaler to lung: clinical implications of the formulations of ciclesonide and other inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nave R

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruediger Nave, Helgert Mueller Nycomed: a Takeda Company, Nycomed GmbH, Konstanz, Germany Abstract: Asthma continues to be a global health problem and currently available treatments such as corticosteroids can cause unwanted side effects. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are recommended as first-line therapy for reducing airway inflammation and have a distinct advantage over oral preparations as they provide a direct route of delivery to the lungs. However, local deposition of ICS in the oropharynx can lead to oral candidiasis, dysphonia, and pharyngitis. The pharmaceutical quality is a primary concern of any ICS asthma treatment, with a higher quality product resulting in improved efficacy and safety profiles. The particle size distribution and the spray force velocity of an ICS may directly influence lung deposition, and the spray duration of a device is another important factor when coordinating inhalation. Recent advances in ICS device and formulation technology have resulted in significant improvements in the efficacy of available asthma treatments. In particular, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA solution technology and the development of smaller particle sizes have resulted in the production of new ICS formulations that have the ability to directly target drug delivery to the site of airway inflammation. Both the ICS formulation and the pressurized metered-dose inhaler device used to administer ciclesonide (CIC HFA have been developed to treat the underlying chronic inflammation associated with asthma. CIC is administered as a prodrug which is activated in the lungs, leading to minimal oropharyngeal deposition. The small particle size of CIC results in the delivery of a high fraction of respirable particles to the small airways of the lungs, resulting in high lung deposition and continual dose consistency. This review summarizes how CIC administered as an HFA formulation is an effective treatment for asthma. Keywords: ciclesonide, asthma, small airways

  15. Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

  16. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  17. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  18. Intensive Care Management in Pediatric Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Ebru Sakallıoğlu Abalı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This article aimed to review the current principles of management from initial assessment to early management and intensive care for pediatric burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 62-9

  19. A ring burn--electric or contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, M F; el-Ekiabi, S; Al-Baker, A

    1990-02-01

    A circumferential band of deep burn affecting the ring finger sustained by a car electrician is presented. Although it was caused by short circuiting the car battery by a metal spanner and the ring he was wearing, the injury was purely a contact burn. PMID:2322399

  20. Skin Dendritic Cells in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    D’Arpa, N.; D’Amelio, L.; Accardo-Palumbo, A.; Pileri, D.; Mogavero, R.; Amato, G.; Napoli, B.; Alessandro, G.; Lombardo, C.; F. Conte

    2009-01-01

    The body's immunological response to burn injury has been a subject of great inquiry in recent years. Burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in a progressive suppression of the immune response that is thought to contribute to the development of sepsis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells.

  1. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  2. How Does the Freezer Burn Our Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Lee, Joo Won

    2009-01-01

    Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn. However, it is difficult to find a modern, detailed, accurate, yet concise, explanation of the mechanism and factors influencing the rate of…

  3. Epidemiology of major burns at the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Burn care is one of the few areas in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with burn injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese Burn Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal burns, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural areas and burned body surface (BBS) w...

  4. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Pierre; Saad, Nathalie; Suissa, Samy

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we focus on the scientific evidence from randomised trials supporting treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including treatment with combinations of long-acting β-agonist (LABA) bronchodilators and ICS. Our emphasis is on the methodological strengths and limitations that guide the conclusions that may be drawn. The evidence of benefit of ICS and, therefore, of the LABA/ICS combinations in COPD is limited by major methodological problems. From the data reviewed herein, we conclude that there is no survival benefit independent of the effect of long-acting bronchodilation and no effect on FEV1 decline, and that the possible benefit on reducing severe exacerbations is unclear. Our interpretation of the data is that there are substantial adverse effects from the use of ICS in patients with COPD, most notably severe pneumonia resulting in excess deaths. Currently, the most reliable predictor of response to ICS in COPD is the presence of eosinophilic inflammation in the sputum. There is an urgent need for better markers of benefit and risk that can be tested in randomised trials for use in routine specialist practice. Given the overall safety and effectiveness of long-acting bronchodilators in subjects without an asthma component to their COPD, we believe use of such agents without an associated ICS should be favoured. PMID:25537556

  5. Lupine inhalation induced asthma in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; Gil-Adrados, Ana C; Domínguez-Noche, Carmen; Cosmes, Pedro M

    2005-09-01

    The ingestion of lupine seed flour has been reported as a cause of allergic reactions. There is some evidence of its allergenic potential after inhalation. An 8-year-old asthmatic child, who was allergic to peanut, was studied in our clinic with the suspicion of an adverse drug reaction due to salbutamol. He suffered an asthma attack while playing with his brother, who had been eating lupine seed as snack; surprisingly, the asthma attack worsened with salbutamol. The skin tests showed a positive result with Lupinus albus extract, peanut, garbanzo bean, navy bean, pea, green bean, lentil, soy, Olea europea pollen, grass pollen and Plantago lanceolata pollen. The prick-by-prick tests both from dried seeds and those preserved in salt and water were strongly positive. Serum specific IgE antibodies were positive to Lupine albus (1.43 kU/l), peanut (4.32 kU/l), soy (2.15 kU/l), lentil (3.12 kU/l) and garbanzo (0.7 kU/l). After informed consent salbutamol was well tolerated but the patient had asthma in 5 min of manipulation of the lupine seeds. In our case, reactivity with other legumes was also demonstrated, but only peanut allergy was relevant because boiled legumes were tolerated. It is also notorious that anamnesis is so important to assess the true etiological agents of asthma. PMID:16176404

  6. Introduction: Aerosol delivery of orally inhaled agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Timothy E; Devadason, Sunalene G; Kuehl, Philip J

    2012-12-01

    Deposition scintigraphy methods have been used extensively to provide qualitative and quantitative data on aerosol drug deposition in the lungs. However, differences in methodology among the different centers performing these studies have limited the application of these techniques, especially in regulatory roles. As an introduction to the standardized techniques developed by the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) Regulatory Affairs Networking Group, we present potential advantages of the use of standard techniques for deposition scintigraphy. Specifically, we propose that standardized techniques would allow for better comparisons between labs and would facilitate multicenter studies. They would allow for improved methods of establishing equivalence and could be better utilized to establish dosing for new medications. They would allow for the performance of more accurate dose ranging or multidose studies and complement pharmacokinetic studies of new inhaled medications. Standardized techniques could help to establish the relationship between the deposition of drug in the lungs and clinical effect, and may also facilitate clinical measurements of deposited dose for medications with narrow therapeutic indices. In the sections that follow, we discuss the best techniques used to perform deposition scintigraphy through planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography modalities and propose a detailed set of standardized methods for each. These include methods for radiolabel validation, radiolabel accountability and mass balance, and imaging acquisition and analysis. PMID:23215846

  7. Newer insulin analogues and inhaled insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease with high prevalence worldwide. Exogenous insulin is used in the management of this condition. The development of human insulin has provided tighter control of glycaemia in diabetic patients. Insulin analogues like insulin lispro and aspart were developed to closely match its profile with physiological secretion. The newer additions to this armamentarium are insulin glulisine, insulin detemir and albulin.Insulin glulisine is a short acting analogue with a rapid onset of action. The antiapoptotic property, mediated through insulin substrate receptor-2 has a favourable protective action on beta cells. Insulin detemir is a long acting analogue, soluble at neutral pH, which reversibly binds to albumin in plasma, prolonging its action. Its lower affinity for insulin receptors necessitates higher doses compared to human insulin. The reduction in body weight is an additional advantage of detemir. A major concern about all newer insulin analogues is their altered mitogenic properties and resultant risk of carcinogenicity on long term use. Albulin is a latest addition of insulin analogue which is under various in vitro and in vivo studies. Inhaled insulin in powder form (Exubera is recently approved by FDA and appears promising.

  8. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  9. The biological behaviour of inhaled transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological behaviour of inhaled transuranic elements has been reviewed by focus on different points of present interest. Lung clearance and translocation are largely affected by the chemistry of transuranic elements. However, especially for plutonium, some examples show that the kinetics of some chemical reactions are function of the element concentration: extrapolation to the biological concentrations must therefore be cautious. The importance of the specific activity is stressed by different behaviours of plutonium 238 and 239 oxides. In the case of 238Pu, it is responsible of the fast dissolution of the oxide by formation of nanometric particles. Whatever the isotopes, these particules have a particularly important function since their biological fate seems to disturb the established models. Their origin is still to be determined since they have been identified both in the combustion of Pu-Na or Pu-Mg simultaneously, and plutonium only. The bronchial clearance of micronic particles does not seem to be fast for the whole of the fraction cleared. A residual compartment, indeed low, will remain at the level of the bronchial epithelium for a rather long time. This must be taken into account by dosimetric evaluations at the cellular levels. In spite of the few restrictions stated, the body of knowledge makes a fair estimation of risks possible

  10. Crusted Scabies in the Burned Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jais Oliver; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe a case of crusted scabies (CS) in a burned patient, which was primarily undiagnosed and led to a nosocomial outbreak in the burn unit; 2) to analyze and discuss the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this subset of patients with burn injury; and...... 3) to design a treatment strategy for future patients. Case analysis and literature review were performed. The index patient had undiagnosed crusted scabies (sive Scabies norvegica) with the ensuing mite hyperinfestation when admitted to the department with minor acute dermal burns. Conservative...... healing and autograft healing were impaired because of the condition. Successful treatment of the burns was only accomplished secondarily to scabicide treatment. An outbreak of scabies among staff members indirectly led to diagnosis. CS is ubiquitous, and diagnosis may be difficult. This is the first...

  11. Sexual Function Following Burn Injuries: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Atisha A; Corkill, Helen A; Goutos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Sexual function is a profound facet of the human personality. Burns due their sudden and devastating nature can have longstanding effects on intimate function by virtue of physical sequelae as well as alterations in body image and perceived desirability. A considerable number of patients encounter problems with intimate function in burns rehabilitation; nevertheless, the topic appears to be poorly addressed in specialist centers worldwide. Review of the literature suggests that a number of parameters can affect the quality of sexual life following burn injuries including age at the time of injury, location, and severity of the burn as well as coping mechanisms employed by the individual survivor. Addressing issues of intimacy relies on awareness, education, and a holistic approach on behalf of the multidisciplinary team members and, to this effect, recommendations are made on managing sexual function concerns in burns rehabilitation. PMID:25423439

  12. Microbiological Monitoring and Proteolytic Study of Clinical Samples From Burned and Burned Wounded Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.

  13. Inhalational anesthesia for organ procurement: potential indications for administering inhalational anesthesia in the brain-dead organ donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Laurie J

    2010-08-01

    Organs needed for transplantation far outweigh their availability. There is minimal research regarding perioperative care of the brain-dead organ donor during the procurement procedure. Current research attributes a great deal of organ damage to autonomic or sympathetic storm that occurs during brain death. Literature searches were performed with the terms brain death, organ donor, organ procurement, anesthesia and organ donor, anesthesia and brain death, anesthesia and organ procurement, inhalational anesthetics and organ procurement, and inhalational anesthetics and brain dead. Additional resources were obtained from reference lists of published articles. The literature review showed there is a lack of published studies researching the use of inhalational anesthetics in organ procurement. No studies have been published evaluating the effect of preconditioning with inhalational agents (administering 1.3 minimal alveolar concentration of an inhalational agent for the 20 minutes before periods of ischemia) in the brain-dead organ donor population. Further studies are required to determine if administration of inhalational anesthetics reduces catecholamine release occurring with surgical stimulation during the organ procurement procedure and whether this technique increases viability of transplanted organs. Anesthetic preconditioning before the ischemic period may reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in transplanted organs, further increasing viability of transplanted organs. PMID:20879630

  14. HIV seroprevalence and its effect on outcome of moderate to severe burn injuries: A Ugandan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssentongo Robert

    2011-06-01

    practice universal precautions in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV infection and post-exposure prophylaxis should be emphasized. The outcome of burn injury in HIV infected patients is dependent upon multiple variables such as age of the patient, inhalation injury and %TBSA and not the HIV status alone.

  15. Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160530.html Kitchen Cooking Burns a Real Danger for Kids Establish a ' ... this burn accident was not an isolated case. Cooking burns are common among American children, but can ...

  16. 1994 Prescribed Burning Plan: Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Prescribed Burn Plan provides a description of each burn unit on the Refuge and summarizes the safety concerns, monitoring, and burn operations for these units.

  17. MORBIDITY AND SURVIVAL PROBABILITY IN BURN PATIENTS IN MODERN BURN CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Kraft, Robert; Nathens, Avery B.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Klein, Matthew B.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterizing burn sizes that are associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity is critical because it would allow identifying patients who might derive the greatest benefit from individualized, experimental, or innovative therapies. Although scores have been established to predict mortality, few data addressing other outcomes exist. The objective of this study was to determine burn sizes that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity after burn. Design and Patients Burn patients were prospectively enrolled as part of the multicenter prospective cohort study, Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury Glue Grant, with the following inclusion criteria: 0–99 years of age, admission within 96 hours after injury, and >20% total body surface area burns requiring at least one surgical intervention. Setting Six major burn centers in North America. Measurements and Main Results Burn size cutoff values were determined for mortality, burn wound infection (at least two infections), sepsis (as defined by ABA sepsis criteria), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure (DENVER2 score >3) for both children (<16 years) and adults (16–65 years). Five-hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled, of which 226 patients were children. Twenty-three patients were older than 65 years and were excluded from the cutoff analysis. In children, the cutoff burn size for mortality, sepsis, infection, and multiple organ failure was approximately 60% total body surface area burned. In adults, the cutoff for these outcomes was lower, at approximately 40% total body surface area burned. Conclusions In the modern burn care setting, adults with over 40% total body surface area burned and children with over 60% total body surface area burned are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, even in highly specialized centers. PMID:25559438

  18. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution. PMID:26915202

  19. Particle engineering of materials for oral inhalation by dry powder inhalers. II-Sodium cromoglicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lorraine M; Li, Jianhe; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-28

    Sodium cromoglicate is an antiasthmatic and antiallergenic drug used in inhalation therapy and commonly administered by a dry powder inhaler. In the present study we sought to examine the feasibility of producing nanoporous microparticles (NPMPs) of this hydrophilic material by adaptation of a spray drying process previously applied to hydrophobic drugs, and to examine the physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of the spray dried particles in comparison to a commercial product. The storage stability of successfully prepared NPMPs was assessed under a number of conditions (4°C with dessicant, 25°C at 60% relative humidity and 25°C with dessicant). Spray dried sodium cromoglicate was amorphous in nature. NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate displayed superior aerodynamic properties resulting in improved in vitro drug deposition, as assessed by Andersen Cascade Impactor and twin impinger studies, in comparison to the commercial product, Intal. Deposition studies indicated that porosity and sphericity were important factors in improving deposition properties. The optimum solvent system for NPMP production was water:methanol:n-butyl acetate, as spherical NPMPs spray dried from this solvent system had a higher respirable fraction than non-spherical NPMPs of sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from methanol:n-butyl acetate), non-porous sodium cromoglicate (spray dried from water) and micronised sodium cromoglicate (Intal). While particle morphology was altered by storage at high humidity (60% RH) and in vitro deposition performance deteriorated, it was possible to maintain NPMP morphology and aerosolisation performance by storing the powder with dessicant. PMID:21129460

  20. Calcium and ER Stress Mediate Hepatic Apoptosis after Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction post-burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis post-burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacri...

  1. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  2. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of burn injury has always been the domain of burn specialists. Since ancient time, local and systemic remedies have been advised for burn wound dressing and burn scar prevention. Management of burn wound inflicted by the different physical and chemical agents require different regimes which are poles apart from the regimes used for any of the other traumatic wounds. In extensive burn, because of increased capillary permeability, there is extensive loss of plasma leading to shock wh...

  3. Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature. This leads to the Ignition & Growth concept, introduced by LeeTarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homo- genized burn rate needs to account for three meso-scale physical effects: (i the density of active hot spots or burn centers; (ii the growth of the burn fronts triggered by the burn centers; (iii a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent burn centers. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable λ = g(s as a function of a dimensionless reaction length s(t = rbc/ℓbc, rather than by specifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale ℓbc(Ps = [Nbc(Ps]−1/3 is the average distance between burn centers, where Nbc is the number density of burn centers activated by the lead shock. The reaction length rbc(t = ∫t0 D(P(t′dt′ is the distance the burn front propagates from a single burn center, where D(P is the deflagration speed as a function of the local pressure and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. We have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

  4. Towards the optimisation and adaptation of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Schmalfuß, S; Zellnitz, S; Sommerfeld, M; Urbanetz, N

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary drug delivery by dry powder inhalers is becoming more and more popular. Such an inhalation device must insure that during the inhalation process the drug powder is detached from the carrier due to fluid flow stresses. The goal of the project is the development of a drug powder detachment model to be used in numerical computations (CFD, computational fluid dynamics) of fluid flow and carrier particle motion through the inhaler and the resulting efficiency of drug delivery. This programme will be the basis for the optimisation of inhaler geometry and dry powder inhaler formulation. For this purpose a multi-scale approach is adopted. First the flow field through the inhaler is numerically calculated with OpenFOAM(®) and the flow stresses experienced by the carrier particles are recorded. This information is used for micro-scale simulations using the Lattice-Boltzmann method where only one carrier particle covered with drug powder is placed in cubic flow domain and exposed to the relevant flow situations, e.g. plug and shear flow with different Reynolds numbers. Therefrom the fluid forces on the drug particles are obtained. In order to allow the determination of the drug particle detachment possibility by lift-off, sliding or rolling, also measurements by AFM (atomic force microscope) were conducted for different carrier particle surface structures. The contact properties, such as van der Waals force, friction coefficient and adhesion surface energy were used to determine, from a force or moment balance (fluid forces versus contact forces), the detachment probability by the three mechanisms as a function of carrier particle Reynolds number. These results will be used for deriving the drug powder detachment model. PMID:24792975

  5. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered. PMID:24823337

  6. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  7. Characterization of residual coke during burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Jablonski, E.L.; Parera, J.M. (Inst. de Investigaciones in Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)); Frety, R. (Conventionne a l' Univ. Claude Bernard, Lyon I (France))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper coke remaining from the partial burning of coke deposited during the commercial re-forming of naphtha on a Pt-Re/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst is studied. Burning temperatures are 623-923 K, and the remaining coke is characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, IR, [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and chemical analysis. After coke is burned at 673 K, the residual coke shows the minimum value in the H/C ratio and the maximum in the thickness of the aromatic layers, degree of organization, C==O concentration, binding energy of C 1s, peak width, and g value. This agrees with the model of coke burning: at low temperatures, the burning is selective; the more hydrogenated and amorphous carbonaceous species are burnt first. At high temperatures, the burning is nonselective and all species are simultaneously burnt. Coke is partially oxidized during burning, and intermediate species with C==O and C--OH groups are formed.

  8. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-tao Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  9. Burning characteristics of microcellular combustible objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-tao YANG; Yu-xiang LI; San-jiu YING

    2014-01-01

    Microcellular combustible objects for application of combustible case, caseless ammunition or combustible detonator-holding tubes are fabricated through one-step foaming process, in which supercritical CO2 is used as foaming agent. The formulations consist of inert polymer binder and ultra fine RDX. For the inner porous structures of microcellular combustible objects, the cell sizes present a unimodal or bimodal distribution by adjusting the foaming conditions. Closed bomb test is to investigate the influence of both porous structure style and RDX content on burning behavior. The sample with bimodal distribution of cell sizes burns faster than that with unimodal distribution, and the concentration of RDX can influence the burning characteristics in a positive manner. In addition, the translation of laminar burning to convective burning is determined by burning rate versus pressure curves of samples at two different loading densities, and the resulting transition pressure is 30 MPa. Moreover, the samples with bigger sample size present higher burning rate, resulting in providing deeper convective depth. Dynamic vivacity of samples is also studied. The results show that the vivacity increases with RDX content and varies with inner structure.

  10. Asbestos cement dust inhalation by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

    1978-12-01

    Two groups of 96 male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to respirable asbestos cement aerosol at concentrations of approximately 1 and approximately 10 micrograms/liter, respectively, 3 hours/day, 5 days/week. Average fiber counts ranged from 5 to about 120 fibers/cm3. Each group was randomly divided into six subgroups of 16 animals. The first subgroup was sacrificed after 3 months of exposure, the second after 6 months, and the third after 15 months. The fourth subgroup was withdrawn from exposure after 3 months, observed for an additional 3 months, and then sacrificed. The fifth and sixth subgroups were withdrawn after 3 and 6 months of exposure, respectively, and maintained for observation up to the 15-month exposure point of the third subgroup at which time all surviving animals were sacrificed. All other experimental procedures were similar to those delineated in a previous publication describing the development of an animal model, techniques, and an exposure system for asbestos cement dust inhalation. The asbestos cement exposures had no significant effect on body weight and mortality of the animals. Higher aerosol concentration and longer exposure times increased the number of macrophages and ferruginous bodies found in the lungs of the exposed animals. Recovery periods had no effect on the incidence of macrophages and ferruginous bodies. The incidence of very slight to slight fibrosis in the animals sacrificed after 15 months of exposure shows a significant (P less than 0.01) trend when the untreated control group and the 1 and 10 microgram/liter dose level groups are compared, indicating a dose-response relationship. Development of minimal fibrosis continued in animals withdrawn from exposure. No primary carcinomas of the lung and respiratory tract and no mesotheliomas were found.

  11. Species difference in metabolism of inhaled butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure of B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats to butadiene (BD) produced a very high incidence of cancer in mice while the incidence in rats was much lower with different tissues affected. Studies at this institute indicate that for equivalent exposures, the blood BD epoxide concentrations in mice are 5-fold higher than in rats and > 10-fold higher than in Cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, the profiles of urinary metabolites of butadiene were determined in Cynomolgus monkeys, F344/N rats, Sprague Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice and Syrian hamsters, species containing widely divergent hepatic epoxide hydrolase (EH) activities. Animals were exposed for 2 hr to 8,000 ppm [14C]BD and 24-hr urine samples were analyzed for metabolites. Two major urinary metabolites were identified, N-acetyl-S-(-1(or 2)-3-butene-2(or 1)-ol)cysteine (1) and N-acetyl-S-(-4-butane-1,2-diol)cysteine (2). Monkeys exposed by inhalation produced primarily metabolite 2, while rodent species produced 1-4 times as much of 1 compared to 2. The ratio of 2/1 formation was related to the hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity in different species. The high 2/1 ratio in monkeys was consistent with the lower blood epoxide levels in this species. If BD metabolism by humans is similar to that in the monkey, exposure of humans to BD may result in lower tissue concentrations of reactive metabolites than an equivalent exposure of rodents. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of BD exposure based on rodent studies

  12. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  13. In-situ burning of heavy oils and Orimulsion : mid-scale burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Brown, C.E.; Gamble, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Cooper, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In-situ burning is considered to be a viable means to clean oil spills on water. In-situ burning, when performed under the right conditions, can reduce the volume of spilled oil and eliminate the need to collect, store, transport and dispose of the recovered oil. This paper presented the results of bench-scale in-situ burning tests in which Bunker C, Orimulsion and weathered bitumen were burned outdoors during the winter in burn pans of approximately 1 square metre. Each test was conducted on salt water which caused the separation of the bitumen from the water in the Orimulsion. Small amounts of diesel fuel was used to ignite the heavy oils. Quantitative removal of the fuels was achieved in all cases, but re-ignition was required for the Orimulsion. Maximum efficiency was in the order of 70 per cent. The residue was mostly asphaltenes and resins which cooled to a solid, glass like material that could be readily removed. The study showed that the type of oil burned influences the behaviour of the burns. Bunker C burned quite well and Orimulsion burned efficiently, but re-ignition was necessary. It was concluded that there is potential for burning heavy oils of several types in-situ. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  14. Providing Meteorological Information for Controlled Burns at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional and local weather information are important for a variety of applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility covering approximately 800 square kilometers of southwest South Carolina east of the Savannah River. For example, meteorological observations and forecasts are used to assess the consequences of an accidental radiological or chemical release. Traditionally, hazards posed by SRS operations have been associated with nuclear reactors, chemical reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication, or waste-vitrification facilities. However, recent events have shown site-specific meteorology to be a valuable tool to the United States Forest Service (USFS) in mitigating potential hazards from controlled burns that are conducted at the SRS. Prescribed burns at the SRS are important for a variety of reasons. The removal of thick undergrowth allows wildlife to more easily feed and migrate, accelerates the growth of young pine stands, and controls certain diseases that affect local pine forests (e.g. Adams et al. 1973). In addition, the removal of twigs, pine needles, or leaves (a fuel source) reduces the chance of serious wildfire damage. However, the threat of smoke inhalation and reduced visibility requires careful planning on the part of the fire professionals. At the SRS, approximately 100 square kilometers of land per year are burned in a controlled manner, mainly in the spring.To reduce the potentially harmful effects to any onsite activity, it is important that USFS personnel understand current and predicted weather patterns within the area. This paper discusses two sources of meteorological information that are provided to SRS-USFS personnel for use in planning forest burns: (1) a meteorological tower system which provides current data from a series of onsite locations, and (2) an operational prognostic mesoscale model used to generate forecast information. The forecast data supplements the basic National Weather Service (NWS

  15. Hypnosis for the treatment of burn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D R; Everett, J J; Burns, G L; Marvin, J A

    1992-10-01

    The clinical utility of hypnosis for controlling pain during burn wound debridement was investigated. Thirty hospitalized burn patients and their nurses submitted visual analog scales (VAS) for pain during 2 consecutive daily wound debridements. On the 1st day, patients and nurses submitted baseline VAS ratings. Before the next day's would debridement, Ss received hypnosis, attention and information, or no treatment. Only hypnotized Ss reported significant pain reductions relative to pretreatment baseline. This result was corroborated by nurse VAS ratings. Findings indicate that hypnosis is a viable adjunct treatment for burn pain. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:1383302

  16. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  17. PROCESS VALIDATION OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gaganpreet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present an introduction and general overview on process validation of Metered dose inhaler.The word validation simply means, “Assessment of validation or action of proving effectiveness”. The most common dosage form for inhalation is the metered-dose inhaler (MDI, by which the drug is delivered from a pressurized container using a liquefied gas propellant.Inhalation is the convenient way to deliver drugs to respiratory tract in treatment of respiratory disease like ASTHMA.The process validation process parameters are derived from the specifications for the device, component or other entity to be produced by the process. The process is developed in such a way that the required parameters are achieved and it ensures that the output of the process will consistently meet the required parameters during routine production, the process is validated. A manufacturer can assure through careful design of the device, processes, process controls and packaging that all manufactured units will meet specifications and have uniform quality. However, in-process and finished product testing still play an important role in assuring that products meet specifications Validation is defined as a collection and evaluation of data , from the process design stage through commercial production, which establishes scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. MDI is pocket-sized, hand-held, pressurise multiple-dose inhalation delivery system. It delivers small, precisely measured therapeutic doses, greatly minimizing the risk of adverse side effects. A metered dose inhaler (MDI is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is inhaled by the patient. Three consecutive batches of metered dose inhaler shall be taken up for process validation. Based on the results of all the 3 batches, suitable conclusions will be drawn

  18. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-1. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 μm for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms1. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On the whole

  19. Simulation of burning tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To simulate dynamical behaviour of tokamak fusion reactors, a zero-dimensional time-dependent particle and power balance code has been developed. The zero-dimensional plasma model is based on particle and power balance equations that have been integrated over the plasma volume using prescribed profiles for plasma parameters. Therefore, the zero-dimensional model describes the global dynamics of a fusion reactor. The zero-dimensional model has been applied to study reactor start-up, and plasma responses to changes in the plasma confinement, fuelling rate, and impurity concentration, as well as to study burn control via fuelling modulation. Predictions from the zero-dimensional code have been compared with experimental data and with transport calculations of a higher dimensionality. In all cases, a good agreement was found. The advantage of the zero-dimensional code, as compared to higher-dimensional transport codes, is the possibility to quickly scan the interdependencies between reactor parameters. (88 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  20. The ALMR actinide burning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) actinide burning system is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to bring its unique capabilities to fruition for deployment in the early 21st century. The system consists of four major parts: the reactor plant, the metal fuel and its recycle, the processing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel to extract the actinides, and the development of a residual waste package. This paper addresses the status and outlook for each of these four major elements. The ALMR is being developed by an industrial group under the leadership of General Electric (GE) in a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Department of Energy. This effort is nearing completion of the advanced conceptual design phase and will enter the preliminary design phase in 1994. The innovative modular reactor design stresses simplicity, economics, reliability, and availability. The design has evolved from GE's PRISM design initiative and has progressed to the final stages of a prelicensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); a safety evaluation report is expected by the end of 1993. All the major issues identified during this review process have been technically resolved. The next design phases will focus on implementation of the basic safety philosophy of passive shutdown to a safe, stable condition, even without scram, and passive decay heat removal. Economic projections to date show that it will be competitive with non- nuclear and advanced LWR nuclear alternatives

  1. Laboratory-based evaluation of MDR strains of Pseudomonas in patients with acute burn injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tu; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Localization of burn was variable: head and face in 76 patients (29%), trunk in 58 (49%), upper limb in 37 (52%), lower limbs in 44 (41%), hands in 16 (15%), perinea area in 26 (5.5%) and whole body except perinea area in 10 (9%) patients. Inhalation syndrome was present in 56 (44%) patients. Ninety patients (82%) had indwelling venous catheters, 83 (75.5%) patients’ arterial catheter and 86 (78%) patients’ urinary catheters. By multivariate analysis: age ≤4 years, Garcés 4, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, and mechanical ventilation were independent variables related with mortality and graft requirement was a protective factor for mortality. Despite advances in care, gram negative bacterial infections and infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain the most common cause of bacteria related mortality early in the hospital course. Viral infections are also associated with mortality and numbers have remained stable when compared to data from prior years. PMID:26629178

  2. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery. PMID:27212477

  3. Rethinking the paradigm for the development of inhaled drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, John N

    2015-12-30

    Nebulized treatment is an important delivery option for the young, elderly, and those with severe chronic respiratory disease, but there is a lack of new nebulized drug products being produced for these patients, leading to the potential for under-treatment. This communication describes a new drug development paradigm as a timely solution to this issue. Often, drug development is initiated with nebulizers in the early stages, to provide cheaper and faster drug development, and then switched to inhaler devices in later clinical trials to address the majority of patients. However, the waste of resource on parallel development of the inhaler can be large due to the high early attrition rate of new drug development. The new paradigm uses the nebulizer to continue drug development through to market, and initiates inhaler development after completion of the riskier early phase studies. New drug safety and efficacy can be assessed faster and more efficiently by using a nebulized formulation rather than developing an inhaler. The results of calculations of expected net present value showed that the new paradigm produced higher expected net present values than the conventional model over a range of economic scenarios. This new paradigm could therefore provide improved returns on investments, as well as more modern drugs in nebulized form for those patients unable to use inhalers. PMID:26475968

  4. Withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids and exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Helgo; Disse, Bernd; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long-acting bronchod......BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long......-acting bronchodilators has not been fully explored. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, parallel-group study, 2485 patients with a history of exacerbation of COPD received triple therapy consisting of tiotropium (at a dose of 18 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily), and the inhaled glucocorticoid...... fluticasone propionate (500 μg twice daily) during a 6-week run-in period. Patients were then randomly assigned to continued triple therapy or withdrawal of fluticasone in three steps over a 12-week period. The primary end point was the time to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation. Spirometric...

  5. Inhaled corticosteroids: hazardous effects on voice-an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Gregory J; Gallivan, K Holly; Gallivan, Helen K

    2007-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have become the prevalent treatment in asthmatics. Hazards to voice are under-recognized. A total of 38 patients with voice complaints associated with the use of ICS were assessed by 79 strobovideolaryngoscopy (SVL) examinations, 24 single and 14 multiple SVL. Hoarseness and dysphonia were the primary reasons for referral. The ICS initially used most frequently was Advair Diskus (fluticasone propionate and salmeterol-inhalation powder-[IP]) in 22 patients, followed by Flovent (fluticasone propionate inhalation aerosol-pressurized metered-dose inhaler-[PMDI]) in 11. Duration of ICS usage varied from 2 weeks to 4-5 years. Higher dosage and frequency of use exacerbated problems. Hazards to voice previously unrecognized by real-time indirect mirror or fiberoptic laryngoscopy were identified by meticulous attention to SVL abnormalities. There was essentially no difference in occurrence of abnormalities whether analyzed from the perspective of the initial 38 or all 79 examinations. These included abnormal mucosal wave symmetry/periodicity (76-63%), phase closure (74-63%), glottic closure (63-59%), mucosal wave amplitude/magnitude (50-35%), supraglottic hyperactivity (39-25%), mucosal quality (34-34%), and glottic plane (10-5%). Candidiasis of the larynx was infrequently observed. Fluticasone ICS were a cause of steroid inhaler laryngitis, and the best treatment was their avoidance or cessation. Further prospective studies ideally might include SVL documented as a pretherapy baseline and then repeated in each ICS patient who developed hoarseness/dysphonia. PMID:16442776

  6. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides: summary of ICRP report 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRP Task Group charged with evaluating the hazards associated with inhalation of plutonium and other radionuclides, enumerated the biological responses to inhaled radionuclides, identified tissues and cells at risk, derived risk coefficients for inhaled radionuclides from animal experiments for comparison with human data, and determined an equal effectiveness ratio of alpha emitters relative to beta-gamma emitters. High lung burdens of inhaled radionuclides result in profound structural and functional changes in which the pulmonary capillary endothelial cells are the most prominent cells at risk. Linear and nonlinear models used to evaluate lung cancer data from animal experiments project to risk coefficients between 0.84 and 1600 cases/106 animals/rad. The report concludes that the animal data support the current ICRP lung cancer risk of 2 x 10-3 Sv-1 (400 x 10+H-+H6 rad-1). Comparison of risk coefficients for beta-gamma emitters with those for alpha emitters, obtained using the same models, gave an Equal Effectiveness Ratio of 30 for inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides. Thus, the experimental data support the ICRP decision to change the quality factor from 10 to 20 for alpha radiation. (H.K.)

  7. Raxibacumab: potential role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeldt CE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carlos E KummerfeldtDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Anthrax is a highly contagious and potentially fatal human disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium with worldwide distribution as a zoonotic infection in herbivore animals. Bioterrorist attacks with inhalational anthrax have prompted the development of more effective treatments. Antibodies against anthrax toxin have been shown to decrease mortality in animal studies. Raxibacumab is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody developed against inhalational anthrax. The drug received approval after human studies showed its safety and animal studies demonstrated its efficacy for treatment as well as prophylaxis against inhalational anthrax. It works by preventing binding of the protective antigen component of the anthrax toxin to its receptors in host cells, thereby blocking the toxin's deleterious effects. Recently updated therapy guidelines for Bacillus anthracis recommend the use of antitoxin treatment. Raxibacumab is the first monoclonal antitoxin antibody made available that can be used with the antibiotics recommended for treatment of the disease. When exposure is suspected, raxibacumab should be given with anthrax vaccination to augment immunity. Raxibacumab provides additional protection against inhalational anthrax via a mechanism different from that of either antibiotics or active immunization. In combination with currently available and recommended therapies, raxibacumab should reduce the morbidity and mortality of inhalational anthrax.Keywords: anthrax, monoclonal antibody, protective antigen, raxibacumab

  8. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases

  9. The Application of Erosive Burning to Propellant Charge Interior Ballistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-lin

    2009-01-01

    Erosive burning is a common burning phenomenon of the gunpowder with inner holes. The actual combustion law of the gunpowder with inner holes can be changed by erosive burning. Pressure difference between the inner and the outer of hole caused by loading density variation of the propellant charge makes erosive burning occur at inner holes during in-bore burning. The effect of erosive burning on burning speed of the propellant is studied by using the effects of flow rate, heat transfer and erosion of the combustion gas in inner holes on burning rate. The mathematic model of erosive burning of the propellant is established. The effects of the factors such as loading density, inner hole size and grain length on erosive burning and interior ballistic performance are analyzed .The method to improve the bore pressure for small charge mass and small firing range by erosive burning is proposed.

  10. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail

  11. On burning a lump of coal

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  12. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreational Safety Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention ... keep our children safe and secure and help them live to their full potential. Knowing how to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step ...

  13. Prescribed Burn Cycles 4-yr Rotation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a map and a table showing the number of acres and locations of planned burns and wildfires on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge between...

  14. Treatment of burn injuries with keratinocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) provides burned patients with skin and amnion for a temporary wound closure. Severely burned patients (>60% BSA for adults, >40% BSA for children) were supplied with autologous and allogenic grafts from cultured keratinocytes. The keratinocyte culture is done under GMP-conditions using the method of Rheinwald and Green. The 3T3 fibroblasts were irradiated with 60 Gy and used as feeder cells to produce keratinocyte sheets within 3 weeks. In this time up to 6.000 cm are available. The sheets were harvested by detachment with dispase (1,2 U/ml), fixed to gauze and transported to the hospital. The DIZG has a 3 years experience in the treatment of burns with keratinocyte sheets. The sheets were transplanted to patients in different hospitals, the total transplanted area is about 30.000 cm. This paper describes the experiences with ten severely burned patients treated with keratinocyte sheet

  15. Nutrition and Metabolic Support in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Ergin Özcan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury results in a dramatic increase of the basal metabolic rate. Severe burn injury nearly doubles resting energy expenditure and hypermetabolism associated with burn results in a loss of body fat stores and a loss of visceral and structural protein mass. The clinical effects of these changes include immunosuppression, delayed wound healing, and generalized muscle weakness. Post burn, the metabolic and catabolic responses are prolonged in severity and time course, lasting weeks to months in contrast to the days and weeks observed in other injuries. Nutrition support provides the substrates and nutrients to prevent the complications of deficiencies as well as supporting wound healing, and recovery from hormonal and metabolic abnormalities after thermal injury. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 21-5

  16. Burned Microporous Alumina-Graphite Brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the definition,classifica-tion,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation and quality certificate of burned microporous alumina-graphite brick.

  17. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  18. On burning a lump of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless has an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative size of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  19. Predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months post-burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondronikola, Maria; Meyer, Walter J.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Ojeda, Sylvia; Huddleston, Joanna; Stevens, Pamela; Børsheim, Elisabet; Suman, Oscar E.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injury is a dramatic event with acute and chronic consequences including insulin resistance. However, factors associated with insulin resistance have not been previously investigated. Purpose To identify factors associated with long-term insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Methods The study sample consisted of 61 pediatric burn injury survivors 24 to 36 months after the burn injury, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. To assess insulin resistance, we calculated the area under the curve for glucose and insulin. The diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were used to define individuals with impaired glucose metabolism. Additional data collected include body composition, anthropometric measurements, burn characteristics and demographic information. The data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Approximately 12% of the patients met the criteria for impaired glucose metabolism. After adjusting for possible confounders, burn size, age and percent body fat were associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for all). Time post-burn and lean mass were inversely associated with the area under the curve for glucose (p<0.05 for both). Similarly, older age predicted higher insulin area under the curve. Conclusion A significant proportion of pediatric injury survivors suffer from glucose abnormalities 24–36 months post-burn. Burn size, time post-burn, age, lean mass and adiposity are significant predictors of insulin resistance in pediatric burn injury survivors. Clinical evaluation and screening for abnormal glucose metabolism should be emphasized in patients with large burns, older age and survivors with high body fat. PMID:24918945

  20. Micafungin Concentrations in the Plasma and Burn Eschar of Severely Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Junichi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Daisuke; Endo, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Takuma, Kiyotsugu; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kishino, Satoshi; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Micafungin concentrations in plasma and burn eschar after daily intravenous infusion (1 h) of micafungin (200 to 300 mg) were investigated for six patients with severe burns. Micafungin treatment was initiated more than 72 h after the burn injuries. The peak and trough levels in the plasma after the initial administration and repeated administrations for more than 4 days were comparable with or slightly lower than the reported values for healthy volunteers. Micafungin concentrations in the pl...

  1. Influence of early post-burn enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes of patients with extensive burns

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guozhong; Huang, Jiren; Yu, Junjie; Zhu, Yugang; Cai, Liangliang; Gu, Zaiqiu; Su, Qinghe

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis commonly occurs in severe post-burn patients, often resulting in death. We aimed to evaluate the influence of early enteral feeding on outcomes in patients with extensive burns, including infection incidence, healing and mortality. We retrospectively reviewed 60 patients with extensive burns, 35 who had received early enteral nutrition and 25 who had received parenteral nutrition. Average healing time, infection incidence and mortality were clinically observed. Hemoglobin and serum alb...

  2. [Evaluations of a specified number of inhalations and how to assess the contents in metered-dose inhalers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, T; Fujikawa, M; Obata, Y; Obata, J

    1996-10-01

    Many kinds of Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDI) have been clinically available for bronchial asthma. Although manufacturers demonstrate the specified number of inhalations per canister on an attached document or on a plastic bag, the information provided are usually inadequate and inconsistent. They provide no information on the problems of the Metered-Dose Inhalers beyond the maximum specified number of actuations and the time when to exchange for a new one. We examined the technique how to evaluate the contents of MDI and their accuracy. Patients and their parents depended on inaccurate methods, such as shaking the inhalers to listen to the sound of contents, estimating the weight of the canisters and the size of emissions, and only a half of them were able to distinguish between 1/3 and 2/ 3 of remaining doses. Three Metered-Dose Inhalers with anti-inflammatory drugs and one MDI with beta-stimulant supplied consistent doses until they reached the maximum specified number. The 4 MDIs floated in the water in different ways and provided information when to replace for new ones in some MDIs. PMID:8958655

  3. Limiting progressive hippocampal metabolic abnormalities after smoke inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Edward; Pradhan, Basant K

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old man had a smoke inhalation injury. Within 1 month, he developed neuropsychiatric problems including toxic encephalopathy, cognitive disorder, depression symptoms and personality change. From 3 to 14 years after the toxic inhalation injury, the patient received treatment with sertraline and methylphenidate. The (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan at 3 years after injury showed deterioration of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus and orbital frontal region; at 14 years after injury, the hippocampus had no significant change but the orbital frontal region had deterioration of glucose metabolism. It was hypothesised that sertraline may have provided selective hippocampal neuroprotection. Further study is justified to evaluate sertraline as a possible neuroprotective agent after smoke inhalation injury. PMID:24577174

  4. Adolescents and inhalant abuse: how huffing affects the myelin sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Carolyn A; Furek, Maxim W

    2012-05-01

    As concern grows over the impact that accidental chemical exposures may have on the long term health of individuals, our young people are deliberately exposing themselves to the effect of neurotoxic chemicals with the intent of feeling high. Over time the result of inhaling these chemicals is often the development of symptoms and behavior that may suggest serious physiological damage. Research is being conducted to examine what the exact nature of the damage might be, especially the impact of inhaled lipophilic chemicals on structures in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Healthcare professionals responsible for assessing adolescents in all settings need to be aware of the prevalence of inhalant abuse, as well as the chemicals, terminology, and potential symptomatology in order to intervene in the behavior and provide diagnosis and treatment as indicated. Some implications for nursing are included. PMID:22471781

  5. Criteria for inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles are given for the design and operation of a new class of inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry (CFS), a simple method for providing realtime measurement of respiratory volumes and rates during inhalation exposure by mouth or nose of individual experimental animals or man to aerosols or gases. This technique is especially useful for inhalation exposure of larger experimental animals, such as horses, where whole-body plethysmography is usually impractical. Difficulties encountered with conventional exposure systems in maintenance of uniform aerosol or gas concentrations and prevention of large pressure excursions in the exposure chamber during breathing are obviated by systems utilizing the principles of concurrent flow spirometry. For illustration, two exposure units with CFS are described, one for exposure of Beagle dogs and one for ponies. (U.S.)

  6. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  7. Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome With Amisulpride

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a frequently occurring disease characterized by a burning or painful sensation in the tongue and/or other oral sites without clinical mucosal abnormalities or lesions. Its etiopathology is unknown, although local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with BMS. The syndrome is multifactorial, and its management remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy and tolerability o...

  8. The Local Treatment of Burns With Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, B.; D’Arpa, N.; Masellis, A.; Masellis, M.

    2005-01-01

    After presenting an analysis of the principal antiseptics used for the local treatment of burns, highlighting their toxicity and the limitations of their antibacterial effectiveness, we describe the therapeutic protocol used in our burns centre (where antibacterial treatment consists exclusively of antibiotics for both local and systemic use). We review the data regarding actual and predicted mortality, and mortality due to septicaemia during the years 2000-2003.

  9. Parents’ experience confronting child burning situation

    OpenAIRE

    Valdira Vieira de Oliveira; Ariadne da Silva Fonseca; Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite; Luciana Soares dos Santos; Adélia Dayane Guimarães Fonseca; Conceição Vieira da Silva Ohara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to understand experiences of parents in a child burning situation during the hospitalization process. Methods: phenomenological research in view of Martin Heidegger, held with seven assisting parents at a pediatrics unit of a general hospital in Montes Claros. The information was obtained by phenomenological interview, containing the question guide: “What does it mean to you being with a son who is suffering with burns?”. Results: during the experience, parents revealed anguish, fe...

  10. Van burn-out naar bevlogenheid

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekx, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Het fenomeen burn-out is tegenwoordig niet meer uit de media weg te denken. Steeds meer mensen gaan ten onder aan werkstress en geraken opgebrand. Dat heeft niet alleen voor de persoon in kwestie negatieve gevolgen, zowel mentaal als lichamelijk, maar ook voor de organisatie. Een minder bekend en relatief nieuw begrip is bevlogenheid of engagement, de tegenhanger van burn-out. Bevlogen mensen zijn energiek, voelen zich betrokken bij de organisatie en kunnen lang en onvermoeibaar doorgaan met ...

  11. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Thomas; Mailänder, Peter; Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Namdar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the in...

  12. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, T; Siemers, F; Stollwerck, PL; Stang, FH; Mailänder, P; de Lange, T

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia.Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality?Method: Retrospective study for the i...

  13. Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001 and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances.

  14. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  15. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlation of imipenem in pediatric burn patients using a bioanalytical liquid chromatographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A bioanalytical method was developed and applied to quantify the free imipenem concentrations for pharmacokinetics and PK/PD correlation studies of the dose adjustments required to maintain antimicrobial effectiveness in pediatric burn patients. A reverse-phase Supelcosil LC18 column (250 x 4.6 mm 5 micra, binary mobile phase consisting of 0.01 M, pH 7.0 phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (99:1, v/v, flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, was applied. The method showed good absolute recovery (above 90%, good linearity (0.25-100.0 µg/mL, r2=0.999, good sensitivity (LLOQ: 0.25 µg/mL; LLOD: 0.12 µg/mL and acceptable stability. Inter/intraday precision values were 7.3/5.9%, and mean accuracy was 92.9%. A bioanalytical method was applied to quantify free drug concentrations in children with burns. Six pediatric burn patients (median 7.0 years old, 27.5 kg, normal renal function, and 33% total burn surface area were prospectively investigated; inhalation injuries were present in 4/6 (67% of the patients. Plasma monitoring and PK assessments were performed using a serial blood sample collection for each set, totaling 10 sets. The PK/PD target attained (40%T>MIC for each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/L occurred at a percentage higher than 80% of the sets investigated and 100% after dose adjustment. In conclusion, the purification of plasma samples using an ultrafiltration technique followed by quantification of imipenem plasma measurements using the LC method is quite simple, useful, and requires small volumes for blood sampling. In addition, a small amount of plasma (0.25 mL is needed to guarantee drug effectiveness in pediatric burn patients. There is also a low risk of neurotoxicity, which is important because pharmacokinetics are unpredictable in these critical patients with severe hospital infection. Finally, the PK/PD target was attained for imipenem in the control of sepsis in pediatric patients with burns.

  16. Epidemiology and screening of intentional burns in children in a Dutch burn centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Sara; Stas, Helene G; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H; Oen, Irma M M H; Baartmans, Martin G A; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-09-01

    International estimates of the incidence of non-accidental burns (NAB) in children admitted to burn centres vary from 1% to 25%. Hardly any data about Dutch figures exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of burns due to suspected child abuse in paediatric burns. We described the process of care and outcome, including the accuracy of the SPUTOVAMO screening tool and examined child, burn and treatment characteristics related to suspicions of child abuse or neglect. A retrospective study was conducted in children aged 0-17 years with a primary admission after burn injuries to the burn centre Rotterdam in the period 2009-2013. Data on patient, injury and treatment characteristics were collected, using the Dutch Burn Repository R3. In addition, medical records were reviewed. In 498 paediatric admissions, suspected child abuse or neglect was present in 43 children (9%). 442 screening questionnaires (89%) were completed. In 52 out of 442 questionnaires (12%) the completed SPUTOVAMO had one or more positive signs. Significant independent predictors for suspected child abuse were burns in the genital area or buttocks (OR=3.29; CI: 143-7.55) and a low socio-economic status (OR=2.52; 95%CI: 1.30-4.90). The incidence of suspected child abuse indicating generation of additional support in our population is comparable to studies with a similar design in other countries. PMID:27211360

  17. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  18. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  19. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  20. [The Nutrition Care of Severe Burn Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiu

    2016-02-01

    In addition to recent advances in burn patient care techniques such as maintaining warm circumambient temperature, the early excision of wounds, and the use of closed dressing, providing nutrition support through early feeding has proven instrumental in greatly increasing the survival rate of burn patients. Severe burns complicated by many factors initiate tremendous physiological stress that leads to postburn hypermetabolism that includes enhanced tissue catabolism, the loss of muscle mass, and decreases in the body's reservoirs of protein and energy. These problems have become the focus of burn therapy. Treating severe burns aims not only to enhance survival rates but also to restore normal bodily functions as completely as possible. Recent research evaluating the application of anabolic agents and immune-enhance formula for severe burns therapy has generated significant controversy. Inadequate caloric intake is one of the main differences among the related studies, with the effect of many special nutrients such as bran acid amides not taken into consideration. Therefore, considering the sufficiency of caloric and protein intake is critical in assessing effectiveness. Only after patients receive adequate calories and protein may the effect of special nutrients such as glutamine and supplements be evaluated effectively. PMID:26813059

  1. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  2. Assessment of Electrosurgery Burns in Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Seyyed Mehdi; Moradi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Alireza; Pazouki, Alireza; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monopolar surgery is applied mostly in major operations, while bipolar is used in delicate ones. Attention must be paid in electrosurgery application to avoid electrical burns. Objectives: We aimed to assess factors associated with electrosurgery burns in cardiac surgery operating rooms. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study in which two groups of 150 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Imam Khomeini Hospital were recruited. Several factors like gender, age, operation duration, smoking, diseases, infection, atopia, , immunosuppressive drugs use, hepatic cirrhosis, and pulmonary diseases were compared between the two groups. Patients were observed for 24 hours for development of any burn related to the operation. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.11.5, by Chi square and T-test. Results: Patients in the two groups were similar except for two factors. DM and pulmonary diseases which showed significant differences (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002 respectively). Seventy-five patients from controls and 35 from the study group developed burns, which was significant (P ˂ 0.0001). Conclusions: None of the factors were significantly related to developing burns. The differences between the two groups highlights the importance of systems modifications to lessen the incidence of burns. PMID:26839854

  3. Pneumonia risk with inhaled fluticasone furoate and vilanterol compared with vilanterol alone in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crim, Courtney; Dransfield, Mark T; Bourbeau, Jean; Jones, Paul W; Hanania, Nicola A; Mahler, Donald A; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wachtel, Andrew; Martinez, Fernando J; Barnhart, Frank; Lettis, Sally; Calverley, Peter M A

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Radiographically confirmed pneumonia risk with inhaled corticosteroid use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been assessed to date. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of pneumonia, risk factors, and clinical attributes with inhaled fluticasone furoate (FF) in p...

  4. Asthma Patients in US Overuse Quick-Relief Inhalers, Underuse Control Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overuse quick-relief inhalers, underuse control medications Share | Asthma patients in US overuse quick-relief inhalers, underuse control medications Published Online: December 13, 2013 Asthma exacerbations and uncontrolled asthma result in poor health ...

  5. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use of...... beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at...

  6. Determination of hepatic blood flow following inhalation of xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 133Xe inhalation technique causes a long-lasting inflow of xenon to the liver after the end of inhalation because of the residual concentration in the lungs starting from the formula according to Kety and Schmidt. A mathematical solution is proposed to eliminate, the influence of the arterial concentration on the measured values and to determine the real flow values. On the basis of the least squares method an algorithm is proposed that yields values which are in good correlation (r = 0.90, n = 15) to the original method of arterial Xe injection. Factors influencing the mathematical model are discussed. (author)

  7. Toxicity studies of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of total dose and dose rate on the effects of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides is being studied in laboratory animals. The radionuclides are inhaled either in a relatively soluble form (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3 or 137CsCl) or in a relatively insoluble form in fused aluminosilicate particles. The organs affected depend on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the radio isotopes. Studies with young adult dogs are complemented with comparable studies in other species (mice, rats and Syrian hamsters), with animals of different ages and with animals repeatedly exposed to 144Ce

  8. Toxicity studies of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of total dose and dose rate pattern on the effects of inhaled β-emitting radionuclides is being studied in laboratory animals. The inhaled radionuclides were either in a relatively soluble form (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3, or 137CsCl), or in a relatively insoluble form in fused aluminosilicate particles. The organs affected depend on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides. Studies with young adult dogs are complemented by comparable studies in other species (mice, rats, and Syrian hamsters), with animals of different ages and animals repeatedly exposed to 144Ce. 12 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  9. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Kyu; Cho, Hae-Won; Han, Jeong-Hee; Lee, Sung-Bae; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to obtain information concerning the health hazards that may result from a 13 week inhalation exposure of n-pentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 413 'Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study (as revised in 2009)'. The rats were divided into 4 groups (10 male and 10 female rats in each group...

  10. A Study on Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity of 1-Chloropropane

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Yong Hyun; HAN, Jeong Hee; Lee, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure toxicity of 1-chloropropane (CAS No. : 540-54-5). According to the OECD Test Guideline 413 (Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study), SD rats were exposed to 0, 310, 1,250, and 5,000 ppm of 1-chloropropane for 6 h/day, 5 day/week for 13 weeks via whole-body inhalation. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, motor activity, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross and histopathological findings we...

  11. A perspective on the developmental toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Campagnolo, Luisa; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Valentino, Sarah; Park, Margriet V. D. Z.; de Jong, Wim H.; Wolterink, Gerrit; Piersma, Aldert H.; Ross, Bryony L.; Hutchison, Gary R.; Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Jackson, Petra; Slama, Rémy; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Cassee, Flemming R.

    This paper aimed to clarify whether maternal inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) may constitute a hazard to pregnancy and fetal development, primarily based on experimental animal studies of NP and air pollution particles. Overall, it is plausible that NP may translocate from the respirat......This paper aimed to clarify whether maternal inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) may constitute a hazard to pregnancy and fetal development, primarily based on experimental animal studies of NP and air pollution particles. Overall, it is plausible that NP may translocate from the......, significant amounts of groundwork are warranted for a testing strategy to be established on a sound scientific basis....

  12. Concept for motivating toddlers to accept inhalation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Segarra, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis is conducted at the Institute of Product Design at NTNU. The subject of the assignment is “Concept for motivating toddlers to accept inhalation therapy”. The project aims at developing a concept for motivating hospitalized toddlers (2-3 years old) to accept inhalation therapy. The first part of the project was an investigation process to understand the situation: the disease, the children’s behaviour at 2-3 years age, the hospital environment, the treatment, etc. Secondly I...

  13. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  14. The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Aghakhani M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17 software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3% left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3% left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7% died and 78 (5% persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4% persons had first degree, 820 (53% persons had second degree and 722 (46.6% had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%. 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7% patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without

  15. A double-blind comparison between a new multidose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) and metered dose inhaler in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, C; Ahlström, H; Kjellman, N I; Malmqvist, L A; Svenonius, E; Melin, S

    1989-09-01

    Turbuhaler is a ready-loaded multiple dose inhaler which does not require co-ordination between release of dose and inhalation. 57 children with asthma participated in this clinical trial to compare the clinical effect and acceptance of terbutaline sulphate via Turbuhaler with that of metered dose inhaler (MDI). The trial consisted of two parts. In the first part of the study, which made use of a double-blind cross-over design, the clinical effect and number of treatment occasions with Turbuhaler were compared with those of MDI. In the second part, which was open, all patients were treated with Turbuhaler for 2 weeks. At the end of this period the patients were asked to make a subjective assessment of effect and to state their preference. There was no difference in clinical effect and number of treatment occasions between Turbuhaler and MDI. A majority of the patients thought Turbuhaler had the best effect and was easy to use. PMID:2683835

  16. Profile of inhalant users seeking treatment at a de-addiction centre in north India

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Gupta; Naresh Nebhinani; Debasish Basu; Surendra Kumar Mattoo

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Inhalants are substances whose chemical vapors are inhaled to produce euphoric, disinhibiting, and exciting effects. Data on inhalant abuse in India are relatively scarce. We report the demographic and clinical profile of inhalant users among the treatment seekers at a Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre in north India. Methods: The records of treatment seekers at the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, over 10 years (2002-2011) were scanned to identify 92...

  17. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    Raka Jain; Arpita Verma

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clini...

  18. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care.

  19. Orion Burn Management, Nominal and Response to Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Ryan; Goodman, John L.; Barrett, Charles P.; Pohlkamp, Kara; Robinson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    An approach for managing Orion on-orbit burn execution is described for nominal and failure response scenarios. The burn management strategy for Orion takes into account per-burn variations in targeting, timing, and execution; crew and ground operator intervention and overrides; defined burn failure triggers and responses; and corresponding on-board software sequencing functionality. Burn-to- burn variations are managed through the identification of specific parameters that may be updated for each progressive burn. Failure triggers and automatic responses during the burn timeframe are defined to provide safety for the crew in the case of vehicle failures, along with override capabilities to ensure operational control of the vehicle. On-board sequencing software provides the timeline coordination for performing the required activities related to targeting, burn execution, and responding to burn failures.

  20. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. PMID:27088728

  1. Modulation of inflammatory and catabolic responses in severely burned children by early burn wound excision in the first 24 hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN

    2003-01-01

    Hypothesis: Early burn wound excision modulates the hypermetabolic response in severe pediatric burn injuries. Design: Before-after trial. Setting: A 30-bed burn referral center in a private, university-affiliated hospital. Methods: We studied 35 severely burned children who were divided into 2 grou

  2. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PHARMACEUTICALS USING AN IN SILICO DOSIMETRY MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an in silico dosimetry model which can be used for inhalation toxicology (risk assessment of inhaled air pollutants) and aerosol therapy ( targeted delivery of inhaled drugs). This work presents scientific and clinical advances beyond the development of the original in...

  3. Design and application of a new modular adapter for laser diffraction characterization of inhalation aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Gjaltema, D; Hagedoorn, P; Schaller, M; Witt, W; Frijlink, H W

    2002-01-01

    An inhaler adapter has been designed for the characterization of the aerosol clouds from medical aerosol generators such as nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (dpis) and metered dose inhalers (mdis) with laser diffraction technology. The adapter has a pre-separator, for separation of large particles (i

  4. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for... Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. (a) Amyl nitrite inhalant has been available over-the-counter for emergency use by the patient in...

  5. Burn size determines the inflammatory and hypermetabolic response

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Norbury, William B.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N

    2007-01-01

    Background Increased burn size leads to increased mortality of burned patients. Whether mortality is due to inflammation, hypermetabolism or other pathophysiologic contributing factors is not entirely determined. The purpose of the present study was to determine in a large prospective clinical trial whether different burn sizes are associated with differences in inflammation, body composition, protein synthesis, or organ function. Methods Pediatric burned patients were divided into four burn ...

  6. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Arnon D; Gurfinkel, R.; Glezinger, R.; Kriger, Y.; Yancolevich, N.; Rosenberg, L

    2007-01-01

    Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0%) had burns involving less than 20% of the body surfac...

  7. Epidemiology of outpatient burns in Iran: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; M. Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury remains a serious and devastating issue faced by developing countries. It is also true, however, that the developed world still tackles many of the challenges caused by burns. In order to reduce this problem through preventive programs, the characteristics of this type of injury must be studied and well documented in each setting. Our study aims to show the epidemiology, demographic distribution and clinical outcomes of burns patients referred to Motahari Burn Hospital, the burn c...

  8. Bacterial and fungal colonization of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of fungal and bacterial flora of burn wounds was carried out from February 2004 to February 2005 at the Burns Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Brasília, Brazil. During the period of the study, 203 patients were treated at the Burns Unit. Wound swab cultures were assessed at weekly intervals for four weeks. Three hundred and fifty four sampling procedures (surface swabs were performed from the burn wounds. The study revealed that bacterial colonization reached 86.6% within the first week. Although the gram-negative organisms, as a group, were more predominant, Staphylococcus aureus (28.4% was the most prevalent organism in the first week. It was however surpassed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa form third week onwards. For S. aureus and P. aeruginosa vancomycin and polymyxin were found to be the most effective drugs. Most of the isolates showed high level resistance to antimicrobial agents. Fungi were found to colonize the burn wound late during the second week postburn, with a peak incidence during the third and fourth weeks. Species identification of fungi revealed that Candida tropicalis was the most predominant, followed by Candida parapsilosis. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  9. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  10. Inhaled budesonide for treatment of recurrent wheezing in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Munck, Susanne; Nielsen, J P; Petersen, W; Ohlsson, S V

    1990-01-01

    77 children, aged 11 to 36 months (mean 24) with moderately severe recurrent wheezing, were treated with budesonide pressurised aerosol 400 micrograms twice daily or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Aerosols were inhaled from a spacer with a facemask. Budesonide signi...

  11. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  12. Airmax: a multi-dose dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M; Faulds, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Airmax is a multi-dose dry powder inhaler. An internal pump measures out the drug dose using controlled air pressure. Inhalation transports the drug into a cyclone separator (where active drug is separated from the lactose carrier) and then into the patient airway. In vitro studies indicate that Airmax may be less dependent on airflow than Turbuhaler for drug delivery; greater dose consistency was seen with administration of budesonide via Airmax than via Turbuhaler. At a low flow rate, the lung deposition of budesonide administered via Airmax was greater than that of budesonide administered via Turbuhaler or a pressurised metered dose inhaler in patients with asthma. In cumulative-dose studies, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) achieved with salbutamol (albuterol) or formoterol administered via Airmax was equivalent to that achieved with twice the dose administered via dry powder inhalers. black triangle In randomised, double-blind studies, budesonide administration via Airmax was equivalent to administration via Turbuhaler with regards to FEV(1) and improvement in asthma symptoms in both adults and children with asthma. The concentration of adenosine monophosphate producing a 20% fall in FEV(1) increased from pretreatment levels by a greater extent with budesonide administered via Airmax, compared with Turbuhaler. Both adults and children preferred Airmax to Turbuhaler, and more found Airmax easier to use. In one study, the majority of children found learning how to use Airmax trade mark easier than learning how to use Turbuhaler. PMID:12215059

  13. Disposition and biological effect of inhaled 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half-lives of approximately 5, 30, and 100 min were obtained for whole-body clearance of inhaled 85Kr in beagle dogs. Analysis showed the highest partition coefficients in lungs, bone marrow, and fat. Circulating blood elements were not lowered permanently after 85Kr exposures

  14. Liposomal budesonide for dry powder inhaler: Preparation and stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Mayank R.; Misra, Ambikanandhan

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to prepare stable liposomally entrapped budesonide (BUD) for a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation. BUD liposomes composed of egg phosphatidyl choline and cholesterol were prepared by lipid film hydration technique and sonicated to have the desired size (

  15. Drug interactions between inhaled corticosteroids and enzymatic inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Daveluy, Amélie; Raignoux, Cécile; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Moore, Nicholas; Haramburu, Françoise; Molimard, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Drug interactions between inhaled corticosteroids and enzymatic inhibitors phone: +33-557-571561 (Daveluy, Amelie) (Daveluy, Amelie) Centre Regional de Pharmacovigilance, Hopital Pellegrin - 33076 - Bordeaux Cedex - FRANCE (Daveluy, Amelie) Unite 657, INSERM - Bordeaux - FRANCE (Daveluy, Amelie) Departement de Pharmacologie, CHU de Bordeaux - Bordeaux - FRANCE (Daveluy, Amelie) Centre Regional de Pharmacovigilance, Hopital Pellegrin - 33076...

  16. Inhaled Antibiotics for Gram-Negative Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Eric; Fraidenburg, Dustin R; Scardina, Tonya; Danziger, Larry H

    2016-07-01

    Gram-negative organisms comprise a large portion of the pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections, especially those that are nosocomially acquired, and the rate of antibiotic resistance among these organisms continues to rise. Systemically administered antibiotics used to treat these infections often have poor penetration into the lung parenchyma and narrow therapeutic windows between efficacy and toxicity. The use of inhaled antibiotics allows for maximization of target site concentrations and optimization of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. This review is a comprehensive discussion of formulation and drug delivery aspects, in vitro and microbiological considerations, pharmacokinetics, and clinical outcomes with inhaled antibiotics as they apply to disease states other than cystic fibrosis. In reviewing the literature surrounding the use of inhaled antibiotics, we also highlight the complexities related to this route of administration and the shortcomings in the available evidence. The lack of novel anti-Gram-negative antibiotics in the developmental pipeline will encourage the innovative use of our existing agents, and the inhaled route is one that deserves to be further studied and adopted in the clinical arena. PMID:27226088

  17. Physico-chemical characterisation of surface modified particles for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stank, Katharina; Steckel, Hartwig

    2013-05-01

    Surface modification of drugs for inhalation is a possibility to influence interparticulate forces. This can be necessary to achieve a sufficient aerosolisation during powder inhalation as the cohesiveness of the micronised drug can be reduced. In addition, the interaction with propellants in pressurised metered dose inhaler can be changed. This can be used to improve the physical stability of the suspension based formulations. A dry particle coating process was used for the alteration of particle surfaces. The blending of micronised salbutamol sulphate (SBS) with different concentrations of magnesium stearate (Mgst) or glycerol monostearate (GMS) was followed by co-milling with an air jet mill. The powder properties were characterised by SEM, EDX, laser diffraction, BET and inverse gas chromatography. Physical mixtures generated by Turbula blending were compared to co-milled samples. A slight particle size reduction was determined. The Mgst deposition on SBS particles was detected by EDX measurements. The dispersive surface energy of SBS is lowered and the energy distribution is more homogenous for the co-milled samples. This study proves the application of co-milling for surface modification in the inhalation area. PMID:23518364

  18. FATE OF INHALED NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LUNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of inhaled NO2 was studied with isolated perfused rat lungs. The isolated lungs were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 for 90 min at a ventilation rate of 45 ml/min. The NO2 exposure had no adverse effects on the lungs as judged from their weights, glucose uptake, or lactate producti...

  19. Inhaled Voriconazole for Prevention of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tolman, Justin A; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; McConville, Jason T.; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Peters, Jay I.; Coalson, Jacqueline J.; Graybill, John R.; Patterson, Thomas F.; Williams, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    Targeted airway delivery of antifungals as prophylaxis against invasive aspergillosis may lead to high lung drug concentrations while avoiding toxicities associated with systemically administered agents. We evaluated the effectiveness of aerosolizing the intravenous formulation of voriconazole as prophylaxis against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in an established murine model. Inhaled voriconazole significantly improved survival and limited the extent of inv...

  20. NEW APPROACHES TO QUANTITATING THE PULMONARY EFFECTS OF INHALED POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have developed a variety of non-invasive and other techniques to study effects of inhaled pollutants on the lung. In the area of airway mechanics they have developed and applied a diameter gauge to make continuous measurements of large airways caliber. The gauge provi...